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Sample records for antigen-induced asthmatic response

  1. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Dohi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4 + T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4 + T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects

  2. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Dohi, Makoto, E-mail: mdohi-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Respiratory Immunology, Shibuya Clinic for Respiratory Diseases and Allergology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4{sup +} T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4{sup +} T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects.

  3. Increased proinflammatory responses from asthmatic human airway smooth muscle cells in response to rhinovirus infection

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    King Nicholas JC

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exacerbations of asthma are associated with viral respiratory tract infections, of which rhinoviruses (RV are the predominant virus type. Airway smooth muscle is important in asthma pathogenesis, however little is known about the potential interaction of RV and human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM. We hypothesised that rhinovirus induction of inflammatory cytokine release from airway smooth muscle is augmented and differentially regulated in asthmatic compared to normal HASM cells. Methods HASM cells, isolated from either asthmatic or non-asthmatic subjects, were infected with rhinovirus. Cytokine production was assayed by ELISA, ICAM-1 cell surface expression was assessed by FACS, and the transcription regulation of IL-6 was measured by luciferase activity. Results RV-induced IL-6 release was significantly greater in HASM cells derived from asthmatic subjects compared to non-asthmatic subjects. This response was RV specific, as 5% serum- induced IL-6 release was not different in the two cell types. Whilst serum stimulated IL-8 production in cells from both subject groups, RV induced IL-8 production in only asthmatic derived HASM cells. The transcriptional induction of IL-6 was differentially regulated via C/EBP in the asthmatic and NF-κB + AP-1 in the non-asthmatic HASM cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates augmentation and differential transcriptional regulation of RV specific innate immune response in HASM cells derived from asthmatic and non-asthmatics, and may give valuable insight into the mechanisms of RV-induced asthma exacerbations.

  4. Alphavirus Replicon DNA Vectors Expressing Ebola GP and VP40 Antigens Induce Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Mice

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    Shoufeng Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, and no approved therapeutics or vaccine is currently available. Glycoprotein (GP is the major protective antigen of EBOV, and can generate virus-like particles (VLPs by co-expression with matrix protein (VP40. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV replicon vector DREP to express EBOV GP and matrix viral protein (VP40. EBOV VLPs were successfully generated and achieved budding from 293 cells after co-transfection with DREP-based GP and VP40 vectors (DREP-GP+DREP-VP40. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with DREP-GP, DREP-VP40, or DREP-GP+DREP-VP40 vectors, followed by immediate electroporation resulted in a mixed IgG subclass production, which recognized EBOV GP and/or VP40 proteins. This vaccination regimen also led to the generation of both Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses in mice. Notably, vaccination with DREP-GP and DREP-VP40, which produces both GP and VP40 antigens, induced a significantly higher level of anti-GP IgG2a antibody and increased IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T-cell responses relative to vaccination with DREP-GP or DREP-VP40 vector alone. Our study indicates that co-expression of GP and VP40 antigens based on the SFV replicon vector generates EBOV VLPs in vitro, and vaccination with recombinant DREP vectors containing GP and VP40 antigens induces Ebola antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. This novel approach provides a simple and efficient vaccine platform for Ebola disease prevention.

  5. Attenuated response to repeated daily ozone exposures in asthmatic subjects

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    Gong, H. Jr.; Linn, W.S. [Rancho Low Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States); McManus, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The development of attenuated response ({open_quotes}tolerance{close_quotes}) to daily ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures in the laboratory is well established in healthy adult volunteers. However, the capability of asthmatics to develop tolerance during multiday ozone exposures in unclear. We exposed 10 adult volunteers with mild asthma to 0.4 ppm O{sub 3} in filtered air for 3 h/d on 5 consecutive d. Two similar filtered-air exposures during the preceding week served as controls. Follow-up O{sub 3} exposures were performed 4 and 7 d after the most recent consecutive exposure. All exposures were performed in an environmental chamber at 31 {degrees}C and 35% relative humidity. The subjects performed moderate exercise (mean ventilation rate of 32 l/min) for 15 min of each half-hour. Responses were measured with spirometry and symptom evaluations before and after each exposure, and a bronchial reactivity test (methacholine challenge) was conducted after each exposure. All response measurements showed clinically and statistically significant day-to-day variation. Symptom and forced-expiratory-volume-in-1-s responses were similarly large on the 1st and 2nd O{sub 3} exposure days, after which they diminished progressively, approaching filtered air response levels by the 5th consecutive O{sub 3} day. This tolerance was partially lost 4 and 7 d later. Bronchial reactivity peaked after the first O{sub 3} exposure and remained somewhat elevated after all subsequent O{sub 3} exposures, relative to its control level following filtered-air exposures. Individual responses varied widely; more severe initial responses to O{sub 3} predicted less rapid attenuation. We concluded that asthmatics can develop tolerance to frequent high-level O{sub 3} exposures in much the same manner as normal subjects, although the process may be slower and less fully effective in asthmatics. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Mechanisms of Heightened Airway Sensitivity and Responses to Inhaled SO2 in Asthmatics.

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    Reno, Anita L; Brooks, Edward G; Ameredes, Bill T

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a problematic inhalable air pollutant in areas of widespread industrialization, not only in the United States but also in countries undergoing rapid industrialization, such as China, and it can be a potential trigger factor for asthma exacerbations. It is known that asthmatics are sensitive to the effects of SO2; however, the basis of this enhanced sensitivity remains incompletely understood. A PubMed search was performed over the course of 2014, encompassing the following terms: asthma, airway inflammation, sulfur dioxide, IL-10, mouse studies, and human studies. This search indicated that biomarkers of SO2 exposure, SO2 effects on airway epithelial cell function, and animal model data are useful in our understanding of the body's response to SO2, as are SO2-associated amplification of allergic inflammation, and potential promotion of neurogenic inflammation due to chemical irritant properties. While definitive answers are still being sought, these areas comprise important foci of consideration regarding asthmatic responses to inhaled SO2. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency associated with asthma may be another important factor associated with an inability to resolve inflammation and mitigate oxidative stress resulting from SO2 inhalation, supporting the idea that asthmatics are predisposed to SO2 sensitivity, leading to asthma exacerbations and airway dysfunction.

  7. Heterogeneity of FeNO response to inhaled steroid in asthmatic children

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    Buchvald, F; Eiberg, H; Bisgaard, H

    2003-01-01

    asthma, well controlled on regular BUD 400 mcg daily: 20 children with normal FeNO and 20 with raised FeNO. FeNO, BHR and forced expiratory volume in 1 s improved significantly after BUD 1600 mcg (BUD1600). However, FeNO after ICS treatment exhibited a Gaussian distribution and FeNO was significantly...... raised in 15 children. Allergy and BHR, but none of the other independent variables under study were significantly related to FeNO after BUD1600. CONCLUSION: Exhaled nitric oxide exhibited a heterogeneous response to ICS in asthmatic schoolchildren. Allergy and BHR were driving FeNO level independently...

  8. Effect of montelukast on excessive airway narrowing response to methacholine in adult asthmatic patients not on controller therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Diamant, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    -response plateau to Mtc in adult asthmatic patients not on controller therapy, and, hence, protects against excessive airway narrowing. Thirty-one asthmatic patients (13 male patients, 18-50 years old; forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)], >70% predicted; PD(20), ...Excessive airway narrowing is an important determinant of fatal asthma. This pathophysiological feature is characterized by the absence of a dose-response plateau to methacholine (Mtc). We investigated if the leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) montelukast (Mont) can induce a dose...... of treatment with Mont neither induced a plateau response nor affected maximum FEV(1) response or PD(20). Our findings, therefore, suggest that monotherapy with a LTRA does not protect against excessive airway narrowing in adult asthmatic patients not on inhaled corticosteroids....

  9. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

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    Leduc, D; Fally, S; De Vuyst, P; Wollast, R; Yernault, J C

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fogs with physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of natural fogs assessed in this urban area. Fogwater was sampled using a screen collector where droplets are collected by inertial impaction and chemical content of fogwater was assessed by measurement of conductivity, pH, visible colorimetry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a period of one year. The fogwater composition was dominated by NH4+ and SO4- ions. First we evaluated the possible effect of fog acidity alone. For this purpose 14 subjects with asthma were exposed at rest for 1 hr [mass median aerodynamic diameter to a large-particle (MMAD), 9 microns] aerosol with H2SO4 concentration of 500 micrograms/m3 (pH 2.5) and osmolarity of 300 mOsm. We did not observe significant change in pulmonary function or bronchial responsiveness to metacholine. In the second part of the work, 10 asthmatic subjects were exposed to acid fog (MMAD, 7 microns) containing sulfate and ammonium ions (major ions recovered in naturally occurring fogs) with pH 3.5 and osmolarity 30 mOsm. Again, pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity were not modified after inhalation of this fog. It was concluded that short-term exposure to acid fog reproducing acidity and hypoosmolarity of natural polluted fogs does not induce bronchoconstriction and does not change bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics.

  10. Rhinovirus infection results in stronger and more persistent genomic dysregulation: Evidence for altered innate immune response in asthmatics at baseline, early in infection, and during convalescence.

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    Peter W Heymann

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus (HRV is associated with the large majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations in children and young adults, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined.Asthmatics and non-asthmatic controls were inoculated with HRV-A16, and nasal epithelial samples were obtained 7 days before, 36 hours after, and 7 days after viral inoculation. RNA was extracted and subjected to RNA-seq analysis.At baseline, 57 genes were differentially expressed between asthmatics and controls, and the asthmatics had decreased expression of viral replication inhibitors and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation. At 36 hours (before the emergence of peak symptoms, 1329 genes were significantly altered from baseline in the asthmatics compared to 62 genes in the controls. At this time point, asthmatics lacked an increase in IL-10 signaling observed in the controls. At 7 days following HRV inoculation, 222 genes were significantly dysregulated in the asthmatics, whereas only 4 genes were dysregulated among controls. At this time point, the controls but not asthmatics demonstrated upregulation of SPINK5.As judged by the magnitude and persistence of dysregulated genes, asthmatics have a substantially different host response to HRV-A16 infection compared with non-asthmatic controls. Gene expression differences illuminate biologically plausible mechanisms that contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HRV-induced asthma exacerbations.

  11. Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in asthmatic children.

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    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Melly, Steve; Postma, Dirkje S; Boezen, H Marike; Vonk, Judith M; Williams, Paul V; Shapiro, Gail G; McKone, Edward F; Hallstrand, Teal S; Koenig, Jane Q; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Lumley, Thomas; Fuhlbrigge, Anne N; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel; Weiss, Scott T; Gold, Diane R

    2016-02-01

    Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy children, longitudinal analyses of pollution effects in asthmatic patients are lacking. We sought to investigate pollution effects in a longitudinal asthma study and effect modification by controller medications. We examined associations of lung function and methacholine responsiveness (PC20) with ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations in 1003 asthmatic children participating in a 4-year clinical trial. We further investigated whether budesonide and nedocromil modified pollution effects. Daily pollutant concentrations were linked to ZIP/postal code of residence. Linear mixed models tested associations of within-subject pollutant concentrations with FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PC20, adjusting for seasonality and confounders. Same-day and 1-week average CO concentrations were negatively associated with postbronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 (change per interquartile range, -0.33 [95% CI, -0.49 to -0.16] and -0.41 [95% CI, -0.62 to -0.21], respectively) and FVC (-0.19 [95% CI, -0.25 to -0.07] and -0.25 [95% CI, -0.43 to -0.07], respectively). Longer-term 4-month CO averages were negatively associated with prebronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 and FVC (-0.36 [95% CI, -0.62 to -0.10] and -0.21 [95% CI, -0.42 to -0.01], respectively). Four-month averaged CO and ozone concentrations were negatively associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (P pollution adversely influences lung function and PC20 in asthmatic children. Treatment with controller medications might not protect but rather worsens the effects of CO on PC20. This clinical trial design evaluates modification of pollution effects by treatment without confounding by indication. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Th17 cells mediated immunological response among asthmatic children with or without allergic rhinitis.

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    Qing, Miao; Yongge, Liu; Wei, Xu; Yan, Wang; Zhen, Li; Yixin, Ren; Hui, Guan; Li, Xiang

    2018-03-31

    To investigate whether there were differences in Th17 cells mediated immunological responses among asthmatics with or without allergic rhinitis. A case-control comparison was conducted in a cohort of 67 children with asthma (AS), 50 children with allergic rhinitis (AR), 52 children with both AS and AR (ASR), 25 infectious rhinitis (IR), and 55 healthy controls (HC). The percentages of circulating Th17 cells were determined by flow cytometry. The Th2- and Th17-related cytokines in plasma and culture supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of proinflammation cytokine IL-17E on Th2 cytokines production from human T helper (Th) lymphocytes was analyzed. (1) A inter-group comparison revealed that Th17 cells levels were highest in ASR group [(0.89% ± 0.27) %], following by AS group [(0.82 ± 0.29) %] and AR group[(0.78 ± 0.17) %] (Pimmunological characteristics among asthmatic children with or without allergic rhinitis.

  13. The Effects of Music Therapy on the Physiological Response of Asthmatic Children Receiving Inhalation Therapy.

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    Roslita, Riau; Nurhaeni, Nani; Wanda, Dessie

    The clinical manifestation of asthma in children can interfere with their daily activities. Music therapy may become one of the alternative approaches to making children feel comfortable during inhalation therapy. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of music therapy on the physiological response of asthmatic preschool and school-age children receiving inhalation therapy. This study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group with a pre-test-post-test design. The 44 respondents consisted of preschool and school-age children assigned to intervention and control groups. The results showed a significant difference in average oxygen saturation, heart rate, and respiratory rate between the control and intervention groups before and after intervention (p Music therapy can be used as a nursing intervention to improve the physiological response of children with breathing problems.

  14. Beta 2 adrenergic receptor polymorphisms, at codons 16 and 27, and bronchodilator responses in adult Venezuelan asthmatic patients.

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    Larocca, Nancy; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny Valentina; Velasquez, Olga; Martin-Rojo, Joana; Talamo, Carlos; Garcia, Alexis; De Sanctis, Juan Bautista

    2013-12-01

    One of the gene polymorphisms often studied in asthmatic patients is the β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2). Even though in the Venezuelan Mestizo population there is a high incidence of asthma, there are no direct reports of ADRβ2 gene polymorphism, and treatment response. The aim of this study was to assess, in this population, the gene frequency of ADRβ2 polymorphisms at codons 16 Arg/Gly and 27 Gln/Glu, allergen sensitization, and its relationship to bronchodilator response. Purified genomic DNA was obtained form 105 Mestizo asthmatic and 100 Mestizo healthy individuals from Venezuela. The two polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Patient sensitization to aeroallergens and their response to bronchodilatation were correlated. Significant differences between patients and controls were recorded in: 1) the prevalence of Arg/Arg at codon 16 (28.6% in patients vs. 47% in controls, P<0.01), 2) the frequency of heterozygotes Arg/Gly (55% in patients vs. 35% in controls, P<0.01). Conversely, no differences in polymorphism frequencies were found at codon 27. The haplotypes Arg/Gly-Gln/Gln were more common in patients than controls (P <0.01), whereas the Arg/Arg-Gln/Glu combination prevailed in the control group (P<0.01). The Arg/Gly and Gln/Glu genotypes were associated with better responses after salbutamol. The asthmatic homozygotes Arg/Arg have higher sensitivity to aeroallergens. The difference in Arg/Arg frequency between groups suggests that this could be a protective genotype although the asthmatic group had a higher sensitivity to aeroallergens. The asthmatic heterozygotes had better bronchodilator responses than the homozygotes.

  15. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP) and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

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    Nino, Gustavo; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Perez, Geovanny F; Pancham, Krishna; Mubeen, Humaira; Abbasi, Aleeza; Wang, Justin; Eng, Stephen; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M; Pillai, Dinesh K; Rose, Mary C

    2014-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP) is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral) and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from control (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate) or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC) from normal (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20) vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20). Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Our data demonstrate that: 1) Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2) TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical) secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3) Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1. There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  16. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

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    Gustavo Nino

    Full Text Available Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state.Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC from control (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC from normal (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20 vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20. Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay.Our data demonstrate that: 1 Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2 TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3 Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1.There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  17. Modulation of Immune Response in Asthmatic Patients by Using Inhaled Tuberculin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Gamrah, E.M.; Borai, I.H.; Zahran, W.E.; Labib, I.B.; Lotfy, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic immuno inflammatory reversible lung disease with airway responsiveness to various stimuli which relived by proper therapy using inhaled steroids or the highly expensive recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). This study undertaken to investigate for the first time a novel treatment method using inhaled tuberculin (PPD) to determine whether PPD inhalation could be safely and effectively delivered into the airways of bronchial asthmatic patients in attempt to bring immurite deviation away from atopy via inhaling an economic dose of tuberculin. Sixty patients suffering from mild atopic bronchial asthma along with twenty healthy volunteers were included in our study. Patients were randomly categorized into three equally-sized groups received 2, 5 and 10 PPD units respectively. Treatment doses taken every 72 hours for two weeks. Respiratory function tests were examined before and after treatment regime. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE)w ere measured by ELISA technique in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples before and after treatment regime. Eosinophil count in BALF was also examined. The results showed that PPD treatment doses caused a significant increase in lung function standards (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio) as compared with before treatment values. Also, the different doses of PPD resulted in a highly significant increase in the levels of serum and BALF IL-2 with a concomitant significant decrease in BALF IL-4

  18. Baseline serum CXCL10 and IL-12 levels may predict severe asthmatics' responsiveness to omalizumab.

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    Suzukawa, Maho; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Tashimo, Hiroyuki; Asari, Isao; Tajiri, Tomoko; Niimi, Akio; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Ohta, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is the first molecularly targeted drug for severe asthmatics. However, responses to omalizumab vary widely among patients. This study aimed to assess the potential of baseline serum cytokine levels as predictors of responsiveness to omalizumab. Thirty-one patients with severe, persistent asthma were enrolled in this study and administered omalizumab for at least 1 year. Response to omalizumab was assessed based on the physician's global evaluation of treatment effectiveness (GETE) at 48 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 and 32 weeks after starting omalizumab and measured for 30 cytokines by Luminex 200 and ELISA. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, pre-bronchodilator pulmonary functions and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores were determined at baseline and 16, 32 and 48 weeks after starting omalizumab. The numbers of clinically significant asthma exacerbations in the previous year and during 48 weeks of treatment with omalizumab were assessed. GETE assessment showed 19 responders (61.3%) and 12 non-responders (38.7%). Responders showed significantly higher levels of CXCL10 and IL-12 at baseline compared to non-responders (CXCL10: responders, 1530.0 ± 315.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 1066.0 ± 396.8 pg/ml, P = 0.001; IL-12: responders, 60.2 ± 39.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 32.2 ± 26.3 pg/ml, P = 0.04). ROC curves to distinguish responders from non-responders using the baseline serum CXCL10 level showed a good AUC of 0.83. At 32 weeks of omalizumab therapy, serum CXCL10 tended to be increased (1350 ± 412.3 pg/ml at baseline vs. 1529 ± 637.6 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.16) and serum IL-12 tended to be decreased (49.4 ± 37.0 pg/ml at baseline vs. 43.9 ± 30.9 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.05). On the other hand, serum IL-5 and PDGF were significantly decreased (IL-5: 54.2 ± 13.8 pg/ml at baseline vs. 49

  19. Heterogeneity of FeNO response to inhaled steroid in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, F; Eiberg, H; Bisgaard, H

    2003-01-01

    synthethase 1 (NOS1) gene were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover comparison of budesonide (BUD) Turbohaler 1600 mcg daily vs. placebo in asthmatic schoolchildren. RESULTS: Forty children were included in the study from a screening of 184 asthmatic children with moderately persistent...... asthma, well controlled on regular BUD 400 mcg daily: 20 children with normal FeNO and 20 with raised FeNO. FeNO, BHR and forced expiratory volume in 1 s improved significantly after BUD 1600 mcg (BUD1600). However, FeNO after ICS treatment exhibited a Gaussian distribution and FeNO was significantly...

  20. The early asthmatic response is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondria activity as revealed by proteomic analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu-Dong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of allergens by allergic asthmatics results in the early asthmatic response (EAR, which is characterized by acute airway obstruction beginning within a few minutes. The EAR is the earliest indicator of the pathological progression of allergic asthma. Because the molecular mechanism underlying the EAR is not fully defined, this study will contribute to a better understanding of asthma. Methods In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of the EAR, we examined changes in protein expression patterns in the lung tissue of asthmatic rats during the EAR using 2-DE/MS-based proteomic techniques. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data was then performed using PPI Spider and KEGG Spider to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Results In total, 44 differentially expressed protein spots were detected in the 2-DE gels. Of these 44 protein spots, 42 corresponded to 36 unique proteins successfully identified using mass spectrometry. During subsequent bioinformatic analysis, the gene ontology classification, the protein-protein interaction networking and the biological pathway exploration demonstrated that the identified proteins were mainly involved in glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity. Using western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the changes in expression of five selected proteins, which further supports our proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Our results reveal that the allergen-induced EAR in asthmatic rats is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity, which could establish a functional network in which calcium binding may play a central role in promoting the progression of asthma.

  1. Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Melly, Steve; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike; Vonk, Judith M.; Williams, Paul V.; Shapiro, Gail G.; McKone, Edward F.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Lumley, Thomas; Fuhlbrigge, Anne N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R.

    BACKGROUND: Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy children, longitudinal analyses of pollution effects in asthmatic patients are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate pollution effects in a longitudinal asthma study and effect modification by

  2. Agreement between spirometry and tracheal auscultation in assessing bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, AB; Schouten, JP; Lourens, MS; Heymans, HSA; van Aalderen, WMC

    We have recently found that changes in lung sounds correspond well with a 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after methacholine challenge in asthmatic children. Up to now, little was known about the agreement between a 20% fall in FEV1 and a change in lung sounds after repeated

  3. Agreement between spirometry and tracheal auscultation in assessing bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Schouten, J. P.; Lourens, M. S.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We have recently found that changes in lung sounds correspond well with a 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after methacholine challenge in asthmatic children. Up to now, little was known about the agreement between a 20% fall in FEV1 and a change in lung sounds after repeated

  4. Celastrol Alleviates Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inhibits Th17 Responses in Obese Asthmatic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR is a clinical feature of asthma, which has been associated with obesity and has shown a poor response to standard asthma treatments such as glucocorticoids. Numerous studies have shown that Interleukin (IL-17 producing CD4+T cells (Th17 cells, which could be inhibited by celastrol, is essential in mediating steroid-resistant AHR. The following study investigates the impact of celastrol and its mechanism on the regulation of AHR in murine model of obesity and asthma. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA on day 1 and 13 starting from 12th week, which was followed by aerosol OVA challenge that lasted for 30 min per daily for 7 consecutive days starting from 16th week. Diet-induced obesity (DIO mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD for 16 weeks. Celastrol was administrated orally for 7 consecutive days, 30 min before every challenge in DIO-OVA-induced mice. Lung functions were analyzed by measuring the airway resistance (Rn and methacholine (MCh AHR, while H&E staining was used to examine histological changes in the lungs. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe IL-17A protein in lung tissues; flow cytometry to detect the proportion of Th17 cells in CD4+T cells. The concentration of cytokines IL-17A in serum was assessed by standardized sandwich ELISA, while the expression of IL-17A mRNA in lung was examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Briefly, our data indicated that celastrol reduced body mass in DIO-OVA-induced obesity and asthma. Both baseline Rn and MCh AHR were significantly lower in celastrol group. Moreover, celastrol treatment decreased the frequency of Th17 cell expansion and reduced the production of IL-17A in both lung and serum. To sum up, our findings indicated that Th17 and its cytokine measured in the spleen and lung were closely associated with AHR. In addition, celastrol has shown the ability to suppress AHR through Th17 inhibition in obese asthmatic

  5. DDA/TDB liposomes containing soluble Leishmania major antigens induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response in BALB/c mice

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    Mansure Hojatizade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Leishmaniasis is a complex parasitic disease that represents a major public health problem. Despite numerous attempts over the past decades, yet there is no effective vaccine against human leishmaniasis probably due to the lack of suitable adjuvants. In this study, a first generation liposomal-based Leishmania vaccine was developed using soluble Leishmania major antigens (SLA and á, Ü-trehalose6, 6'-dibehenat (TDB as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. In this liposome structure, the cationic lipid Dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA provides intrinsic adjuvant activity and cholesterol was added as a membrane stabilizer. Liposomes containing SLA were prepared.Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were subcutaneously (sc immunized with Lip (DDA/TDB/CHOL-SLA+, Lip (DDA/TDB-SLA+, Lip (DDA-SLA+, Lip (DDA/CHOL-SLA+, SLA or Tris-HCl buffer. Immunization was done every two weeks for three weeks. The immunized mice were then challenged sc in the left footpad with 1×106 stationary phase L. major promastigotes (50 ìl, at 2 weeks after last booster injection.Results: mice immunized with any of the liposomal formulations containing SLA (Lip-SLA+, substantially increased footpad swelling and parasite loads of foot and spleen with no significant difference compared to Tris-HCl buffer or SLA alone. Lip-SLA+ formulations induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response characterized by IFN-ã and IL-4 production as well as high levels of IgG1 anti-Leishmania antibody. Conclusion: immunization with liposomes containing DDA and/or TDB in combination with SLA induces a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response and is not an appropriate strategy for preferential induction of a Th1 response and protection against leishmaniasis.

  6. Discriminative capacity of bronchodilator response measured with three different lung function techniques in asthmatic and healthy children aged 2 to 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    as compared with placebo in healthy control subjects. Lung function improved to a significantly greater extent in asthmatic children than in control subjects as reflected by all methods. sRaw provided the best discriminative power of such a bronchodilator response, with a sensitivity of 66% and specificity......The primary aim of this study was to quantify and compare bronchodilator responsiveness in healthy and asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr. The secondary aim of the study was to compare discriminative capacity (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversibility test......) as measured with the impulse oscillation technique were assessed before and 20 min after inhalation of terbutaline from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler via a metal spacer by 92 children (37 healthy controls and 55 asthmatic subjects). The study of healthy children followed a randomized, double...

  7. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, Dimitri; Fally, Sophie; De Vuyst, Paul; Wollast, Roland; Yernault, Jean Claude

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fog...

  8. Effect of inhaled furosemide and torasemide on bronchial response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresi, A; Pelucchi, A; Mastropasqua, B; Cavigioli, G; Carlesi, R M; Marazzini, L

    1992-08-01

    Inhaled furosemide has been shown to reduce the bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli, including ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW). Because the protective effect could be due to the inhibition of the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransport system of bronchial epithelium, we have compared the protective effect of inhaled furosemide with that of inhaled torasemide, a new and more potent loop diuretic, on UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction in a group of 12 asthmatic subjects. UNDW challenge was performed by constructing a stimulus-response curve with five increasing volume outputs of distilled water (from 0.5 to 5.2 ml/min) and the bronchial response expressed as the provocative output causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PO20UNDW). On different days, each subject inhaled an equal dose (28 mg) of furosemide and torasemide in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 5 min prior to an UNDW challenge. Furosemide and torasemide had no significant effect on resting lung function. The geometric mean value of PO20UNDW measured after placebo was 1.73 ml/min. This was significantly lower than that recorded after furosemide (4.25 ml/min; p < 0.025), but not after torasemide (3.05 ml/min; p = 0.07). Inhaled furosemide totally blocked bronchial response to UNDW in five subjects. In two of five subjects the response was also blocked by inhaled torasemide. A remarkable increase in diuresis was noted only after torasemide in most subjects. We conclude that inhaled furosemide has a better protective effect than does inhaled torasemide against UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction. However, the protective effect of furosemide is variable, with some asthmatic patients showing no change in bronchial response to UNDW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Ventilation and Perfusion Lung Scintigraphy of Allergen-Induced Airway Responses in Atopic Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both ventilation (V and perfusion (Q of the lungs are altered in asthma, but their relationships with allergen-induced airway responses and gas exchange are not well described.

  10. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND NASAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AMONG YOUNG ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent studies examining the inflammatory response in atopic asthma to ozone suggest a release of soluble mediators of inflammation factors that might be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant could prove useful in subjects exposed to additional oxidati...

  11. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Grol, M. H.; Lourens, M. S.; Gerritsen, J.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). A study was

  12. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, AB; Grol, MH; Lourens, MS; Gerritsen, J; Heymans, HSA; vanAalderen, WMC

    Background - It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)). A study was

  13. Persistence of asthmatic response after ammonium persulfate-induced occupational asthma in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ollé-Monge

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since persulfate salts are an important cause of occupational asthma (OA, we aimed to study the persistence of respiratory symptoms after a single exposure to ammonium persulfate (AP in AP-sensitized mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BALB/c mice received dermal applications of AP or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO on days 1 and 8. On day 15, they received a single nasal instillation of AP or saline. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR was assessed using methacholine provocation, while pulmonary inflammation was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were measured in blood at 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8, 15 days after the single exposure to the causal agent. Histological studies of lungs were assessed. RESULTS: AP-treated mice showed a sustained increase in AHR, lasting up to 4 days after the challenge. There was a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils 8 hours after the challenge, which persisted for 24 hours in AP-treated mice. The extent of airway inflammation was also seen in the histological analysis of the lungs from challenged mice. Slight increases in total serum IgE 4 days after the challenge were found, while IgG gradually increased further 4 to 15 days after the AP challenge in AP-sensitized mice. CONCLUSIONS: In AP-sensitized mice, an Ig-independent response is induced after AP challenge. AHR appears immediately, but airway neutrophil inflammation appears later. This response decreases in time; at early stages only respiratory and inflammatory responses decrease, but later on immunological response decreases as well.

  14. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Grol, M. H.; Lourens, M. S.; Gerritsen, J.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). A study was undertaken to determine whether a change in lung sounds corresponded with a 20% fall in FEV1 after methacholine challenge, and whether the occurrence of wheeze was the most important change. METHODS: Fifteen children with asthma (eight boys) of mean age 10.8 years (range 8-15) were studied. All had normal chest auscultation before the methacholine challenge test. Lung sounds were recorded over the trachea for one minute and stored on tape. They were analysed directly and also scored blindly from the tape recording by a second investigator. Wheeze, cough, increase in respiratory rate, and prolonged expiration were assessed. RESULTS: The total cumulative methacholine dose causing a fall in FEV1 of 20% or more (PD20) was detected in 12 children by a change in lung sounds - in four by wheeze and in eight by cough, increased respiratory rate, and/or prolonged expiration. In two subjects altered lung sounds were detectable one dose step before PD20 was reached. In three cases in whom no fall in FEV1 occurred, no change in lung sounds could be detected at the highest methacholine dose. CONCLUSION: Changes in lung sounds correspond well with a 20% fall in FEV1 after methacholine challenge. Wheeze is an insensitive indicator for assessing bronchial responsiveness. Cough, increase in respiratory rate, and prolonged expiration occurs more frequently. PMID:8779140

  15. Associations of airway inflammation and responsiveness markers in non asthmatic subjects at start of apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered a hallmark of asthma. Other methods are helpful in epidemiological respiratory health studies including Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) and Eosinophils Percentage (EP) in nasal lavage fluid measuring markers for airway inflammation along with the Forced Oscillatory Technique measuring Airway resistance (AR). Can their outcomes discriminate profiles of respiratory health in healthy subjects starting apprenticeship in occupations with a risk of asthma? Methods Rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma-like symptoms, FEV1 and AR post-Methacholine Bronchial Challenge (MBC) test results, FENO measurements and EP were all investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers not suffering from asthma. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was simultaneously conducted in relation to these groups and this generated a synthetic partition (EI). Associations between groups of subjects based on BHR and EI respectively, as well as risk factors, symptoms and investigations were also assessed. Results Among the 441 apprentice subjects, 45 (10%) declared rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms, 18 (4%) declared asthma-like symptoms and 26 (6%) suffered from BHR. The mean increase in AR post-MBC test was 21% (sd = 20.8%). The median of FENO values was 12.6 ppb (2.6-132 range). Twenty-six subjects (6.7%) had EP exceeding 14%. BHR was associated with atopy (p < 0.01) and highest FENO values (p = 0.09). EI identified 39 subjects with eosinophilic inflammation (highest values of FENO and eosinophils), which was associated with BHR and atopy. Conclusions Are any of the identified markers predictive of increased inflammatory responsiveness or of development of symptoms caused by occupational exposures? Analysis of population follow-up will attempt to answer this question. PMID:20604945

  16. [Attitudes to smoking and characteristics of the habit among a group of young asthmatics compared to a group of non-asthmatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda Orive, J I; Peña Miguel, T; Reinares Ten, C; González Quijada, S; Escobar Sacristán, J; Sáez Valls, R; Herrera de la Rosa, A

    2000-03-01

    To compare the attitudes toward smoking and smoking patterns of young male asthmatics with the attitudes and habits of a group previously studied non-asthmatic men. Volunteers responded individually to as anonymous questionnaire. Responses were received from 488 asthmatics men (55.83%) of the sample, with 11 not responding) and 386 non-asthmatics (44.16%, with 27 not responding). The mean age of subjects was 19.91 +/- 2.76 yr. Smoking asthmatics numbered 154 (31.56%) non-asthmatic smokers numbered 207 (53.6%) (p non-smoking asthmatics. The prevalence of smoking is lower among asthmatics than among non-asthmatics and asthmatics smoke fewer cigarettes/day and have a lower level of addiction. There are no differences in age of or reasons for starting to smoke. Asthmatics have fewer smoking friends than do non-asthmatics and non-smoking asthmatics have fever still. the desire to quit smoking is high in both groups.

  17. Response localization of the pharmacological agents histamine and salbutamol along the respiratory system by forced oscillations in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F; Polko, A H; Visser, B F

    1989-01-01

    The bronchodilating effect of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol on the impedance of the respiratory system was studied in 25 asthmatic subjects after histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine caused an increase of respiratory resistance (Rrs) at lower frequencies and a frequency dependence of Rrs. Respiratory reactance (Xrs) decreased at all frequencies after histamine challenge. These changes can be explained by peripheral airway obstruction. Impedance measurements performed 5 min after inhalation of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol showed a decrease of Rrs values at lower frequencies, a disappearance of the frequency dependence of Rrs, and a significant increase of Xrs values. No significant differences in absolute changes of Rrs and Xrs are observed between the salbutamol regimens. These changes after inhalation of salbutamol can be explained by supposing a predominant action on the peripheral airways.

  18. Inhibitory effects of inhaled complex traditional Chinese medicine on early and late asthmatic responses induced by ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs

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    Gong Cheng-Chung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many formulae of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs have been used for antiasthma treatment dating back many centuries. There is evidence to suggest that TCMs are effective as a cure for this allergenic disease administered via gastric tubes in animal studies; however, their efficacy, safety and side effects as an asthmatic therapy are still unclear. Methods In this study, guinea pigs sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA were used as an animal model for asthma challenge, and the sensitization of animals by bronchial reactivity to methacholine (Mch and the IgE concentration in the serum after OVA challenge were estimated. Complex traditional Chinese herbs (CTCM were administered to the animals by nebulization, and the leukocytes were evaluated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Results The results showed that inhalation of CTCM could abolish the increased lung resistance (13-fold increase induced by challenge with OVA in the early asthmatic response (EAR, reducing to as low as baseline (1-fold. Moreover, our results indicated higher IgE levels (range, 78-83 ng/ml in the serum of sensitized guinea pigs than in the unsensitized controls (0.9 ± 0.256 ng/ml. In addition, increased total leukocytes and higher levels of eosinophils and neutrophils were seen 6 hours after challenge, and the increased inflammatory cells were reduced by treatment with CTCM inhalation. The interleukin-5 (IL-5 level in BALF was also reduced by CTCM. Conclusion Our findings indicate a novel method of administering traditional Chinese medicines for asthma treatment in an animal model that may be more effective than traditional methods.

  19. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and anti-asthmatic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Many asthmatic patients experience shortness of breath or wheezing, when exposed to cold air, or irritants like baking fumes, exhaust gases or cigarette smoke. This clinical phenomenon has been called bronchial hypemsponsiveness (BHR), which is defined as an exaggerated broncho-obstructive response

  20. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

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    Tetsuto Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those strains in vivo. NC mice again showed comparable airway reactivity to that seen in A/J mice and a significantly greater reactivity than that seen in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. To investigate the effects of airway inflammation on airway reactivity to acetylcholine in vivo, NC and BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with antigen. Sensitization to and challenge with antigen induced accumulation of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, in lung and increased airway reactivity in NC and BALB/c mice. These results indicate that NC mice exhibit inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Therefore, NC mice are a suitable strain to use in investigating the mechanisms underlying airway hyperreactivity and such studies will provide beneficial information for understanding the pathophysiology of asthma.

  1. Kefiran suppresses antigen-induced mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Tadahide; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Kefir is a traditional fermented milk beverage produced by kefir grains in the Caucasian countries. Kefiran produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in kefir grains is an exopolysaccharide having a repeating structure with glucose and galactose residues in the chain sequence and has been suggested to exert many health-promoting effects such as immunomodulatory, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic activities. Here we investigated the effects of kefiran on mast cell activation induced by antigen. Pretreatment with kefiran significantly inhibited antigen-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, degranulation, and tumor necrosis factor-α production in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) after antigen stimulation was also suppressed by pretreatment of BMMCs with kefiran. These findings indicate that kefiran suppresses mast cell degranulation and cytokine production by inhibiting the Akt and ERKs pathways, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect for kefiran.

  2. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA inhibits the antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaralizadeh, Reza; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Pourpak, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Moin, Mostafa

    2009-12-01

    FcepsilonRI, The high affinity receptor for IgE plays a critical role in triggering the allergic reactions. It is responsible for inducing mast cell degranulation and deliberation of allergy mediators when it is aggregated by allergen and IgE complexes. FcepsilonRI on the mast cells consists of three subunits; alpha chain directly binds IgE, beta chain and dimmer of gamma chains together mediate intracellular signaling. Cross-linking of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI on the surface of mast cells and basophils by the multivalent antigen induces release of chemical mediators. The present in vitro study was designed to investigate the effect of synthetic FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on the antigen-induced activation of MC/9 cells. MC/9 cells which are murine mast cells were transfected by FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA and negative control siRNA. After 6 h, anti-DNP (Dinitrophenyl) IgE was used for the cells sensitization. Then the cells were challenged with Dinitrophenyl-Human Serum Albumin (DNP-HSA) for mast cell degranulation induction before collection of supernatants. The amount of mRNA and protein expression was measured by Real Time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Determination of the expression rate of FcepsilonRI-alpha on cell surface was achieved by flow cytometry. ELISA and spectrophotometry methods were used subsequently for measuring the effects of FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on antigen-induced histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA treated cells showed significant decrease in FcepsilonRI-alpha mRNA and protein expression in comparison to control cells. FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell release of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine were also inhibited. In this study it was shown that FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA could suppress FcepsilonRI-alpha expression and inhibited degranulation and histamine release in antigen-stimulated MC/9 cells. In conclusion, knock-down of FcepsilonRI-alpha by siRNA could be a promising method for inhibition of the mast

  3. Exploratory study comparing dysautonomia between asthmatic and non-asthmatic elite swimmers

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    M. Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysautonomia has been independently associated with training and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. In addition, neurogenic airway inflammation was recently associated with swimmers-asthma. We aimed to assess the relation between autonomic nervous system and airway responsiveness of asthmatic elite swimmers. Methods: Twenty-seven elite swimmers, 11 of whom had asthma, were enrolled in this exploratory cross-sectional study. All performed spirometry with bronchodilation, skin prick tests and methacholine challenge according to the guidelines. Pupillometry was performed using PLR-200™ Pupillometer. One pupil light response curve for each eye was recorded and the mean values of pupil's maximal and minimal diameters, percentage of constriction, average and maximum constriction velocities (parasympathetic parameters, dilation velocity, and total time to recover 75% of the initial size (sympathetic parameters were used for analysis. Asthma was defined using IOC-MC criteria; subjects were divided into airway hyperesponsiveness (AHR severity according to methacholine PD20 in: no AHR, borderline, mild, moderate and severe AHR. Differences for pupillary parameters between groups and after categorization by AHR severity were assessed using SPSS 20.0 (p ≤ 0.05. In individuals with clinically relevant AHR, correlation between PD20 and pupillary parameters was investigated with Spearman's correlation test. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between asthmatic and non-asthmatic swimmers regarding parasympathetic parameters. When stratified by AHR, maximal and minimal diameters and percentage of constriction were significantly lower among those with severe AHR. Among swimmers with clinically relevant AHR (n = 18, PD20 correlated with parasympathetic activity: maximal (r = 0.67, p = 0.002 and minimal diameters (r = 0.75, p < 0.001, percentage of constriction (r

  4. A microculture system for the measurement of antigen-induced murine lymphocyte proliferation: advantages of 5% horse serum and 5 X 10(-5) M mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, E; Vris, T W; Lawrence, H S

    1977-01-01

    Short term microculture systems which measure murine lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens are well established. We demonstrate here that these microculture methods are not suitable for antigen-induced responses because of the high levels of murine lymphocyte proliferation in control cultures associated with the use of fetal calf serum or human serum. We also show that this problem can be eliminated with the use of a combination of 5% horse serum and 5 X 10(-5) M mercaptoethanol. We describe an antigen-induced murine lymphocyte proliferation microculture system in which good stimulation indices are achieved and the lymphocyte proliferation in control cultures remain at a low level throughout the 7 day culture period.

  5. Functional phenotype of airway myocytes from asthmatic airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha

    In asthma, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell plays a central role in disease pathogenesis through cellular changes which may impact on its microenvironment and alter ASM response and function. The answer to the long debated question of what makes a 'healthy' ASM cell become 'asthmatic' still

  6. Bronchoprotection with a leukotriene receptor antagonist in asthmatic preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nielsen, K G

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) could provide bronchoprotection against the cold, dry air-induced response in asthmatic preschool children. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of the specific LTRA montelukast at 5...

  7. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatic Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne; Wheeler, Amanda J; Larcombe, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians ( n  = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Nationally, 55.6% of asthmatics, and 23.9% of non-asthmatics, report adverse health effects after exposure to fragranced products. Specifically, 24.0% of asthmatics report an asthma attack. Moreover, 18.2% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Over 20% of asthmatics are unable to access public places and restrooms that use air fresheners. Exposure to fragranced products is associated with health problems, some potentially serious, in an estimated 2.2 million asthmatic adult Australians. Asthmatics were proportionately more affected than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 3.01-5.24). Most asthmatics would prefer workplaces, healthcare facilities, and environments that are fragrance-free, which could help reduce adverse effects.

  8. Effects of Pranlukast Hydrate on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Non-Asthmatic Patients with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Sagara

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that pranlukast hydrate inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in non-asthmatic patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In turn, this suggests that cysteinyl leukotrienes have a role in increased airway responsiveness.

  9. Plasma diamine oxidase activity in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichiro Toyoshima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine plays an important role in the development of asthmatic symptoms. Diamine oxidase (DAO histaminase, which inactivates histamine, is located in the intestine and kidney and is released into plasma. Plasma DAO activity in asthmatic children was measured by a recently developed high performance liquid chromatographic method using histamine as the DAO substrate. Diamine oxidase activity was higher in severely asthmatic children than in those with mild asthma. A time course study during the acute exacerbation phase revealed that DAO activity rose during acute asthmatic attacks and then decreased gradually over several days. Although the mechanisms of plasma DAO activity increase during acute asthmatic attacks could not be explained, data showed that plasma DAO activity is an important index of histamine metabolism in asthmatics and may relate to some mechanisms of acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Consequently, fluctuations in plasma DAO can be used as one of various indices of instability in management of asthma.

  10. [Comparing the young asthmatics running fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belányi, Kinga; Gyene, István; Bak, Zsuzsa; Mezei, Györgyi

    2007-02-25

    Nowadays, doctors strongly recommend physical activity for asthmatic children, since the resulting improved physical fitness and psychological change also raise the quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of asthmatic children who regularly participate in therapeutic swimming, with asthmatic children who do not participate in this training and with non-swimming, healthy children using the 12 minute free running, Cooper test. The children from the swimmer asthmatic group (n= 51, age = 9-22 yrs) took part in a special, long term, swimming exercise program (Gyene method). Whereas, the non-swimmer asthmatics (n = 28, age = 8-22 yrs) and the healthy children (n: 179, age: 9-22 yrs) only took part in the normal school physical education classes. Fitness was measured using the Cooper test. Data was collected from 258 subjects and showed that the fitness of swimmer asthmatics is significantly better than that of the non-swimmer asthmatics and even better than that of the healthy subjects (swimmer/ non swimmer asthmatic p = 0.01; swimmer asthmatic/ healthy p test). The difference in the fitness acquired from swimming was the most pronounced for the 8-11 years old asthmatics, presumably because of greater motivational factors. No differences were found between genders for the two asthmatic groups, whereas healthy boys were found to have significantly greater levels of fitness than healthy girls. Fitness is substantially increased with regular swimming. The favourable effects of swimming are expressed not only in comparison with the non-swimmer asthmatics but with the healthy subjects too. The regular therapeutic swimming program helps the formation of running fitness too.

  11. [Analysis of the main components of inner ear antigens inducing autoimmune Meniere's disease in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Tan, Chang-Qiang; Cui, Yu-Gui; Ding, Gui-Peng; Ju, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yu-Jin; Cai, Wen-Jun

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the main components of inner ear antigens inducing autoimmune Meniere's disease (AIMD) in guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were immunized with isologous crude inner ear antigens (ICIEAg). Then, the hearing function was measured with auditory brainstem response (ABR), the vestibular function was measured with electronystagmography (including spontaneous nystagmus and caloric test), and inner ear histopathological changes were observed by inner ear celloidin section with haematoxylin-eosin staining and observed under light microscope. According to these results, the AIMD-model animals from non-AIMD-model ones were distinguished. The special antibodies against ICIEAg in sera were measured with ELISA. The antigen-antibody reactions against different components of ICIEAg were detected by Western blotting with sera of AIMD and non-AIMD guinea pigs respectively. Then, we analysed the contrast between them and found the main components of the ICIEAg that were positive reaction in AIMD guinea pigs and negative reaction in non-AIMD guinea pigs. The result of ELISA demonstrated that the sera of both the AIMD and non-AIMD guniea pigs contained the special antibodies against ICIEAg after immunized with ICIEAg. The difference of the amount of antibody against ICIEAg between AIMD guinea pig group and non-AIMD guinea pig group was not significant. Western blotting assay showed only the sera of AIMD guinea pig contained the antibodies against the specific antigens with the molecular of 68 000, 58 000, 42 000 and 28 000. ICIEAg contain many different components, the AIMD might only happen in the guinea pigs in which the special immunization against the main components that could induce this kind of disorder appeared. The inner ear antigens with molecular of 68 000, 58 000, 42 000 and 28 000 might be the main components inducing AIMD in guinea pigs.

  12. Rutin has anti-asthmatic effects in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of the flavonoid rutin in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mouse ... protection in asthmatic mice, via downregulation of inflammatory ..... cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells stimulated with ... Increased nuclear factor kappaB activity in milk cells of.

  13. HLA-G Haplotypes Are Differentially Associated with Asthmatic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ribeyre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G, a HLA class Ib molecule, interacts with receptors on lymphocytes such as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells to influence immune responses. Unlike classical HLA molecules, HLA-G expression is not found on all somatic cells, but restricted to tissue sites, including human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC. Individual variation in HLA-G expression is linked to its genetic polymorphism and has been associated with many pathological situations such as asthma, which is characterized by epithelium abnormalities and inflammatory cell activation. Studies reported both higher and equivalent soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G expression in different cohorts of asthmatic patients. In particular, we recently described impaired local expression of HLA-G and abnormal profiles for alternatively spliced isoforms in HBEC from asthmatic patients. sHLA-G dosage is challenging because of its many levels of polymorphism (dimerization, association with β2-microglobulin, and alternative splicing, thus many clinical studies focused on HLA-G single-nucleotide polymorphisms as predictive biomarkers, but few analyzed HLA-G haplotypes. Here, we aimed to characterize HLA-G haplotypes and describe their association with asthmatic clinical features and sHLA-G peripheral expression and to describe variations in transcription factor (TF binding sites and alternative splicing sites. HLA-G haplotypes were differentially distributed in 330 healthy and 580 asthmatic individuals. Furthermore, HLA-G haplotypes were associated with asthmatic clinical features showed. However, we did not confirm an association between sHLA-G and genetic, biological, or clinical parameters. HLA-G haplotypes were phylogenetically split into distinct groups, with each group displaying particular variations in TF binding or RNA splicing sites that could reflect differential HLA-G qualitative or quantitative expression, with tissue-dependent specificities. Our results, based on a

  14. Acrolein exposure suppresses antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects of tobacco smoke arise partly from its influence on innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to impaired innate immunity and host defense. The impact of smoking on allergic asthma remains unclear, with various reports demonstrating that cigarette smoke enhances asthma development but can also suppress allergic airway inflammation. Based on our previous findings that immunosuppressive effects of smoking may be largely attributed to one of its main reactive electrophiles, acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Methods C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intraperitoneal injection with the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide on days 0 and 7, and challenged with aerosolized OVA on days 14–16. In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14–17. Lung tissues or brochoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were collected either 6 hrs after a single initial OVA challenge and/or acrolein exposure on day 14 or 48 hrs after the last OVA challenge, on day 18. Inflammatory cells and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels were measured in BALF, and lung tissue samples were collected for analysis of mucus and Th1/Th2 cytokine expression, determination of protein alkylation, cellular thiol status and transcription factor activity. Results Exposure to acrolein following OVA challenge of OVA-sensitized mice resulted in markedly attenuated allergic airway inflammation, demonstrated by decreased inflammatory cell infiltrates, mucus hyperplasia and Th2 cytokines. Acrolein exposure rapidly depleted lung tissue glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced activation of the Nrf2 pathway, indicated by accumulation of Nrf2, increased alkylation of Keap1, and induction of Nrf2-target genes such as HO-1. Additionally, analysis of inflammatory signaling pathways showed suppressed activation of NF-κB and marginally reduced activation of JNK in acrolein

  15. DRUG THERAPY IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN: SURVEY IN MASHHAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Karimi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For future health planning of our country, the type and amount of drugs used for treatment of chronic diseases should be known. Therefore, in the present study the treatment regimen of asthmatic children in the city of Mashhad was studied. Methods. To study the different types of drugs in the treatment regimen of asthmatic children in the city of Mashhad, we evaluated the treatment regimen of 366 primary school children with asthma disease. Starting, maximum and duration of action of three different bronchodilators (salbutamol inhaler, salbutamol syrup, and theophylline syrup were compared. Findings. The results of the first part of this study showed that only 31.6 percent of asthmatic children had history of treatment and only 10.6 percent had current medication. In addition, most of the treated children (38.8 percent had only bronchodilator (salbutamol syrup in their treatment regimen. The effect of salbutamol inhaler on lung function tests starts in 5 min, salbutamol syrup in 15 min and theophylline syrup at 30 min after administration. The maximum response to salbutamol inhaler, salbutamol syrup, and theophylline syrup occurred 15 min, 4 hr and 3 hr after administration, respectively. The reduction of response to salbutamol inhaler occurs after 3 hr, but there was no any reduction in response to salbutamol and theophylline syrup during study period. Conclusion. The prevalence of asthma among children in the city of Mashhad is relatively high, but most of asthmatic children are not treated. Although the oral bronchodilator in mild asthma is effective, salbutamol inhaler is needed for emergency use.

  16. Health effects of a subway environment in mild asthmatic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepczyńska-Nyström, Anna; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Grunewald, Johan; Pousette, Charlotte; Lundin, Anders; Eklund, Anders; Svartengren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Particle exposure is known to have negative health effects. In Stockholm the environment in the subway has been reported to have higher particle exposure levels, measured as PM(2.5) and PM(10), than roads with intense traffic in the inner city area. We have recently shown that healthy volunteers exposed to subway environment had statistically significant increase of fibrinogen and CD4 cells expressing regulatory T-cell marker CD25(bright)/FOXP3 in blood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether a more vulnerable population, asthmatics, would demonstrate similar or other changes in the lungs or in the peripheral blood. Sixteen mild asthmatics were exposed to a subway and a control environment for 2 h while being monitored by measurements of lung function, and inflammatory response in the lower airways evaluated by bronchoscopy and in peripheral blood. An attempt to standardize the exposures was done, by letting the volunteers alternate 15 min intervals of moderate exercise on a bicycle ergometer with 15 min of rest. We found a statistically significant increased frequency of CD4 cells expressing T-cell activation marker CD25 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but no significant increase of regulatory T-cells in blood as was found in healthy volunteers. Our study shows that airway inflammatory responses after exposure in subway environment differ between asthmatic and healthy humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral health status and treatment needs of asthmatic children aged 6 – 12 Years in Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a growing public health problem affecting over 300 million people worldwide. Asthmatic children have an altered immune response and a high tendency to mouth breathing especially during an episode of rhinitis or an attack thus predisposing them to serious oral health problems. Aim: This study aims to assess oral health status of asthmatic children aged 6–12. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 450 asthmatic children aged 6–12 years in Lucknow, asthmatic children were chosen from pediatric department of major hospitals. Gingival index (GI, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S, and dentition status and treatment need of World Health Organization oral health survey pro forma (1997 were used to assess oral health status. ANOVA, Chi-square test, and descriptive statistics were carried out. SPSS 16 was used for the data analysis. Results: Mean dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT was 2.98 ± 1.52 and 3.05 ± 1.60, mean GI score was 1.55 ± 0.52 and 1.53 ± 0.42 and mean OHI-S was 2.59 ± 0.68 and 2.48 ± 0.77 among the male and female asthmatic children. Conclusion: Female asthmatic children had higher mean DMFT score, but lower mean GI score and oral hygiene score than male children in comparison and also they had a compromised oral hygiene status.

  18. The effect of inhaled fluticasone propionate in the treatment of young asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Gillies, J; Groenewald, M

    1999-01-01

    The response in asthmatic young children to inhaled steroids within the usual pediatric dose range is unknown. We therefore evaluated the dose-related response in young children with moderate asthma to inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) (delivered via the Babyhaler spacer device) within the pedi......The response in asthmatic young children to inhaled steroids within the usual pediatric dose range is unknown. We therefore evaluated the dose-related response in young children with moderate asthma to inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) (delivered via the Babyhaler spacer device) within...... the pediatric dose range. A total of 237 children (mean age 28 mo, range 12 to 47) with moderate asthmatic symptoms were studied in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study of 12 wk treatment following a 4-wk run-in period. The median use of rescue medication was 1...

  19. [Destruction of synovial pannus of antigen-induced arthritis by ultrasonic cavitation in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-yan; Qiu, Li; Wang, Lei; Lin, Ling; Wen, Xiao-rong

    2011-11-01

    To optimize the conditions of ultrasonic irradiation and microbubble of ultrasound cavitation on destruction of synovial pannus of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in rabbits. Antigen-induced arthritis was successfully induced on bilateral knee joints of 85 rabbits. Each 10 AIA rabbits were divided into two groups to compare various peak negative pressures, different ultrasonic pulse durations, various pulse repetition frequencies, different irradiance duration, different dosages of microbubble contrast agents, different ultrasonic irradiance times. With intravenous infusion of Sonovue to the rabbits, ultrasonic irradiance was performed on the right knee joint using the above condition of ultrasound cavitation. At the day 1 after ultrasonic irradiance, MRI and pathological examination were employed to evaluate the optimal conditions. The optimal parameters and conditions for ultrasonic irradiance included intermittent ultrasonic application (in 6 s intervals), 0.6 mL/kg of microbubble contrast agent, 4.6 MPa of ultrasonic peak negative pressure, 100 cycles of pulse duration, 50 Hz of pulse repetition frequency, 5 min of ultrasonic duration, 0.6 mL/kg of dosages of microbubble contrast agents and multi-sessional ultrasonic irradiance. After the ultrasonic irradiance, the thickness of right knee synovium measured by MRI was thinner than that of left knee and synovial necrosis was confirmed by the pathological finding. Under optimal ultrasonic irradiation and microbubble conditions, ultrasonic cavitation could destroy synovial pannus of AIA in rabbits.

  20. Anaphylactic deaths in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipane, G A

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed seven documented deaths to peanuts and two near deaths. We excluded hearsay undocumented deaths to peanuts. Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies and probably the most common cause of death by food anaphylaxis in the United States. About one-third of peanut-sensitive patients have severe reactions to peanuts. Asthmatics with peanut sensitivity appear more likely to develop fatal reactions probably because of the exquisite sensitivity that asthamatics have to chemical mediators of anaphylaxis. Severe reactions occur within a few minutes of ingestion and these patients must carry preloaded epinephrine syringes, antihistamines, and medic-alert bracelets. Treatment should include repeated doses of epinephrine, antihistamines and corticosteroids as well as availability of oxygen, mechanical methods to open airways, vasopressors, and intravenous fluids. Hidden sources of peanuts such as chili, egg rolls, cookies, candy, and pastry should be recognized and identified. Scratch/prick test to peanuts are highly diagnostic. Peanut is one of the most sensitive food allergens known requiring only a few milligrams to cause a reaction. In some individuals, even contact of peanut with unbroken skin can cause an immediate local reaction. Unfortunately, peanut reaction is not outgrown and remains a life-long threat.

  1. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample ( n  = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Results indicate that 64.3% of asthmatics report one or more types of adverse health effects from fragranced products, including respiratory problems (43.3%), migraine headaches (28.2%), and asthma attacks (27.9%). Overall, asthmatics were more likely to experience adverse health effects from fragranced products than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34-7.64). In particular, 41.0% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 28.9% from scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 42.3% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 46.2% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Of these effects, 62.8% would be considered disabling under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Yet 99.3% of asthmatics are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. Also, 36.7% cannot use a public restroom if it has an air freshener or deodorizer, and 39.7% would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or some fragranced product. Further, 35.4% of asthmatics have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. More than twice as many asthmatics would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and health care professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study point to relatively simple and cost-effective ways to

  2. Asthmatic Children And Immunological Effects Of BCG Vaccine Key words: Asthmatic children, BCG vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaed, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    A TH2 screwed immune response is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergy, so, preventing the differentiation of TH cells. The TH2 cells are appeared as a logical therapeutic approach to atopic asthma. The purpose of TH1 study was to determine the possible role of BCG vaccine on asthma and whether a TH1 type immune response elicited by BCG immunization could suppress the allergic sensitization in childhood asthma. Seventy asthmatic patients (50 atopic and 20 non-atopic) and fifty healthy individuals were subjected to TH1 study. Tuberculin test was performed for all groups then subjects with positive tuberculin test were excluded. The BCG vaccine was given for all groups with assessment of TH1 and TH2 cytokine response by measuring total IgE, IL-4 (for TH2 response) and INF-γ (for TH1 response). Significant reduction in IgE and IL-4, and elevation in INF-γ were determined in group I (atopic asthma) following BCG vaccination. There was non-significant change observed in IgE and IL-4 levels of group II while significant reduction in IL-4 and significant increase in INF-γ was observed after BCG vaccine

  3. Gender differences in objectively assessed physical activity in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Economou, Mary; Kolokotroni, Ourania; Savva, Savvas C; Gavatha, Marina; Ioannou, Phivos; Karpathios, Themistoclis; Middleton, Nicos

    2015-04-01

    To compare objectively assessed physical activity levels, between asthmatic children and non-asthmatic controls. From a random community sample of 794 children aged 8-9 years, in a case-control design, 104 children with ever doctor's diagnosis of asthma and 99 non-asthmatic controls were recruited and had assessment of physical activity with biaxial accelerometers for 7 days. Children with active (also reporting at least one episode of wheezing in the last 12 months) and inactive (no wheezing in past 12 months) asthma appeared to have similar physical activity and sedentary activity levels compared to non-asthmatic children. However, girls with active asthma had significantly lower moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels than their peers with adjusted geometric mean ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.369, 0.929, P-value = 0.024). No difference in physical and sedentary activity levels was observed between asthmatic and non-asthmatic boys. The difference between genders in the comparison of MVPA levels in asthmatics and controls was statistically significant (P-value of likelihood ratio test [LRT] for effect modification by gender = 0.034). Unlike boys, girls with active asthma appear to be less active than their healthy peers, and this gender difference might explain the inconsistent evidence from previous reports on physical activity levels in asthmatic children. Further studies are needed to confirm the gender interaction in the childhood asthma-physical activity relation and the implications on current guidelines for physical exercise prescriptions in asthmatic children. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Serum Zinc Level in Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atqah AbdulWahab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic disorders among children. Zinc (Zn is an essential dietary antioxidant and may have a special role in assisting the airways of asthmatic subjects. The primary objective of this study was to measure serum Zn levels among asthmatic school children and to compare this to the serum Zn level in non-asthmatic children. The secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between Zn levels and the degree of asthma control. A cross-sectional study following forty asthmatic children and forty matched non-asthmatic children of both genders was conducted. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, BMI Z-scores, serum Zn, hemoglobin, total protein, and albumin concentrations were measured in both groups. Serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and dosage of inhaled steroids were measured in asthmatic school children. The results show the mean Zn level among asthmatic children was 12.78 ± 1.8 μmol/L. Hypozincemia was detected in four asthmatic children. Asthma and control groups were matched in age, gender, and BMI Z score (p > 0.05. No significant difference was observed in Zn levels, hemoglobin, albumin, and total protein between both groups (p > 0.05. Among asthmatics, Zn levels were not significantly associated with the degree of asthma control (well controlled, mean Zn = 12.9 ± 1.5, partially controlled, mean Zn = 11.9 ± 1.6, and uncontrolled, mean Zn = 3.62 ± 2.2 (p = 0.053. The Zn level was not correlated with the FEV1 Z score. There was no significant association between Zn level and the dosage of inhaled steroids or IgE concentrations (p > 0.05. The findings show that Zn may not play a major role in the degree of asthma control. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  5. Inhaled corticosteroids inhibit substance P receptor expression in asthmatic rat airway smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurokinins (NKs participate in asthmatic airway inflammation, but the effects of NKs on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs and those of corticosteroids on NKs are unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of budesonide on substance P (NK-1 receptor (NK-1R expression in the lung and ASMCs, 45 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, asthmatic, and budesonide treatment. Aerosolized ovalbumin was used to generate the asthmatic rat model, and budesonide was administered after ovalbumin inhalation. On day 21, bronchial responsiveness tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and cell counting were conducted. NK-1R protein expression in the lung was investigated by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Primary rat ASMC cultures were established, and purified ASMCs of the fourth passage were collected for mRNA and protein studies via real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and image analysis. Results NK-1R mRNA and protein expression in the budesonide treatment group rat’s lung and ASMCs were less than that in the asthmatic group but greater than that in the control group. Conclusions NK-1R is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and that budesonide may downregulate the expression of NK-1R in the ASMCs and airways of asthmatic rats, which may alleviate neurogenic airway inflammation.

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide predicts exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Hermansen, Mette N; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is of particular importance in children with asthma. It is an important measure of asthma control and should be monitored by exercise testing. However, exercise testing puts a large demand on health-care resources and is therefore not widely...... used in routine monitoring of pediatric asthma control. The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) also reflects uncontrolled asthma. We hypothesized that FeNO may be used for prescreening of asthmatic children to exclude those with good asthma control unlikely to have EIB, thereby...... reducing the need for exercise testing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the value of FeNO as a predictor of EIB in asthmatic children. METHODS: Stable outpatient asthmatic school children performed standard exercise challenge tests and measurement of FeNO. RESULTS: FeNO and response...

  7. Respiratory function in children of asthmatic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Valadares

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The frequency of spirometry alterations in children of asthmatic mothers was high; the restrictive pattern was more often observed that the obstructive. There was a higher incidence of obstructive test results in those who presented clinical symptoms of asthma, with a higher frequency of clinical diagnosis of asthma than that found in the literature.

  8. Atopic asthmatic immune phenotypes associated with airway microbiota and airway obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Turturice

    Full Text Available Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids.To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in atopic asthmatics.A cohort of young adult, atopic asthmatics with intermittent or mild/moderate persistent symptoms (n = 13 were assessed via bronchoscopy, lavage, and spirometry. These individuals were compared to age matched non-asthmatic controls (n = 6 and to themselves after six weeks of treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP. Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined by metagenomic shotgun sequencing.Unsupervised clustering of cytokines and chemokines prior to treatment with FP identified two asthmatic phenotypes (AP, termed AP1 and AP2, with distinct bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory profiles. AP2 was associated with more obstruction, compared to AP1. After treatment with FP reduced MIP-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-2 was observed. A module of highly correlated cytokines that include MIP-1β and TNF-α was identified that negatively correlated with pulmonary function. Independently, IL-2 was positively correlated with pulmonary function. The airway microbiome composition correlated with asthmatic phenotypes. AP2, prior to FP treatment, was enriched with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unique associations between IL-2 or the cytokine module and the microbiota composition of the airways were observed in asthmatics subjects prior to treatment but not after or in controls.The underlying inflammation in atopic asthma is related to the composition of microbiota and is associated with severity of airway obstruction. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids was associated with changes in the airway inflammatory response to

  9. Alterations in vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation: associations with asthmatic phenotype, airway inflammation and β2-agonist use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T; Wu, Min; Foster, Gayle C; Hawkins, Gregory A; Batra, Vikas; Rybinski, Katherine A; Cirelli, Rosemary; Zangrilli, James G; Peters, Stephen P

    2006-01-01

    Background Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) mediates focal adhesion, actin filament binding and polymerization in a variety of cells, thereby inhibiting cell movement. Phosphorylation of VASP via cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinases releases this "brake" on cell motility. Thus, phosphorylation of VASP may be necessary for epithelial cell repair of damage from allergen-induced inflammation. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) injury from segmental allergen challenge increases VASP phosphorylation in airway epithelium in asthmatic but not nonasthmatic normal subjects, (2) regular in vivo β2-agonist use increases VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic epithelium, altering cell adhesion. Methods Bronchial epithelium was obtained from asthmatic and non-asthmatic normal subjects before and after segmental allergen challenge, and after regularly inhaled albuterol, in three separate protocols. VASP phosphorylation was examined in Western blots of epithelial samples. DNA was obtained for β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype determination. Results Although VASP phosphorylation increased, it was not significantly greater after allergen challenge in asthmatics or normals. However, VASP phosphorylation in epithelium of nonasthmatic normal subjects was double that observed in asthmatic subjects, both at baseline and after challenge. Regularly inhaled albuterol significantly increased VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic subjects in both unchallenged and antigen challenged lung segment epithelium. There was also a significant increase in epithelial cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the unchallenged lung segment after regular inhalation of albuterol but not of placebo. The haplotypes of the β2-adrenergic receptor did not appear to associate with increased or decreased phosphorylation of VASP. Conclusion Decreased VASP phosphorylation was observed in epithelial cells of asthmatics compared to nonasthmatic normals, despite response to β-agonist. The decreased

  10. Alterations in vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation: associations with asthmatic phenotype, airway inflammation and β2-agonist use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirelli Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP mediates focal adhesion, actin filament binding and polymerization in a variety of cells, thereby inhibiting cell movement. Phosphorylation of VASP via cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinases releases this "brake" on cell motility. Thus, phosphorylation of VASP may be necessary for epithelial cell repair of damage from allergen-induced inflammation. Two hypotheses were examined: (1 injury from segmental allergen challenge increases VASP phosphorylation in airway epithelium in asthmatic but not nonasthmatic normal subjects, (2 regular in vivo β2-agonist use increases VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic epithelium, altering cell adhesion. Methods Bronchial epithelium was obtained from asthmatic and non-asthmatic normal subjects before and after segmental allergen challenge, and after regularly inhaled albuterol, in three separate protocols. VASP phosphorylation was examined in Western blots of epithelial samples. DNA was obtained for β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype determination. Results Although VASP phosphorylation increased, it was not significantly greater after allergen challenge in asthmatics or normals. However, VASP phosphorylation in epithelium of nonasthmatic normal subjects was double that observed in asthmatic subjects, both at baseline and after challenge. Regularly inhaled albuterol significantly increased VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic subjects in both unchallenged and antigen challenged lung segment epithelium. There was also a significant increase in epithelial cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the unchallenged lung segment after regular inhalation of albuterol but not of placebo. The haplotypes of the β2-adrenergic receptor did not appear to associate with increased or decreased phosphorylation of VASP. Conclusion Decreased VASP phosphorylation was observed in epithelial cells of asthmatics compared to nonasthmatic normals, despite response to

  11. Dental Erosion and Dentin Hypersensitivity among Adult Asthmatics and Non-asthmatics Hospital-based: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Zahra Hassan Abdelaziz; Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the airways leading to spasm and swelling of the airways. The medications taken for the treatment of asthma can result in dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity. The aims of this study were to investigate the severity of dental erosion amongst adult asthmatics according to: gender, type and duration of medication taken and to compare dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. Comparative, cross-sectional hospital based study among 40 asthmatics (M=15 & F=25) and 40 non-asthmatics (M=18 & F=22) in the age range of 18-60 year selected purposefully from Al-Shaab Teaching Hospital in Khartoum city. The Basic Erosive Wear Index was used for dental erosion assessment. Dentine hypersensitivity was determined by giving ice cold water and rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis with P value ≤.05. There was an association between severity of dental erosion and presence of asthma (P=0.03), where asthmatics had a higher degree of erosion (moderate and severe) and non-asthmatics a lower degree. No significant association was found between dental erosion and gender, type and duration of medication among asthmatics group. A statistically significant difference was revealed in the degree of dentin hypersensitivity (P=0.00) among asthmatics (35.13%) and non-asthmatics (14.13%). Asthmatic patients had a higher degree of dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity compared to non-asthmatics. Among asthmatic patients there was no association between severity of dental erosion and gender, type and duration medication was taken for.

  12. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample (n = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-lik...

  13. NKT Cells in the Induced Sputum of Severe Asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Hamzaoui

    2006-01-01

    of the sputum and monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, CD25, and TCRγδ. The number of NKT (CD3+CD56+ cells was significantly higher in the sputum of severe asthmatics compared with mild asthmatic and healthy control groups (P<.05. CD8+CD56+ cells were the predominant subtype of the increased NKT cells in severe asthmatics. CD3+CD56+Vα24+, TCRγδ+ CD56+, and CD4+CD25+ T cells were significantly increased in severe asthmatic patients. These results suggest that the immunopathogenesis of severe asthmatics vary between severe and mild asthmatics, and that CD8+CD56+ NKT cells may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of severe asthma.

  14. Antioxidant status in acute asthmatic attack in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abdulla, N.O.; Al-Naama, L.M.; Hassan, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the oxidant - antioxidant imbalance in asthmatic children, by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidant marker of lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant compounds like vitamin C, vitamin E and uric acid and to investigate whether their concentrations are associated with more severe asthma. Methods: This case controlled prospective study was conducted on 219 children aged 1-12 years, attending Basra Maternity and Children Hospital. Included were 98 asthmatic children during acute attack and 121 non asthmatic, apparently healthy children. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidant marker of lipid peroxidation, and vitamin C, vitamin E and uric acid (as antioxidants) were estimated in asthmatic children during acute attack and compared with non-asthmatic children. Results: Asthmatic children during exacerbation of their asthma have significant lower serum levels of antioxidant compounds like vitamin C, vitamin E and uric acid (p<0.001) and significantly high malondialdehyde as compared with the controls. MDA was significantly elevated (P< 0.001), while that of vitamin C, vitamin E and uric acid were significantly decreased with increasing severity of asthmatic attack (P<0.001). A significant negative correlation between MDA with vitamin C (P<0.05, r = - 0.44) was observed in severe asthmatic attacks. Conclusion: Asthmatic patients during acute attack suffer a high degree of reactive oxygen species formation causing considerable oxidative stress that is indicated by the high level of oxidants (MDA) and low level of antioxidants. (author)

  15. The actin regulator zyxin reinforces airway smooth muscle and accumulates in airways of fatal asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R Rosner

    Full Text Available Bronchospasm induced in non-asthmatic human subjects can be easily reversed by a deep inspiration (DI whereas bronchospasm that occurs spontaneously in asthmatic subjects cannot. This physiological effect of a DI has been attributed to the manner in which a DI causes airway smooth muscle (ASM cells to stretch, but underlying molecular mechanisms-and their failure in asthma-remain obscure. Using cells and tissues from wild type and zyxin-/- mice we report responses to a transient stretch of physiologic magnitude and duration. At the level of the cytoskeleton, zyxin facilitated repair at sites of stress fiber fragmentation. At the level of the isolated ASM cell, zyxin facilitated recovery of contractile force. Finally, at the level of the small airway embedded with a precision cut lung slice, zyxin slowed airway dilation. Thus, at each level zyxin stabilized ASM structure and contractile properties at current muscle length. Furthermore, when we examined tissue samples from humans who died as the result of an asthma attack, we found increased accumulation of zyxin compared with non-asthmatics and asthmatics who died of other causes. Together, these data suggest a biophysical role for zyxin in fatal asthma.

  16. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications.This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air.Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information.Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2. Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change.Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  17. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L; Levänen, Bettina; Nording, Malin; Klepczynska-Nyström, Anna; Sköld, Magnus; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Grunewald, Johan; Svartengren, Magnus; Hammock, Bruce D; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M; Wheelock, Craig E

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  18. Air trapping on HRCT in asthmatics: correlation with pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jung Hwa; Cha, Chull Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Young Beom; Lee, Hae Kyung; Choi, Deuk Lin; Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Choon Sik

    1997-01-01

    asthmatics classified on the basis of interval between treatment and clinical improvement, the extent of air trapping on HRCT in the asymptomatic, early responder and late responder groups was as follow : (mean values) 9.31%, 21.50% and 27.89%, respectively; these differences were statistically significant. The extent of air trapping on HRCT in asthmatics showed positive correlation with FEV1 and MEFR. Quantitative analysis of air trapping on HRCT also provides prognostic information about a patient's response to treatment

  19. Air trapping on HRCT in asthmatics: correlation with pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jung Hwa; Cha, Chull Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Young Beom; Lee, Hae Kyung; Choi, Deuk Lin; Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Choon Sik [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    asthmatics classified on the basis of interval between treatment and clinical improvement, the extent of air trapping on HRCT in the asymptomatic, early responder and late responder groups was as follow : (mean values) 9.31%, 21.50% and 27.89%, respectively; these differences were statistically significant. The extent of air trapping on HRCT in asthmatics showed positive correlation with FEV1 and MEFR. Quantitative analysis of air trapping on HRCT also provides prognostic information about a patient's response to treatment.

  20. Cigarette smoke causes caspase-independent apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bucchieri

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important links between air pollution and asthma. Amongst these pollutants, environmental cigarette smoke is a risk factor both for asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. As the barrier to the inhaled environment, the bronchial epithelium is a key structure that is exposed to cigarette smoke.Since primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to oxidant-induced apoptosis, we hypothesized that they would be susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced cell death.PBECs from normal and asthmatic donors were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; cell survival and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and protective effects of antioxidants evaluated. The mechanism of cell death was evaluated using caspase inhibitors and immunofluorescent staining for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF.Exposure of PBEC cultures to CSE resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell death. At 20% CSE, PBECs from asthmatic donors exhibited significantly more apoptosis than cells from non-asthmatic controls. Reduced glutathione (GSH, but not ascorbic acid (AA, protected against CSE-induced apoptosis. To investigate mechanisms of CSE-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 or -9 inhibitors were tested, but these failed to prevent apoptosis; in contrast, CSE promoted nuclear translocation of AIF from the mitochondria. GSH reduced the number of nuclear-AIF positive cells whereas AA was ineffective.Our results show that PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to CSE-induced apoptosis. This response involves AIF, which has been implicated in DNA damage and ROS-mediated cell-death. Epithelial susceptibility to CSE may contribute to the impact of environmental tobacco smoke in asthma.

  1. NKT Cells in the Induced Sputum of Severe Asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether there was a specific inflammatory process in severe asthmatics, the phenotypic characteristics of induced sputum immune cells were analysed among patients with severe asthma. Twenty-two induced sputa (10 severe asthmatics were studied. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using immune cells of the sputum and monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, CD25, and TCRγδ . The number of NKT (CD3 + CD 56+ cells was significantly higher in the sputum of severe asthmatics compared with mild asthmatic and healthy control groups ( p<.05 . CD8+CD 56+ cells were the predominant subtype of the increased NKT cells in severe asthmatics. CD3 +CD56+Vα24 +, TCRγδ CD56+, and CD4+CD25+ T cells were significantly increased in severe asthmatic patients. These results suggest that the immunopathogenesis of severe asthmatics vary between severe and mild asthmatics, and that CD8+ CD 56+ NKT cells may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of severe asthma.

  2. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the frequency of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Egyptian asthmatic children and to correlate vitamin D levels to the severity of asthma. Methods: This case control study was conducted on 60 asthmatic children and 40 healthy controls. All were subjected to clinical history taking including ...

  3. Endogenous heparin levels in the controlled asthmatic patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Since heparin possesses anti-inflammatory properties, it is hypothesised that asthmatic patients have decreased levels of circulating heparin compared with healthy individuals. Design. We compared endogenous heparin levels in controlled asthmatic patients (53 adults) from the Asthma Clinic at ...

  4. Impaired P2X1 Receptor-Mediated Adhesion in Eosinophils from Asthmatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn; Symon, Fiona; Sylvius, Nicolas; Ran, Shaun; Bafadhel, Mona; Muessel, Michelle; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew; Vial, Catherine

    2016-06-15

    Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can be activated by extracellular nucleotides released following cell damage or inflammation. For example, increased ATP concentrations were reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of asthmatic patients. Although eosinophils are known to express several subtypes of P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides, their function and contribution to asthma remain unclear. In this article, we show that transcripts for P2X1, P2X4, and P2X5 receptors were expressed in healthy and asthmatic eosinophils. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP; 10 μM) evoked rapidly activating and desensitizing inward currents (peak 18 ± 3 pA/pF at -60 mV) in healthy eosinophils, typical of P2X1 homomeric receptors, which were abolished by the selective P2X1 antagonist NF449 (1 μM) (3 ± 2 pA/pF). α,β-meATP-evoked currents were smaller in eosinophils from asthmatic patients (8 ± 2 versus 27 ± 5 pA/pF for healthy) but were enhanced following treatment with a high concentration of the nucleotidase apyrase (17 ± 5 pA/pF for 10 IU/ml and 11 ± 3 pA/pF for 0.32 IU/ml), indicating that the channels are partially desensitized by extracellular nucleotides. α,β-meATP (10 μM) increased the expression of CD11b activated form in eosinophils from healthy, but not asthmatic, donors (143 ± 21% and 108 ± 11% of control response, respectively). Furthermore, α,β-meATP increased healthy (18 ± 2% compared with control 10 ± 1%) but not asthmatic (13 ± 1% versus 10 ± 0% for control) eosinophil adhesion. Healthy human eosinophils express functional P2X1 receptors whose activation leads to eosinophil αMβ2 integrin-dependent adhesion. P2X1 responses are constitutively reduced in asthmatic compared with healthy eosinophils, probably as the result of an increase in extracellular nucleotide concentration. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Anhøj, J; Agertoft, L; Hedlin, G; Gulsvik, A; Bjermer, L; Carlsen, K H; Nordvall, L; Lundbäck, B; Wennergren, G; Werner, S; Bønnelykke, K; Weiss, S T

    2007-07-01

    Asthma patients exhibit an increased rate of loss of lung function. Determinants to such decline are largely unknown and the modifying effect of steroid therapy is disputed. This cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate factors contributing to such decline and the possible modifying effect of steroid treatment. We analyzed determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a Scandinavian study of 2390 subjects from 550 families. Families were selected for the presence of two or more asthmatic children as part of a genetic study, Scandinavian Asthma Genetic Study (SAGA). The primary analysis studied the association between the lung function and delay of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) after asthma diagnosis among asthmatic children and young adults with a history of regular ICS treatment (N=919). FEV(1) percent predicted (FEV(1)% pred) was 0.25% lower per year of delay from diagnosis until treatment (p=0.039). This association was significantly greater in allergy skin prick test negative children. There was no significant influence of gender, age at asthma onset, or smoking. In the secondary analysis of the whole population of 2390 asthmatics and non-asthmatics, FEV(1)% pred was inversely related to having asthmatic siblings (-7.9%; p<0.0001), asthma diagnosis (-2.7%; p=0.0007), smoking (-3.5%; p=0.0027), and positive allergy skin prick test (-0.47% per test; p=0.012), while positively related to being of female gender (1.8%; p=0.0029). Risk of AHR was higher by having asthmatic siblings (OR 2.7; p<0.0001), being of female gender (OR 2.0; p<0.0001), and having asthma (OR 2.0; p<0.0001). These data suggest that lung function is lower in asthmatics with delayed introduction of ICS therapy, smoking, and positive allergy skin prick test. Lung function is lower and AHR higher in female asthmatics and subjects with asthmatic siblings or established asthma.

  6. β2-Agonist induced cAMP is decreased in asthmatic airway smooth muscle due to increased PDE4D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trian, Thomas; Burgess, Janette K; Niimi, Kyoko; Moir, Lyn M; Ge, Qi; Berger, Patrick; Liggett, Stephen B; Black, Judith L; Oliver, Brian G

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is associated with airway narrowing in response to bronchoconstricting stimuli and increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. In addition, some studies have suggested impaired β-agonist induced ASM relaxation in asthmatics, but the mechanism is not known. OBJECTIVE:

  7. Effects of Ex Vivo y-Tocopherol on Airway Macrophage Function in Healthy and Mild Allergic Asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated inflammation and altered immune responses are features found in atopic asthmatic airways. Recent studies indicate y-tocopherol (GT) supplementation can suppress airway inflammation in allergic asthma. We studied the effects of in vitro GT supplementation on receptor-med...

  8. Ablation of synovial pannus using microbubble-mediated ultrasonic cavitation in antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Lingyan; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yan

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the ablative effectiveness of microbubble-mediated ultrasonic cavitation for treating synovial pannus and to determine a potential mechanism using the antigen-induced arthritis model (AIA). Ultrasonic ablation was performed on the knee joints of AIA rabbits using optimal ultrasonic ablative parameters. Rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1) the ultrasound (US) + microbubble group; (2) the US only group; (3) the microbubble only group, and (4) the control group. At 1 h and 14 days after the first ablation, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) monitoring and pathology synovitis score were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects. Synovial necrosis and microvascular changes were also measured. After the ablation treatment, the thickness of synovium and parameters of time intensity curve including derived peak intensity and area under curve were measured using CEUS, and the pathology synovitis score in the ultrasound + microbubble group was significantly lower than that found in the remaining groups. No damage was observed in the surrounding normal tissues. The mechanism underlying the ultrasonic ablation was related to microthrombosis and microvascular rupture that resulted in synovial necrosis. The results suggest that microbubble-mediated ultrasonic cavitation should be applied as a non-invasive strategy for the treatment of synovial pannus in arthritis under optimal conditions.

  9. Sensitisation to aeroallergens among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents living in a poor region in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, E C S; Mariano, J; Sarinho, S W; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Almerinda R, S; Solé, D

    2009-01-01

    To assess the kind and frequency of sensitisation to aeroallergens (skin prick test - SPT) of asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents (13-14 years old) living in the city of Caruaru, Northeast of Brazil, and to analyse their exposure to some environmental factors. A case-control study was conducted with asthmatic (50) and non-asthmatic (150) adolescents diagnosed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. All were submitted to SPT with aeroallergens (house dust mites, cat and dog epithelium, cockroaches, moulds and grass) and completed a questionnaire to evaluate their environmental exposure. There were no significant differences between groups regarding gender, age, number of siblings and environmental exposure. Asthmatic subjects exhibited a higher frequency of positive SPTs than non-asthmatic subjects (54.0% vs 33.3%, p=0.009) mainly due to Periplaneta americana (34.0% vs 12.7%, p=0.0007 respectively) and Canis familiaris (20.0% vs 8.7%, p=0.029). Although sensitisation to aeroallergens was high among non-asthmatic adolescents, asthma was associated with parental history of atopic disease and sensitisation to P. americana and Canis familiaris but not to D. pteronyssinus showing that local studies are mandatory for the tailoring of appropriate management of allergic diseases.

  10. Clinical characteristics of black asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, D K; Davis, G; Dance, M; Simmank, K; Patel, D

    1995-10-01

    A prospective study of 455 black asthmatic children (277 boys) attending the Baragwanath Hospital asthma clinic was undertaken. A history was obtained by means of a standardised questionnaire and skin tests were performed. Cough was the commonest presenting symptom and upper respiratory tract infections, exercise and cold weather the commonest symptom precipitants. The relative incidences of the other precipitants reflected the environment of the study population. Associated atopic conditions were present in 75.5% of patients and a family background in 22.2%. Other respiratory diagnoses were commonly made, particularly tuberculosis, which was diagnosed in 7.4%. Fewer than one-third had no positive skin reaction. The commonest allergens were grasses, pollen and house-dust mites. The high proportion of house-dust mite sensitivity (44.2%) contradicts beliefs that they are rare at higher altitudes.

  11. Aspergillus antigen induces robust Th2 cytokine production, inflammation, airway hyperreactivity and fibrosis in the absence of MCP-1 or CCR2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charo Israel F

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is characterized by type 2 T-helper cell (Th2 inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, and airway fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2 and its receptor, CCR2, have been shown to play important roles in the development of Th2 inflammation. CCR2-deficient mice have been found to have altered inflammatory and physiologic responses in some models of experimental allergic asthma, but the role of CCR2 in contributing to inflammation and airway hyperreactivity appears to vary considerably between models. Furthermore, MCP-1-deficient mice have not previously been studied in models of experimental allergic asthma. Methods To test whether MCP-1 and CCR2 are each required for the development of experimental allergic asthma, we applied an Aspergillus antigen-induced model of Th2 cytokine-driven allergic asthma associated with airway fibrosis to mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2. Previous studies with live Aspergillus conidia instilled into the lung revealed that MCP-1 and CCR2 play a role in anti-fungal responses; in contrast, we used a non-viable Aspergillus antigen preparation known to induce a robust eosinophilic inflammatory response. Results We found that wild-type C57BL/6 mice developed eosinophilic airway inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, elevations in serum IgE, and airway fibrosis in response to airway challenge with Aspergillus antigen. Surprisingly, mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2 had responses to Aspergillus antigen similar to those seen in wild-type mice, including production of Th2 cytokines. Conclusion We conclude that robust Th2-mediated lung pathology can occur even in the complete absence of MCP-1 or CCR2.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in asthmatic children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    of airway smooth muscle contractility remains to be defined2. ... and sputum) were significantly elevated in asthmatic patients, whether studied as one group or .... by adding equal volumes of 0.1% of dithiothreitol. (sputa-lysine 10%, Gibco BRL ...

  13. Lung epithelial permeability and inhaled furosemide. Added dimensions in asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhure, U.N.; Bhure, S.U.; Bhatt, B.M.; Mistry, S.; Pednekar, S.J.; Chari, V.V.; Desai, S.A.; Joshi, J.M.; Paidhungat, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lung clearance rates of inhaled 99m Tc-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) aerosols constitute a sensitive index to evaluate the permeability changes characteristic of airway epithelial damage. It was thought that edema of the airway wall which is reported in asthma could be relieved with a diuretic like furosemide, helping to relieve the symptoms. We intended to study the effect of inhaled furosemide on lung epithelial permeability in asthmatics and smokers with the help of 99m Tc-DTPA lung clearance test (LCT). The study included three groups (n=15), viz. normal healthy controls, asymptomatic chronic smokers, and chronic persistent asthmatics. Each subject underwent the LCT twice, baseline and post-furosemide (Lasix) study, within a week's interval. The post-furosemide study was carried out 15 min after inhalation of 10 mg of lasix. Lung epithelial permeability was determined in terms of clearance half-life (T 1/2 ). The baseline mean T 1/2 values for controls, smokers, and asthmatics were 50.95±16.58, 20.81±5.47, 24.06±6.19 min, respectively. Post-lasix T 1/2 values were 50.83±15.84, 20.70±5.65, 41.27±15.07 min, respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) in baseline and post-lasix clearance values in asthmatics only. Baseline lung epithelial permeability was altered in smokers and asthmatics compared to the controls. Furosemide was effective only in asthmatics in reverting the permeability almost back to the normal range. Inhaled furosemide was effective even in moderate and severe asthmatics. Furosemide has multiple mechanisms of action. It possibly acts at bronchial level in view of the pathology in asthmatics lying in the airways. (author)

  14. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  15. The ECM deposited by basal asthmatic and non-asthmatic ASM cells is different in composition but not biological function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkness, L.; Ashton, A.; Burgess, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The remodelled asthmatic airway has increased airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) growth, expanded vasculature, and altered extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is the external cellular microenvironment which regulates cell behaviour. Under proliferative, inflammatory, or fibrotic conditions, the

  16. Network analysis of quantitative proteomics on asthmatic bronchi: effects of inhaled glucocorticoid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihlbom Carina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic studies of respiratory disorders have the potential to identify protein biomarkers for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Utilisation of sensitive quantitative proteomic methods creates opportunities to determine individual patient proteomes. The aim of the current study was to determine if quantitative proteomics of bronchial biopsies from asthmatics can distinguish relevant biological functions and whether inhaled glucocorticoid treatment affects these functions. Methods Endobronchial biopsies were taken from untreated asthmatic patients (n = 12 and healthy controls (n = 3. Asthmatic patients were randomised to double blind treatment with either placebo or budesonide (800 μg daily for 3 months and new biopsies were obtained. Proteins extracted from the biopsies were digested and analysed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with a nanoLC-LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Spectra obtained were used to identify and quantify proteins. Pathways analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify significant biological pathways in asthma and determine how the expression of these pathways was changed by treatment. Results More than 1800 proteins were identified and quantified in the bronchial biopsies of subjects. The pathway analysis revealed acute phase response signalling, cell-to-cell signalling and tissue development associations with proteins expressed in asthmatics compared to controls. The functions and pathways associated with placebo and budesonide treatment showed distinct differences, including the decreased association with acute phase proteins as a result of budesonide treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions Proteomic analysis of bronchial biopsy material can be used to identify and quantify proteins using highly sensitive technologies, without the need for pooling of samples from several patients. Distinct pathophysiological features of asthma can be

  17. In vitro histamine release from basophils of asthmatic and atopic individuals in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, R.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    It was found that spontaneous histamine release from human basophils in H 2 O-based buffers is negligible; in D 2 O-based buffers, however, release is observed with the cells of some donors. Analysis of this phenomenon revealed release from the basophils of 1 of 22 control individuals (5%), 15 of 47 patients with allergic rhinitis (32%), and 14 of 20 asthmatic patients (70%). The difference between both patient groups and controls and between atopics and asthmatics was highly significant. That D 2 O release was not cytotoxic is suggested by the finding that 37 0 was optimal, with inhibition at 4 0 C or 46 0 C as well as by EDTA, 2-deoxyglucose, and dibromoacetophenone, an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 . The release mechanism was unusual in that dibutyryl cAMP and agonists that cause an increase in cAMP lead to no inhibition. No correlation was noted between the total serum IgE level (and thus the number of IgE receptors on the basophil surface) and the magnitude of D 2 O release. No increase in D 2 O release was observed in 17 ragweed-sensitive patients through a ragweed season. A unique property of D 2 O release was the loss of reactivity by preincubating cells at 37 0 C for 30 min before adding D 2 O. Non-D 2 O-reactive cells could be ''converted'' to D 2 O-reactive cells by incubation with antigen in the whole blood phase during leukocyte isolation; these cells showed the same loss of releaseability at 37 0 C and an inhibitor profile similar to D 2 O-responsive cells from ragweed allergic or asthmatic patients. We suggest that D 2 O-based buffers reveal, in atopic and asthmatic patients, in vivo basophil activation; whether this is due to IgE cross-links, to C split products, or to other stimuli is not yet clear

  18. Nasal airway epithelial cell IL-6 and FKBP51 gene expression and steroid sensitivity in asthmatic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fayon

    Full Text Available Many asthmatic patients exhibit uncontrolled asthma despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. Airway epithelial cells (AEC have distinct activation profiles that can influence ICS response.A pilot study to identify gene expression markers of AEC dysfunction and markers of corticosteroid sensitivity in asthmatic and non-asthmatic control children, for comparison with published reports in adults.AEC were obtained by nasal brushings and primary submerged cultures, and incubated in control conditions or in the presence of 10 ng/ml TNFalpha, 10-8M dexamethasone, or both. RT-PCR-based expression of FKBP51 (a steroid hormone receptor signalling regulator, NF-kB, IL-6, LIF (an IL-6 family neurotrophic cytokine, serpinB2 (which inhibits plasminogen activation and promotes fibrin deposition and porin (a marker of mitochondrial mass were determined.6 patients without asthma (median age 11yr; min-max: 7-13, 8 with controlled asthma (11yr, 7-13; median daily fluticasone dose = 100 μg, and 4 with uncontrolled asthma (12yr, 7-14; 1000 μg fluticasone daily were included. Baseline expression of LIF mRNA was significantly increased in uncontrolled vs controlled asthmatic children. TNFalpha significantly increased LIF expression in uncontrolled asthma. A similar trend was observed regarding IL-6. Dexamethasone significantly upregulated FKBP51 expression in all groups but the response was blunted in asthmatic children. No significant upregulation was identified regarding NF-kB, serpinB2 and porin.LIF and FKBP51 expression in epithelial cells were the most interesting markers of AEC dysfunction/response to corticosteroid treatment.

  19. Macrophage specific MRI imaging for antigen induced arthritides. A potential new strategy for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, G.H.; Rummeny, E.J.; Daldrup-Link, H.E.

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the potential of iron oxides for the detection of macrophages in synovitis in experimental, antigen-induced arthritis. The pivotal role of macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans and in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in animal models is discussed. The latter appear to be very similar in many aspects to the human RA. We show the potential for iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the macrophage content in the arthritic synovial membranes. The results of our own research, as well as those of other research groups, are presented and discussed. MRI after the intravenous (i.v.) administration of iron oxides enables the depiction of macrophage content in arthritic synovial membranes in AIA through the effects of the intracellular compartmentalisation of iron oxide particles. These effects can be demonstrated in 24-h delayed images after i.v. contrast application, on T2-weighted spin-echo or turbo-spin-echo sequences, and especially on T2 * -weighted gradient-echo sequences. The signal effects are not only apparent in high field strength (4.7 Tesla) but also on 1.5 Tesla clinical scanners. The use of iron oxides enables the determination of the macrophage content in synovitis in animals with AIA. This parameter represents a potential marker to determine disease activity, and possibly represents a marker to evaluate the effectiveness of specific therapies in human RA. Current knowledge of iron oxide-enhanced MRI is limited to animal models. The clinical evaluation of this new method in patients with RA has not yet been performed. However, based on the considerations presented here, significant progress in the diagnostic work-up of RA can be expected

  20. Targeted gene delivery to the synovial pannus in antigen-induced arthritis by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xi; Tang, Yuanjiao; Leng, Qianying; Zhang, Lingyan; Qiu, Li

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique to improve the in vivo transfection efficiency of the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the synovial pannus in an antigen-induced arthritis rabbit model. A mixture of microbubbles and plasmids was locally injected into the knee joints of an antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) rabbits. The plasmid concentrations and ultrasound conditions were varied in the experiments. We also tested local articular and intravenous injections. The rabbits were divided into five groups: (1) ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid; (2) ultrasound+plasmid; (3) microbubble+plasmid; (4) plasmid only; (5) untreated controls. EGFP expression was observed by fluorescent microscope and immunohistochemical staining in the synovial pannus of each group. The optimal plasmid dosage and ultrasound parameter were determined based on the results of EGFP expression and the present and absent of tissue damage under light microscopy. The irradiation procedure was performed to observe the duration of the EGFP expression in the synovial pannus and other tissues and organs, as well as the damage to the normal cells. The optimal condition was determined to be a 1-MHz ultrasound pulse applied for 5 min with a power output of 2 W/cm(2) and a 20% duty cycle along with 300 μg of plasmid. Under these conditions, the synovial pannus showed significant EGFP expression without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The EGFP expression induced by the local intra-articular injection was significantly more increased than that induced by the intravenous injection. The EGFP expression in the synovial pannus of the ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid group was significantly higher than that of the other four groups (Ppannus of an AIA model. Thus, this could become a safe and effective non-viral gene transfection procedure for arthritis therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. 75 deaths in asthmatics prescribed home nebulisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, M R; Rea, H H; Fenwick, J; Gillies, A J; Holst, P E; O'Donnell, T V; Rothwell, R P

    1987-02-21

    The circumstances surrounding the deaths of 75 asthmatic patients who had been prescribed a domiciliary nebuliser driven by an air compressor pump for administration of high dose beta sympathomimetic drugs were investigated as part of the New Zealand national asthma mortality study. Death was judged unavoidable in 19 patients who seemed to have precipitous attacks despite apparently good long term management. Delays in seeking medical help because of overreliance on beta agonist delivered by nebuliser were evident in 12 cases and possible in a further 11, but these represented only 8% of the 271 verified deaths from asthma in New Zealanders aged under 70 during the period. Evidence for direct toxicity of high dose beta agonist was not found. Nevertheless, the absence of serum potassium and theophylline concentrations and of electrocardiographic monitoring in the period immediately preceding death precluded firm conclusions whether arrhythmias might have occurred due to these factors rather than to hypoxia alone. In most patients prescribed domiciliary nebulisers death was associated with deficiencies in long term and short term care similar to those seen in patients without nebulisers. Discretion in prescribing home nebulisers, greater use of other appropriate drugs, including adequate corticosteroids, and careful supervision and instruction of patients taking beta agonist by nebuliser should help to reduce the mortality from asthma.

  2. Epidemiological profile of smoking and nicotine addiction among asthmatic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, E M; Vázquez-Rodríguez, C F; Castillo Ruiz, O; Peinado Herreros, J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, this habit in asthmatic adolescents continues to be a health problem worldwide. Our objectives were to determine the epidemiological profile of smoking and the degree of nicotine dependence among asthmatic adolescents. Through a cross-sectional investigation, 3383 adolescents (13-19 years of age) were studied. Information was collected using a previously validated questionnaire. Two study groups of adolescent smokers were formed: one composed of asthmatic adolescents and the other of healthy youths. Asthmatic adolescents were found to be more likely to smoke (21.6% vs 11.8%) and to have some degree of nicotine dependence compared with healthy adolescents (51.6% vs 48.8%). The most important characteristic of smoking in asthmatic adolescents was found to be an onset before 11 years of age due to curiosity about cigarettes. Asthmatic youths continue smoking because this habit decreases their anxiety and stress. Adolescents know that smoking is addictive and often smoke on waking up in the morning or when they are sick. Yet, these adolescents do not consider smoking to be a problem. In this study, curiosity about cigarettes was the primary reason why asthmatic adolescents smoked for the first time and developed a greater dependence to nicotine compared with healthy adolescents. Moreover, the findings show that many of the factors that favour the development of smoking are preventable, given that they are present in the family and social environment. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leukocytes in expressed breast milk of asthmatic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D-L; Forsyth, K D

    Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers. Twenty-five exclusively breastfeeding mothers with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were postpartum age matched in a double-control 2:1 design with 50 non-asthmatic controls. Each mother provided a single milk sample which was assayed for cell differential by flow cytometry, for ex vivo cytokine production in culture and for aqueous phase cytokines. Milks from asthmatic mothers differed from non-asthmatics in that they contained a higher proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and lower proportion of lymphocytes, predominantly CD3 + /CD4 + T helper cells, reflected by a decrease in the chemokine CCL5 in the milk aqueous phase. More PMN and lymphocytes from asthmatic mothers expressed the adhesion molecule CD11b and lymphocytes the IgE receptor CD23, than those from non-asthmatic mothers. Changes to human milk leucocyte prevalence, activation state and cytokines due to maternal asthma may result in changes to immunological priming in the infant. Consequently, the protective effect of long-term breastfeeding may be altered in these mother-infant pairs. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  5. Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these products. We retrospectively reviewed changes in spirometry data, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR, asthma exacerbations and subjective asthma control in smoking asthmatics who switched to regular e-cig use. Measurements were taken prior to switching (baseline and at two consecutive visits (Follow-up/1 at 6 (±1 and Follow-up/2 at 12 (±2 months. Eighteen smoking asthmatics (10 single users, eight dual users were identified. Overall there were significant improvements in spirometry data, asthma control and AHR. These positive outcomes were noted in single and dual users. Reduction in exacerbation rates was reported, but was not significant. No severe adverse events were noted. This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods.

  6. Role of activatory Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RIII and inhibitory Fc gamma RII in inflammation and cartilage destruction during experimental antigen-induced arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Nabbe, K.C.A.M.; Blom, A.B.; Holthuysen, A.E.M.; Sloetjes, A.W.; Putte, L.B.A. van de; Verbeek, S.; Berg, W.B. van den

    2001-01-01

    IgG-containing immune complexes, which are found in most RA joints, communicate with hematopoietic cells using three classes of Fc receptors(Fc gamma RI, -II, -III). In a previous study we found that if a chronic T-cell-mediated antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was elicited in knee joints of FcR

  7. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute asthmatic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soroksky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterised by reversible airway obstruction. In most patients, control of disease activity is easily achieved. However, in a small minority, asthma may be fatal. Between the two extremes lie patients with severe asthmatic attacks, refractory to standard treatment. These patients are at an increased risk of recurrent severe attacks, with respiratory failure, and mechanical ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation of the asthmatic patient is associated with a higher risk of complications and, therefore, is a measure of last resort. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV is another treatment modality that may be beneficial in patients with severe asthmatic attack who are at an increased risk of developing respiratory failure. These patients have the potential to benefit from early respiratory support in the form of NPPV. However, reports of NPPV in asthmatic patients are scarce, and its usage in asthmatic attacks is, therefore, still controversial. Only a few reports of NPPV in asthma have been published over the last decade. These studies mostly involve small numbers of patients and those who have problematic methodology. In this article we review the available evidence for NPPV in asthma and try to formulate our recommendations for NPPV application in asthma based on the available evidence and reports.

  8. T-cell apoptosis in asthmatics before and after immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El All, L.M.A

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to observe some of the mechanisms of allergen specific immunotherapy and to see if the idea of delayed Th 2 lymphocytes apoptosis is a contributing factor in asthma pathogenesis that could be corrected by immunotherapy. The study was conducted on 40 persons 30 asthmatic patients, 10 healthy control groups. After taking full history and clinical examination all subjects was submitted to the following assays: 1- Measuring of the CD 9 5 on T lymphocytes in fresh blood samples using flow cytometric analysis. 2- Measuring level of lgE (nephlometer).3-Measuring level of IL-4 (ELISA).4-Measuring level of IFN-gamma (ELISA). CD 9 5 was significantly increased in asthmatic patients denoting up regulation of the receptor on T-lymphocytes in asthmatics . The percent of CD 9 5 was decreased in treated asthmatic subjects with no statistical significant difference. Total lgE and serum IL-4 were significantly increased in asthmatics denoting allergic nature, these levels were decreased after the immunotherapy confirming a relation ship between the application course duration of the immunotherapy and the relief of the inflammatory symptoms and remolding.

  9. Mild respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients might not be due to bronchoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig H Merghani

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: About 11% of asthmatic patients with mild respiratory symptoms who attended the respiratory clinic have no evidence of bronchoconstriction. Spirometry is an essential step for evaluation of every asthmatic patient who presents with respiratory symptoms.

  10. Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over...... use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality....

  11. Association of School Social Networks’ Influence and Mass Media Factors With Cigarette Smoking Among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks’ influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. METHODS This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. RESULTS Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. CONCLUSIONS The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students’ cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. PMID:25611937

  12. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  13. Antigen-induced pleural eosinophilia is suppressed in diabetic rats: role of corticosteroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Diaz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced for the existence of interactive regulatory mechanisms between insulin and steroid hormones in different systems. In this study, we have investigated whether endogenous corticosteroids could be implicated in the hyporeactivity to antigen challenge observed in sensitized diabetic rats. Alloxinated rats showed a long-lasting increase in the blood glucose levels and a reduction in the number of pleural mast cells at 48 and 72 hr, but not at 24 hr after alloxan administration. In parallel, they also showed a significant elevation in the plasma levels of corticosterone together with an increase in the adrenal/body weight ratio. Antigen-evoked eosinophil accumulation appeared significantly reduced in rats pretreated with dexamethasone as well as in those rendered diabetic 72 hr after alloxan. In the same way, naive animals treated with dexamethasone also responded with a significant decrease in the number of pleural mast cells. Interestingly, when sensitized diabetic rats were pretreated with the steroid antagonist RU 38486 a reversion of the reduction in the allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation was noted. We conclude that the down-regulation of the allergic inflammatory response in diabetic rats is close-related to reduction in mast cell numbers and over expression of endogenous corticosteroids.

  14. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian children. INTRODUCTION. Asthma is defined as a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurrent symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Children have smaller airways than adults, which ...

  15. ASCORBID ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTEvidence suggests that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA), plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased levels of AA have been reported in asthmatics but not at the site directly proximal to asthma pathology, i.e. the bronchial...

  16. Clinical Effects of Yoga on Asthmatic Patients: A Preliminary Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was statistically significant reduction in day and night asthma attacks in the yoga group. CONCLUSION: Yoga exercise among asthmatic patients resulted in a decreased number of day and night attacks and use of drugs. It also shows significant improvement in the peak expiratory flow rate. Further large scale study is ...

  17. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and ...

  18. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and.

  19. Bronco Junction Proves Asthmatic Kids Can Live Active Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Scarlett Lee

    1980-01-01

    Camp Bronco Junction combines physical development, medical self-care knowledge, and fun in its eight-week program for asthmatic youngsters. In this environment, children are able to undertake activities that were formerly thought beyond their physical or emotional capabilities. (CJ)

  20. Lung Function Test in Asthmatics Patients in UBTH: Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-06-30

    This report describes the result of a study on lung function tests on 75 asthmatics seen within a 6-month period (January 1 to June 30, 2004) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. There was a preponderance of females (60%) to males (40%); The result also showed that a large proportion ...

  1. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  2. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  3. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  4. Variability of pulmonary function test in healthy children, asthmatic and with chronicle lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Carlos; Sossa, Monica Patricia; Cortez, Eliana; Mallol, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of sequential pulmonary function tests in the same individual can be used to assess progression of a disease, response to therapy, or response to bronchial provocation. These types of comparisons require an understanding of the factors influencing the variability normally in repeat measurements of lung function. To avoid misleading conclusions about changes in serial measurements, the degree of variability of each test must be considered in their interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of intrasubject variability for pulmonary function testing in healthy, asthmatic and children with chronic lung disease (CLD). The tests examined were spirometry, and body plethysmography determination of lung volumes. We studied 21 healthy children, 19 asthmatic patients and 19 children with CLD, testing were done on nine occasions, three times within a day, on three different days, over a period of two months. Short-term variability was defined as the coefficient of variation for the s ix measurements made on days 1 and 2, and the long-term variability as the CV of the nine measurements made on days 1, 2 and 3. Based on the CV measures, children with CLD had significantly more variability in all spirometric values compared with healthy and asthmatic children, except for PEF (P< 0.05) children with CLD had a significantly lower CV for TGV and FRC compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05). Asthmatic children had a significantly higher CV for RV and RV/TLC compared with healthy and children with CLD (p < 0.05). We propose a method to consider changes in pulmonary function tests as significant. The degree of variability and an estimate of the percent change for significance of spirometric and plethysmographic tests must be considered in the interpretation of data to avoid misleading conclusions. The variability of spirometric pulmonary function data in healthy subjects was smaller than that for patients with pulmonary disease, so larger

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux episodes in asthmatic patients and their temporal relation with sleep architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mello-Fujita

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is common in asthma patients and can contribute to sleep disruption. The aim of the present study was to determine the time-related distribution of GER events together with their impact on sleep in asthmatic subjects with GER disease symptoms. The inclusion criteria were: 18-65 years, controlled moderate to severe asthma and GER-compatible clinical evidence. The exclusion criteria were: chronic obstructive lung disease, smoking, infections of the upper airways, use of oral corticosteroids, other co-morbidities, pregnancy, sleep-related disorders, night-time shift work, and the use of substances with impact on sleep. Asthmatic patients with nocturnal symptoms were excluded. All-night polysomnography and esophageal pH monitoring were recorded simultaneously. Of the 147 subjects selected, 31 patients and 31 controls were included. Seventeen patients were classified as DeMeester positive and 14 as DeMeester negative. Both groups displayed similar outcomes when general variables were considered. Sleep stage modification one minute prior to GER was observed in the DeMeester-positive group. Awakening was the most frequent occurrence at GER onset and during the 1-min period preceding 38% of the nocturnal GER. Sleep stage 2 was also prevalent and preceded 36% of GER events. In the DeMeester-negative group, awakening was the most frequent response before and during GER. Modifications in sleep stages, arousals or awakenings were associated with 75% of the total GER events analyzed during the period of one minute before and after the fall of esophageal pH below 4 in the DeMeester-positive group. These data provide evidence that sleep modifications precede the GER events in asthmatic patients.

  6. A study of airway smooth muscle in asthmatic and non-asthmatic airways using PS-OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David C.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Present understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of asthma has been severely limited by the lack of an imaging modality capable of assessing airway conditions of asthma patients in vivo. Of particular interest is the role that airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays in the development of asthma and asthma related symptoms. With standard Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), imaging ASM is often not possible due to poor structural contrast between the muscle and surrounding tissues. A potential solution to this problem is to utilize additional optical contrast factors intrinsic to the tissue, such as birefringence. Due to its highly ordered structure, ASM is strongly birefringent. Previously, we demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive OCT(PS-OCT) has the potential to be used to visualize ASM as well as easily segment it from the surrounding (weakly) birefringent tissue by exploiting a property which allows it to discriminate the orientation of birefringent fibers. We have already validated our technology with a substantial set of histological comparisons made against data obtained ex vivo. In this work we present a comprehensive comparison of ASM distributions in asthmatic and non-asthmatic human volunteers. By isolating the ASM we parameterize its distribution in terms of both thickness and band width, calculated volumetrically over centimeters of airway. Using this data we perform analyses of the asthmatic and non-asthmatic airways using a broad number and variety and subjects.

  7. Angiotensin-(1-7 Promotes Resolution of Neutrophilic Inflammation in a Model of Antigen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia C. Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Defective resolution of inflammation may be crucial for the initiation and development of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis. Therefore, it has been suggested that therapeutic strategies based on molecules that facilitate inflammation resolution present great potential for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects and role of angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] in driving resolution of neutrophilic inflammation in a model of arthritis. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to antigen-induced arthritis and treated with Ang-(1-7 at the peak of the inflammatory process. Analysis of the number of inflammatory cells, apoptosis, and immunofluorescence for NF-κB was performed in the exudate collected from the knee cavity. Neutrophil accumulation in periarticular tissue was measured by assaying myeloperoxidase activity. Apoptosis of human neutrophil after treatment with Ang-(1-7 was evaluated morphologically and by flow cytometry, and NF-κB phosphorylation by immunofluorescence. Efferocytosis was evaluated in vivo. Therapeutic treatment with Ang-(1-7 at the peak of inflammation promoted resolution, an effect associated with caspase-dependent neutrophils apoptosis and NF-κB inhibition. Importantly, Ang-(1-7 was also able to induce apoptosis of human neutrophils, an effect associated with NF-κB inhibition. The pro-resolving effects of Ang-(1-7 were inhibited by the Mas receptor antagonist A779. Finally, we showed that Ang-(1-7 increased the efferocytic ability of murine macrophages. Our results clearly demonstrate that Ang-(1-7 resolves neutrophilic inflammation in vivo acting in two key step of resolution: apoptosis of neutrophils and their removal by efferocytosis. Ang-(1-7 is a novel mediator of resolution of inflammation.

  8. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  9. TREATMENT OF STEROID DEPENDENT ASTHMATICS WITH LOW DOSES OF CYCLOSPORINE

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    Stanislav Šuškovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthmatics with glucocorticoid dependent asthma should be treated with systemic steroids. Cyclosporine is in many ways a potent anti-inflammatory drug. Cyclosporine is sometimes very effective in treating asthmatics and could allow us to lower the dose of oral steroid. In some randomized, double blind studies steroid dependent asthmatics were treated 12–36 weeks with cyclosporine in dose 5 mg/kg/day. We tried cyclosporine in steroid dependent asthmatics in shorter course and in lower dose.Methods. 13 steroid dependent asthmatics were in the first four weeks of the study treated by their own drugs (phase 1. Then they were for the next four weeks (phase 2 randomly and in double blind fashion treated with either cyclosporine (mean 1.7 mg/kg/day, SD 0.5, 6 patients – group 1 or by identical placebo (7 patients – group 2. To the patients in the group 2 serum concentration of cyclosporine was measured on the eight day of the study.Results. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF raised significantly in group 1 (200 L/sec to 247 L/sec or for 23%. Patients in group1 had significantly less episodes of nocturnal asthma (2.2 episodes/night to 1.5 episodes/night or for 32%. In group 2 were not found any changes between first phase and second phase of the study. Steroid consumption did not change in any group. Mean serum concentration of cyclosporine in patients of group1 was 35.7 µg/L. We did not find any adverse effects of cyclosporine or placebo.Conclusions. Cyclosporine could have dangerous side effects, which are dependent on its serum concentration. So it should be administered in the lowest possible dose and for the most possible short period. In our study it was found that it is possible to successfully treat steroid dependent asthmatics with lower daily dose and for shorter time, than was found in other similar studies.

  10. Phenotype and Functional Features of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Immortalized Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, J. K.; Ketheson, A.; Faiz, A.; Rempel, K. A. Limbert; Oliver, B. G.; Ward, J. P. T.; Halayko, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness

  11. Artemisia argyi attenuates airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na-Rae; Ryu, Hyung-Won; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Yuk, Heung-Joo; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Jeong, Seong-Hun; Shin, In-Sik

    2017-09-14

    Artemisia argyi is a traditional herbal medicine in Korea and commonly called as mugwort. It is traditionally used as food source and tea to control abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and inflammation. We investigated the effects of A. argyi (TOTAL) and dehydromatricarin A (DA), its active component on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. The animals were sensitized on day 0 and 14 by intraperitoneal injection of OVA with aluminum hydroxide. On day 21, 22 and 23 after the initial sensitization, the animals received an airway challenge with OVA for 1h using an ultrasonic nebulizer. TOTAL (50 and 100mg/kg) or DA (10 and 20mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage once daily from day 18-23. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured 24h after final OVA challenge. TOTAL and DA treated animals reduced inflammatory cell counts, cytokines and AHR in asthmatic animals, which was accompanied with inflammatory cell accumulation and mucus hypersecretion. Furthermore, TOTAL and DA significantly declined Erk phosphorylation and the expression of MMP-9 in asthmatic animals. In conclusion, we indicate that Total and DA suppress allergic inflammatory responses caused by OVA challenge. It was considered that A. argyi has a potential for treating allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid improvement of respiratory quality in asthmatic children after "assisted drainage" therapy

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    Haryono Utomo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Whilst current asthma management is well-developed, there are still 5-10% uncontrolled asthma patients with unknown etiologies. However, its connection with oral focal infection is still uncertain. Therefore, a collaborated research for asthma management was conducted by pediatricians and dental practitioners. Within minutes after the "assisted drainage" therapy, a modification of healing root planning procedure, there is rapid improvement of respiratory function, ie., forced expiratory-volume one second (FEV1 in asthmatic children. This quick response usually achieved by oral inhalation. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of the assisted drainage therapy in the improvement of respiratory quality. Methods Fifteen asthmatic children were subjected to a longitudinal study for two weeks. In tbe first week they were instructed for al lergen avoidance only and the fOllowing one week was combined with tbe assisted drainage therapy, followed by  mental health education and dental plaque control therapy. Each s'ubject was af'sef'sed for respiratory quality with a computerized spirometer and blood sampling test. Paired t-test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results Assisted drainage therapy was performed, within minutes FEV1 increased significantly (P= 0.001. Additionally, there were significant differences serum histamine (P= 0,001 pre and post treatment. Conclusions The assisted drainage therapy is effective as an adjuvant therapy for mild persistent asthma in children.

  13. A survey on automated wheeze detection systems for asthmatic patients

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    Syamimi Mardiah Shaharum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an evidence of automated wheeze detection system by a survey that can be very beneficial for asthmatic patients. Generally, for detecting asthma in a patient, stethoscope is used for ascertaining wheezes present. This causes a major problem nowadays because a number of patients tend to delay the interpretation time, which can lead to misinterpretations and in some worst cases to death. Therefore, the development of automated system would ease the burden of medical personnel. A further discussion on automated wheezes detection system will be presented later in the paper. As for the methodology, a systematic search of articles published as early as 1985 to 2012 was conducted. Important details including the hardware used, placement of hardware, and signal processing methods have been presented clearly thus hope to help and encourage future researchers to develop commercial system that will improve the diagnosing and monitoring of asthmatic patients.

  14. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

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    Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

  15. PIKO-6® vs. forced spirometry in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Larios-Castañeda, Pablo José; Miguel-Reyes, José Luis; Briseño, David Martínez; Flores-Campos, Roberto; Sáenz-López, Juan Arturo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2014-12-01

    The PIKO-6® is an electronic device that measures forced expiratory volume at seconds 1 (FEV1) and 6 (FEV6) of a forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver. This device could aid in diagnosing obstructive respiratory diseases. To determine the concordance of FEV1, FEV6, and the FEV1/FEV6 quotient achieved with PIKO-6® versus spirometric values from asthmatic patients, and compare results with measures from healthy children. A cross-sectional study with asthmatic and healthy 6-to-14-year-old children, all of whom performed a forced spirometry as well as a PIKO-6® test. The study included 82 subjects (58 asthmatics, 24 healthy children). Except for the functional parameters, the basal characteristics of the two groups were similar. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for FEV1 was 0.938 (P spirometry was lower in patients with partially controlled or uncontrolled asthma compared to controlled or healthy children. The broad limits of agreement show that the FEV1, FEV6, and FEV1/FEV6 obtained with the PIKO-6® are not interchangeable with spirometry results. Longitudinal evaluations of asthma patients are necessary to assess the utility of PIKO-6®. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Attitudes of asthmatic and nonasthmatic children to physical exercise

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    Dimitrakaki V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vithleem Dimitrakaki,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,2 Evangelos Bebetsos,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Antonis Papaiwannou,2 Theodora Tsiouda,2 Hlias Tsioulis,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis21Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity of children with and without asthma in Greece, the factors affecting their intention to exercise, and the influence of gender.Method: The study involved 50 children with asthma and 50 children without asthma, aged 9–14-years old. We used the leisure time exercise questionnaire to assess the frequency and intensity of exercise. The planned behavior scale examined seven factors affecting physical activity: attitude, intention, self-identity, attitude strength, social role model, information, and knowledge.Results: Asthmatic children did not differ significantly in mild, moderate, and overall level of physical activity from children without asthma but they participated less in intense and systematic exercise. The two asthmatic groups did not differ in any of the planned behavior factors. Significant differences between genders occurred with respect to self-identity and social role model. Boys appeared to exercise more regularly and intensely compared to girls.Conclusion: Asthmatic children did not systematically participate in physical activity, preferring mostly mild and moderate intensity activities. Children with and without asthma had comparable positive attitudes and intentions toward exercise.Keywords: planned behavior theory, asthma, sports, health behavior

  17. Phenotype and Functional Features of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Immortalized Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J K; Ketheson, A; Faiz, A; Limbert Rempel, K A; Oliver, B G; Ward, J P T; Halayko, A J

    2018-01-16

    Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of hTERT immortalisation of human ASM cells as a research tool. Specifically we compared proliferative capacity, inflammatory mediator release and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in hTERT immortalised and parent primary ASM cells from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors. Our studies revealed no significant differences in proliferation, IL-6 and eotaxin-1 production, or CTGF synthesis between donor-matched parent and hTERT immortalised ASM cell lines. However, deposition of ECM proteins fibronectin and fibulin-1 was significantly lower in immortalised ASM cells compared to corresponding primary cells. Notably, previously reported differences in proliferation and inflammatory mediator release between asthmatic and non-asthmatic ASM cells were retained, but excessive ECM protein deposition in asthmatic ASM cells was lost in hTERT ASM cells. This study shows that hTERT immortalised ASM cells mirror primary ASM cells in proliferation and inflammatory profile characteristics. Moreover, we demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses of this immortalised cell model as a representation of primary ASM cells for future asthma pathophysiological research.

  18. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

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    Cristan Herbert

    2013-03-01

    Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC. We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice. These

  19. Allergen-Induced Increases in Interleukin-25 and Interleukin-25 Receptor Expression in Mature Eosinophils from Atopic Asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Smith, Steven G; Salter, Brittany; Oliveria, John Paul; Mitchell, Patrick; Nusca, Graeme M; Howie, Karen; Gauvreau, Gail M; O'Byrne, Paul M; Sehmi, Roma

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-25 plays a pivotal role in type 2 immune responses. In a baseline cross-sectional study, we previously showed that IL-25 plasma levels and IL-25 receptor (IL-25R: IL-17RA, IL-17RB, and IL-17RA/RB) expression on mature blood eosinophils are increased in atopic asthmatics compared to normal nonatopic controls. This study investigated allergen-induced changes in IL-25 and IL-25R expression in eosinophils from asthmatics. Dual responder atopic asthmatics (n = 14) were enrolled in this randomized diluent-controlled crossover allergen challenge study. Blood was collected before and 24 h after the challenge. The surface expression of IL-25R was evaluated by flow cytometry on eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. In addition, plasma levels of IL-25 were measured by ELISA, and functional responses to IL-25 including type 2 cytokine expression, degranulation, and the migrational responsiveness of eosinophils were evaluated in vitro. Following the allergen but not the diluent inhalation challenge, significant increases in the expression of IL-17RB and IL-17RA/B were found on eosinophils but not on Th2 memory cells. IL-25 plasma levels and the number of eosinophils but not of Th2 memory cells expressing intracellular IL-25 increased significantly in response to the allergen but not the diluent challenge. Stimulation with physiologically relevant concentrations of IL-25 in vitro caused (i) degranulation of eosinophils (measured by eosinophil peroxidase release), (ii) enhanced intracellular expression of IL-5 and IL-13, and (iii) priming of eosinophil migration to eotaxin. IL-25 stimulated intracellular cytokine expression, and the migration of eosinophils was blocked in the presence of a neutralizing IL-25 antibody. Our findings suggest that the IL-25/IL-25R axis may play an important role in promoting the recruitment and proinflammatory function of eosinophils in allergic asthma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

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    Chun-Hua Chi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment. Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  1. The extracellular matrix deposited by asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells in a resting state reflects a healthy matrix

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    Harkness, Louise; Ashton, Anthony; Burgess, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The remodelled asthmatic airway features an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) & increased vasculature. Previous studies found asthmatic (A) airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) to deposit an ECM with enhanced bioactivity. These studies however investigated ECM deposited in the presence

  2. Ethnic and migrant differences in the use of anti-asthmatic medication for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic differences in the use of anti-asthmatic medication have been reported, with ethnic minorities being at a higher risk of suboptimal asthma control. As contextual socioeconomic characteristics may play a role, we analysed whether ethnic differences in the use of anti-asthmatic medication am...

  3. Increasing ventilation as an intervention in homes of asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    in children. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study with 46 asthmatic, house dust mite allergic children. The aim was to investigate the association between indoor air quality in homes and severity of asthma, in particular the effect of increased ventilation rate and expected lower...... exposure to HDM on medication intake among these children. As a result of the intervention, the ventilation rate increased and the CO2 concentration fell significantly compared to baseline in the intervention group. The analyses of the effect of ventilation on health outcomes are being processed...

  4. Adrenal function in asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Damkjaer Nielsen, M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the inhaled topical steroid budesonide on adrenal function was evaluated in 33 children (aged 7-15 years) with moderate bronchial asthma. The trial was designed as a prospective single-blind study of the effect of budesonide in daily doses of 200 microgram through 400 microgram to 800...... significantly during treatment with 800 microgram budesonide as compared to treatment with 200 microgram budesonide (95% confidence interval: 74%-112%). It is concluded, that budesonide is a topical steroid with a favourable ratio between topical and systemic effects in asthmatic children....

  5. Diabetes mellitus and insulin in an aspirin sensitive asthmatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, I

    1976-03-01

    The infrequency of diabetes mellitus and asthma in the same individual is re-examined. The antagonism between epinephrine and insulin, as suggested by Konig in 1935, is indeed accurate. The assays done by the Eli Lilly Research Department revealed no in vitro effect of insulin on the CAMP and GMP level of mast cells as occurs in liver cells. It is felt that this effect is probably an in vivo effect produced via the vagus nerve and alpha-adrenergic receptor system stimulation. This would explain the mechanism of aggravation of asthma by excess insulin. Dr. Petersen's studies, the negative intradermal skin tests to insulin and the absence of change on either beef or pork insulin usage by our patient all point to a nonatopic factor in the aggravation of the asthma of this patient. In the uncommon occurrence of asthma and diabetes in the same patient, insulin dosage should be considered as a factor in all such asthmatics who do not respond well to conventional therapy. Two additional asthmatics who also have diabetes did improve with cessation of nocturnal asthma by a reduction of their evening dose of insulin. A high fat, low carbohydrate diet, as suggested by Abrahamson to avoid dietary hyperinsulinism, is certainly worth considering in patients with nocturnal asthma. If patients cannot be made to follow a diet requiring frequent feedings high in protein and fats and low in carbohydrates, another approach suggests itself. Abrahamson was able to relieve the patients who developed nocturnal asthma with hypoglycemia by having them drink a glass of milk. Assuming other causes have been eliminated and a patient awakens each day at 3:00 a.m., an alarm clock could be set at 2:00 a.m. Milk or a milk substitute in milk sensitive patients could be taken at 2:00 a.m. to raise the blood sugar and hopefully prevent the asthma associated with hypoglycemia. Also to be noted is the ubiquitous use of tartrazine in so many drugs, including those used to relieve asthmatic symptoms

  6. Combined effects of mild-to-moderate obesity and asthma on physiological and sensory responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Télles, Arturo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Silva-Cerón, Monica; Mejía-Alfaro, Roberto; Syed, Nafeez; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Guenette, Jordan A

    2015-11-01

    Despite the close link between asthma and obesity, there are no studies that have evaluated the sensory and physiological responses to exercise in obese asthmatics. We recently demonstrated that normal weight asthmatics with well controlled disease have preserved cardiorespiratory and sensory responses to exercise relative to non-asthmatic controls. However, these similarities may not hold true in patients with combined obesity and asthma. Accordingly, we sought to determine if combined asthma and obesity was associated with deleterious effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise performance, dyspnoea, and physiological responses to exercise. Fourteen well-controlled obese asthmatics and fourteen age-matched normal weight asthmatics performed routine spirometry and underwent an incremental cardiopulmonary cycle test to assess the ventilatory, pulmonary gas exchange, cardiovascular, and sensory responses to exercise. Groups were well matched for age, height, spirometry, and asthma control. Obese asthmatics had a significantly greater body mass index (33 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 1 kg/m(2), p Obese asthmatics had a significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)) (82 ± 14 vs. 92 ± 10 %predicted) and work rate (75 ± 8 vs. 89 ± 13 %predicted) relative to normal weight asthmatics (p obese asthmatics vs. normal weight asthmatics (54 ± 15 vs. 66 ± 16 %predicted, p exercise with no evidence of a ventilatory limitation in either group. Cardiovascular responses were normal in both groups. Dyspnoea responses were similar but the obese asthmatics experienced greater leg fatigue ratings at submaximal work rates. In conclusion, obese individuals with well controlled asthma have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and greater leg fatigue ratings relative to normal weight asthmatics. The relatively reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise performance in obese compared to normal weight asthmatics is most likely driven by their more sedentary lifestyle and resultant

  7. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  8. Metabolic syndrome in asthmatic patients of hazara division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Kazim, S.M.; Gillani, S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease and most asthmatics are obese. Both asthma and obesity are showing parallel trends in their increasing prevalence. Obesity is also the main component of metabolic syndrome and several studies have shown metabolic syndrome to be associated with bronchial asthma. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients with chronic asthma in our setup. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from May to November, 2014. One hundred and fifty-four asthmatic patients were enrolled in this study. Samples for blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL Cholesterol were taken after an overnight fast. Sitting blood pressure was measured with mercury sphygmomanometer after 10 minutes of rest. Waist circumference was measured at the level of the midpoint between the high point of the iliac crest and the last rib. Results: Out of 154 patients, 80 were males and 74 were females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 46 (29.87 percent) patients. When metabolic syndrome was stratified according to age, sex and duration of asthma, the results were found to be insignificant (p-0.89, 0.30 and 0.85). Conclusion: This study showed that metabolic syndrome was present in almost one third of study population. (author)

  9. [Social media monitoring of asthmatic children treated in a specialized program: Parents and caregivers expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Ávila, Jennifer Bg; Cherrez-Ojeda, Ivan; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Solé, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Social media has been used in support of patients with asthma. However, it remains unclear what are the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic patients. To evaluate the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic children treated at Children's Asthma Prevention Program (PIPA), Uruguaiana, RS, in relation to the use of social media. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional survey of parents or caregivers of children seen at Children's Asthma Prevention Program through responses to a written questionnaire on the use of new technologies and different applications to enhance information about asthma. 210 parents or caregivers (median age: 25 years; age range: 18-42 years of patients were enrolled. The mean age of their children was 7.3 years (age range: 2 to 18 years), the mean duration of asthma was 4.7 years and 65% of parents/caregivers of these children had less than eight years of schooling. Most of them (72%) had no access to the Internet via cell/mobile phones and only 18% actively used to gathered information about asthma by internet. There was high interest (87%) in receiving information via social media. Parents or caregivers of children attending the PIPA program expressed high interest in using social media. However, few use it to control their children's disease. While providing a great benefit to use social media as a mean of communication in health, the content needs to be monitored for reliability and quality. The privacy of users (doctors and patients) must be preserved and it is very important to facilitate the access to Internet.

  10. [Indoor air quality and parents of asthmatic children practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larramendy Magnin, S; Desssome, B; Moret, L

    2017-09-01

    Indoor air pollution can worsen asthma in children. Better knowledge of factors determining parents' reception of recommendations to limit pollution of indoor air in the homes of asthmatic children would be helpful to improve implementation. A descriptive study evaluating practices known to have an impact on the quality of air in homes was conducted among parents of asthmatic children aged 3 to 16 years. From May to September 2013, parents answered anonymous self-administered questionnaires in waiting rooms of generalist practitioners, in the Nantes University pneumology pediatric outpatient clinic, and as part of therapeutic education sessions conducted by the Asthma-44 Network. There were 190 exploitable questionnaires: 88.2% of parents reported never smoking in the home; 48.4% used home fragrance in the living room at least once a week; 77.8% opened their children's bedroom windows more than 10minutes at least once a day; 32.6% used several cleaning products or bleach once or twice a week. Good practices concerning smoking in housing were applied less in homes where the child was monitored only by a general practitioner (OR=0.08; CI[0.02-0.34]). Good practices on the use of perfume were statistically linked to having an intermediate level occupation (OR=2.31; CI[1.01-5.32]) and being followed by the university hospital, by the asthma network or by a general practitioner if the child had already consulted a pneumo-pediatrician or an allergist (OR=0.24; CI[0.07-0.81]). Good ventilation practices forchildren's bedrooms were statistically linked to residing in a rural rather than urban setting (OR=4.72; CI[1.0-22.16]). Practices observed in parents of asthmatic children differ little from those of the general population. Recommendations on how to limit sources of chemical pollutants, with the exception of smoking, are still poorly applied. Specialist consultations and specific training for general practitioners should improve the penetration

  11. Respiratory functions in asthmatic and normal women during different phases of menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, D.B.; Sandhu, P.K.; Dhillon, S.; Arora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cycle is an integral part of life of women. There is widespread agreement that changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone associated with menstrual cycle also affect different systems of the body besides reproductive system. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone are maximum in the secretory phase and minimum just before the menstruation .Bronchial asthma is one of the commonest chronic respiratory diseases. Premenstrual worsening of asthma symptoms has been reported to affect 33-40% of asthmatic women. This exacerbation of asthma symptoms has been correlated with the oestrogen and progesterone levels. The association between menstrual cycle and lung functions in normal females has also been recognised. The pathophysiology of this process is still not proved. The purpose of our study was to confirm the probable effects of the female hormones on lung functions in normal and asthmatic women in different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare them. Methods: The study was done on 40 normal and 40 asthmatic females in the age group of 15-45 years. Pulmonary function tests were done in three phases of menstrual cycle i.e. follicular, secretory and menstrual in all the subjects. Results: The mean value of lung functions, i.e., FVC, FEV, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 200-1200 were significantly lower in asthmatic females than normal ones (p<0.01) in all three phases. The lung functions of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic females in secretory phase were significantly higher than in menstrual phase (p<0.005). The PFTs in menstrual phase were even lower than the follicular phase (p<0.04). Conclusion: Respiratory parameters of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic women in reproductive age group show significant variation in different phases of menstrual cycle. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of progesterone and probably oestrogen might have contributed to it. The lung function parameters in asthmatics were of lower value compared to normal women. (author)

  12. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of exhaled leukotriene B4 in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Peter J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of leukotriene (LT B4, a potent inflammatory mediator, in atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children is largely unknown. The lack of a gold standard technique for measuring LTB4 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC has hampered its quantitative assessment in this biological fluid. We sought to measure LTB4 in EBC in atopic asthmatic children and atopic nonasthmatic children. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO was measured as an independent marker of airway inflammation. Methods Fifteen healthy children, 20 atopic nonasthmatic children, 25 steroid-naïve atopic asthmatic children, and 22 atopic asthmatic children receiving inhaled corticosteroids were studied. The study design was of cross-sectional type. Exhaled LTB4 concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Exhaled NO was measured by chemiluminescence with a single breath on-line method. LTB4 values were expressed as the total amount (in pg of eicosanoid expired in the 15-minute breath test. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare groups. Results Compared with healthy children [87.5 (82.5–102.5 pg, median and interquartile range], exhaled LTB4 was increased in steroid-naïve atopic asthmatic [255.1 (175.0–314.7 pg, p 4 than steroid-naïve asthmatics [125.0 (25.0–245.0 pg vs 255.1 (175.0–314.7 pg, p Conclusion In contrast to exhaled NO concentrations, exhaled LTB4 values are selectively elevated in steroid-naïve atopic asthmatic children, but not in atopic nonasthmatic children. Although placebo control studies are warranted, inhaled corticosteroids seem to reduce exhaled LTB4 in asthmatic children. LC/MS/MS analysis of exhaled LTB4 might provide a non-invasive, sensitive, and quantitative method for airway inflammation assessment in asthmatic children.

  13. [Rehabilitation of asthmatic patients in the chest hospital (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, W

    1976-01-01

    Modern chest hospitals offer favourable conditions for the rehabilitation of asthmatic patients. In the Central Hospital for Heart- and Lung Diseases at Bad Berka 421 patients with asthma were rehabilitated under clinical conditions in 1972 and 1973. Their rehabilitation was based on individualized long-term plans for treatment taking in consideration environmental factors which might have triggered the attacks. We report on experiences with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the results of vocational rehabilitation. 284 patients (67.4%) could return to their work, 4.5% were disabled, 16.5% remained invalids and 11.6% were old-age pensioners or children. The results depended on age, on the type of asthma, on the severity of cardio-pulmonary impairment, on certain concomitant diseases and on the patients cooperation. Possibilities for elimination of factors starting an attack sometimes proved decisive. For the maintenance of rehabilitatory success subsequent ambulatory long-term care by a specialist is provided.

  14. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in non-asthmatic Churg-Strauss syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupma Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old male presented with sensory motor polyneuropathy and rapidly progressive renal failure. Investigations revealed marked peripheral eosinophilia and elevated perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers. Renal biopsy showed pauci-immune cre-scentic glomerulonephritis with interstitial eosinophil infiltrates. He had no history of asthma. Computed tomography of the chest and X-ray of the paranasal sinuses were normal. On Day 1, the patient developed ileal perforation. Resected ileal segments showed small vessel vasculitis with extravascular eosinophils. A diagnosis of non-asthmatic variant of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made. Renal recovery was achieved in 12 weeks with a combination therapy of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide. The patient has been relapse-free for 12 months on oral prednisolone therapy.

  16. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in non-asthmatic Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Jaisuresh, Krishna Swamy; Agrawal, Vinita

    2014-03-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with sensory motor polyneuropathy and rapidly progressive renal failure. Investigations revealed marked peripheral eosinophilia and elevated perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers. Renal biopsy showed pauci-immune cre-scentic glomerulonephritis with interstitial eosinophil infiltrates. He had no history of asthma. Computed tomography of the chest and X-ray of the paranasal sinuses were normal. On Day 1, the patient developed ileal perforation. Resected ileal segments showed small vessel vasculitis with extravascular eosinophils. A diagnosis of non-asthmatic variant of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made. Renal recovery was achieved in 12 weeks with a combination therapy of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide. The patient has been relapse-free for 12 months on oral prednisolone therapy.

  17. The therapeutic physical Culture in the rehabilitation to asthmatic students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Romero-León

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Treating asthmatic students in the university environment has been a ministerial concern. Multiple actions aimed at preparing teachers to conduct the teaching of therapeutic physical culture are developed from the methodological work. In it offered theoretical, methodological and experiential tools for therapeutic exercises generate a developer student learning. Nevertheless, there are still limitations that reveal the need to give continuity to these intentions. One is the traditional approach of the exercises for therapeutic purposes. If we consider that today's society demands the formation of a subject becomes heir and transmitter of a culture of physical activity that achieves deal with their conditions, increasing growing life expectancy, then more than rehabilitation the physical must achieve a comprehensive educational impact.

  18. [Correlations between asthmatic crisis and meteorological conditions in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnolt, R G; Hoffmann, J A; Daguerre, N; Calcagno, L J

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find out whether there is any relationship between the climate in Rosario City, Argentina, and the frequency of asthmatic crises, and whether it would be possible to use weather forecasts to support therapeutic measures. Synoptic and statistical metereological analyses, were used, and the following results achieved: The 721 crises of asthma developed in Rosario City between August 1, 1978 and July 31, 1979, demonstrated the well-known seasonal distribution of similar biological events: high frequencies in the Spring and Fall and low ones in the Summer and Winter. Important correlations were found with high altitude depression systems Hence, in the great majority of cases, the daily frequency of crises attained its maximum values when a depression system in the 500 mb. level was approximately between 60 degrees and 72 degrees W of G. and returned to minimum values when the mentioned system, in its general displacement towards the east, passed the meridian of Rosario City, whose geographic coordinates are: Lat. 32 degrees 55' S, Long. 60 degrees 47' W of G., at 27 meters above sea level. In short, we can say that, as occurs in other parts of the world, the asthmatic crises undergone by children in Rosario City are produced with much more frequency in circumstances of cyclonic atmospheric circulation. Although these situations, in the case of Rosario City, are determined by the dynamic processes in the higher levels of the troposphere. This is probably due to the role played by the Andres Mountain Range in the processes of atmospheric circulation in subtropical South America.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Pulmonary ventilation studies of asthmatic children with Kr-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Guio; Hotta, Toshiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Sugimoto, Kazuo.

    1979-01-01

    Krypton-81 m gas was eluted from the 81 Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator by using compressed air or oxygen as an eluting agent. The continuous inhalation of mixed gas of sup(81m)Kr and air or oxygen with the use of a scintillation camera produced a pulmonary image of which density was proportional to regional ventilation. Because of short half life of sup(81m)Kr (13 seconds), exhaled gas was not necessary to be trapped by the charcoal filter, and the several pulmonary views of a patient could readily be available in a short period of time. The great advantage of sup(81m)Kr generator was found in use for the studies of small children who were not usually cooperative to medical examination. Thirty seven patients with bronchial asthma of any state were so far studied. Their ages ranged from 3 to 15 years old. Studies revealed the definite ventilation defects in scans of patients with asthmatic attack. Re-scans right after the use of bronchodilators showed marked improvement of the ventilation defects. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) was easily identified by the sup(81m)Kr ventilation study. After premedications for EIA with disodium cromoglicate, the next exercises produced less or no ventilation defects, and the preventive effect could be individually examined. The sup(81m)Kr ventilation study was also used for estimating the patient's sensitivity to provokative substances of bronchial asthma. House dust was continuously inhaled with sup(81m)Kr gas by patients. The threshold dose of house dust of disclosing ventilation defects in scans was definitely less than that of provokating the symptom of asthmatic attack. The sensitive sup(81m)Kr ventilation study could be another provokative test which induces no clinical symptoms. (author)

  20. Pulmonary ventilation studies of asthmatic children with Kr-81m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, G; Hotta, T; Arimizu, N [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugimoto, K

    1979-05-01

    Krypton-81 m gas was eluted from the /sup 81/Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator by using compressed air or oxygen as an eluting agent. The continuous inhalation of mixed gas of sup(81m)Kr and air or oxygen with the use of a scintillation camera produced a pulmonary image of which density was proportional to regional ventilation. Because of short half life of sup(81m)Kr (13 seconds), exhaled gas was not necessary to be trapped by the charcoal filter, and the several pulmonary views of a patient could readily be available in a short period of time. The great advantage of sup(81m)Kr generator was found in use for the studies of small children who were not usually cooperative to medical examination. Thirty seven patients with bronchial asthma of any state were so far studied. Their ages ranged from 3 to 15 years old. Studies revealed the definite ventilation defects in scans of patients with asthmatic attack. Re-scans right after the use of bronchodilators showed marked improvement of the ventilation defects. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) was easily identified by the sup(81m)Kr ventilation study. After premedications for EIA with disodium cromoglicate, the next exercises produced less or no ventilation defects, and the preventive effect could be individually examined. The sup(81m)Kr ventilation study was also used for estimating the patient's sensitivity to provokative substances of bronchial asthma. House dust was continuously inhaled with sup(81m)Kr gas by patients. The threshold dose of house dust of disclosing ventilation defects in scans was definitely less than that of provokating the symptom of asthmatic attack. The sensitive sup(81m)Kr ventilation study could be another provokative test which induces no clinical symptoms. (author).

  1. Study of some biochemical and genetic markers in asthmatic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Latif, A.; Abdalla, A.; EL-NASHAR, N.; Abdel-Samad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) are T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines with numerous activities that contribute to allergic inflammation and asthma. Both IL-4 and IL-13 use the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4 Ra) as a component of their respective systems. Allelic variants of IL-4 Ra have been reported and the R 576 IL-4 Ra allele was recently shown to be a risk factor for atopy. This study was designed to determine whether the R 576 allele was associated with the prevalence of asthma among children and also to evaluate the role of serum IL-4 and IL-13 in the development of asthma. Hence, we used a developed, rapid and reliable PCR-based assay to screen individuals for the R 576 IL-4 Ra allele. This assay has also used to genotype prospectively both recruited children with asthma (n = 22) and controls (n = 11). Serum IL-4 and IL-13 were determined by ELISA. The results of the PCR-based assay revealed a significant association of R 576 IL-4 Ra with the prevalence of all asthmatics, Chi-square (x 2 ) 4.035; P 2 = 4.197, P 2 = 0.609, P > 0.05). Consequently, R 576 IL-4 Ra acts as an allergic asthma susceptibility gene. Also, asthmatic children displayed higher significant levels of IL-4 and IL-13 (P <0.()1). Allergic group exhibited significant higher levels of IL-4 (P < 0.001) and IL-13 (P < 0. 05). This gave clear evidence that both cytokines contributed to the development of asthma especially the allergic phenotype

  2. The effect of marimastat, a metalloprotease inhibitor, on allergen-induced asthmatic hyper-reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Colleen; Thomas, Paul S.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess whether a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor has anti-inflammatory properties in mild asthma. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) has been shown to be an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammatory responses, and its release can be inhibited by MMP inhibitors. Twelve atopic asthmatic subjects received the MMP inhibitor marimastat (5 mg) or placebo, twice daily for 3 weeks, separated by a 6-week washout period in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over manner. All subjects underwent an allergen inhalation provocation test to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus before and after each study phase. Spirometry, exhaled NO (eNO) levels, differential sputum cell counts, an asthma symptom questionnaire, peak flow, and β 2 -agonist usage were measured. Nine subjects completed the study, and, when compared with placebo, marimastat reduced bronchial hyper-responsiveness to inhaled allergen in these subjects from an allergen PC 20 of 22.2 AU/ml (95%CI 11.7-32.6) to 17.0 AU/ml (95%CI 7.6-26.4, P = 0.02). The marimastat phase showed a nonsignificant fall in sputum inflammatory cells. Marimastat did not modify eNO, FEV 1 , asthma symptoms, or albuterol usage. In conclusion, airway responsiveness to allergen may be modified by a MMP inhibitor, perhaps via TNFα playing a role in airway inflammation and remodeling

  3. Cyclin D1 in ASM Cells from Asthmatics Is Insensitive to Corticosteroid Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jodi C; Seidel, Petra; Schlosser, Tobias; Ramsay, Emma E; Ge, Qi; Ammit, Alaina J

    2012-01-01

    Hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a feature of the remodelled airway in asthmatics. We examined the antiproliferative effectiveness of the corticosteroid dexamethasone on expression of the key regulator of G(1) cell cycle progression-cyclin D1-in ASM cells from nonasthmatics and asthmatics stimulated with the mitogen platelet-derived growth factor BB. While cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression were repressed in cells from nonasthmatics in contrast, cyclin D1 expression in asthmatics was resistant to inhibition by dexamethasone. This was independent of a repressive effect on glucocorticoid receptor translocation. Our results corroborate evidence demonstrating that corticosteroids inhibit mitogen-induced proliferation only in ASM cells from subjects without asthma and suggest that there are corticosteroid-insensitive proliferative pathways in asthmatics.

  4. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is associated with an altered airway microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Kiilerich, Pia; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthmatic patients have higher microbiome diversity and an altered composition, with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared with healthy control subjects. Studies comparing airway inflammation and the airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not receiving anti......-inflammatory treatment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the relationship between the airway microbiome and patterns of airway inflammation in steroid-free patients with asthma and healthy control subjects. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from 23 steroid-free nonsmoking patients with asthma and 10...... and AHR to mannitol but not airway neutrophilia. The overall composition of the airway microbiome of asthmatic patients with the lowest levels of eosinophils but not asthmatic patients with the highest levels of eosinophils deviated significantly from that of healthy subjects. Asthmatic patients...

  5. Do dental procedures affect lung function and arterial oxygen saturation in asthmatic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mahmoud Emara

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Asthmatic patients may be at a higher risk of developing oxygen desaturation after dental procedures regardless of their type with and without local anesthesia and a decrease in PEF after dental procedures with local anesthesia.

  6. Influenza enhances caspase-1 in bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic volunteers and is associated with pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The leading cause of asthma exacerbation is respiratory viral infection. Innate antiviral defense pathways are altered in the asthmatic epithelium, yet involvement of inflammasome signaling in virus-induced asthma exacerbation is not known. Objective: This study com...

  7. Effect of ozone exposure on maximal airway narrowing in non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiltermann, T J; Stolk, J; Hiemstra, P S; Fokkens, P H; Rombout, P J; Sont, J K; Sterk, P J; Dijkman, J H

    1995-01-01

    1. Ozone is a major constituent of air pollution in the summer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there is an increase in hospital admissions for respiratory diseases 1 day after peak levels of ambient ozone. This may be due to an increase in the responsiveness of the airways to

  8. Change of mean platelet volume values in asthmatic children as an inflammatory marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, T; Uysal, P; Hocaoglu, A B; Erge, D O; Karaman, O; Uzuner, N

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood in industrialised countries. T helper-2 (Th-2) cells, mast cells and eosinophils have a role in inflammation of asthma. Recently it was shown that platelets also play a role in asthma. Mean platelet volume shows platelet size and reflects platelet activation. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate levels of mean platelet volume in asthmatic patients during asymptomatic periods and exacerbations compared with healthy controls. The study consisted of 100 asthmatic patients (male/female: 55/45, mean age: 8.2±3.3) and 49 age and sex matched healthy children as a control group. Mean platelet volume values of asthmatic patients during asymptomatic period were 7.7±0.8fL while mean platelet volume values in asthmatics during exacerbation were 7.8±0.9fL. Comparison of mean platelet volume values of asthmatic patients and healthy controls both in acute asthmatic attack and asymptomatic period showed no difference (p>0.05). Comparison of mean platelet volume values at asthmatic attack and asymptomatic period also had no difference (p>0.05). The presence of atopy, infection, eosinophilia, elevated immunoglobulin E, and severity of acute asthmatic attack did not influence mean platelet volume values. The results of our study suggest that mean platelet volume values may not be used as a marker in bronchial asthma, although prospective studies with larger number of patients are needed to evaluate the role of mean platelet volume in asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevation of IL-6 in the allergic asthmatic airway is independent of inflammation but associates with loss of central airway function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunn Janice Y

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that is characterized by a Th2-type of immune response with increasing evidence for involvement of Th17 cells. The role of IL-6 in promoting effector T cell subsets suggest that IL-6 may play a functional role in asthma. Classically IL-6 has been viewed as an inflammatory marker, along with TNFα and IL-1β, rather than as regulatory cytokine. Objective To investigate the potential relationship between IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines, Th2/Th17 cytokines and lung function in allergic asthma, and thus evaluate the potential role of IL-6 in this disease. Methods Cytokine levels in induced sputum and lung function were measured in 16 healthy control and 18 mild-moderate allergic asthmatic subjects. Results The levels of the proinflammatory biomarkers TNFα and IL-1β were not different between the control and asthmatic group. In contrast, IL-6 levels were specifically elevated in asthmatic subjects compared with healthy controls (p S = 0.53, p Conclusions In mild-moderate asthma, IL-6 dissociates from other proinflammatory biomarkers, but correlates with IL-13 levels. Furthermore, IL-6 may contribute to impaired lung function in allergic asthma.

  10. Antigen induced production of υ-interferon ex vivo, in the peripheral blood of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Zagdyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most significant problems in the Russian Health Care. Russia remains on the list of the 22 countries with a high TB incidence and on the third place in the world with a high prevalence of Drug Resistant TB [1]. It is urgently needed to develop new TB diagnostic methods as well as effective measures of the specific TB prevention, including a development of the novel vaccines, so we have to know better about the most immunogenic antigens of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. We studied the Interferon-Q production in the whole blood after stimulating immune response with different proteins of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in patients with active TB. The study results permitted us to evaluate the immunogenicity of the previously known proteins (Ag85a и ESAT-6 in comparison to the recently identified ones (Rv2957, Rv2958c и Rv0447, analyzing simultaneously their relation to tuberculin, as well as to antigens of the different viruses (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Influenza Virus. Protein Rv2958c, unlike protein ESAT-6, showed the high immunogenicity in comparison to tuberculin. The expressed immunogenicity of protein Rv2958c might be indicated a possible greatest specificity of immune response to this antigen in TB patients. Meanwhile, bacillary tuberculosis was strongly associated with low immune response to this protein. Also we were found statistical differences in immune responses of patients to the different Mycobacterium Tuberculosis antigens depending on the drug sensitivity. In addition it was interesting to know about a significantly low immune response of patients with Drug Resistant TB to protein pp65 CMV.

  11. Intra-articular vs. systemic administration of etanercept in antigen-induced arthritis in the temporomandibular point. Part I: histological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyengaard Jens R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular joint (TMJ arthritis in children causes alterations in craniomandibular growth. This abnormal growth may be prevented by an early anti-inflammatory intervention. We have previously shown that intra-articular (IA corticosteroid reduces TMJ inflammation, but causes concurrent mandibular growth inhibition in young rabbits. Blockage of TNF-α has already proven its efficacy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis not responding to standard therapy. In this paper we evaluate the effect of IA etanercept compared to subcutaneous etanercept in antigen-induced TMJ-arthritis in rabbits on histological changes using histomorphometry and stereology. This article presents the data and discussion on the anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and IA etanercept. In Part II the data on the effects of systemic and IA etanercept on facial growth are presented. Methods Forty-two rabbits (10 weeks old pre-sensitized with ovalbumin and locally induced inflammation in the temporomandibular joints were divided into three groups: a placebo group receiving IA saline injections in both joints one week after arthritis induction (n = 14, an IA etanercept group receiving 0.1 mg/kg etanercept per joint one week after arthritis induction (n = 14 and a systemic etanercept group receiving 0.8 mg/kg etanercept weekly throughout the 12-week study (n = 14. Arthritis was maintained by giving four inductions three weeks apart. Additional IA saline or etanercept injections were also given one week after the re-inductions. Histomorphometric and unbiased stereological methods (optical fractionator were used to assess and estimate the inflammation in the joints. Results The histomorphometry showed synovial proliferation in all groups. The plasma cell count obtained by the optical fractionator was significantly reduced when treating with systemic etanercept but not with IA etanercept. Semi-quantitative assessments of synovial proliferation and

  12. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  13. Factors influencing anti-asthmatic generic drug consumption in Morocco: 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanname, Imane; Ahid, Samir; Berrada, Ghizlane; Belaiche, Abdelmjid; Hassar, Mohammed; Cherrah, Yahia

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of generic drugs (GD) resulted in a remarkable reduction in treatment costs that allowed a better access to health care.The aim of this study is to evaluate the share of anti-asthmatic generic drugs during the period 1999-2010 in Morocco and to look at the factors influencing generic development. In this study, we used Moroccan sales data from IMS Health (Intercontinental Marketing Services). The consumption of the drugs was expressed in DDD/1000 inhabitants/day according to the WHO ATC/DDD methodology. Between 1999 and 2010, anti-asthmatic consumption increased from 3.91 to 14.43 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day. The market of anti-asthmatic generic drugs progressed from 1.83 (47%) to 2.18 (23%) DDD/1000 inhabitants/day from 1999 to 2010. In 2010, inhaled glucocorticosteroids ranked first (0.83 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day), followed by inhaled short acting beta agonists (0.73 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day). The number of brands went from 27 in 1999 to 34 in 2010, with a generic share increasing from 55.55% to 70.59%. The number of anti-asthmatic pharmaceutical preparations increased from 57 to 64 during the same period, of which 31 and 42 were generic preparations. In 2010, the total cost of anti-asthmatic dugs was about 22 million euro, the generics representing 14 million euro. Despite the introduction of a compulsory insurance scheme called "AMO", that allows a refund for 69.5% of anti-asthmatic specialties marketed in Morocco, anti-asthmatic generic drug consumption remains limited. The Moroccan market is still largely dominated by the originator drugs with still valid patents.

  14. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in asthmatic children: from the basis to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Compalati, Enrico; Comapalati, Enrico; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Rezaei, Nima

    2013-06-01

    Atopic asthma in childhood with the tendency to persist into adult life is an important issue in pediatrics. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative treatment option for these children, being directed to the causes of the disease. The Th2 phenotype is a predominant immunological pattern in atopic asthma and SIT leads to apoptosis/anergy of T cells and induces immune-regulatory responses and immune deviation towards Th1. Many factors can affect the safety and efficacy of SIT, such as pattern of sensitization, allergy vaccine (allergen extracts, adjuvants and conjugated molecules), route of administration (subcutaneous or sublingual) and different treatment schedules. Overall, asthma symptoms and medication scores usually decrease following a SIT course and the most common observed side effects are restricted to local swelling, erythema and pruritus. Compared with conventional pharmacotherapy, SIT may be more cost effective, providing a benefit after discontinuation and a steroid-sparing effect. In addition, it can prevent new sensitizations in monosensitized asthmatic children. Microbial supplements such as probiotics, immunomodulatory substances like anti-IgE/leukotrienes, antibodies and newer allergen preparations such as recombinant forms have been tested to improve the efficacy and safety of SIT with inconclusive results. In conclusion, SIT provides an appropriate solution for childhood asthma that should be employed more often in clinical practice. Further studies are awaited to improve current knowledge regarding the mechanisms behind SIT and determine the most appropriate materials and schedule of immunotherapy for children with asthma.

  15. More Relaxation by Deep Breath on Methacholine- Than on Exercise-Induced bronchoconstriction during the Routine Testing of Asthmatic Children

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    Iulia Ioan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep inspiration (DI dilates normal airway precontracted with methacholine. The fact that this effect is diminished or absent in asthma could be explained by the presence of bronchial inflammation. The hypothesis was tested that DI induces more relaxation in methacholine induced bronchoconstriction—solely determined by the smooth muscle contraction—than in exercise induced bronchoconstriction, which is contributed to by both smooth muscle contraction and airway wall inflammation. The respiratory conductance (Grs response to DI was monitored in asthmatic children presenting a moderately positive airway response to challenge by methacholine (n = 36 or exercise (n = 37, and expressed as the post- to pre-DI Grs ratio (GrsDI. Both groups showed similar change in FEV1 after challenge and performed a DI of similar amplitude. GrsDI however was significantly larger in methacholine than in exercise induced bronchoconstriction (p < 0.02. The bronchodilatory effect of DI is thus less during exercise- than methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. The observation is consistent with airway wall inflammation—that characterizes exercise induced bronchoconstriction—rendering the airways less responsive to DI. More generally, it is surmised that less relief of bronchoconstriction by DI is to be expected during indirect than direct airway challenge. The current suggestion that airway smooth muscle constriction and airway wall inflammation may result in opposing effects on the bronchomotor action of DI opens important perspective to the routine testing of asthmatic children. New crossover research protocols comparing the mechanical consequences of the DI maneuver are warranted during direct and indirect bronchial challenges.

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE HABITS OF ASTHMATIC PATIENTS ABOUT USING SUBSTANCE CONTAINING PERFUME

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    Ercan GOCGELDI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air pollution, perfume, aerosol substances, odors of paint and detergent are the most important non-specific irritants stimulating the asthmatic attack. The odors of these substances exist for long time and form the serious risk for the asthmatic patients. This study was planned to determine the frequency of using perfume and substance containing perfume and the sensitivities to the substances among the asthmatic patients using inhaling steroid and b2-mimetic ant asthmatic drugs. Methods: This is a descriptive study and conducted among patients who applied to the Allergic Diseases outpatient service of Gulhane Military Medical Academia in October-December 2004. 83 asthmatic patients who accepted to participate to the study filled out a questionnaire that including patients habits relating perfume, cleaners with perfume, perfume for living room, toilets and bathrooms, and having dyspnea or not when exposed any kind of perfumes and using any b2-mimetik or not. Results: 73.5% (n=61 of participants were male, and 26.5 % (n=22 were women. Their ages were from 18 to 57 years. 79.5% (n=66 of participants expressed that they were sensitive to the odors mentioned and experienced the respiratory problems when they were at the surroundings by odour and 26.5% (n=22 of participants sometimes used the B2-mimetic antiasthmatic drugs for this reason. On the other hand; It was found that 68.7% (n=57 of participants regularly used the perfume for themselves everyday, 85.5% (n=71 of participants washed their clothings by using cleaners and/or softeners with perfume, 44.6% (n=37 of participants used the perfume for their rooms frequently, 62.7% (n=52 of participants used substance with perfume in their toilets and bathrooms. Conclusion: We conclude that the asthmatic patients have not sufficient knowledge about non-spesific irritants stimulating the asthmatic attack, and don’t behave sensitive. It’s important to plan properly the medical

  17. Assessing caries, dental plaque and salivary flow in asthmatic adolescents using inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N C; Jamelli, S; Costa, L; Baracho Filho, C; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Sarinho, E

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a greater incidence of caries, reduced salivary flow, changes in saliva composition and an increased frequency of dental plaque, probably through alterations in the oral microbiota. The objective was to compare the frequency of caries, dental plaque and non-stimulated salivary flow rate among asthmatic adolescents using inhaled corticosteroids and non-asthmatic adolescents, as well as the salivary biochemical parameters (pH and leucocytes) in both groups. This research has a descriptive cross-sectional design to compare dental health of 40 asthmatics on inhaled corticosteroids and 40 non-asthmatic adolescents (median age 13 years). The findings were a higher number of tooth surfaces affected by dental caries (median 4 versus 1.5), and more dental plaques (median 70.5 versus 60.7) among asthmatic adolescents. They also had a significantly higher frequency of salivary leucocytes. The non-stimulated salivary flow was similar in both groups. The results suggest an association between the use of inhaled corticosteroids and an increased risk of dental caries and bacterial plaque, which calls for special attention of these patients by doctors and dental health professionals. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  19. Intranasal sensitization with Blomia Tropicalis antigens induces allergic responses in mice characterized by elevated antigen-specific and non-specific serum ige and peripheral blood eosinophil counts Sensibilização intranasal com antígenos de Blomia tropicalis induz respostas alérgicas em camundos caracterizadas pela elevada contagem de soro IgE antígeno-específico e não específico e de eosinófilos no sangue periférico

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    Fumiko Takeda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the potential allergenicity of Blomia tropicalis (Bt antigen, IgE production of both specific and non-specific for Bt antigen was monitored in BALB/c mice after exposure to the antigen by nasal route. It was evidenced that B. tropicalis contains a functional allergen in its components. The allergenic components, however, when administered intranasally without any adjuvant, did not function to induce IgE response within a short period. On the other hand, intranasal inoculation of Bt antigens augmented serum IgE responses in mice pretreated by a subcutaneous priming injection of the same antigens. Inoculation of Bt antigen without subcutaneous priming injections induced IgE antibody production only when the antigen was continuously administered for a long period of over 24 weeks. Even when the priming injection was absent, the Bt antigen inoculated with cholera toxin (CT as a mucosal adjuvant also significantly augmented the Bt antigen-specific IgE responses depending on the dose of CT co-administered. The present study also demonstrated that Bt antigen/CT-inoculated mice showed increased non-specific serum IgE level and peripheral blood eosinophil rates without noticeable elevations of the total leukocyte counts. The immunoblot analysis demonstrated 5 main antigenic components reactive to IgE antibodies induced. These components at about 44-64 kDa position were considered to be an important candidate antigen for diagnosis of the mite-related allergy.Para avaliar a capacidade alergizante do antígeno da Blomia tropicalis (Bt a produção de IgE específica e não específica a antígeno Bt foi monitorada em camundongos BALB/c após exposição ao antígeno por via nasal. Foi evidenciado que Bt contem um alérgeno funcional em seus componentes. Os componentes alergênicos entretanto, quando administrados por via intra-nasal, sem qualquer adjuvante, não induzem resposta IgE durante um pequeno período. Por outro lado, a inocula

  20. Is it possible to claim or refute sputum eosinophils ≥ 3% in asthmatics with sufficient accuracy using biomarkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarche, Sophie F; Schleich, Florence N; Paulus, Virginie A; Henket, Monique A; Van Hees, Thierry J; Louis, Renaud E

    2017-07-03

    The concept of asthma inflammatory phenotypes has proved to be important in predicting response to inhaled corticosteroids. Induced sputum, which has been pivotal in the development of the concept of inflammatory phenotypes, is however not widely available. Several studies have proposed to use surrogate exhaled or blood biomarkers, like fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), blood eosinophils and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, taken alone, each of these biomarkers has moderate accuracy to identify sputum eosinophilia. Here, we propose a new approach based on the likelihood ratio to study which thresholds of these biomarkers, taken alone or in combination, were able to rule in or rule out sputum eosinophils ≥3%. We showed in a large population of 869 asthmatics that combining FENO, blood eosinophils and total serum IgE could accurately predict sputum eosinophils ≥ or <3% in 58% of our population.

  1. Immunometabolism in Obese Asthmatics: Are We There Yet?

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    Lisa G. Wood

    2013-09-01

    contribution of mast cells to the unique metabolome of obese asthma. This review examines proposed multilevel interactions between metabolic and immune systems in obese asthmatics that underlie the negative effects of obesity and may offer significant therapeutic promise.

  2. Superoxide dismutase levels and peak expiratory flow in asthmatic children

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    Arie Kurniasih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory process which involve variety of cells such as inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and cytokines. The inflammatory process would be exacerbated in the presence of oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first important enzyme to protect the respiratory tract against oxidative stress. The decreased of SOD has a correlation with increased of airway obstruction and bronchospasm. Objective To assess for a correlation between superoxide dismutase (SOD levels and peak expiratory flow, as well as to determine the impact of SOD levels for predicting asthma attacks. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, between February and April 2011 involving asthmatic children aged 5-18 years. Subjects’ serum SOD levels and peak expiratory flow were measured at the same time point. We then performed a prospective study following up on the same subjects to find out if they had a recurrent asthma attack within one month of the tests. We also reassessed their peak expiratory flow one month after blood specimens were obtained. Results Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. There was no significant correlation between SOD level and peak expiratory flow [r=0.289; 95%CI -0.025 to 0.47; P=0.074]. However, older age was significantly associated with higher peak expiratory flow (=0.5; 95%CI 3.10 to 11.57; P=0.01. Lower levels of SOD increased the risk of asthma attacks in a month following the initial measurements (RR=5.5; 95%CI 1.6 to 18.9; P=0.009. Conclusion Superoxide dismutase (SOD level is not significantly associated with peak expiratory flow. However, we find a relationship between older age and higher peak expiratory flow and a relationship between lower SOD levels and risk of asthma attacks within one month following the tests.

  3. Immunometabolism in obese asthmatics: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyalil, Hashim A; Gibson, Peter G; Wood, Lisa G

    2013-09-10

    cells to the unique metabolome of obese asthma. This review examines proposed multilevel interactions between metabolic and immune systems in obese asthmatics that underlie the negative effects of obesity and may offer significant therapeutic promise.

  4. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Takuya; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  5. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40–89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women. PMID:29742176

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide collected with two different mouthpieces: a study in asthmatic patients

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    A.S. Leme

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for collecting exhaled nitric oxide (ENO recommend the use of antibacterial filters of 0.3 µm. The aim of the present study was to compare the measurements of ENO obtained with two different filtering devices. Air samples from 17 asthmatic and 17 non-asthmatic subjects were collected by a recommended off-line technique using two different mouthpieces: 1 the Sievers disposable tool (A under a breathing pressure of 18 cmH2O, and 2 a mouthpiece containing a HEPA filter (B under a breathing pressure of 12 cmH2O. The nitric oxide samples were collected into an impermeable reservoir bag. Values for ENO were compared using two-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. Agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. ENO values obtained with mouthpieces A and B were comparable for asthmatic (mean ± SEM, 42.9 ± 6.9 vs 43.3 ± 6.6 ppb and non-asthmatic (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 13.7 ± 1.1 ppb subjects. There was a significant difference in ENO between asthmatics and non-asthmatics using either mouthpiece A (P<0.001 or B (P<0.001. There was a positive correlation between mouthpiece A and mouthpiece B for both groups. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement were considered to be acceptable. Mouthpiece B was less expensive than A, and these data show that it can be used without compromising the result. Our data confirm reports of higher ENO values in the presence of airway inflammation.

  7. Nitric oxide airway diffusing capacity and mucosal concentration in asthmatic schoolchildren.

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    Pedroletti, Christophe; Högman, Marieann; Meriläinen, Pekka; Nordvall, Lennart S; Hedlin, Gunilla; Alving, Kjell

    2003-10-01

    Asthmatic patients show increased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (Feno). The diffusing capacity of NO in the airways (Dawno), the NO concentrations in the alveoli and the airway wall, and the maximal airway NO diffusion rate have previously been estimated noninvasively by measuring Feno at different exhalation flow rates in adults. We investigated these variables in 15 asthmatic schoolchildren (8-18 y) and 15 age-matched control subjects, with focus on their relation to exhaled NO at the recommended exhalation flow rate of 0.05 L/s (Feno0.05), age, and volume of the respiratory anatomic dead space. NO was measured on-line by chemiluminescence according to the European Respiratory Society's guidelines, and the NO plateau values at three different exhalation flow rates (11, 99, and 382 mL/s) were incorporated in a two-compartment model for NO diffusion. The NO concentration in the airway wall (p < 0.001), Dawno (p < 0.01), and the maximal airway NO diffusion rate (p < 0.001) were all higher in the asthmatic children than in control children. In contrast, there was no difference in the NO concentration in the alveoli (p = 0.13) between the groups. A positive correlation was seen between the volume of the respiratory anatomic dead space and Feno0.05 (r = 0.68, p < 0.01), the maximal airway NO diffusion rate (r = 0.71, p < 0.01), and Dawno (r = 0.56, p < 0.01) in control children, but not in asthmatic children. Feno0.05 correlated better with Dawno in asthmatic children (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) and with the NO concentration in the airway wall in control subjects (r < 0.77, p < 0.001) than vice versa. We conclude that Feno0.05 increases with increasing volume of the respiratory anatomic dead space in healthy children, suggesting that normal values for Feno0.05 should be related to age or body weight in this age group. Furthermore, the elevated Feno0.05 seen in asthmatic children is related to an increase in both Dawno and NO concentration in the airway

  8. Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in asthmatic children at home and in the car: A cross-sectional study

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    H. Antunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe prevalence at home and inside the car between asthmatic and non-asthmatic Portuguese children. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study that assessed children's SHSe in a representative sample of nine Portuguese cities. A validated self-reported questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 4th grade students during the school year of 2010/2011. The asthma prevalence was defined by the answers to three questions regarding asthma symptoms, medication and inhaler use. We performed chi-square tests and analysed frequencies, contingency tables, confidence intervals, and odd-ratios. Results: The self-reported questionnaire was administered to 3187 students. Asthma prevalence was 14.8% (472 students. Results showed that 32.3% of non-asthmatic children and 32.4% of asthmatic children were exposed to secondhand smoke as at least one of their household members smoked at home. The prevalence of parental smoking, smoking among fathers and smoking among mothers at home was also similar in both groups (asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. SHSe inside the car was 18.6% among non-asthmatic children and 17.9% among asthmatic children. Conclusions: Asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were equally exposed to secondhand smoke, because no significant differences were found between the two groups concerning the prevalence of SHSe at home and inside the car. These findings highlight the need to include SHSe brief advice in paediatric asthma management. Keywords: Secondhand smoke, Children, Asthma

  9. Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in asthmatic children at home and in the car: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, H; Precioso, J; Araújo, A C; Machado, J C; Samorinha, C; Rocha, V; Gaspar, Â; Becoña, E; Belo-Ravara, S; Vitória, P; Rosas, M; Fernandez, E

    2016-01-01

    To compare secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) prevalence at home and inside the car between asthmatic and non-asthmatic Portuguese children. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed children's SHSe in a representative sample of nine Portuguese cities. A validated self-reported questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 4th grade students during the school year of 2010/2011. The asthma prevalence was defined by the answers to three questions regarding asthma symptoms, medication and inhaler use. We performed chi-square tests and analysed frequencies, contingency tables, confidence intervals, and odd-ratios. The self-reported questionnaire was administered to 3187 students. Asthma prevalence was 14.8% (472 students). Results showed that 32.3% of non-asthmatic children and 32.4% of asthmatic children were exposed to secondhand smoke as at least one of their household members smoked at home. The prevalence of parental smoking, smoking among fathers and smoking among mothers at home was also similar in both groups (asthmatic and non-asthmatic children). SHSe inside the car was 18.6% among non-asthmatic children and 17.9% among asthmatic children. Asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were equally exposed to secondhand smoke, because no significant differences were found between the two groups concerning the prevalence of SHSe at home and inside the car. These findings highlight the need to include SHSe brief advice in paediatric asthma management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. New Genome-Wide Algorithm Identifies Novel In-Vivo Expressed Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens Inducing Human T-Cell Responses with Classical and Unconventional Cytokine Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, Mariateresa; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.

    2016-01-01

    -wide transcriptomics of Mtb infected lungs we developed data sets and methods to identify IVE-TB (in-vivo expressed Mtb) antigens expressed in the lung. Quantitative expression analysis of 2,068 Mtb genes from the predicted first operons identified the most upregulated IVE-TB genes during in-vivo pulmonary infection...

  11. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

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    Cortez-Lugo Marlene

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR of PM2.5 (24-h average was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%; an increase of 34 ppb (IQR of NO2 (1-h maximum was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4% and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR in O3 levels (1 hr maximum to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%. Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles.

  12. Home telemonitoring of severe chronic respiratory insufficient and asthmatic patients

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    Manuela Zamith

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For 9 months we evaluated a portable device to transfer patient-clinician data by Internet: oximetry, ECG, clinical questionnaires and messages from the doctor. Fifty-one patients with severe chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI were followed at the hospital Pulido Valente and Espirito Santo and 21 asthmatics (A were followed at the latter hospital. The use and acceptance of this device was evaluated through questionnaires soliciting patients’ and health professionals’ opinions. Patients with CRI followed in Lisbon were also asked about hospital admissions and quality of life compared with a nine month period before the monitoring programme.CRI patients found learning to use the system more difficult; the majority (80% reported problems with the equipment, qualified as rare/occasional in 62% of the cases. For 31 CRI patients followed in Lisbon, the use of the system was classified as correct in 12 patients, incorrect in 7 and reasonable in 12 patients. The first group had a reducded number and duration of hospital admissions and also improved quality of life. With this remote monitoring system 80% of CRI patients reported they were more/much more supported and 33 patients (75% would use this system in the future. 81% of asthmatic patients would also like to maintain this type of monitoring. The service was considered useful by the researchers. We concluded that home telemonitoring was a positive contribution to the management of chronic patients and raised awareness of it should be considered in the future. Resumo: Durante nove meses avaliámos umdispositivo portátil para transferência de dados pelaInternet entre doentes e profissionais de saúde: oximetria,ECG, respostas a questionários e mensagens. Foramincluídos 51 insuficientes respiratórioscrónicos (IRC graves acompanhados no Hospital de PulidoValente (Lisboa e no Hospital do Espírito Santo(Évora e 21 asmáticos deste último hospital. Autiliza

  13. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny

    2009-01-01

    : To compare aerobic capacity between asthmatic children and controls, to estimate the agreement between PAC and MAC and observe for trend of PAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The design was prospective, 4 years (PAC) and cross-sectional (MAC and VO(2peak)). Non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sums were applied...

  15. QUOTAC: QUestionnaire On day and night Time respiratory symptoms in Asthmatic Children -- a validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, B.; Droog, R. P.; Stouthard, M. E. A.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the QUOTAC, a questionnaire on day and night time respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children. Validity was examined by measuring agreement between the QUOTAC and a self-report diary in children aged 6 to 16 years, divided in an asthma group and a control group.

  16. Trend in asthma severity in steroid naive asthmatic children in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma imposes heavy health burden on children and families worldwide. It is a chronic inflammatory airway disease and as such, treatment of the asthmatics is aimed at relieve of bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Until about a decade ago, emphasis was on the bronchoconstriction rather than the ...

  17. [A survey of perioperative asthmatic attack among patients with bronchial asthma underwent general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Yoshizawa, Atsuto; Hirano, Satoru; Izumi, Sinyuu; Hojo, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayasi, Nobuyuki; Kudou, Kouichirou; Maehara, Yasuhiro; Kawachi, Masaharu; Miyakoshi, Kouichi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the risk factor of perioperative asthmatic attack and effectiveness of preventing treatment for asthmatic attack before operation. We performed retrospective chart review of one hundred eleven patients with asthma underwent general anesthesia and surgical intervention from January 2006 to October 2007 in our hospital. The rate of perioperative asthmatic attack were as follows; 10.2% (5 in 49 cases) in no pretreatment group, 7.5% (3 in 40 cases) in any pretreatments except for systemic steroid, and 4.5% (1 in 22 cases) in systemic steroid pretreatment group. Neither preoperative asthma severity nor duration from the last attack had significant relevancy to perioperative attack rate. The otolaryngological surgery, especially those have nasal polyp and oral surgery had high perioperative asthma attack rate, although there was no significant difference. We recommend the systemic steroid pretreatment for asthmatic patients, especially when they have known risk factor such as administration of the systemic steroid within 6 months, or possibly new risk factor such as nasal polyp, otolaryngological and oral surgery.

  18. [Incidence of asthmatic attack during anesthesia in patients with a history of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, M; Sakanashi, Y; Sugahara, K; Terasaki, H

    1999-07-01

    We investigated retrospectively, the incidence of intraoperative asthmatic attack in patients with bronchial asthma, and compared the past 5-year period (Jan 1, 1979 to Dec 31, 1983) and the recent 5-year period (July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1994). The influence of anesthetic methods, induction agents, and intervals between the most recent attack and anesthesia were evaluated. The incidence of the attack during anesthesia in patients with asthma was similar in both period, 6.7% in the past and 7.8% in the recent period. Patients who had a history of recurrent attacks within 2 years prior to anesthesia tended to have higher incidence of intraoperative attack in both periods. Furthermore, the incidence of asthmatic attack was significantly greater in patients receiving inhalational anesthetics for induction of anesthesia than in those given intravenous anesthetics in the recent period. Although inhalational anesthetics are considered to be used safely for asthmatic patients, care should be taken when volatile anesthetics are administered to asthmatic patients during induction of anesthesia.

  19. Quantification of metoprolol beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonism in asthmatic patients by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, M. C.; Jonkers, R. E.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was used to quantify the beta 2-blocking activity of metoprolol in seven asthmatic patients. The patients received a subcutaneous dose of terbutaline on two consecutive days. On day 1 they were pretreated with placebo and on day 2 with metoprolol

  20. Assessment of Bone Status in Inhaled Corticosteroid User Asthmatic Patients with an Ultrasound Measurement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Sasagawa

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The 6 month manegement of asthma in the actual clinical setting, including regular ICS use, might have a harmful influence on the bone status of female asthmatic patients. It may be necessary to manage and treat female patients for potent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, although further analyses of bone status in asthma patient ICS users will be required.

  1. Asthmatic symptoms, physical activity, and overweight in young children: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, M.; Mommers, M.; Vries, S.I. de; Buuren, S. van; Stafleu, A.; Bakker, I.; Thijs, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Prevalence of asthma and overweight has increased simultaneously during the past decades. Several studies have reported an association between these two health problems, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. We hypothesize that children with asthmatic symptoms are less

  2. Adolescent asthmatics' needs and preferences regarding medication counseling: results from online focus groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Philbert, D.; Dijk, L. van; Vries, T.W. de; Bouvy, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents, non-adherence is a major problem and leads to uncontrolled disease. Objectives: To assess adolescents needs and preferences regarding counseling and support with focus on use of new media. Methods: Asthmatic adolescents needs and preferences were examined by means of

  3. Adolescent asthmatics' needs and preferences regarding medication counseling: Results from online focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; Philbert, Daphne; Van Dijk, Liset L.; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents, non-adherence is a major problem and leads to uncontrolled disease. Objectives: To assess adolescents needs and preferences regarding counseling and support with focus on use of new media. Methods: Asthmatic adolescents needs and preferences were examined by means of

  4. Secreted osteopontin is highly polymerized in human airways and fragmented in asthmatic airway secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arjomandi

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING family and a cytokine with diverse biologic roles. OPN undergoes extensive post-translational modifications, including polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, which alters its biologic activity. Recent studies suggest that OPN may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.To determine whether secreted OPN (sOPN is polymerized in human airways and whether it is qualitatively different in asthma, we used immunoblotting to examine sOPN in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples from 12 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects (and in sputum samples from 27 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects. All asthmatic subjects had mild to moderate asthma and abstained from corticosteroids during the study. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between airway sOPN and cellular inflammation.We found that sOPN in BAL fluid and sputum exists in polymeric, monomeric, and cleaved forms, with most of it in polymeric form. Compared to healthy subjects, asthmatic subjects had proportionately less polymeric sOPN and more monomeric and cleaved sOPN. Polymeric sOPN in BAL fluid was associated with increased alveolar macrophage counts in airways in all subjects.These results suggest that sOPN in human airways (1 undergoes extensive post-translational modification by polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, (2 is more fragmented and less polymerized in subjects with mild to moderate asthma, and (3 may contribute to recruitment or survival of alveolar macrophages.

  5. Frequency of nocturnal symptoms in asthmatic children attending a hospital out-patient clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G. G.; Postma, D. S.; Wempe, J. B.; Gerritsen, J.; Knol, K.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Since nocturnal symptoms indicate more severe asthma, we investigated their frequency in a hospital-based population of asthmatic children. Recognition of these symptoms offers the possibility to introduce appropriate treatment. We studied 796 consecutive children with asthma (mean (SD) age 9 (4)

  6. L-Arginine deficiency causes airway hyperresponsiveness after the late asthmatic reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, H.; Bossenga, B. E.; Bos, I. S. T.; Volders, H. H.; Zaagsma, J.; Meurs, H.

    Peroxynitrite has been shown to be crucially involved in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after the late asthmatic reaction (LAR). Peroxynitrite production may result from simultaneous synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide by inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) at low L-arginine concentrations.

  7. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Spirometric Values and Clinical Symptoms in Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Norouzy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the 9th Islamic lunar month during which Muslims avoid eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset. The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on asthma control is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the spirometric variables and clinical symptoms on well-controlled asthmatic patients during Ramadan. Material and Methods: a cohort study was conducted in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty-nine (19 females and 10 males well-controlled asthmatic patients aged 47 (12 years completed the study. The average duration of fasting was 26.5 days. Assessment of spirometric variables (daily peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow variability, peak expiratory flow home monitoring as well as asthma clinical symptoms including dyspnea, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness were carried out. Results: No significant changes in clinical symptoms were reported in asthmatic patients at the end of Ramadan fasting. Among spirometric variables, only peak expiratory flow improved after Ramadan (p <0.05. There was a reduction in the mean peak expiratory flow variability from 13% at the first week of fasting to 10% at the fourth week (p <0.05. Conclusion: In well-controlled asthmatic patients, Ramadan fasting resulted in improvement in peak expiratory flow and peak expiratory flow variability.

  8. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...

  9. Short-term effect of winter air pollution on respiratory health of asthmatic children in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segala, C; Fauroux, B; Just, J; Pascual, L; Grimfeld, A; Neukirch, F

    1998-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether low levels of air pollution affect the symptoms and lung function in asthma. We addressed this by examining the short-term effects of winter air pollution on childhood asthma in Paris. We performed a 6 month follow-up of 84 medically diagnosed asthmatic children classified into two groups of severity. The outcomes included incidence and prevalence of asthma attacks, symptoms and use of supplementary beta2-agonists, peak expiratory flow (PEF) value and its variability. The statistical analysis controlled the lack of independence between daily health outcomes, trends and meteorology. Air pollution was associated with an increase in reports and duration of asthma attacks and asthma-like symptoms in mild asthmatic children. The strongest association was the risk of asthma attack for an increase of 50 microg x m(-3) of sulphur dioxide (SO2) on the same day (odds ratio (OR)=2.86). Maximum reduction in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) (5%) and maximum increase in PEF variability (2%) were observed at a lag of 3 days for an increase of 50 microg x m(-3) of SO2 in the subgroup of mild asthmatics receiving no regular inhaled medication. In moderate asthmatic children, the duration of supplementary beta2-agonist use was strongly associated with air pollution. The general pattern of our results provides evidence of the effect of the low levels of air pollution encountered in Western Europe on symptoms and lung function in childhood asthma.

  10. Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daqing [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Neonatology, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Yang, Niandi [Outpatient Department, School of Aerospace Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Ma, Haixin, E-mail: drhaixinma@163.com [Department of Quality Control, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China)

    2016-08-12

    Matrine has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. Elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was correlated with the severity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on SOCS3 expression in airway inflammation. In this study, we found that matrine significantly inhibited OVA-induced AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell differentiation, and mucous production in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Matrine also abrogated the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, but enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ expression, both in BALF and in lung homogenates. Furthermore, matrine impeded TNF-α-induced the expression of IL-6 and adhesion molecules in airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and MLE-12). Additionally, we found that matrine inhibited SOCS3 expression, both in asthmatic mice and TNF-α-stimulated epithelial cells via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by using pcDNA3.1-SOCS3 plasmid, SOCS3 siRNA, or nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions: Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice. - Highlights: • Matrine attenuates asthmatic symptoms and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in vivo. • Matrine suppresses inflammation responses in vitro. • Matrine decreases SOCS3 expression both in vivo and in vitro. • Matrine inhibits SOCS3 expression by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

  11. Regulatory T cells in induced sputum of asthmatic children: association with inflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzaoui Agnès

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells play an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether the induced sputum (IS pool and the function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells are altered in asthma pediatric patients. Methods Treg activity was studied in the IS of 40 asthmatic children. CD3+ cells were analyzed for the expression of FoxP3 mRNA by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. IS cells from asthmatics and controls were stained for Treg markers and analyzed by flow cytometry. We also studied the ability of Treg cells to differentiate monocytes toward alternatively activated macrophages (AAM, and to suppress proinflammatory cytokines. Results (i Mild and moderate asthmatics had significantly decreased expression of FoxP3/β-actin mRNA and decreased proportions of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ cells compared to healthy children; (ii patients with moderate asthma had even lower proportions of FoxP3 expression compared to mild asthmatic patients; (iii monocytes cultured with Treg cells displayed typical features of AAM, including up-regulated expression of CD206 (macrophage mannose receptor and CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor, and an increased production of chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18. In addition, Treg cells from asthmatics have a reduced capacity to suppress LPS-proinflammatory cytokine production from monocytes/macrophages (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusion Asthma pediatric patients display a decreased bronchial Treg population. The impaired bronchial Treg activity is associated with disease severity.

  12. Asthmatic airway smooth muscle CXCL10 production: mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Yazan A.; Alkhouri, Hatem; Chen, Emily; Lalor, Daniel J.; Poniris, Maree; Henness, Sheridan; Brightling, Christopher E.; Burgess, Janette K.; Armour, Carol L.; Ammit, Alaina J.

    2012-01-01

    CXCL10 (IP10) is involved in mast cell migration to airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles in asthma. We aimed to investigate the role of cytokine-induced MAPK activation in CXCL10 production by ASM cells from people with and without asthma. Confluent growth-arrested ASM cells were treated with inhibitors of the MAPKs ERK, p38, and JNK and transcription factor NF-κB, or vehicle, and stimulated with IL-1β, TNF-α, or IFN-γ, alone or combined (cytomix). CXCL10 mRNA and protein, JNK, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and Iκ-Bα protein degradation were assessed using real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting, respectively. Cytomix, IL-1β, and TNF-α induced CXCL10 mRNA expression more rapidly in asthmatic than nonasthmatic ASM cells. IL-1β and/or TNF-α combined with IFN-γ synergistically increased asthmatic ASM cell CXCL10 release. Inhibitor effects were similar in asthmatic and nonasthmatic cells, but cytomix-induced release was least affected, with only JNK and NF-κB inhibitors halving it. Notably, JNK phosphorylation was markedly less in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic cells. However, in both, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK phosphorylation and CXCL10 mRNA levels but did not affect CXCL10 mRNA stability or Iκ-Bα degradation. Together, the JNK and NF-κB inhibitors completely inhibited their CXCL10 release. We concluded that, in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic ASM cells, JNK activation was reduced and CXCL10 gene expression was more rapid following cytomix stimulation. However, in both, JNK activation did not regulate early events leading to NF-κB activation. Thus JNK and NF-κB provide independent therapeutic targets for limiting CXCL10 production and mast cell migration to the ASM in asthma. PMID:22387292

  13. Glucocorticoid Receptor Hetero-Complex Gene STIP1 Is Associated with Improved Lung Function in Asthmatics Treated with Inhaled Corticosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gregory A.; Lazarus, Ross; Smith, Richard S.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Weiss, Scott T.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory action by binding and activating the intracellular the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) hetero-complex. Objective Evaluate the genes HSPCB, HSPCA, STIP1, HSPA8, DNAJB1, PTGES3, FKBP5, and FKBP4 on corticosteroid response. Methods Caucasian asthmatics (382) randomized to once daily flunisolide or conventional inhaled corticosteroid therapy were genotyped. Outcome measures were baseline FEV1, % predicted FEV1, and % change in FEV1 after corticosteroid treatment. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, gender, and height, were performed fitting the most appropriate genetic model based on quantitative mean derived from ANOVA models to determine if there was an independent effect of polymorphisms on change in FEV1 independent of baseline level. Results Positive recessive model correlations for STIP1 SNPs were observed for baseline FEV1 [rs4980524, p=0.009; rs6591838, p=0.0045; rs2236647, p=0.002; and rs2236648; p=0.013], baseline % predicted FEV1 [rs4980524, p=0.002; rs6591838, p=0.017; rs2236647, p=0.003; and rs2236648; p=0.008] ; % change in FEV1 at 4 weeks [rs4980524, p=0.044; rs6591838, p=0.016; rs2236647; p=0.01] and 8 weeks therapy [rs4980524, p=0.044; rs6591838, p=0.016; rs2236647; p=0.01]. Haplotypic associations were observed for baseline FEV1 and % change in FEV1 at 4 weeks therapy [p=0.05 and p=0.01, respectively]. Significant trends towards association were observed for baseline % predicted FEV1 and % change in FEV1 at 8 weeks therapy. Positive correlations between haplotypes and % change in FEV1 were also observed. Conclusions STIP1 genetic variations may play a role in regulating corticosteroid response in asthmatics with reduced lung function. Replication in a second asthma population is required to confirm these observations. Clinical Implications Identifying genes that regulate corticosteroid responses could allow a priori determination of individual responses to corticosteroid therapy, leading to

  14. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Takiguchi

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction.We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7 or as the lower limit of the normal.Among 323 patients presenting with FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7, 43 had asthma and 280 did not. Among the non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34% were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001, or were non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p < 0.001. Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005 and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001. Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p < 0.001. Using the lower limit of the normal to define airflow obstruction yielded similar results.There are a substantial number of non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  15. Relationship of Circulating Hyaluronic Acid Levels to Disease Control in Asthma and Asthmatic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Noémi; Toldi, Gergely; Bohács, Anikó; Ivancsó, István; Müller, Veronika; Rigó Jr., János; Losonczy, György; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tamási, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7–31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1–66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients’ age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = −0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and <20 (uncontrolled patients) with a 0.826 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.69–0.97, p = 0.001) when 37.4 ng/mL is used as cut-off value in ANP group, and with 0.78 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.65–0.92, p = 0.0009) in the whole asthmatic cohort. In conclusion circulating HA might be a marker of asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance. PMID:24736408

  16. Does having an asthmatic sibling affect the quality of life in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Özge; Türkeli, Ahmet; Karaca, Özlem; Yüksel, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Yılmaz Ö, Türkeli A, Karaca Ö, Yüksel H. Does having an asthmatic sibling affect the quality of life in children? Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 274-280. Chronic illness in a family member leads to deterioration of quality of life in other members of that family. We aimed to investigate the influence of having an asthmatic sibling on a child`s quality of life (QoL). We enrolled 2-12 year aged healthy children with an asthmatic sibling in the study group and healthy children with a healthy sibling in the control group of this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic characteristics of children and disease severity characteristics of asthmatic siblings were recorded. All parents filled in Turkish generic PedsQLTM short form appropriate for the child`s age group. Study and control groups had 114 children each. Total PedsQLTM scores were not significantly different in any of the age groups (p=0.23, p=0.13, p= 0.11 respectively). Emotional PedsQLTM sub-scores in children with an asthmatic sibling were significantly worse (83.0±16.5 vs 91.6±10.9 in the 2-4 year age group, 72.0±17.8 vs 92.2±11.6 in the 5-7 year age group, 73.7±24.1 vs 88.7±14.8 in the 8-12 year age group respectively, p≤0.002 for all). Similarly, psychosocial sub-score was significantly lower in the 2-4 and 5-7-year-olds but not the 8-12 year old groups (p=0.01, p=0.01, p=0.08 respectively). In conclusion, healthy children with asthmatic siblings have significantly lower emotional QoL and this needs to investigated for other chronic diseases in further research.

  17. Short-term heart rate variability in asthmatic obese children: effect of exhaustive exercise and different humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvan, K; Dabidi Roshan, V; Mahmudi, S A

    2015-11-01

    Asthmatic obese children experience changes in functional capacity and autonomic control. Previous heart rate variability (HRV) studies were based on 24-hour recordings, little research has been conducted on the short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children, primarily during physical effort indifferent environmental humidity conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic activity on short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children under two different environmental humidity conditions. Ten obese boys with mild asthma as experimental group and 15 obese healthy boys with the same conditions were involved as a control group. Protocol included progressive and exhaustive aerobic activities on a calibrated ergometer pedal bicycle in two various environmental humidity 35±5% and 65±5%. HRV was measured by PADSY MEDSET Holter monitoring device during three phases; pre-test, mid-test and post-test. Then, short-term HRV was assessed from calculation of the mean R-R interval measured on HRV at each phases. HRV significantly decreased at mid-test and post-test among asthmatic and health children. However, the aforesaid changes were significantly higher in the asthmatic than health children following. Moreover, decrease of short-term HRV was significantly greater in the 35±5% than 65±5% environmental humidity. Our findings suggest from the autonomic standpoint, asthmatic and non-asthmatic children respond differently to exhaustive exercise induced stress. Aerobic exercise at an environment with high humidity compared with the low humidity appears to have additional benefits on short-term HRV in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in asthmatic obese children.

  18. Preparation of a Sustained-Release Nebulized Aerosol of R-terbutaline Hydrochloride Liposome and Evaluation of Its Anti-asthmatic Effects via Pulmonary Delivery in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingrui; Zhan, Shuyao; Liu, Qing; Su, Hao; Dai, Xi; Wang, Hai; Beng, Huimin; Tan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    An aerosolized liposome formulation for the pulmonary delivery of an anti-asthmatic medication was developed. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for a sustained bronchodilator response. Liposomes are known for their sustained drug release capability and thus would be a suitable delivery system for prolonging the therapeutic effect of anti-asthmatic medication. Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were loaded with a model drug, R-terbutaline hydrochloride(R-TBH), using an ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of up to 71.35% and yielded R-TBH liposomes with a particle size of approximately 145 ± 20 nm. According to stability studies, these R-TBH liposomes should be stored at 4°C before usage. Compared to R-TBH solution, which showed 90.84% release within 8 h, liposomal R-TBH had a cumulative release of 73.53% at 37°C over 192 h. A next generation impactor (NGI) was used to analyze the particle size distribution in the lungs of R-TBH liposome aerosol in vitro at 5°C. The therapeutic efficacy of the nebulized aerosol of the R-TBH liposomes was assessed via pulmonary delivery in guinea pigs. The results showed that, compared to the R-TBH solution group, the R-TBH liposome group had a prolonged anti-asthma effect.

  19. Abnormalities of the airways and lung parenchyma in asthmatics: CT observations in 50 patients and inter- and intraobserver variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, P.; Mourey-Gerosa, I.; Benali, K.; Brauner, M.W.; Leung, A.N.; Lenoir, S..; Cordeau, M.P.; Mazoyer, B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the CT abnormalities of airways and lung parenchyma in asthmatic patients and to assess inter- and intraobserver variability for these abnormalities. The CT scans of 50 asthmatic patients and 10 healthy volunteers were assessed independently by four independent chest radiologists who were masked with respect to the clinical informations. Bronchiectasis involving mostly subsegmental and destal bronchi was noted in 28.5% of the asthmatic subjects and none of the non-asthmatics. Bronchial wall thickening, small centrilobular opacities and decreased lung attenuation were observed in 82%, 21% and 31% of asthmatic patients respectively, compared with 7%, 5% and 7% of healthy subjects. The intra- and interobserver agreements for these four CT abnormalities were measured by the kappa statistic and ranged from 0.60 to 0.79 and from 0.40 to 0.64, respectively. It is concluded that asthmatic patients may exhibit bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and morphological abnormalities suggestive of distal airways disease that can be assessed on CT scans with a clinically acceptable observer variability. (orig.)

  20. IgG and IgE antibodies to Chironomidae in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, N; Ito, K; Nakagawa, T; Haida, M; Okudaira, H; Nakada, S; Miyamoto, T; Shibuya, T; Kamei, K; Sasa, M

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibodies to Chironomidae and its correlations to radioallergosorbent and skin reactions were examined with the aim of clarifying the relationship between asthma and Chironomidae. The level of specific IgG antibody in asthmatic patients (0.698 +/- 0.034, n = 104) was significantly greater than that in normal subjects (0.367 +/- 0.032, n = 52) (P less than 0.01). The specific IgG level was not correlated to skin reaction, nor to IgE RAST scores. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly greater than in control subjects (n = 14) (P less than 0.01). Images Fig. 5 PMID:3652516

  1. Right ventricular function in asthmatic children determined with PW-TDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaona; Song Lili; Cong Lin; Li Liping; Huang Yanxia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the right ventricular function of asthmatic children in onset period or remission period by using PW-TDI. Method: 36 children with confirmed asthma were enrolled. In tricuspid annular, the ECHO were recorded with PW-PDI pattern to obtain fight ventricular function (Sm, e-peak, Vmax for a-peak, and e/a), ICT, ET, IRT and Tei-Index. These were carried out in acute attack period and stable period. Result: Right ventficular function parameter (Sm, Vmax for e-peak, Vmax for a-peak, e/a and Tei-Index) in acute attack period were significant different compared to those in stable period (P<0.05). Conclusions: The fight ventricular function was impaired in patients with asthma in acute attack period. PW-TDI is helpful for assessing right ventricular function to asthmatic children. (authors)

  2. Calidad de vida en el adolescente asmático Quality of life in the asthmatic adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orquídea Aguirre Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la mejoría de la calidad de vida es clave en el tratamiento del niño-adolescente con asma. OBJETIVO: identificar la afectación que provoca el asma bronquial en la calidad de vida del adolescente asmático. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 103 adolescentes asmáticos con diagnóstico de asma leve intermitente, asma leve persistente y asma moderada persistente en la Escuela Secundaria Básica "Antonio José de Sucre", en la localidad de Cojímar, en el período entre el 1ro. de enero de 2006 y el 31 de diciembre del propio año. RESULTADOS: los síntomas principales fueron la tos, la disnea y la sibilancia, y las molestias más frecuentes, el cansancio, la dificultad para respirar hondo y la sensación de quedar sin aire. Predominó el sexo masculino y las edades de 12 y 13 años. El mayor número de respuestas de las alteraciones de la función emocional se concentraba en las categorías más bajas del nivel de afectación, y las respuestas sobre la limitación de la actividad motora se inclinaron hacia las categorías de muchísimo, mucho, bastante y regular. Predominó la afectación moderada de la calidad de vida. El asma persistente moderada fue la mayormente referida en la afectación de calidad de vida severa.INTRODUCTION: the improvement in quality of life is a key element in treatment of asthmatic child-adolescent. OBJECTIVE: to identify the affection provoking the bronchial asthma in the quality of life of the asthmatic adolescent. METHODS: a prospective longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted in 103 asthmatic adolescents diagnosed with intermittent slight asthma from the "Antonio José de Sucre" Secondary Basic School in the Cojimar place, from January 1, to December 31, 2006. RESULTS: the major symptoms included cough, dyspnea and sibilation and the more frequent nuisances were the tiredness, profound breathlessness and the feeling of lack of air. There was

  3. Spontaneous epidural emphysema and pneumomediastinum during an asthmatic attack in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramella, D.; Bulleri, A.; Battolla, L.; Bartolozzi, C. [Department of Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56 100 Pisa (Italy); Pifferi, M.; Baldini, G. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    CT revealed the presence of epidural emphysema as an incidental finding in a 13-year-old boy in whom mild infrequent coughing during an asthmatic attack resulted in a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. Epidural emphysema was not associated with neurological symptoms. The CT images demonstrated the pathway of air leakage from the posterior mediastinum through the intervertebral foramina into the epidural space. Repeat CT showed spontaneous resolution of the epidural emphysema. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  4. Arterial And Ventricular Elastance And Ventriculo-arterial Coupling In Asthmatic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkan, E. A.; Gecit, A.; Beysel, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare arterial and ventricular end-systolic elastance and ventriculo-arterial coupling between asthma and healthy children and correlate these all three parameters with pulmonary function tests in subjects with asthma. Study Design: Across-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatrics, Bozok University Medical Faculty,Yozgat, Turkey, from January 2012 to November 2014. Methodology: Transthoracic and Doppler echocardiography and pulmonary function tests in patients with asthma aged 7 - 12 years and control subjects. Forty stable asthma patients on prophylactic inhaled corticosteroids and 97 healthy subjects were investigated. Both groups were matched for age, gender, blood pressure, heart rate, body surface area, echocardiographic parameters and pulmonary function tests. Results: There was no difference regarding left ventricular elastance at end-systole derived by single beat/body surface area (Ees(sb)/BSA) between asthmatic patients and healthy children (2.59 ±1.29 mmHg/ml/m2, 2.43 ±1.28 mmHg/ml/m2 respectively, p=0.504), arterial elastance/BSA(Ea/BSA) (2.10 ±0.97, 1.75 ±0.89 respectively, p=0.041), and ventriculoarterial coupling (VAC) (0.83 ±0.13, 0.74 ±0.13, respectively, p < 0.001) were higher in asthmatic group than controls. There was no correlation between Ea, Ees (sb), VAC and pulmonary function tests. Conclusion: Arterial elastance increase and stiffness decrease in asthmatic patients. This may be due to using prophylactic inhaled corticosteroids. Using inhaled corticosteroids have protective effects against atherosclerosis. As a result of this higher arterial elastance, asthmatic children had higher VAC resulting in less efficient cardiovascular function. (author)

  5. Effect of anti-asthmatic drugs on dental health: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chellaih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Bronchial asthma constitutes important problem worldwide. This chronic lung disease has detrimental effect in the oral cavity like reduction of salivary secretion, change in salivary composition and pH. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to compare the prevalence of dental caries in asthmatic children and healthy children, and also to evaluate the correlation between the Streptococcus mutans , Lactobacillus and dental caries in both the groups. Results: In this study, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth score of children in the study group was (4.53 ± 3.38 higher than the control group (1.51 ± 1.58 (P < 0.01. The S. mutans count of the study group was (59574.47 ± 28510.67 higher than the control group (19777.78 ± 17899.83 P < 0.01. The Lactobacillus count in study group was (43553.19 ± 58776.96 higher than the control group (8843.84 ± 7982.72 P < 0.01. Subjects using inhaled corticosteroids were more prone to develop dental caries than the control group with odds ratio = 6.26 and 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: The dental caries prevalence increases with the usage of β2agonist and corticosteroid inhalers for the treatment of asthma. Thus in asthmatic children, increase in caries prevalence might be due to the drug treatment and not due to the disease by itself. It can be concluded that asthmatic children have a higher prevalence of dental caries than healthy children. Hence, special oral health care is needed for asthmatic children.

  6. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan; Cherrez, Annia; Ramón, Germán Darío; Lopez Jove, Orlando; Baptist, Alan; Matos, Edgar; Morfín Maciel, Blanca; Calero, Erick; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Cherrez Ojeda, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%). The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS) (69.9%). SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating ( i.e. receiving and seeking information) with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5%) and Facebook (32.0%) were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient.

  7. Changes in bacterial profiles after periodontal treatment associated with respiratory quality of asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyarni Pambudi; Imelda Fabiola; Retno Indrawati; Haryono Utomo; Anang Endaryanto; Ariyanto Harsono

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the reduction phenomenon of asthma exacerbation after dental plaque control, no scientific report has been found to describe the link between bacterial profiles and respiratory quality in children with asthma. Objective To investigate association between bacterial profiles changes and improvement in respiratory quality after periodontal treatment. Methods Asthmatic children with FEV1 reversibility ~ 12% and dental plaque index ~ 2 who qualified for incl...

  8. Stereoselective total synthesis of the potent anti-asthmatic compound CMI-977 (LDP-977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz Carlos; Farina, Lui Strambi; Ferreira, Marco Antonio Barbosa, E-mail: ldias@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-02-15

    A short and efficient stereoselective total synthesis of CMI-977 (LDP-977), a potent and orally active anti-asthmatic compound, was developed. The key steps involve a highly diastereoselective Mukaiyama oxidative cyclization, which provides the trans-THF (tetrahydrofuran) unit and a Seyferth-Gilbert homologation to construct the triple bond in the target molecule. The synthesis of the key chiral building block was performed using Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution. (author)

  9. Spontaneous epidural emphysema and pneumomediastinum during an asthmatic attack in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramella, D.; Bulleri, A.; Battolla, L.; Bartolozzi, C.; Pifferi, M.; Baldini, G.

    1997-01-01

    CT revealed the presence of epidural emphysema as an incidental finding in a 13-year-old boy in whom mild infrequent coughing during an asthmatic attack resulted in a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. Epidural emphysema was not associated with neurological symptoms. The CT images demonstrated the pathway of air leakage from the posterior mediastinum through the intervertebral foramina into the epidural space. Repeat CT showed spontaneous resolution of the epidural emphysema. (orig.)

  10. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrez, Annia; Ramón, Germán Darío; Lopez Jove, Orlando; Baptist, Alan; Matos, Edgar; Morfín Maciel, Blanca; Calero, Erick; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%). The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS) (69.9%). SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating (i.e. receiving and seeking information) with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5%) and Facebook (32.0%) were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient. PMID:28717641

  11. Stereoselective total synthesis of the potent anti-asthmatic compound CMI-977 (LDP-977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luiz Carlos; Farina, Lui Strambi; Ferreira, Marco Antonio Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    A short and efficient stereoselective total synthesis of CMI-977 (LDP-977), a potent and orally active anti-asthmatic compound, was developed. The key steps involve a highly diastereoselective Mukaiyama oxidative cyclization, which provides the trans-THF (tetrahydrofuran) unit and a Seyferth-Gilbert homologation to construct the triple bond in the target molecule. The synthesis of the key chiral building block was performed using Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution. (author)

  12. Clinical Characteristics of Exacerbation-Prone Adult Asthmatics Identified by Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Shin, Seung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Chang, Hun Soo; Bae, Da Jeong; Cho, You Sook; Park, Hae Sim; Yoon, Ho Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation. A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters. Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation. Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  13. The asthmatic athlete: inhaled Beta-2 agonists, sport performance, and doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald C; Fitch, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    The asthmatic athlete has a long history in competitive sport in terms of success in performance and issues related to doping. Well documented are detailed objective tests used to evaluate the athlete with symptoms of asthma or airway hyperresponsiveness and the medical management. Initiated at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games, the International Olympic Committee's Independent Asthma Panel required testing to justify the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists (IBAs) in Olympic athletes and has provided valuable guidelines to the practicing physician. This program was educational and documented the variability in prevalence of asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness and IBA use between different sports and different countries. It provided a standard of care for the athlete with respiratory symptoms and led to the discovery that asthmatic Olympic athletes outperformed their peers at both Summer and Winter Olympic Games from 2002 to 2010. Changes to the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List in 2010 permitted the use of 2 IBA produced by the same pharmaceutical company. All others remain prohibited. However, there is no pharmacological difference between the permitted and prohibited IBAs. As a result of these changes, asthmatic athletes are being managed differently based on a World Anti-Doping Agency directive that has no foundation in pharmacological science or in clinical practice.

  14. Effects of Ramadan fasting on spirometric values and clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Norouzy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the 9th  Islamic lunar month during which Muslims avoid eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset.  The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on asthma control is controversial.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the spirometric variables and clinical symptoms on well-controlled asthmatic patients during Ramadan. Material and Methods: a cohort study was conducted in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty-nine (19 females and 10 males well-controlled asthmatic patients aged 47 (12 years completed the study.  The average duration of fasting was 26.5 days. Assessment of spirometric variables (daily peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow variability, peak expiratory flow home monitoring as well as asthma clinical symptoms including dyspnea, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness were carried out. Results: No significant changes in clinical symptoms were reported in asthmatic patients at the end of Ramadan fasting.  Among spirometric variables, only peak expiratory flow improved after Ramadan (p

  15. Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma at the carina of trachea presenting with wheezing in an asthmatic child mimicking an attack of asthma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Lin, Wei-Ching

    2016-11-01

    Asthma is a very common disease, but primary tracheal tumors are extremely rare in children. Wheezing is not pathognomonic, but is the typical presentation of asthma and could also be found in patients with tracheal tumors. This report describes a 12-year-old boy with a previous history of frequent asthma attacks and experienced responses to antiasthma treatment. He was admitted to the hospital due to persistent wheezing and progressive dyspnea. Hyperinflation in the bilateral lungs was detected on chest x-ray, but without other significant findings. Chest computed tomography revealed a mass at the carina. Tracheal mucoepidermoid carcinoma was diagnosed by histopathological assessment. Despite the rarity of tracheal tumors, chest computed tomography scans should be performed in the first place for children presenting persistent wheezing and having poor response to antiasthma treatment to rule out the other alternative diagnosis. Coexistence of other diseases such as tracheal tumor in asthmatic patients should be considered.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of pre-seasonal Th1-adjuvant vaccine to Parietaria judaica in asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, Nicola; Minaldi, Chiara; Santagata, Roberta; Battaglia, Salvatore; Camarda, Gaetana; Bellia, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ultra-short course pre-seasonal allergy vaccine, containing appropriate allergoids with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), may be effective in treating allergic symptoms. Objective: To explore the timing of the immunological responses to the pre-seasonal allergy vaccine. Methods: Four subcutaneous injections of the active product (Pollinex Quattro) were administered to 20 Parietaria-sensitive intermittent asthmatics (M/F: 12/8; age: 48 ± 10 years; FEV1% predicted: 108% ± 12%) during the 6 weeks prior to the start of the pollen season. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected immediately before the first and immediately after the last injections (t1 and t2), during the pollen season (t3) and after (t4) the pollen season. EBC was analyzed to determine the levels of pH and 8-isoprostane. Ten Parietaria-sensitive asthmatics served as the untreated control group at t1 and t2. Results: Measured pH levels were 7.64 ± 0.33 at t1, 7.67 ± 0.23 at t2, 7.72 ± 0.34 at t3, and 7.82 ± 0.34 at t4 (P = 0.049 vs baseline). 8-isoprostane levels were significantly lower than baseline at each visit (mean difference from baseline, for t2: −0.77 pg, P = 0.031; for t3: −0.92 pg, P = 0.010; for t4: −0.70 pg, P = 0.048). In the control group, pH levels were 7.73 ± 0.26 at baseline and did not change after 6 weeks (7.79 ± 0.25, P = 0.33). Similarly, the concentrations of 8-isoprostane in the control group were not different from those of the study group at baseline (P = 0.86), and the levels remained unchanged after 6 weeks (P = 0.58). Conclusion: These findings show that the ultra-short course of vaccine adjuvated with MPL acutely reduces the degree of airway inflammation, as expressed by markers of oxidative stress, and suggest that this reduction is maintained during and after the pollen season. PMID:21660177

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of pre-seasonal Th1-adjuvant vaccine to Parietaria judaica in asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scichilone N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Scichilone, Chiara Minaldi, Roberta Santagata, Salvatore Battaglia, Gaetana Camarda, Vincenzo Bellia Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (Di.Bi.M.I.S., Sezione di Pneumologia, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The ultra-short course pre-seasonal allergy vaccine, containing appropriate allergoids with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL, may be effective in treating allergic symptoms. Objective: To explore the timing of the immunological responses to the pre-seasonal allergy vaccine.Methods: Four subcutaneous injections of the active product (Pollinex Quattro were administered to 20 Parietaria-sensitive intermittent asthmatics (M/F: 12/8; age: 48 ± 10 years; FEV1% predicted: 108% ± 12% during the 6 weeks prior to the start of the pollen season. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC was collected immediately before the first and immediately after the last injections (t1 and t2, during the pollen season (t3 and after (t4 the pollen season. EBC was analyzed to determine the levels of pH and 8-isoprostane. Ten Parietaria-sensitive asthmatics served as the untreated control group at t1 and t2.Results: Measured pH levels were 7.64 ± 0.33 at t1, 7.67 ± 0.23 at t2, 7.72 ± 0.34 at t3, and 7.82 ± 0.34 at t4 (P = 0.049 vs baseline. 8-isoprostane levels were significantly lower than baseline at each visit (mean difference from baseline, for t2: —0.77 pg, P = 0.031; for t3: —0.92 pg, P = 0.010; for t4: —0.70 pg, P = 0.048. In the control group, pH levels were 7.73 ± 0.26 at baseline and did not change after 6 weeks (7.79 ± 0.25, P = 0.33. Similarly, the concentrations of 8-isoprostane in the control group were not different from those of the study group at baseline (P = 0.86, and the levels remained unchanged after 6 weeks (P = 0.58.Conclusion: These findings show that the ultra-short course of vaccine adjuvated with MPL acutely reduces the degree of airway inflammation, as expressed by markers of

  18. Clinical outcome associated with the use of different inhalation method with and without humidification in asthmatic mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Islam O F; ElHansy, Muhammad H E; Al Hallag, Moataz; Fink, James B; Dailey, Patricia; Rabea, Hoda; Abdelrahim, Mohamed E A

    2017-08-01

    Inhaled-medication delivered during mechanical-ventilation is affected by type of aerosol-generator and humidity-condition. Despite many in-vitro studies related to aerosol-delivery to mechanically-ventilated patients, little has been reported on clinical effects of these variables. The aim of this study was to determine effect of humidification and type of aerosol-generator on clinical status of mechanically ventilated asthmatics. 72 (36 females) asthmatic subjects receiving invasive mechanical ventilation were enrolled and assigned randomly to 6 treatment groups of 12 (6 females) subjects each received, as possible, all inhaled medication using their assigned aerosol generator and humidity condition during delivery. Aerosol-generators were placed immediately after humidifier within inspiratory limb of mechanical ventilation circuit. First group used vibrating-mesh-nebulizer (Aerogen Solo; VMN) with humidification; Second used VMN without humidification; Third used metered-dose-inhaler with AeroChamber Vent (MDI-AV) with humidification; Forth used MDI-AV without humidification; Fifth used Oxycare jet-nebulizer (JN) with humidification; Sixth used JN without humidification. Measured parameters included clinical-parameters reflected patient response (CP) and endpoint parameters e.g. length-of-stay in the intensive-care-unit (ICU-days) and mechanical-ventilation days (MV-days). There was no significant difference between studied subjects in the 6 groups in baseline of CP. VMN resulted in trend to shorter ICU-days (∼1.42days) compared to MDI-AV (p = 0.39) and relatively but not significantly shorter ICU-days (∼0.75days) compared JN. Aerosol-delivery with or without humidification did not have any significant effect on any of parameters studied with very light insignificant tendency of delivery at humid condition to decrease MV-days and ICU-days. No significant effect was found of changing humidity during aerosol-delivery to ventilated-patient. VMN to deliver

  19. Investigation into the use of complementary and alternative medicine and affecting factors in Turkish asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokem, Yasemin; Aytemur, Zeynep Ayfer; Yildirim, Yasemin; Fadiloglu, Cicek

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of complementary and alternative medicine usage in asthmatic patients living in the west of Turkey, the most frequently used complementary and alternative medicine methods and socio-demographic factors affecting this and factors related to the disease. While the rate of complementary and alternative medicine usage in asthmatic patients and the reasons for using it vary, practices specific to different countries and regions are of interest. Differing cultural and social factors even in geographically similar regions can affect the type of complementary and alternative medicine used. Two hundred asthmatic patients registered in the asthma outpatient clinic of a large hospital in Turkey and who had undergone pulmonary function tests within the previous six months were included in this study, which was planned according to a descriptive design. The patients filled out a questionnaire on their demographic characteristics and complementary and alternative medicine usage. The proportion of patients who reported using one or more of the complementary and alternative medicine methods was 63·0%. Of these patients, 61·9% were using plants and herbal treatments, 53·2% were doing exercises and 36·5% said that they prayed. The objectives of their use of complementary and alternative medicine were to reduce asthma-related complaints (58%) and to feel better (37·8%). The proportion of people experiencing adverse effects was 3·3% (n = 4). Factors motivating asthmatic patients to use complementary and alternative medicine were the existence of comorbid diseases and a long period since diagnosis (p complementary and alternative medicine and the severity of the disease, pulmonary function test parameters, the number of asthma attacks or hospitalisations because of asthma within the last year (p > 0·05). Understanding by nurses of the causes and patterns of the use of complementary and alternative medicine in asthmatic

  20. Does industry take the susceptible subpopulation of asthmatic individuals into consideration when setting derived no‐effect levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mia K. V.; Johanson, Gunnar; Öberg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, can be aggravated by exposure to certain chemical irritants. The objectives were first to investigate the extent to which experimental observations on asthmatic subjects are taken into consideration in connection with the registration process under the EU REACH regulation, and second, to determine whether asthmatics are provided adequate protection by the derived no‐effect levels (DNELs) for acute inhalation exposure. We identified substances for which experimental data on the pulmonary functions of asthmatics exposed to chemicals under controlled conditions are available. The effect concentrations were then compared with DNELs and other guideline and limit values. As of April 2015, only 2.6% of 269 classified irritants had available experimental data on asthmatics. Fourteen of the 22 identified substances with available data were fully registered under REACH and we retrieved 114 reliable studies related to these. Sixty‐three of these studies, involving nine of the 14 substances, were cited by the REACH registrants. However, only 17 of the 114 studies, involving four substances, were regarded as key studies. Furthermore, many of the DNELs for acute inhalation were higher than estimated effect levels for asthmatics, i.e., lowest observed adverse effect concentrations or no‐observed adverse effect concentrations, indicating low or no safety margin. We conclude that REACH registrants tend to disregard findings on asthmatics when deriving these DNELs. In addition, we found examples of DNELs, particularly among those derived for workers, which likely do not provide adequate protection for asthmatics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27283874

  1. Corticosteroid therapy and airflow obstruction influence the bronchial microbiome, which is distinct from that of bronchoalveolar lavage in asthmatic airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denner, Darcy R.; Sangwan, Naseer; Becker, Julia B.; Hogarth, D. Kyle; Oldham, Justin; Castillo, Jamee; Sperling, Anne I.; Solway, Julian; Naureckas, Edward T.; Gilbert, Jack A.; White, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    The lung has a diverse microbiome that is modest in biomass. This microbiome differs in asthmatic patients compared with control subjects, but the effects of clinical characteristics on the microbial community composition and structure are not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the composition and structure of the lower airway microbiome correlated with clinical characteristics of chronic persistent asthma, including airflow obstruction, use of corticosteroid medications, and presence of airway eosinophilia. METHODS: DNA was extracted from endobronchial brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from 39 asthmatic patients and 19 control subjects, along with negative control samples. 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencing was used to compare the relative abundance of bacterial genera with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Differential feature selection analysis revealed significant differences in microbial diversity between brush and lavage samples from asthmatic patients and control subjects. Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Rickettsia species were significantly enriched in samples from asthmatic patients, whereas Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Veillonella species were enriched in brush samples from control subjects. Generalized linear models on brush samples demonstrated oral corticosteroid use as an important factor affecting the relative abundance of the taxa that were significantly enriched in asthmatic patients. In addition, bacterial α-diversity in brush samples from asthmatic patients was correlated with FEV1 and the proportion of lavage eosinophils. CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the bronchial airway microbiome of asthmatic patients is distinct from that of nonasthmatic control subjects and influenced by worsening airflow obstruction and corticosteroid use. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute systemic effects of inhaled salbutamol in asthmatic subjects expressing common homozygous beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes at positions 16 and 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel K C; Bates, Caroline E; Lipworth, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms at positions 16 and 27, and the acute systemic beta2-adrenoceptor effects of inhaled salbutamol is unclear. We therefore elected to evaluate the influence of common homozygous beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on the acute systemic beta2-adrenoceptor effects following inhaled salbutamol in asthmatic subjects. An initial database search of 531 asthmatic subjects identified the two commonest homozygous haplotypes at positions 16 and 27 to be Arg16-Gln27 (12%) and Gly16-Glu27 (19%). After a 1-week washout period where all beta2-adrenoceptor agonists were withdrawn, 16 Caucasian subjects (Arg16-Gln27: n = 8 and Gly16-Glu27: n = 8) were given a single dose of inhaled salbutamol (1200 microg), followed by serial blood sampling for serum potassium, along with measurements of diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, at 5-min intervals for 20 min. The two groups were well matched for age, sex, FEV1, and inhaled corticosteroid dose. Baseline values for serum potassium, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different comparing Arg16-Gln27 vs Gly16-Glu27. The mean +/- SEM maximum serum potassium change from baseline over 20 min was significantly greater (P = 0.04) for Arg16-Gln27: -0.37 +/- 0.05 mmol l(-1) vs Gly16-Glu27: -0.23 +/- 0.04 mmol l(-1); 95% CI for difference: -0.01 to -0.28 mmol l(-1). The maximum diastolic blood pressure change from baseline over 20 min was significantly greater (P = 0.0008) for Arg16-Gln27: -13 +/- 1 mmHg vs Gly16-Glu27: -4 +/- 2 mmHg; 95% CI for difference: -5, 14 mmHg. There was no significant difference comparing the maximum heart rate change from baseline for Arg16-Gln27: 10 +/- 3 beats min(-1) vs Gly16-Glu27: 10 +/- 3 beats min(-1). Caucasian asthmatic subjects with the Arg16-Gln27 haplotype exhibited a greater systemic response to inhaled salbutamol, compared with those with the Gly16-Glu27 haplotype. The attenuated beta2-adrenoceptor response in the Gly16-Glu27

  3. Asthma control in severe asthmatics under treatment with omalizumab: a cross-sectional observational study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Federica; Latorre, Manuela; Vergura, Letizia; Caiaffa, Maria Filomena; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Guarnieri, Gabriella; Matucci, Andrea; Macchia, Luigi; Vianello, Andrea; Vultaggio, Alessandra; Celi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    Few data are available on the proportion of asthmatics achieving a good asthma control (according GINA guidelines) and on the level of airway inflammation during omalizumab treatment. The aim of this cross-sectional national observational study was to assess the level of control (according to GINA guidelines) achieved in a group of asthmatics on omalizumab treatment, and to characterize the factors that influence the lack of control. We studied 306 asthmatics under omalizumab treatment for a median of 32 months (range 4-120). The level of control according to GINA was good in 25.2%, partial in 47.1% and poor in 24.5% of patients (data were missing for the remaining 3.2%). Comparison between poorly controlled and partially or well controlled asthmatics showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of some comorbidities in the first group, namely obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), aspirin intolerance and mental disorders (all p omalizumab treatment, a high percentage of asthmatics obtain a good or partial control of asthma. Comorbidities are associated with the lack of asthma control and persistence of exacerbations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studying forced expiratory volume at 1 second over menstrual segments in asthmatic and non-asthmatic women: assessing protocol feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegienka Ganesa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones may play an important role in observed gender differences in asthma incidence and severity, as well as in the observed changes in asthma symptoms during times of hormonal fluctuation (i.e.; premenstrual, pregnancy, etc.. This pilot study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of data collection methods to investigate the effects of sex hormones on lung function in women. Findings A cohort of 13 women (6 with and 7 without prior asthma diagnoses who were having menstrual periods and were not taking hormones collected urine samples daily for measurement of estrogen (estrone E1C and progesterone (Pregnanediol-glucuronide PDG metabolites over the course of a menstrual segment (bleeding episode plus the following bleeding-free interval. Hormones were used to estimate menstrual segment phase (follicular versus luteal based on a published algorithm. Daily bleeding and FEV1 measurements were recorded and percent predicted FEV1 was calculated. Percent predicted FEV1 decreased over the course of the follicular but not the luteal phase. More specifically, among women without a prior asthma diagnosis, the E1C/PDG ratio and E1C and PDG were individually associated with FEV1 in the follicular phase. No associations were found between hormones and percent predicted FEV1 in the luteal phase or among asthmatic women. E1C was associated with FEV1 in the five days before bleeding onset only among non-asthmatic women. Discussion A study of contiguous daily hormones and symptoms over menstrual segments from a large group of women with and without asthma is needed to better determine within-woman cyclicity of the observed patterns.

  5. Reversibility of pulmonary function after inhaling salbutamol in different doses and body postures in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, R; Kelderman, S; de Jongh, F H C; van der Palen, J; Thio, B J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary medication is often delivered in the form of medical aerosols designed for inhalation. Recently, breath actuated inhalers (BAI's) gained popularity as they can be used without spacers. A major drawback of BAI's is the impaction in the upper airway. Stretching the upper airway by a forward leaning body posture with the neck extended ("sniffing position") during inhalation may reduce upper airway impaction and improve pulmonary deposition. Aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility of lung function with different doses salbutamol inhaled with a BAI in the forward leaning posture compared to the standard posture in asthmatic children. 22 clinically stable asthmatic children, 5-14 years old, performed four reversibility measurements. Children inhaled 200 μg or 400 μg salbutamol with a BAI in the standard or in the forward leaning posture with the neck extended in a randomized single-blinded cross-over design. Reversibility of lung function after inhaling salbutamol in the forward leaning posture was not significantly different compared to inhalation in the standard posture. Mean FEV1 reversibility was significantly greater after inhaling 400 μg salbutamol compared to 200 μg salbutamol in the standard posture (9.4% ± 9.5% versus 4.5% ± 7.5%, difference 4.9% (95CI 0.9; 9.0%); p = 0.021). In clinically stable asthmatic children, inhalation of salbutamol with a BAI in a forward leaning posture does not increase reversibility of lung function. Inhalation of 400 μg compared to 200 μg salbutamol with a BAI does improve reversibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic value of a pattern of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloča Vuljanko, I; Turkalj, M; Nogalo, B; Bulat Lokas, S; Plavec, D

    Diagnosing asthma in children is a challenge and using a single biomarker from exhaled breath condensate (EBC) showed the lack of improvement in it. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic potential of a pattern of simple chemical biomarkers from EBC in diagnosing asthma in children in a real-life setting, its association with lung function and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In 75 consecutive children aged 5-7 years with asthma-like symptoms the following tests were performed: skin prick tests, spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled NO (F E NO), 24-hour oesophageal pH monitoring and EBC collection with subsequent analysis of pH, carbon dioxide tension, oxygen tension, and concentrations of magnesium, calcium, iron and urates. No significant differences were found for individual EBC biomarkers between asthmatics and non-asthmatics (p>0.05 for all). A pattern of six EBC biomarkers showed a statistically significant (p=0.046) predictive model for asthma (AUC=0.698, PPV=84.2%, NPV=38.9%). None to moderate association (R 2 up to 0.43) between EBC biomarkers and lung function measures and F E NO was found, with IOS parameters showing the best association with EBC biomarkers. A significantly higher EBC Fe was found in children with asthma and GERD compared to asthmatics without GERD (p=0.049). An approach that involves a pattern of EBC biomarkers had a better diagnostic accuracy for asthma in children in real-life settings compared to a single one. Poor to moderate association of EBC biomarkers with lung function suggests a complementary value of EBC analysis for asthma diagnosis in children. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of omalizumab in severe asthmatics across ages: A real life Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, B; Scalese, M; Latorre, M; Scichilone, N; Matucci, A; Milanese, M; Masieri, S; Rolla, G; Steinhilber, G; Rosati, Y; Vultaggio, A; Folletti, I; Baglioni, S; Bargagli, E; Di Tomassi, M; Pio, R; Pio, A; Maccari, U; Maggiorelli, C; Migliorini, M G; Vignale, L; Pulerà, N; Carpagnano, G E; Foschino Barbaro, M P; Perrella, A; Paggiaro, P L

    2016-10-01

    This retrospective study aimed at evaluating long-term effects of Omalizumab in elderly asthmatics in a real-life setting. 105 consecutive severe asthmatics (GINA step 4-5; mean FEV 1 % predicted:66 ± 15.7) treated with Omalizumab for at least 1 year (treatment mean duration 35.1 ± 21.7 months) were divided into 3 groups according to their age at Omalizumab treatment onset: 18-39, 40-64 and ≥ 65 years. Comorbidities, number of overweight/obese subjects and patients with late-onset asthma were more frequent among older people. A similar reduction of inhaled corticosteroids dosage and SABA on-demand therapy was observed in all groups during Omalizumab treatment; a similar FEV 1 increased was also observed. Asthma Control Test (ACT) improved significantly (p Omalizumab but the percentage of exacerbation-free patients was higher in younger people (76.9%) compared to middle aged patients (49.2%) and the elderly (29%) (p = 0.049). After Omalizumab treatment, the risk for exacerbations was lower in subjects aged 40-64 (OR = 0.284 [CI95% = 0.098-0.826], p = 0.021) and 18-39 (OR = 0.133 [CI95% = 0.026-0.678], p = 0.015), compared to elderly asthmatics. Also, a significantly reduced ACT improvement (β = -1.070; p = 0.046) passing from each age class was observed. Omalizumab improves all asthma outcomes independently of age, although the magnitude of the effects observed in the elderly seems to be lower than in the other age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitization to minor cat allergen components is associated with type-2 biomarkers in young asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, N; Malinovschi, A; Nordvall, L; Mattsson, L; Lidholm, J; Pedroletti, C; Janson, C; Borres, M P; Alving, K

    2018-03-25

    Cat allergy is a major trigger of asthma world-wide. Molecular patterns of cat sensitization vary between individuals, but their relationship to inflammation in asthmatics has not been extensively studied. To investigate the prevalence and levels of IgE antibodies against different cat allergen components and their relationship to type-2 inflammation and total IgE among young asthmatic subjects sensitized to furry animals. Patients with asthma (age 10-35 years; n = 266) and IgE sensitization to cat, dog or horse extract (ImmunoCAP), were analysed for IgE to the cat allergen components Fel d 1 (secretoglobin), Fel d 2 (serum albumin), Fel d 4 and Fel d 7 (lipocalins). Independent associations between IgE-antibody concentrations, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count, and total IgE were analysed by multiple linear regression after adjustment for possible confounders. The level of IgE against Fel d 2 was independently related to FeNO (P = .012) and total IgE (P < .001), and IgE against Fel d 4 associated with Β-Eos count (P = .009) and total IgE (P < .001). IgE antibodies against Fel d 1 or cat extract did not independently relate to these inflammatory markers (P = .23-.51). Levels of IgE to lipocalin (Fel d 4) and serum albumin (Fel d 2), but not to secretoglobin (Fel d 1) or cat extract, were independently associated with type-2 biomarkers and total IgE in young asthmatics. We suggest that measurement of IgE to minor cat allergen components may be useful when investigating asthma morbidity in cat allergic subjects. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The parenting attitudes and the stress of mothers predict the asthmatic severity of their children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Jun; Kakuta, Chikage; Motomura, Chikako; Odajima, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Nishima, Sankei; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-10-07

    To examine relationships between a mother's stress-related conditions and parenting attitudes and their children's asthmatic status. 274 mothers of an asthmatic child 2 to 12 years old completed a questionnaire including questions about their chronic stress/coping behaviors (the "Stress Inventory"), parenting attitudes (the "Ta-ken Diagnostic Test for Parent-Child Relationship, Parent Form"), and their children's disease status. One year later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the mothers that included questions on the child's disease status. 223 mothers (81%) responded to the follow-up survey. After controlling for non-psychosocial factors including disease severity at baseline, multiple linear regression analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis found chronic irritation/anger and emotional suppression to be aggravating factors for children aged types of parental stress/coping behaviors and parenting styles may differently predict their children's asthmatic status, and such associations may change as children grow.

  10. Impact of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health of asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christoff

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the effect of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health in asthmatics. Thirty patients, from 20 to 55 years old, participate in the study. D-, M-, F- and DMFT indexes are determined in a 6 months period. All participants fill in a questionnaire. Asthmatics complain most frequently from oral dryness, take frequently sugar and soft drinks and visit irregularly dental practitioners. A significant increase in M-index is found out at the second visit. F-index increases considerably for patients treated with Beclometasone and Formoterol and D-index decreases significantly when treated with Budesonide and Formoterol. DMFT index increases considerably for all patients. Highest values of DMFT index are registered for patients treated with Fluticasone propionate and Salmeterol. Prolonged use of inhaled drugs with greater quantities of lactose leads to more impaired dental status in asthmatics and higher values of DMFT index.

  11. Hospitalizations Associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Asthmatic Children in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshio Katsunuma; Takehiko Matsui; Tsutomu Iwata; Mitsuhiko Nambu; Naomi Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 [pdm (H1N1) 2009] spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Japan. Since it was suggested early that asthma is a risk factor for an increased severity of the infection, the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) organized a working group for countermeasures, and investigated asthmatic children admitted to the hospitals for pdm (H1N1) 2009 infection. Methods: An appeal was made on the ho...

  12. Increased use of inhaled corticosteroids among young Danish adult asthmatics: An observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This population-based longitudinal study aimed to investigate trends in use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and determinants of ICS use in young Danish adults with asthma. METHODS: 106 757 users, aged 18-44 years, of anti-asthmatic drugs were identified in the Danish Register of Medical...... prevalence of ICS use was constant, approximately 64%, during 1997-2000. An annual increase was observed from 67% in 2001 to 77% in 2006. This trend also existed when stratifying on gender, age and IBA use. Using 1997 as baseline, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use in 2000 was 0.98 (95% CI 0...

  13. Ozone exposure, vitamin C intake, and genetic susceptibility of asthmatic children in Mexico City: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Macías Hortensia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that asthmatic children with GSTM1 null genotype may be more susceptible to the acute effect of ozone on the small airways and might benefit from antioxidant supplementation. This study aims to assess the acute effect of ozone on lung function (FEF25-75 in asthmatic children according to dietary intake of vitamin C and the number of putative risk alleles in three antioxidant genes: GSTM1, GSTP1 (rs1695, and NQO1 (rs1800566. Methods 257 asthmatic children from two cohort studies conducted in Mexico City were included. Stratified linear mixed models with random intercepts and random slopes on ozone were used. Potential confounding by ethnicity was assessed. Analyses were conducted under single gene and genotype score approaches. Results The change in FEF25-75 per interquartile range (60 ppb of ozone in persistent asthmatic children with low vitamin C intake and GSTM1 null was −91.2 ml/s (p = 0.06. Persistent asthmatic children with 4 to 6 risk alleles and low vitamin C intake showed an average decrement in FEF25-75 of 97.2 ml/s per 60 ppb of ozone (p = 0.03. In contrast in children with 1 to 3 risk alleles, acute effects of ozone on FEF25-75 did not differ by vitamin C intake. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that asthmatic children predicted to have compromised antioxidant defense by virtue of genetic susceptibility combined with deficient antioxidant intake may be at increased risk of adverse effects of ozone on pulmonary function.

  14. Acidity of unstimulated saliva and dental plaque in asthmatics, treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Karova; George Christoff

    2012-01-01

    The number of asthmatics is continuously increasing all over the world. The aim of the study is to study the effect of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on salivary and plaque pH in asthmatics with mild persistent asthma. The effect of different quantities of lactose, as gustatory corrector in the inhalers, is traced out.Thirty patients of both sexes, from 20 to 55 years old participated in the study. Salivary and plaque pH values are traced ...

  15. Selection of suitable housekeeping genes for real-time quantitative PCR in CD4(+ lymphocytes from asthmatics with or without depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: No optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs have been identified for CD4(+ T cells from non-depressive asthmatic and depressive asthmatic adults for normalizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR assays. The aim of present study was to select appropriate HKGs for gene expression analysis in purified CD4(+ T cells from these asthmatics. METHODS: Three groups of subjects (Non-depressive asthmatic, NDA, n = 10, Depressive asthmatic, DA, n = 11, and Healthy control, HC, n = 10 respectively were studied. qPCR for 9 potential HKGs, namely RNA, 28S ribosomal 1 (RN28S1, ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0, actin, beta (ACTB, cyclophilin A (PPIA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, glucuronidase, beta (GUSB and ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A, was performed. Then the data were analyzed with three different applications namely BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. RESULTS: The analysis of gene expression data identified B2M and RPLP0 as the most stable reference genes and showed that the level of PPIA was significantly different among subjects of three groups when the two best HKGs identified were applied. Post-hoc analysis by Student-Newman-Keuls correction shows that depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics exhibited lower expression level of PPIA than healthy controls (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the most optimal HKGs in gene expression studies involving human blood CD4(+ T cells derived from normal, depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics. The suitability of using the PPIA gene as the HKG for such studies was questioned due to its low expression in asthmatics.

  16. Two sampling methods yield distinct microbial signatures in the nasopharynges of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Crandall, Keith A; Freishtat, Robert J

    2016-06-16

    The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses, such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome during health and disease. Most studies so far have surveyed the nasopharynx as a whole; however, less is known about spatial variation (biogeography) in nasal microenvironments and how sampling techniques may capture that microbial diversity. We used targeted 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and two different sampling strategies [nasal washes (NW) and nasal brushes (NB)] to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota in 30 asthmatic children. Nasal brushing is more abrasive than nasal washing and targeted the inner portion of the inferior turbinate. This region is expected to be different from other nasal microenvironments. Nasal washing is not spatially specific. Our 30 × 2 nasal microbiomes generated 1,474,497 sequences, from which we identified an average of 157 and 186 OTUs per sample in the NW and NB groups, respectively. Microbiotas from NB showed significantly higher alpha-diversity than microbiotas from NW. Similarly, both nasal microbiotas were distinct from each other (PCoA) and significantly differed in their community composition and abundance in at least 9 genera (effective size ≥1 %). Nasopharyngeal microenvironments in asthmatic children contain microbiotas with different diversity and structure. Nasal washes and brushes capture that diversity differently. Future microbial studies of the nasopharynx need to be aware of potential spatial variation (biogeography).

  17. Mite fauna and fungal flora in house dust from homes of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A; Takaoka, M; Ichinoe, M; Kabasawa, Y; Ouchi, T

    1979-12-01

    Mite fauna and fungal flora in the house dust from homes of asthmatic children with positive and negative skin test to house dust allergen and non-asthmatic controls were examined. There was no conspicuous difference in mite species distribution among the three groups. Pyroglyphid mites dominate the mite fauna in house dust more than half of which being Dermatophagoides: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. There was no statistically significant difference in numbers between the two species and either species could dominate depending on the conditions of the individual houses. The average number of acarina in 0.5 g of fine dust did not differ statistically among the three groups; however, mite number per square meter floor differed between patients with positive skin test and negative skin test. The results suggest that house-cleaning might influence the possible sensitization of children. The genetic distribution of mould fungi in house dust was largely similar to that of airborne fungi. The average number of fungal colonies detected in 0.5 g of dust did not differ statistically among the three groups. Wallemia with its minute spores may cause sensitization but has so far been insufficiently investigated.

  18. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence Training on the Quality of Life in Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sanchooli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the extent of asthma, the Emotional Intelligence Theory provides a new perspective about predicting effective factors for success and primary prevention of mental disorders as well. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emotional intelligence training on the quality of life in patients with asthma. Method: Method of the project has been quasi-experimental that 30 asthmatic patients (confirmed by clinical tests were selected for sampling and divided into two experimental and control groups (each group had 15 persons randomly. The experimental group received training in emotional intelligence in 10 sessions of 90 minutes, but the control group did not receive this training. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL scales were performed in two stage pre- and post-test for both groups. After collecting, data, were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence [EI] and quality of life, and also there was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-test experimental and control groups on measures of physical health and quality of life in asthmatic patients .(P<0.05 Conclusions: According to the results achieved in this study, emotional intelligence [EI] can be improved quality of life patients suffering from asthma.

  19. Psychosocial Context of Differences Between Asthmatic and Diabetic Patients in Adaptation to Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Jagoda; Pituła, Beata

    2016-01-01

    A significant rise in the incidence of asthma and diabetes makes the psychosocial underpinnings of these diseases an increasingly important issue. This article examines differences in psychosocial functioning between healthy people and patients suffering from asthma and diabetes, as separate disease entities. Psychological factors seem to play a significant role particularly in the process of recovery and adaptation to the disease. Our assumption was that a time perspective, a sense of belonging, and a hope may be related to the functioning of people with chronic asthma and diabetes. The study involved a total of 90 people assigned to three groups: healthy individuals, asthmatic patients, and diabetic patients. The findings demonstrate that patients suffering from asthma have a different attitude toward the future and a sense of fatalism in the present. Yet there are no significant differences between asthma patients and healthy individuals in the sense of belonging and hope. Diabetic patients perceive the present as more fatalistic than asthmatic patients and healthy individuals, and they are less oriented at setting and achieving future goals. The finding that the type and course of the disease are associated with specific psychosocial adaptation may have functional and therapeutic implications, and thus should get psycho-clinical attention.

  20. Regional deposition of saline aerosols of different tonicities in normal and asthmatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, P.R.; Gonda, I.; Anderson, S.D.; Bailey, D.; Bautovich, G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosols are frequently used in the diagnosis and therapy of lung disease. The purpose of this work was to study the difference in the pattern of deposition of aerosols containing aqueous solutions of different tonicities. 99m Technetium-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA)-labelled saline aerosols, with mass median aerodynamic diameter 3.7-3.8 μm and geometric standard deviation 1.4, were inhaled under reproducible breathing conditions on two occasions. Hypotonic and hypertonic solutions were used in 11 normals subjects, isotonic and hypertonic solutions in 9 asthmatics. The regional deposition was quantified by a penetration index measured with the help of a tomographic technique. There was a small but significant increase (6.7%) in the penetration index of the hypotonic as compared to the hypertonic aerosols in the normal subjects. The region that was markedly affected was the trachea. The differences in the penetration of the isotonic and hypertonic aerosols in the asthmatics appeared to be strongly dependent on the state of the airways at the time of the study. These findings can be interpreted in terms of effects of growth or shrinkage of nonisotonic aerosols, as well as of airway narrowing, on regional deposition of aerosols. Tonicity of aerosols appears to affect their deposition both through physical and physiological mechanisms. This should be taken into account when interpreting the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions of various tonicities in patients in vivo. (au) (44 refs.)

  1. Disparities in risk communication: a pilot study of asthmatic children, their parents, and home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biksey, Thomas; Zickmund, Susan; Wu, Felicia

    2011-05-01

    Parents' knowledge and control of asthma triggers in home environments can help reduce risks associated with asthmatic children's respiratory health. This pilot study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to determine parental knowledge of their children's asthma triggers in home environments, control of those triggers, and information received and trusted. Twelve parents of asthmatic children in the greater Pittsburgh area--8 white and 4 African American--participated in one-on-one interviews about home exposures to asthma triggers. All parents described the link between asthma symptoms and both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and pet dander exposures. House dust mites and mold were also commonly identified asthma triggers. All 8 white parents reported receiving information from physicians about controlling home environmental triggers of asthma, but the 4 African American parents reported having received no such information. However, all 12 parents reported having greater trust in information received from physicians than from other sources. White parents were significantly more aware of potential asthma triggers and performed significantly more actions to control the triggers in their homes. African American parents noted stressful experiences with primary and secondary care, less recall of information sharing about asthma triggers, and a focus on symptom management vs trigger avoidance.

  2. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human eosinophils from asthmatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Xia, Yu; Simayi, Mihereguli; Ikramullah, Syed; He, Yuanbing; Cui, Shihong; Li, Shuang; Wushouer, Qimanguli

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophils exert a number of inflammatory effects through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, and are considered to be key effector cells in allergic disorders, including asthma. In order to investigate the regulatory effects of the natural polyphenol, resveratrol, on eosinophils derived from asthmatic individuals, the cell counting Kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in these cells, respectively. Cellular apoptosis was detected using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double‑staining. The protein expression levels of p53, p21, cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin A, cyclin E, Bim, B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot analysis following resveratrol treatment. The results indicated that resveratrol effectively suppressed the proliferation of eosinophils from asthmatic patients in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner. In addition, resveratrol was observed to arrest cell cycle progression in G1/S phase by increasing the protein expression levels of p53 and p21, and concurrently reducing the protein expression levels of CDK2, cyclin A and cyclin E. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment significantly induced apoptosis in eosinophils, likely through the upregulation of Bim and Bax protein expression levels and the downregulation of Bcl‑2 protein expression. These findings suggested that resveratrol may be a potential agent for the treatment of asthma by decreasing the number of eosinophils.

  3. Association between oral manifestations and inhaler use in asthmatic and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargavi Krishna Ayinampudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the association between oral manifestations and type, frequency and duration of inhaler usage, also type and dosage of medication used in asthmatic and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 patients of both sexes suffering from asthma and COPD who were using inhalers. Frequency of oral manifestation seen on the tongue, buccal mucosa, teeth, periodontium, palate, floor of the mouth, lips, and xerostomia in inhaler users depending on the type of inhaler, type and dosage of medication, frequency and duration of use of inhaler were examined. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P 0.05. Gingivitis/gingival enlargement (53.6% and 51.5% was almost similar but periodontitis was higher in those using >500 μg. Significant association (P < 0.05 was observed with duration <1 year; oral manifestations seen were taste alterations (53.2% in tongue, ulcerations (63.6% in the buccal mucosa, teeth affected (87%, gingivitis/gingival enlargement (66.2%, and xerostomia (89.6%. Conclusions: As asthmatics and COPD patients are at a higher risk of developing oral diseases during inhalation therapy, it is necessary to educate patients on proper oral health care and maintenance.

  4. Neutrophil predominance in induced sputum from asthmatic patients: Therapeutic implications and role of clara cell 16-KD protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Uribe Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is considered to be a main protagonist in asthma; however, often discordances between clinical manifestations and response to treatment are observed. We aimed to determine the occurrence of neutrophil predominance in asthma and to identify its characteristics on the basis of clinical-functional features, induced sputum cellular pattern and soluble molecules, to guide the appropriated anti-inflammatory therapy. A total of 41 patients were included in randomized groups: 21-40 year-old, with stable mild-to-severe asthma, steroid-naïve and non-smokers. An induced sputum sample was obtained under basal conditions, a second one after treatment with budesonide (400 µg b.i.d. or montelukast (10 mg/d for six weeks, and a final one after a 4-week washout period. By cytospin we evaluated eosinophil (EP or neutrophil predominance (NP, and in supernatant we determined LTE4, and CC16. Peak expiratory flow variability (PEFV was measured. A total of 23/41 patients corresponded to EP and 18/41 patients to NP. The PEFV was higher in EP than in NP. LTE4 was higher with NP than with EP. No difference was found for CC16. Montelukast reduced the predominant cell in both subsets, whereas budesonide only reduced eosinophils in EP. Budesonide and montelukast reduced PEFV in EP but not in NP. Considering the total treated-samples in each subset, CC16 level increased significantly in EP. In conclusion: a NP subset of asthmatic patients was identified. These patients show a lower bronchial lability; the leukotriene pathway is involved which responds to anti-leukotriene treatment. This phenotype shows a poor recovery of CC16 level after treatment.

  5. Airway protease/antiprotease imbalance in atopic asthmatics contributes to increased influenza A virus cleavage and replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthmatics are more susceptible to influenza infections, yet mechanisms mediating this enhanced susceptibility are unknown. Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein binds to sialic add residues on the host cells. HA requires cleavage to allow fusion of the viral HA with host ce...

  6. Cluster-guided imaging-based CFD analysis of airflow and particle deposition in asthmatic human lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiwoong; Leblanc, Lawrence; Choi, Sanghun; Haghighi, Babak; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study is to assess inter-subject variability in delivery of orally inhaled drug products to small airways in asthmatic lungs. A recent multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA) of computed tomography (CT) lung images in an asthmatic cohort identified four clusters with statistically distinct structural and functional phenotypes associating with unique clinical biomarkers. Thus, we aimed to address inter-subject variability via inter-cluster variability. We selected a representative subject from each of the 4 asthma clusters as well as 1 male and 1 female healthy controls, and performed computational fluid and particle simulations on CT-based airway models of these subjects. The results from one severe and one non-severe asthmatic cluster subjects characterized by segmental airway constriction had increased particle deposition efficiency, as compared with the other two cluster subjects (one non-severe and one severe asthmatics) without airway constriction. Constriction-induced jets impinging on distal bifurcations led to excessive particle deposition. The results emphasize the impact of airway constriction on regional particle deposition rather than disease severity, demonstrating the potential of using cluster membership to tailor drug delivery. NIH Grants U01HL114494 and S10-RR022421, and FDA Grant U01FD005837. XSEDE.

  7. Bradykinin B2 receptor expression in the bronchial mucosa of allergic asthmatics: the role of NF-kB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, F. L. M.; Petecchia, L.; Sorbello, V.; Di Stefano, A.; Usai, C.; Massaglia, G. M.; Gnemmi, I.; Mognetti, B.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Sterk, P. J.; Sabatini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) mediates acute allergic asthma and airway remodelling. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is potentially involved in BK B2 receptor (B2R) regulation. In this observational cross-sectional study, B2R and NF-kB expression was evaluated in bronchial biopsies from mild asthmatics (after

  8. The impact of "Ramadan fasting period" on total and differential white blood cells, haematological indices, inflammatory biomarker, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests of healthy and asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, V R; Alavinezhad, A; Boskabady, M H

    2016-01-01

    There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effect of fasting on different features in asthmatic patients. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting in asthmatic patients and healthy control was studied. Haematological indices, inflammatory mediators, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 15 asthmatic patients compared to 14 healthy matched control group before and after the one-month fasting period in Ramadan. The change in each parameter from the beginning to the end of Ramadan was calculated and referred to as "variation during Ramadan". The values of MCH, MCHC in both groups and monocyte counts in asthmatic patients, were significantly increased but platelet count was reduced in asthmatic and controls respectively compared to pre-Ramadan fasting period (Pfasting month (Pfasting month in both groups were non-significantly higher compared to pre-fasting values except FVC. Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients were non-significantly but wheeze-o was significantly reduced after Ramadan fasting period in asthma group (Pfasting period between two groups, although reduction of hs-CRP in asthmatic group was non-significantly higher than control group. These results show that Ramadan fasting period has no negative impact on asthma and may have some positive effect on asthma severity with regard to reduction of hs-CRP concentration and chest wheeze. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan Involves Changes in Antigen-Induced Immunological and Biochemical Mediators of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is one of the major autoimmune diseases of global prevalence. The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. This limitation has necessitated the search for novel therapeutic products. We report here a traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal formula, Huo luo xiao ling dan (HLXL, which has potent antiarthritic activity as validated in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA model. HLXL (2.3 g/Kg was fed to Lewis (RT.11 rats daily by gavage beginning at the onset of arthritis and then continued through the observation period. HLXL inhibited the severity of ongoing AA. This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65. There was a reduction in the level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-1β but enhancement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. Thus, HLXL is a promising CAM modality for further testing in RA patients.

  10. House Dust Mite Allergen Regulates Constitutive Apoptosis of Normal and Asthmatic Neutrophils via Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyung Kim

    Full Text Available House dust mites (HDMs induce allergic diseases such as asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is an important process of innate immunity, and its dysregulation is associated with asthma. In this study, we examined the effects of HDM on constitutive apoptosis of normal and asthmatic neutrophils. Extract of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP inhibited neutrophil apoptosis, but Dermatophagoides farinae extract had no effect. Anti-apoptotic signaling mediated by DP involves in TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-κB in normal neutrophils. DP delayed cleavage of procaspase 9 and procaspase 3 and the decrease in Mcl-1 expression. Supernatant collected from DP-treated normal neutrophils inhibited the constitutive apoptosis of normal neutrophils, and S100A8 and S100A9 were identified as anti-apoptotic proteins in the supernatant. S100A8 and S100A9 transduced the anti-apoptotic signal via TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-κB. DP also suppressed asthmatic neutrophil apoptosis and induced secretion of S100A8 and S100A9, which delayed the constitutive apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of DP, S100A8 and S100A9 in asthmatic neutrophils are associated with TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-κB. The concentrations of S100A8 and S100A9 were significantly elevated in asthmatic bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF when compared to normal BALF (p<0.01, but not in serum. S100A8 concentration in BALF was positively correlated with the number of BALF neutrophils and negatively correlated with FEV1(%. These findings improve our understanding of the role of HDM in regulation of neutrophil apoptosis in normal individuals and asthmatics and will enable elucidation of asthma pathogenesis.

  11. Registration-based assessment of regional lung function via volumetric CT images of normal subjects vs. severe asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Yin, Youbing; Castro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of image registration-derived variables associated with computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the lung acquired at multiple volumes. As an evaluation of the utility of such an imaging approach, we explored two groups at the extremes of population ranging from normal subjects to severe asthmatics. A mass-preserving image registration technique was employed to match CT images at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) for assessment of regional air volume change and lung deformation between the two states. Fourteen normal subjects and thirty severe asthmatics were analyzed via image registration-derived metrics together with their pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT-based air-trapping. Relative to the normal group, the severely asthmatic group demonstrated reduced air volume change (consistent with air trapping) and more isotropic deformation in the basal lung regions while demonstrating increased air volume change associated with increased anisotropic deformation in the apical lung regions. These differences were found despite the fact that both PFT-derived TLC and FRC in the two groups were nearly 100% of predicted values. Data suggest that reduced basal-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was compensated by increased apical-lung air volume change and that relative increase in apical-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was accompanied by enhanced anisotropic deformation. These data suggest that CT-based deformation, assessed via inspiration vs. expiration scans, provides a tool for distinguishing differences in lung mechanics when applied to the extreme ends of a population range. PMID:23743399

  12. Evaluation of angiopoietin 1 and 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Burcu Tahire; Ozbek, Ozlem Yilmaz; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation that is associated with structural changes termed airway remodeling. Recently, cytokines/mediators that augment inflammation have been attracting attention in this field. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha values, which have important roles in inflammation, angiogenesis, and remodeling in asthmatic children. We also documented correlations between demographic features, duration of asthma, and pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters. Randomly selected 40 children (20 male and 20 female children, aged 6-16 years) with mild or moderate persistent asthma and 32 healthy children (15 male and 17 female children, aged 6-16 years) enrolled in the study. All asthmatic children had been using inhaled corticosteroids at least for the last 3 months. Serum Ang-1 levels were significantly lower in asthmatic children than those in normal controls. The Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio was also significantly lower in asthmatic children compared with those in normal controls (p < 0.01). However, serum Ang-2, VEGF, and TNF-alpha levels were similar in the two groups. A significant positive correlation was found between VEGF and duration of asthma. No correlation between serum Ang-1, Ang-2, VEGF values, and PFT parameters was obtained. On the other hand, significant negative correlation was detected between serum TNF-alpha and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. We have shown that serum Ang-1 levels and Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio were significantly reduced and balance was toward Ang-2 in asthmatics children. This process may lead to inflammation, destabilization of blood vessels, and trigger remodeling.

  13. [Modification of expiratory peak flow (EPF) in 14 asthmatic subjects from Benin by short duration exercise training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, M M; Hounkpatin, S; Akplogan, B

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is a world wide public health problem. It is the most commom chronic disease of school age children. Its severity is in constant increase. The frequency of the hospitalizations for asthma increased in practically all countries. Physical exercises and sport are used more and more as therapeutic means, in northern deveopped countries of where it was very early understood that it is necessary to integrate the asthmatic subjects into a program of specific physical training. This study undertaken in south saharian african country considers also assiduity in a physical training program as the factor of increase in the expiratory peak flow, of reinforcement of some principal muscles necessary to the improvement, and of the respiratory function of the asthmatic subject. Physical exercise is used as a non pharmacological therapy of asthma. This transversal study was carried out on fourteen asthmatic subjects of colleges in Porto-Novo's town, aged 15 years old to 25 years, of the two sexes. The results showed that: the Expiratory Peak Flow of Point (EPF) of the subjects at the beginning of the program is lower than the minimal average value of the group whatever the sex; the subjects average EPF increased from approximately 35% compared to the average at the beginning of the program; the subjects from family with asthmatic line, are much more inclined with respiratory embarrassments post-exercises than those who did not come from it; the respiratory embarrassments post-exercises noticed in the first weeks, grew blurred before the end of the program. This study suggests physical exercise adapted to the asthmatic subjects for the improvement of their health.

  14. The investigation of inhalational allergen in 208 asthmatic infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yonggang; Zhang Yi; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the inhalational allergen in 208 asthmatic infants and children with allergen steep puncturing skin. The positive cases were 169(81.25%). There were 18 inhalational allergens in allergen steep. The positive rate of the dust acarus was 78.85%, and the dust was 35.58%, the smoke was 32.69% among the allergens. There was not any positive reaction in other allergens. There were no sexual differences in the positive rate. There was nothing with hypersusceptibility of the individual and the family. The positive rate of the infant was less than the child. There was significant difference of the positive rate in the age group (P < 0.01). The result indicated that dust acarus, air pollution or passive smoke was the quite dangerous factor in the many factors of the asthma. It was very important to strengthen the study of the infant and child prevention and cure

  15. Measurement of sequential change of regional ventilation by new developed Kr-81m method in asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Takao; Narita, Hiroto; Ishida, Hirohide; Terashima, Yoichi; Hirasawa, Korenori; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji

    1991-01-01

    Fazio has reported the distribution of Kr-81m by the continuous inhalation method indicates distribution of ventilation. To estimate sequential ventilation change with the continuous Kr-81m inhalation method, it is necessary to keep the concentration of Kr-81m constant. However this is frequently ignored. Because of this, we have developed the new method to maintain constant concentration of Kr-81m and compared the reliability of this method to the conventional method. The results of phantom study showed that the concentration of Kr-81m is kept constant, and sequential change of ventilation can be estimated only by our new method. On application of this method in asthmatics, we have discovered the existence of the region where ventilation reduced by inhalation of a bronchodilator. (author)

  16. Effects of omeprazole and cisapride treatment in Japanese asthmatics with reflux esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Fujimori

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States and Europe, gastroesophageal reflux (GER is receiving attention as a potential cause of bronchial asthma. Few Japanese case reports have described this relationship. Therefore, we investigated the effect of omeprazole and cisapride on pulmonary function tests, blood gases and home peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR in six Japanese outpatients with asthma and proven GER. After 8 weeks of treatment, reflux esophagitis had improved in all patients. However, the parameters of pulmonary function showed no change other than a significant post- treatment increase in home PEFR (4.4-27.7% in three patients. These results suggest that anti-reflux (omeprazole and cisapride treatment will produce small improvements in the PEFR in some Japanese asthmatics with GER.

  17. Association of Body Mass Index with Asthma Severity and Pulmonary Function among Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuol Nasiri Kalmarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in respiratory system and obesity is another inflammatory disease which incidence rate is increasing. Although, many studies have been conducted on severity of asthma and its relationship with obesity, but different results have been obtained. This study aimed to determine a relationship between asthma severity, Body Mass Index (BMI and pulmonary function in Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 asthmatic patients referred to referral hospital in Kurdistan, North West of Iran, were selected by simple random method. BMI was calculated by dividing weight by height.Pulmonary Function Test (PFT and bronchial-stimulation-test were used for confirmation and investigation of asthma severity. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 and Chi-square and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results: Relationship between BMI and severity of asthma (mild, medium and severe was evaluated, there was a relationship and positive relationship between them (P

  18. Relapsing bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia and chronic sarcoidosis in an atopic asthmatic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonelli, C; Roggeri, A; Cavazza, A; Zompatori, M; Zucchi, L

    2008-03-01

    Asthma is thought to be a Th2 disease while sarcoidosis is considered a Th1 granulomatous disorder. Organising pneumonia is a histologic pattern of lung injury. When it has no recognisable cause it is defined as cryptogenic organising pneumonia. We herein report the case of a patient with recurrent and steroid sensitive organising pneumonia associated with chronic sarcoidosis in an atopic, moderate persistent asthmatic patient. Each disease has been documented with transbronchial biopsies and recurrence of organising pneumonia was suggested by clinical features and by follow up HRCT which shows distinctive signs even in associated disease. Steroids are the mainstay of therapy for these disorders and especially for the consolidated processes typical of organising pneumonia but prognostic indices for relapse and progression are lacking.

  19. Nifedipine--a calcium channel blocker--in asthmatic patients. Interaction with terbutaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedmyr, K; Löfdahl, C G; Svedmyr, N

    1984-01-01

    Seven asthmatic patients were studied in a single-blind randomized, crossover study after oral administration of 20 mg nifedipine or placebo. Four increasing doses of i.v. terbutaline were then given with 30 min interval. The study was concluded with inhalation of five terbutaline puffs. FEV1 measurements 30 min after intake of nifedipine did not show any difference compared to placebo. During the terbutaline treatment, however, there was a more pronounced bronchodilation after nifedipine than after placebo (P less than 0.05). Terbutaline-induced skeletal muscle tremor was similar after nifedipine and placebo pretreatments. After nifedipine intake there was a decrease of diastolic blood pressure and a reflexogenic tachycardia. Thus, this study showed a small potentiation of the beta 2-adrenoceptor mediated bronchodilation, which is of importance when treating patients with simultaneous asthma and hypertension or angina pectoris.

  20. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...... on separate days. Blood samples were taken for plasma salbutamol at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after inhalation to measure lung bioavailability as a surrogate for relative lung dose. With immediate inhalation following actuation, a new rinsed spacer (NewRinsed ) was compared with a used spacer after repeated daily...... log transformed and expressed as geometric mean fold difference for the average plasma salbutamol concentration (Cav) over 20 min. RESULTS: There were significant differences (P NewRinsed 1.92 fold (95% CI 1.15, 3...

  1. The teaching of therapeutic Physical Culture to asthmatic students in the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Romero-León

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of therapeutic physical culture asthmatic students has proved to be an excellent therapeutic method in physical rehabilitation. However, in the university students need a developer education that gives them theoretical, methodological tools. a historical analysis of the therapeutic teaching Physical Culture, in order to expose the way he has dominated his teaching was done. In addition, the elaboration of its concept in order to meet the social demand for the formation of a subject becomes heir and transmitter of a culture of physical activity that achieves deal with ailments of all kinds, increasing each time more life expectancy, the apprehension of all kinds of techniques that allows an individual to be increasingly prepared.

  2. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads Andreas Bay; Kongsgaard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should...... be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using......, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both...

  3. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-02-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested.

  4. Pediatric metabolic outcome comparisons based on a spectrum of obesity and asthmatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Ashley D; Cottrell, Lesley A; Lilly, Christa L; Gower, William A; Ely, Brian A; Foringer, Brad; Wright, Melvin L; Neal, William A

    2018-04-20

    Asthma and obesity are two of the most prevalent public health issues for children in the U.S. Trajectories of both have roughly paralleled one another over the past several decades causing many to explore their connection to one another and to other associated health issues such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. Earlier models have commonly designated obesity as the central hub of these associations; however, more recent models have argued connections between pediatric asthma and other obesity-related metabolic conditions regardless of children's obesity risk. To examine the relationships between asthma, obesity, and abnormal metabolic indices. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 179 children ages 7 to 12 years recruited from a rural, Appalachian region. Our model controlled for children's smoke exposure, body mass index percentile, and gender to examine the association between children's asthma (based on pulmonary function tests, medical history, medications, and parent report of severity), lipids (fasting lipid profile), and measures of altered glucose metabolism (glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostatic model assessment 2-insulin resistance). Our findings revealed a statistically significant model for low density lipids, high density lipids, log triglyceride, and homeostatic model assessment 2-insulin resistance; however, a statistically significant main effect for asthma was found for triglycerides. We also found an asthma-obesity interaction effect on children's glycosylated hemoglobin with asthmatic obese children revealing significantly higher glycosylated hemoglobin values than non-asthmatic obese children. Our findings support a connection between asthma and children's glycosylated hemoglobin values; however, this association remains entwined with obesity factors.

  5. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Hyun Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with indoor plants and went through the latter observation term without any indoor plants. Results The household of continuation showed a continual decrease in the indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs during the entire observation period, but the household of withdrawal performed an increase in the indoor concentrations of VOCs, except formaldehyde and toluene during the latter observation term after the decrease during the former observation term. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR increased in the households of continuation with the value of 13.9 L/min in the morning and 20.6 L/ min in the evening, but decreased in the households of withdrawal with the value of -24.7 L/min in the morning and -30.2 L/min in the evening in the first experimental season. All of the households exhibited a decrease in the value of PEFR in the second experimental season. Conclusions Limitations to the generalizability of findings regarding the presence of plants indoors can be seen as a more general expression of such a benefit of human-environment relations.

  6. Impulse oscillometry in acute and stable asthmatic children: a comparison with spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Kuyucu, Semanur; Arıkoglu, Tugba; Tezol, Ozlem; Aydogdu, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Lung function tests have attracted interest for the diagnosis and follow-up of childhood asthma in recent years. For patients who cannot perform forced expiratory maneuvers, impulse oscillometry (IOS), performed during spontaneous breathing, may be an alternative tool. Thirty-five acute, 107 stable asthmatic and 103 healthy children who presented to our clinic performed IOS followed by spirometry before and after salbutamol inhalation. The mean baseline and reversibility of IOS and spirometry parameters were compared between the groups. Correlation analyses were undertaken within the asthmatics, and the healthy controls separately. To distinguish the three groups, the sensitivity and specificity of baseline and reversibility values of IOS and spirometry were computed. When spirometry was taken as the gold standard, the discriminating performance of IOS to detect the airway obstruction and reversibility was investigated. The mean absolute values of Zrs, R5, R5-R20, X5, X10, X15, Fres, AX, and all spirometric parameters, and the mean reversibility values of R5, R10, Fres, AX and forced expiratory volume in one second were different between the groups and the highest area under curve values to discriminate the groups was obtained from area of reactance (AX) and ΔAX. Zrs, all resistance (including R5-R20) and reactance parameters, Fres and AX were correlated with at least one spirometric parameter. Spirometric reversibility was detected by ≤-22.34 and ≤-39.05 cut-off values of ΔR5 and ΔAX, respectively. IOS has shown a highly significant association with spirometric indices and reversibility testing. It may be a substitute for spirometry in children who fail to perform forced expiratory maneuvers.

  7. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls--Physical Activity Questionnaire application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Melo, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Daniel; Coelho, Janine; Carvalho, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen) is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level). Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males) and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males) answered the questionnaire. There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40±0,7 vs 2,48±0,62; p=0,32). Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p=0,011) and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p=0,036). No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Vaccine Containing the Three Allelic Variants of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Antigen Induces Protection in Mice after Challenge with a Transgenic Rodent Malaria Parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Marina Gimenez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most common species that cause malaria outside of the African continent. The development of an efficacious vaccine would contribute greatly to control malaria. Recently, using bacterial and adenoviral recombinant proteins based on the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP, we demonstrated the possibility of eliciting strong antibody-mediated immune responses to each of the three allelic forms of P. vivax CSP (PvCSP. In the present study, recombinant proteins representing the PvCSP alleles (VK210, VK247, and P. vivax-like, as well as a hybrid polypeptide, named PvCSP-All epitopes, were generated. This hybrid containing the conserved C-terminal of the PvCSP and the three variant repeat domains in tandem were successfully produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. After purification and biochemical characterization, they were used for the experimental immunization of C57BL/6 mice in a vaccine formulation containing the adjuvant Poly(I:C. Immunization with a recombinant protein expressing all three different allelic forms in fusion elicited high IgG antibody titers reacting with all three different allelic variants of PvCSP. The antibodies targeted both the C-terminal and repeat domains of PvCSP and recognized the native protein on the surface of P. vivax sporozoites. More importantly, mice that received the vaccine formulation were protected after challenge with chimeric Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing CSP repeats of P. vivax sporozoites (Pb/PvVK210. Our results suggest that it is possible to elicit protective immunity against one of the most common PvCSP alleles using soluble recombinant proteins expressed by P. pastoris. These recombinant proteins are promising candidates for clinical trials aiming to develop a multiallele vaccine against P. vivax malaria.

  9. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: radiobiological studies at RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bruno, Leandro J.; Gatti, David A. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, LABOATEM (Laboratorio de Biologia Osteoarticular, Ingenieria Tisular y Terapias Emergentes), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina); Stur, Mariela [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Catedra de Diagnostico por Imagenes, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Hughes, Andrea Monti [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castillo, Jorge; Wentzeis, Luis; Scolari, Hugo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Reactors, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Feldman, Sara [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Rosario, LABOATEM (Laboratorio de Biologia Osteoarticular, Ingenieria Tisular y Terapias Emergentes), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune pathology characterized by the proliferation and inflammation of the synovium. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), a binary treatment modality that combines the preferential incorporation of boron carriers to target tissue and neutron irradiation, was proposed to treat the pathological synovium in arthritis. In a previous biodistribution study, we showed the incorporation of therapeutically useful boron concentrations to the pathological synovium in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in rabbits, employing two boron compounds approved for their use in humans, i.e., decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and boronophenylalanine (BPA). The aim of the present study was to perform low-dose BNCS studies at the RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in the same model. Neutron irradiation was performed post intra-articular administration of BPA or GB-10 to deliver 2.4 or 3.9 Gy, respectively, to synovium (BNCS-AIA). AIA and healthy animals (no AIA) were used as controls. The animals were followed clinically for 2 months. At that time, biochemical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological studies were performed. BNCS-AIA animals did not show any toxic effects, swelling or pain on palpation. In BNCS-AIA, the post-treatment levels of TNF-α decreased in four of six rabbits and IFN-γ levels decreased in five of six rabbits. In all cases, MRI images of the knee joint in BNCS-AIA resembled those of no AIA, with no necrosis or periarticular effusion. Synovial membranes of BNCS-AIA were histologically similar to no AIA. BPA-BNCS and GB-10-BNCS, even at low doses, would be therapeutically useful for the local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  10. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: radiobiological studies at RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Bruno, Leandro J.; Gatti, David A.; Stur, Mariela; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Castillo, Jorge; Wentzeis, Luis; Scolari, Hugo; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Feldman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune pathology characterized by the proliferation and inflammation of the synovium. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), a binary treatment modality that combines the preferential incorporation of boron carriers to target tissue and neutron irradiation, was proposed to treat the pathological synovium in arthritis. In a previous biodistribution study, we showed the incorporation of therapeutically useful boron concentrations to the pathological synovium in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in rabbits, employing two boron compounds approved for their use in humans, i.e., decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and boronophenylalanine (BPA). The aim of the present study was to perform low-dose BNCS studies at the RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in the same model. Neutron irradiation was performed post intra-articular administration of BPA or GB-10 to deliver 2.4 or 3.9 Gy, respectively, to synovium (BNCS-AIA). AIA and healthy animals (no AIA) were used as controls. The animals were followed clinically for 2 months. At that time, biochemical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological studies were performed. BNCS-AIA animals did not show any toxic effects, swelling or pain on palpation. In BNCS-AIA, the post-treatment levels of TNF-α decreased in four of six rabbits and IFN-γ levels decreased in five of six rabbits. In all cases, MRI images of the knee joint in BNCS-AIA resembled those of no AIA, with no necrosis or periarticular effusion. Synovial membranes of BNCS-AIA were histologically similar to no AIA. BPA-BNCS and GB-10-BNCS, even at low doses, would be therapeutically useful for the local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  11. Protective effect of ketotifen and disodium cromoglycate against bronchoconstriction induced by aspirin, benzoic acid or tartrazine in intolerant asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1979-01-01

    Oral challenge tests with acetylsalicylic acid, tartrazine or benzoic acid were performed in 7 intolerant asthmatic patients after a 3-day treatment with either orally taken ketotifen (1 mg twice daily) or inhaled disodium cromoglycate (20 mg four times daily) at random. Protection was noted with ketotifen in 5, with DSCG in 3 patients. On the evaluation of the mean percentage of the maximum decline in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) only ketotifen afforded significant protection statistically (p less than 0.05). All the intolerant asthmatics studies showed, as an immunological abnormity, a slight, but significant decrease of the C1-inhibitor levels. Moreover, in three out of these the alpha 1-antitrypsin serum values were under the lower normal range.

  12. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  13. Development of online diary and self-management system on e-Healthcare for asthmatic children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Chun; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wen, Tzu-Ning; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2014-10-01

    Many regional programs of the countries educate asthmatic children and their families to manage healthcare data. This study aims to establish a Web-based self-management system, eAsthmaCare, to promote the electronic healthcare (e-Healthcare) services for the asthmatic children in Taiwan. The platform can perform real time online functionality based upon a five-tier infrastructure with mutually supportive components to acquire asthma diaries, quality of life assessments and health educations. We have designed five multi-disciplinary portions on the interactive interface functioned with the analytical diagrams: (1) online asthma diary, (2) remote asthma assessment, (3) instantaneous asthma alert, (4) diagrammatical clinic support, and (5) asthma health education. The Internet-based asthma diary and assessment program was developed for patients to process self-management healthcare at home. In addition, the online analytical charts can help healthcare professionals to evaluate multi-domain health information of patients immediately. eAsthmaCare was developed by Java™ Servlet/JSP technology upon Apache Tomcat™ web server and Oracle™ database. Forty-one voluntary asthmatic children (and their parents) were intervened to examine the proposed system. Seven domains of satisfiability assessment by using the system were applied for approving the development. The average scores were scaled in the acceptable range for each domain to ensure feasibility of the proposed system. The study revealed the details of system infrastructure and developed functions that can help asthmatic children in self-management for healthcare to enhance communications between patients and hospital professionals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bradykinin B2 receptor expression in the bronchial mucosa of allergic asthmatics: the role of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, F L M; Petecchia, L; Sorbello, V; Di Stefano, A; Usai, C; Massaglia, G M; Gnemmi, I; Mognetti, B; Hiemstra, P S; Sterk, P J; Sabatini, F

    2016-03-01

    Bradykinin (BK) mediates acute allergic asthma and airway remodelling. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is potentially involved in BK B2 receptor (B2R) regulation. In this observational cross-sectional study, B2R and NF-kB expression was evaluated in bronchial biopsies from mild asthmatics (after diluent/allergen challenge) and healthy controls, examining the role of NF-kB in B2R expression in primary human fibroblasts from normal and asthmatic subjects (HNBFb and HABFb). B2R and NF-kB (total and nuclear) expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from 10 mild intermittent asthmatics (48 h after diluent/allergen challenge) and 10 controls undergoing bronchoscopy. B2R co-localization in 5B5(+) and αSMA(+) mesenchymal cells was studied by immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, and B2R expression in HABFb/HNBFb incubated with interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 with/without BK, and after NF-kB inhibitor, by Western blotting. Bronchial mucosa B2R and nuclear NF-kB expression was higher in asthmatics after diluent (B2R only) and allergen challenge than in controls (P kB (total and nuclear) increased after allergen compared with after diluent (P kB inhibitor (P kB expression. NF-kB inhibitor blocked IL-4/IL-13-induced increase in B2R expression in cultured fibroblasts, suggesting a role as potential anti-asthma drug. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fringe Controls Naïve CD4+T Cells Differentiation through Modulating Notch Signaling in Asthmatic Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Tao; Guo, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Notch signaling to regulate T helper cell development and differentiation has been widely accepted. Fringe, O-fucose-β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases modulate Notch receptor expression and promote the Notch signaling pathway through receptor-ligand binding. In this study, we assayed the expression levels of three Fringe homologs in naive CD4+T cells in asthmatic rats. We found that Radical Fringe (Rfng) was highly expressed, whereas both Lunatic Fringe (Lfng) and Manic Fringe (Mfng) were expressed at low levels. Down-regulation of Rfng using siRNA, and overexpression of Lfng or Mfng enhanced Th1 subset lineages and diminished Th2 subset lineages. Notch signaling was more activated in asthmatic naïve CD4+T cells than in control cells, and Lfng, but not Mfng or Rfng, partly inhibited Notch signaling in asthmatic naïve CD4+T lymphocytes. Lfng overexpression resulted in significantly decreased Th2 cytokine production in asthma, which was the same effect as the GSI (γ-secretase inhibitor) treatment alone, but had an increased effect on Th1 cytokines than GSI treatment. Collectively, these data identify the essential role of Fringe modulating naïve CD4+T cells differentiation through Notch signaling. Lfng regulated Th2 cells differentiation via a Notch-dependent manner and Th1 cells differentiation via a Notch-independent manner. Fringe could be a therapeutic strategy for the management and prevention of allergic asthma. PMID:23071776

  16. Fringe controls naïve CD4(+)T cells differentiation through modulating notch signaling in asthmatic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Tao; Guo, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Notch signaling to regulate T helper cell development and differentiation has been widely accepted. Fringe, O-fucose-β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases modulate Notch receptor expression and promote the Notch signaling pathway through receptor-ligand binding. In this study, we assayed the expression levels of three Fringe homologs in naive CD4(+)T cells in asthmatic rats. We found that Radical Fringe (Rfng) was highly expressed, whereas both Lunatic Fringe (Lfng) and Manic Fringe (Mfng) were expressed at low levels. Down-regulation of Rfng using siRNA, and overexpression of Lfng or Mfng enhanced Th1 subset lineages and diminished Th2 subset lineages. Notch signaling was more activated in asthmatic naïve CD4(+)T cells than in control cells, and Lfng, but not Mfng or Rfng, partly inhibited Notch signaling in asthmatic naïve CD4(+)T lymphocytes. Lfng overexpression resulted in significantly decreased Th2 cytokine production in asthma, which was the same effect as the GSI (γ-secretase inhibitor) treatment alone, but had an increased effect on Th1 cytokines than GSI treatment. Collectively, these data identify the essential role of Fringe modulating naïve CD4(+)T cells differentiation through Notch signaling. Lfng regulated Th2 cells differentiation via a Notch-dependent manner and Th1 cells differentiation via a Notch-independent manner. Fringe could be a therapeutic strategy for the management and prevention of allergic asthma.

  17. The parenting attitudes and the stress of mothers predict the asthmatic severity of their children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine relationships between a mother's stress-related conditions and parenting attitudes and their children's asthmatic status. Methods 274 mothers of an asthmatic child 2 to 12 years old completed a questionnaire including questions about their chronic stress/coping behaviors (the "Stress Inventory", parenting attitudes (the "Ta-ken Diagnostic Test for Parent-Child Relationship, Parent Form", and their children's disease status. One year later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the mothers that included questions on the child's disease status. Results 223 mothers (81% responded to the follow-up survey. After controlling for non-psychosocial factors including disease severity at baseline, multiple linear regression analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis found chronic irritation/anger and emotional suppression to be aggravating factors for children aged Conclusions Different types of parental stress/coping behaviors and parenting styles may differently predict their children's asthmatic status, and such associations may change as children grow.

  18. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells disrupt bronchial epithelial barrier integrity by targeting tight junctions through IL-13 in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Steer, Catherine A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Altunbulakli, Can; Morita, Hideaki; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Kubo, Terufumi; Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Rückert, Beate; Sudo, Katsuko; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mübeccel; Takei, Fumio; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial barrier leakiness and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been separately linked to asthma pathogenesis; however, the influence of ILC2s on the bronchial epithelial barrier has not been investigated previously. We investigated the role of ILC2s in the regulation of bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and barrier function both in bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and general innate lymphoid cell- and ILC2-deficient mice. Cocultures of human ILC2s and bronchial epithelial cells were used to determine transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular flux, and TJ mRNA and protein expressions. The effect of ILC2s on TJs was examined by using a murine model of IL-33-induced airway inflammation in wild-type, recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2) -/- , Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- , and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation to analyze the in vivo relevance of barrier disruption by ILC2s. ILC2s significantly impaired the epithelial barrier, as demonstrated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability in air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. This was in parallel to decreased mRNAs and disrupted protein expression of TJ proteins and was restored by neutralization of IL-13. Intranasal administration of recombinant IL-33 to wild-type and Rag2 -/- mice lacking T and B cells triggered TJ disruption, whereas Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation that lack ILC2s did not show any barrier leakiness. Direct nasal administration of IL-13 was sufficient to induce deficiency in the TJ barrier in the bronchial epithelium of mice in vivo. These data highlight an essential mechanism in asthma pathogenesis by demonstrating that ILC2s are responsible for bronchial epithelial TJ barrier leakiness through IL-13. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  19. IMAGE-BASED IN VIVO QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN AIRWAY OPENING AND CONTRACTILITY BY FIBER OPTICAL NASOPHARYNGOSCOPY IN HEALTHY AND ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINHONG DENG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human airway lumen opening is important in diagnosing and understanding the mechanisms of airway dysfunctions such as the excessive airway narrowing in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Although there are indirect methods to evaluate the airway calibre, direct in vivo measurement of the airway calibre has not been commonly available. With recent advent of the flexible fiber optical nasopharyngoscope with video recording it has become possible to directly visualize the passages of upper and lower airways. However, quantitative analysis of the recorded video images has been technically challenging. Here, we describe an automatic image processing and analysis method that allows for batch analysis of the images recorded during the endoscopic procedure, thus facilitates image-based quantification of the airway opening. Video images of the airway lumen of volunteer subject were acquired using a fiber optical nasopharyngoscope, and subsequently processed using Gaussian smoothing filter, threshold segmentation, differentiation, and Canny image edge detection, respectively. Thus the area of the open airway lumen was identified and computed using a predetermined converter of the image scale to true dimension of the imaged object. With this method we measured the opening/narrowing of the glottis during tidal breathing with or without making "Hee" sound or cough. We also used this method to measure the opening/narrowing of the primary bronchus of either healthy or asthmatic subjects in response to histamine and/or albuterol treatment, which also provided an indicator of the airway contractility. Our results demonstrate that the image-based method accurately quantified the area change waveform of either the glottis or the bronchus as observed by using the optical nasopharygoscope. Importantly, the opening/narrowing of the airway lumen generally correlated with the airflow and resistance of the airways, and could

  20. Impact of botanical oils on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and leukotriene generation in mild asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary supplementation with botanical oils that contain n-6 and n-3 eighteen carbon chain (18C)-PUFA such as γ linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6), stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) and α linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) have been shown to impact PUFA metabolism, alter inflammatory processes including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and improve inflammatory disorders. Methods The diet of mild asthmatics patients was supplemented for three weeks with varying doses of two botanical seed oils (borage oil [Borago officinalis, BO] and echium seed oil [Echium plantagineum; EO]) that contain SDA, ALA and GLA. A three week wash out period followed. The impact of these dietary manipulations was evaluated for several biochemical endpoints, including in vivo PUFA metabolism and ex vivo leukotriene generation from stimulated leukocytes. Results Supplementation with several EO/BO combinations increased circulating 20–22 carbon (20–22C) PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and dihommo-gammalinolenic acid (DGLA), which have been shown to inhibit AA metabolism and inflammation without impacting circulating AA levels. BO/EO combinations also inhibited ex vivo leukotriene generation with some combinations attenuating cysteinyl leukotriene generation in stimulated basophils by >50% and in stimulated neutrophils by >35%. Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation with BO/EO alters 20–22C PUFA levels and attenuates leukotriene production in a manner consistent with a reduction in inflammation. PMID:24088297

  1. Increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from asthmatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, H.; Yui, Y.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasueda, H.; Shida, T.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE, was determined in 100,000 x g supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with extrinsic asthma and 15 patients with intrinsic asthma. After the supernatant was incubated with 14 C-arachidonic acid in the presence of calcium and indomethacin, the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated by thin layer chromatography. The results were expressed as the percentage conversion of 14 C-arachidonic acid into the product per 10 7 cells. The formation of 5,12-diHETE, but not of the 5-HETE, was significantly increased in the cells from the group of patients with extrinsic asthma (4.38 +/- 0.78%, mean +/- S.E.; p 14 C-arachidonic acid into 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE. The percentage conversion in normal subjects was 4.19 +/- 0.39%, 6.24 +/- 0.84% for 17 patients with extrinsic asthma (p < 0.05), and 8.59 +/- 1.29% for 15 patients with intrinsic asthma (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between these asthmatic groups. These results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activity is increased in patients with bronchial asthma. 22 references, 3 figures

  2. Asthmatic symptoms and air pollution: a panel study on children living in the Italian Po Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ranzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Po Valley (Northern Italy has elevated levels of air-pollution due to various sources of pollution and adverse weather conditions. This study evaluates the short-term effects of exposure to particulate matter with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10 on asthma symptoms in school-aged children. An initial cross-sectional survey was conducted in the area to estimate asthma prevalence in children. Out of a total of 250 asthmatic children identified by the study, 69 agreed to participate in a panel study. The PM10 exposure assessment was based on a combination of geographic and environmental measurements leading to a focus on three different areas, each characterised by its own daily PM10 level. Participants were monitored daily for respiratory symptoms for eight weeks (January-March 2006. We assessed the relationship between daily PM10 exposure and occurrence of asthma symptoms with a generalised linear model based on a total of 3864 person-days of observation. Exposure to PM10 per m3 was found to be particularly associated with cough (OR=1.03, CI 95% 0.99; 1.08 and phlegm (OR=1.05, CI 95% 1.00; 1.10. In the most polluted area, exposure to PM10 was also associated with wheezing (OR=1.18, CI 95% 1.02; 1.37.

  3. [Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) associated to severe bronchial asthmatic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M A; Kusznierz, G F; Imaz, M S; Cociglio, R; Tedeschi, F A; Zalazar, F E

    2006-01-01

    Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently reported agent of acute infection in the respiratory tract. It has been found in children as well as in young adults and elders. The clinical manifestations produced by hMPV are indistinguishable from those by common respiratory virus, and can evolve from asymptomatic infection into severe pneumonia. On the other hand, some authors have described cases of bronchial asthma exacerbation associated with hMPV infection. In this work we report a case of a child who presented a severe bronchial asthmatic crisis with a suspected viral associated infection. Immunofluorescence tests yielded negative results for sincitial respiratory virus, adenovirus, a-b influenza virus and parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, virus. In an attempt to detect the presence of hMPV, a RT-PCR was carried out to amplify sequences from both N and F genes. Using this approach, a positive result for hMPV was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of asthma exacerbation associated to hMPV in our region. In addition, these results are similar to previous reports where it was hypothesized that, like RSV, hMPV can trigger a respiratory chronic disease as asthma.

  4. [Occupational asthma: Clinical and professional profile of the Tunisian asthmatic worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toujani, S; Hedhli, A; Mjid, M; Ben Salah, N; Ouahchy, Y; Louzir, B; Daghfous, J; Mhiri, N; Cherif, J; Beji, M

    2016-08-01

    Asthma takes up a great importance in occupational diseases but remains underestimated as it is insufficiently diagnosed. We aimed to access the clinical and professional profile of the Tunisian asthmatic worker. It was a retrospective descriptive study in a professional pathology unit in a university hospital. All patients referred by their doctor for symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma, during a period from 2000 to 2008, were included. Forty-eight patients were selected from 172. The mean age was 40 years, with a male predominance (56 %). In 2/3 of the cases, it was the textile workers, food and chemical industry. The etiological agents incriminated were textile dust in 18.8 % of cases followed by isocyanates and flour. Typical episodes of wheezing dyspnea were present in 52 % and atopy in 54.2 % of workers. In 2 % of cases, symptoms disappeared and worsened in 18.8 %. The prognosis of OA depends on early end accurate diagnosis. The physician's role is to initiate the appropriate diagnostic approach, which must comply with the Tunisian conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  6. Comparison of the peripheral blood eosinophil count using near-patient testing and standard automated laboratory measurement in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambleton K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsty Hambleton, Clare M Connolly, Catherine Borg, Joanne H Davies, Helen P Jeffers, Richard EK Russell, Mona Bafadhel Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Near-patient testing (NPT allows clinical decisions to be made in a rapid and convenient manner and is often cost effective. In COPD the peripheral blood eosinophil count has been demonstrated to have utility in providing prognostic information and predicting response to treatment during an acute exacerbation. For this potential to be achieved having a reliable NPT of blood eosinophil count would be extremely useful. Therefore, we investigated the use of the HemoCue® WBC Diff System and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects. This method requires a simple skin prick of blood and was compared to standard venepuncture laboratory analysis. The HemoCue® WBC Diff System measured the peripheral blood eosinophil count in healthy, asthma and COPD subjects with very close correlation to the eosinophil count as measured by standard venepuncture. The correlations were unaffected by disease status. This method for the measurement of the peripheral blood eosinophil count has the potential to provide rapid near-patient results and thus influence the speed of management decisions in the treatment of airway diseases. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eosinophils, near-patient testing

  7. Serum level of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in asthmatic children and its correlation to severity and pulmonary functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seify, Magda Y Hussein; Fouda, Eman Mahmoud; Nabih, Enas Samir

    2014-01-01

    Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) acts as a decoy receptor for RAGE which has several distinct pro-inflammatory ligands in the extracellular compartment, and is believed to afford protection against inflammation and cell injury. This study was conducted to measure serum sRAGE in asthmatic children and to assess its correlation with clinical and functional severity and to asthma phenotype according to sputum cytology. The study was conducted on 60 asthmatic children from the Pediatric Chest Clinic, Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University. The patients were divided according to asthma control and severity. sRAGE showed statistically significant lower levels in asthmatic patients (899.1 +/- 399.8 pg/mL) compared to the control group (1406.7 +/- 474.3 pg/mL, p = 0.000), with a cut off value of asthma diagnosis of 1080.4 pg/mL with a sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 75%, respectively. Uncontrolled and severe asthmatic subgroups showed lower levels of sRAGE, cut off value of sRAGE for the severity of asthma was 829 pg/mL with 89% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Asthmatic patients stratified according to sputum cytology revealed that those with > 2% eosinophils and > or = 40% neutrophils showed lower levels of sRAGE (710 +/- 258 pg/mL) compared to those with > 2% eosinophils and functionally. It may be a target of future therapeutic interventions.

  8. Reduced IFN-γ and IL-10 responses to paternal antigens during and after pregnancy in allergic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Marie; Ekerfelt, Christina; Ernerudh, Jan; Matthiesen, Leif; Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Jonsson, Yvonne; Berg, Göran; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2012-09-01

    Normal pregnancy and allergy are both characterized by a T helper (Th) 2 deviation. In the current study, we hypothesized that paternal antigen-induced cytokine responses during pregnancy would be deviated toward Th2 and an anti-inflammatory profile, and that the Th2 deviation would be more pronounced in allergic pregnant women. Blood samples were collected longitudinally on three occasions during pregnancy and two occasions post partum (pp). Of the 86 women initially included, 54 women had a normal pregnancy and completed the sampling procedures. Twelve women fulfilled the criteria for allergy (allergic symptoms and circulating immunoglobulin [Ig] E antibodies to inhalant allergens) and 20 were non-allergic (nonsensitized without symptoms). The levels of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines, the Th17 cytokine IL-17 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 of the groups were compared. Paternal antigen-induced IL-4 and IL-10 responses increased between the first and the third trimester. Allergy was associated with decreased paternal antigen-induced IFN-γ and CXCL10 secretion in the nonpregnant state (one year pp) and also decreased IFN-γ/IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-13 ratios during pregnancy. We also observed a decreased paternal antigen-induced IL-10 response in allergic compared with non-allergic women during pregnancy, along with a decreased IL-10/IL-13 ratio. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis of lower Th1 responses toward paternal antigens in allergic than in non-allergic women, but also indicate that allergy is associated with a lower capacity to induce anti-inflammatory IL-10 responses after paternal antigen stimulation during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Airway mucosal permeability in chronic bronchitics and bronchial asthmatics with hypersecretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, I.; Shimura, S.; Sasaki, T.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T.; Nakamura, M.

    1988-01-01

    To determine airway mucosal permeability, radiolabeled albumin in sputum was examined on the basis of a 2-h period of sputum collection for as long as 8h after intravenous administration of 131 I-labeled human serum albumin. This technique was applied to 12 patients with bronchial asthma associated with hypersecretion or chronic bronchitis. Group A consisted of 6 asthmatics (2 females and 4 males, 56.0 +/- 6.4 yr of age, mean +/- SEM); Group B consisted of 6 bronchitics (3 females and 3 males, 53.8 +/- 6.5 yr of age). Between Groups A and B, there was no significant difference in sputum volume per day or in obstructive impairment. Radiolabeled albumin concentration (cpm/ml) was obtained from radiocount of each sputum sample and then divided by serum concentration at the time of each sampling (2, 4, 6, and 8 h after administration). Group B showed large values compared with those in Group A. In Group A, the ratios were 2.0 +/- 0.8, 2.5 +/- 0.5, 2.2 +/- 0.2, and 1.5 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the administration, respectively, whereas in Group B, the ratios were 3.0 +/- 0.6, 7.0 +/- 1.8, 7.2 +/- 1.8, and 7.4 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The differences between Groups A and B were statistically significant (two-way analysis of variance). These findings suggest that an increase in airway mucosal permeability is due to mucosal epithelial damage by chronic inflammation in bronchitics and not to the underlying abnormality of asthma

  10. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Page group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Page group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Page in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  11. Direct costs of asthma in Brazil: a comparison between controlled and uncontrolled asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Santos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common chronic illness that imposes a heavy burden on all aspects of the patient's life, including personal and health care cost expenditures. To analyze the direct cost associated to uncontrolled asthma patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine costs related to patients with uncontrolled and controlled asthma. Uncontrolled patient was defined by daytime symptoms more than twice a week or nocturnal symptoms during two consecutive nights or any limitations of activities, or need for relief rescue medication more than twice a week, and an ACQ score less than 2 points. A questionnaire about direct cost stratification in health services, including emergency room visits, hospitalization, ambulatory visits, and asthma medications prescribed, was applied. Ninety asthma patients were enrolled (45 uncontrolled/45 controlled. Uncontrolled asthmatics accounted for higher health care expenditures than controlled patients, US$125.45 and US$15.58, respectively [emergency room visits (US$39.15 vs US$2.70 and hospitalization (US$86.30 vs US$12.88], per patient over 6 months. The costs with medications in the last month for patients with mild, moderate and severe asthma were US$1.60, 9.60, and 25.00 in the uncontrolled patients, respectively, and US$6.50, 19.00 and 49.00 in the controlled patients. In view of the small proportion of uncontrolled subjects receiving regular maintenance medication (22.2% and their lack of resources, providing free medication for uncontrolled patients might be a cost-effective strategy for the public health system.

  12. System-Level Power Consumption Analysis of the Wearable Asthmatic Wheeze Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Oletic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term quantification of asthmatic wheezing envisions an m-Health sensor system consisting of a smartphone and a body-worn wireless acoustic sensor. As both devices are power constrained, the main criterion guiding the system design comes down to minimization of power consumption, while retaining sufficient respiratory sound classification accuracy (i.e., wheeze detection. Crucial for assessment of the system-level power consumption is the understanding of trade-off between power cost of computationally intensive local processing and communication. Therefore, we analyze power requirements of signal acquisition, processing, and communication in three typical operating scenarios: (1 streaming of uncompressed respiratory signal to a smartphone for classification, (2 signal streaming utilizing compressive sensing (CS for reduction of data rate, and (3 respiratory sound classification onboard the wearable sensor. Study shows that the third scenario featuring the lowest communication cost enables the lowest total sensor system power consumption ranging from 328 to 428 μW. In such scenario, 32-bit ARM Cortex M3/M4 cores typically embedded within Bluetooth 4 SoC modules feature the optimal trade-off between onboard classification performance and consumption. On the other hand, study confirms that CS enables the most power-efficient design of the wearable sensor (216 to 357 μW in the compressed signal streaming, the second scenario. In such case, a single low-power ARM Cortex-A53 core is sufficient for simultaneous real-time CS reconstruction and classification on the smartphone, while keeping the total system power within budget for uncompressed streaming.

  13. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ray, Shahla; Lindley, Martin R; Koceja, David M; Stager, Joel M

    2006-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual cycle. Pulmonary function tests were conducted pre- and post-exercise. The maximal percentage decline in post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly greater (Pphase) (-17.35+/-2.32 and -26.28+/-6.04%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was highest, compared to day 5 (mid-FOL phase) (-12.81+/-3.35 and -17.23+/-8.20%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was lowest. The deterioration in the severity of EIB during the mid-LUT phase was accompanied by worsening asthma symptoms and increased bronchodilator use. There was a negative correlation between the percent change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1) and salivary progesterone concentration. However, no such correlation was found between salivary estradiol and the percentage change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1). This study has shown for the first time that menstrual cycle phase is an important determinant of the severity of EIB in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Female asthmatic athletes may need to adjust their training and competition schedules to their menstrual cycle and to consider the potential negative effects of the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance.

  14. Asthmatic/wheezing phenotypes in preschool children: Influential factors, health care and urban-rural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzora, Susanne; Weber, Alisa; Heinze, Stefanie; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Fuchs, Nina; Herr, Caroline

    2018-03-01

    Different wheezing and asthmatic phenotypes turned out to indicate differences in etiology, risk factors and health care. We examined influential factors and urban-rural differences for different phenotypes. Parents of 4732 children filled out a questionnaire concerning children's health and environmental factors administered within the Health Monitoring Units (GME) in a cross-sectional study in Bavaria, Germany (2014/2015). To classify respiratory symptoms, five phenotype groups were built: episodic, unremitting and frequent wheeze, ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children) - asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma (neither of the groups are mutually exclusive). For each phenotype, health care variables were presented and stratified for residence. Urban-rural differences were tested by Pearson's chi-squared tests. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze associations between influential factors and belonging to a phenotype group, and to compare groups with regard to health care variables as outcome. Risk factors for wheezing phenotypes were male gender (OR = 2.02, 95%-CI = [1.65-2.48]), having older siblings (OR = 1.24, 95%-CI = [1.02-1.51]), and preterm delivery (OR = 1.61, 95%-CI = [1.13-2.29]) (ORs for unremitting wheeze). 57% of children with ISAAC asthma and 74% with physician-diagnosed asthma had performed allergy tests. Medication intake among all groups was more frequent in rural areas, and physician's asthma diagnoses were more frequent in urban areas. In accordance with previous research this study confirms that male gender, older siblings and preterm delivery are associated with several wheezing phenotypes. Overall, low numbers of allergy tests among children with physician's diagnoses highlight a discrepancy between common practice and current knowledge and guidelines. Residential differences in health care might encourage further research and interventions strategies. Copyright © 2017

  15. Asthmatic inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of juvenile rats following exposure to cyolane pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour el din, A.M.; Hassanin, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the organophosphorus pesticide cyolane on the tissues of the respiratory system and the pro-inflammatory markers in the serum.The study was carried out on thirty juvenile Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into three groups, one used as control and the other two groups, (Gr.I and Gr.Il) received daily diet contained cyolane equivalent to 1.0 mg/kg b.wt. for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively.Nitric oxide (No), immunoglobulins E(IgE) and G (IgG) were measured in the serum of control and treated rats as an important pro-inflammatory markers.The results revealed that nitric oxide was highly significantly increased in Gr.II (P< 0.001) and significantly increased in Gr.I (P< 0.01).As regards to serum immunoglobulins, the data obtained revealed significant increase in serum total IgE in both treated groups. The IgG, as an anaphylactic antibody, showed significant increase in both groups.Histopathological examination of lung tissue revealed increased inflammatory cells infiltration and congested blood vessels in Gr.I while Gr.II showed massive inflammatory cells infiltration and congestion of blood vessels which became more pronounced. In addition, the hypertrophied muscle fibers were increased in the sub-bronchial epithelium.We concluded that young adolescents and children must advised to avoid exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, even for short time, to prevent asthmatic inflammatory reaction, which by time destroy their lung tissues. Also, the study recommended importance of measuring No, IgE and IgG serum levels as inflammatory markers for early diagnosis and management of asthma

  16. Perceived food hypersensitivity relates to poor asthma control and quality of life in young non-atopic asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Johnson

    Full Text Available The relationship between perceived food hypersensitivity in asthmatics, food allergen sensitization, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life has not been studied.Our aim was to study the prevalence of perceived food hypersensitivity in a cohort of young asthmatics, its relation to food allergen sensitization, and any correlation to asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.Perceived food hypersensitivity, as well as IgE sensitization to common food allergens, levels of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, and blood eosinophil counts (B-Eos were assessed in 408 subjects (211 women with asthma, aged (mean ± SEM 20.4 ± 0.3 years. Subjects filled out the Asthma Control Test (ACT and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ. Inflammation was assessed by means of FeNO and B-Eos.Fifty-three per cent of subjects reported food hypersensitivity. A corresponding food allergen sensitization was found in 68% of these subjects. Non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity (n = 31 had lower ACT (19 (15 - 22 vs. 21 (20 - 23, p < 0.001 and Mini-AQLQ -scores (5.3 (4.3 - 6.1 vs. 6.1 (5.5 - 6.5, p < 0.001 than subjects with no food hypersensitivity (n = 190, despite lower levels of FeNO and B-Eos (p < 0.05.Food hypersensitivity was commonly reported among young asthmatics. In a majority of cases, a corresponding food allergen sensitization was found. A novel and clinically important finding was that non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity were characterized by poorer asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.

  17. Perceived food hypersensitivity relates to poor asthma control and quality of life in young non-atopic asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer; Borres, Magnus P; Nordvall, Lennart; Lidholm, Jonas; Janson, Christer; Alving, Kjell; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between perceived food hypersensitivity in asthmatics, food allergen sensitization, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life has not been studied. Our aim was to study the prevalence of perceived food hypersensitivity in a cohort of young asthmatics, its relation to food allergen sensitization, and any correlation to asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Perceived food hypersensitivity, as well as IgE sensitization to common food allergens, levels of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and blood eosinophil counts (B-Eos) were assessed in 408 subjects (211 women) with asthma, aged (mean ± SEM) 20.4 ± 0.3 years. Subjects filled out the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ). Inflammation was assessed by means of FeNO and B-Eos. Fifty-three per cent of subjects reported food hypersensitivity. A corresponding food allergen sensitization was found in 68% of these subjects. Non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity (n = 31) had lower ACT (19 (15 - 22) vs. 21 (20 - 23), p < 0.001) and Mini-AQLQ -scores (5.3 (4.3 - 6.1) vs. 6.1 (5.5 - 6.5), p < 0.001) than subjects with no food hypersensitivity (n = 190), despite lower levels of FeNO and B-Eos (p < 0.05). Food hypersensitivity was commonly reported among young asthmatics. In a majority of cases, a corresponding food allergen sensitization was found. A novel and clinically important finding was that non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity were characterized by poorer asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.

  18. Epigenome-wide analysis links SMAD3 methylation at birth to asthma in children of asthmatic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Avery; Wlasiuk, Gabriela; Miller, Susan J; Bosco, Anthony; Stern, Debra A; Lohman, I Carla; Rothers, Janet; Jones, Anya C; Nicodemus-Johnson, Jessie; Vasquez, Monica M; Curtin, John A; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan; Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Guerra, Stefano; Wright, Anne L; Ober, Carole; Halonen, Marilyn; Vercelli, Donata

    2017-08-01

    The timing and mechanisms of asthma inception remain imprecisely defined. Although epigenetic mechanisms likely contribute to asthma pathogenesis, little is known about their role in asthma inception. We sought to assess whether the trajectory to asthma begins already at birth and whether epigenetic mechanisms, specifically DNA methylation, contribute to asthma inception. We used the Methylated CpG Island Recovery Assay chip to survey DNA methylation in cord blood mononuclear cells from 36 children (18 nonasthmatic and 18 asthmatic subjects by age 9 years) from the Infant Immune Study (IIS), an unselected birth cohort closely monitored for asthma for a decade. SMAD3 methylation in IIS (n = 60) and in 2 replication cohorts (the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [n = 30] and the Childhood Origins of Asthma Study [n = 28]) was analyzed by using bisulfite sequencing or Illumina 450K arrays. Cord blood mononuclear cell-derived IL-1β levels were measured by means of ELISA. Neonatal immune cells harbored 589 differentially methylated regions that distinguished IIS children who did and did not have asthma by age 9 years. In all 3 cohorts methylation in SMAD3, the most connected node within the network of asthma-associated, differentially methylated regions, was selectively increased in asthmatic children of asthmatic mothers and was associated with childhood asthma risk. Moreover, SMAD3 methylation in IIS neonates with maternal asthma was strongly and positively associated with neonatal production of IL-1β, an innate inflammatory mediator. The trajectory to childhood asthma begins at birth and involves epigenetic modifications in immunoregulatory and proinflammatory pathways. Maternal asthma influences epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the inception of this trajectory. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between Emotion, Severity of Illness and the Effect on IL-8 in Asthmatic Children%儿童情绪与哮喘病情的关系及对IL-8的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛轶; 程自立; 王高华; 姜毅

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the emotional states o f asthmatic children wit h different degrees of severity, as well as the effects of emotion on change of cytokines in airway. Methods: Asthmatic children were divi ded into two groups ac cording to the degrees of severity: moderate and mild. Their emotional states we re measured and results were compared. Correlation analysis was conducted betwee n scores on emotional scales and sputum levels of IL-8.Results: Total scores on anxiety and depression were higher in the moderate group than in the mild group. Negative correlation was found between levels of anxiety and IL-8 during acute exacerbation of asthmatic condition. Conclusion: Emotional distress was found to be increased with severity of asthmatic condition in children. Anxiety contribu ted to the decreased concentration of IL-8 in asthmatic children's airway.

  20. Quality of life of asthmatic children and adolescents: Portuguese translation, adaptation, and validation of the questionnaire "Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Asthma Module".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda Pereira; Solé, Dirceu; Wandalsen, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to translate, validate, and verify the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the instrument "Pediatric Quality of Life Asthma Module" (PedsQL Asthma) culturally adapted for the Brazilian culture. After being translated to Portuguese and being culturally adapted, the questionnaire was answered by 200 asthmatic children and adolescents (aged 2-18) as well as the adults responsible for them. Validation required the use of the following instruments: PedsQL Asthma Children (applied to children and adolescents), PedsQL Asthma Parents (applied to adults responsible for children and adolescents), Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life (PAQLQ), Asthma Control Test (ACT) or Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT), as well as socioeconomic and personal information questionnaires. A group of 45 clinically stable children repeated the questionnaires 15-60 days after answering the first questionnaire. Correlations between the scores of PedsQL Children and PedsQL Parents (r  =  0.67), PedsQL Children and PAQLQ (r  =  0.66), and PedsQL Parents and PAQLQ (r  =  0.64) were moderate and significant. Correlations were higher for men (r  =  0.72) when analyzing the children's and parents' answers to PedsQL according to gender. The 5- to 7-year-old age group had the strongest correlations with PAQLQ (r  =  0.79). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for PedsQL Children and Parents had values of 0.85 and 0.87, respectively. A high concordance was observed in both tests at different times, with kappa values of 0.89 and 0.87 for PedsQL Children and Parents, respectively. The instrument used in this study was considered valid, consistent, and reproducible and has acceptable psychometric properties for the Brazilian population.

  1. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment for 6 months was not sufficient to normalize phagocytosis in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Martins, Carmen Lívia Faria; Couto, Shirley Claudino; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2013-08-30

    Corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for asthma; however, the effect of corticosteroids on the innate immune system remains unclear. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroid therapy (ICT) on phagocytic functions. To evaluate the impact of ICT, the phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by blood monocytes and neutrophils and the production of superoxide anions were assessed before and after three and six months of ICT treatment in 58 children with persistent asthma and 21 healthy controls. We showed that the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils that occurred via pattern recognition receptors or was mediated by complement and immunoglobulin receptors in asthmatic children before treatment was significantly lower than in healthy controls (pICT for 6 months was not sufficient to normalize phagocytosis by the phagocytes. Superoxide anion production was also decreased in the asthmatic children before treatment, and ICT normalized the O- production only for children with mild persistent asthma when assessed at baseline but caused this function to decrease after stimulation (p<0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). Our data suggest that an immunodeficiency in phagocytes remained even after treatment. However, this immunodeficiency does not appear to correspond with the clinical evolution of asthma because an improvement in clinical parameters occurred.

  2. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  3. Acidity of unstimulated saliva and dental plaque in asthmatics, treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Karova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of asthmatics is continuously increasing all over the world. The aim of the study is to study the effect of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on salivary and plaque pH in asthmatics with mild persistent asthma. The effect of different quantities of lactose, as gustatory corrector in the inhalers, is traced out.Thirty patients of both sexes, from 20 to 55 years old participated in the study. Salivary and plaque pH values are traced out in 30 minutes period after drug inhalation, at 6-months interval. It is found out that inhaled drugs cause significant decrease of initial salivary pH values, the lowest ones reported on first and fifth minute after the inhalation. The average salivary pH levels on the 30th minute remain significantly lower than initial ones.Most considerable changes in pH values are registered for patients treated with Fluticasone propionate and Salmeterol.

  4. Exposure assessment and modeling of particulate matter for asthmatic children using personal nephelometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Delfino, Ralph J.; Floro, Joshua N.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Samimi, Behzad S.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Allen, Ryan W.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    It has been shown that acute exposures to particulate matter (PM) may exacerbate asthma in children. However, most epidemiological studies have relied on time-integrated PM measurements taken at a centrally located stationary monitoring sites. In this article, we characterized children's short-term personal exposures to PM 2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters size-selective inlet was used to estimate real-time PM 2.5 concentrations on 20 asthmatic children, inside and outside of their residences, and at a central site. The personal and indoor pDRs were operated passively, while the home outdoor and central site instruments were operated actively. The subjects received 29.2% of their exposures at school, even though they only spent 16.4% of their time there. More precise personal clouds were estimated for the home-indoor and home-outdoor microenvironments where PM concentrations were measured. The personal cloud increased with increasing activity levels and was higher during outdoor activities than during indoor activities. We built models to predict personal PM exposures based on either microenvironmental or central-site PM 2.5 measurements, and evaluated the modeled exposures against the actual personal measurements. A multiple regression model with central site PM concentration as the main predictor had a better prediction power ( R2=0.41) than a three-microenvironmental model ( R2=0.11). We further constructed a source-specific exposure model utilizing the time-space-activity information and the particle infiltration efficiencies (mean=0.72±0.15) calculated from a recursive mass balance model. It was estimated that the mean hourly personal exposures resulting from ambient, indoor-generated, and personal activity PM 2.5 were 11.1, 5.5, and 10.0 μg/m 3, respectively, when the modeling error was minimized. The high PM 2.5 exposure to personal activities reported in our study is likely due to children's more active lifestyle as compared with older adult subjects in

  5. Identification of airway mucosal type 2 inflammation by using clinical biomarkers in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkoff, Philip E; Laviolette, Michel; Singh, Dave; FitzGerald, J Mark; Kelsen, Steven; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste M; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Berger, Patrick; Kline, Joel N; Chupp, Geoffrey; Susulic, Vedrana S; Barnathan, Elliot S; Baribaud, Frédéric; Loza, Matthew J

    2017-09-01

    The Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study profiled patients with mild, moderate, and severe asthma and nonatopic healthy control subjects. We explored this data set to define type 2 inflammation based on airway mucosal IL-13-driven gene expression and how this related to clinically accessible biomarkers. IL-13-driven gene expression was evaluated in several human cell lines. We then defined type 2 status in 25 healthy subjects, 28 patients with mild asthma, 29 patients with moderate asthma, and 26 patients with severe asthma based on airway mucosal expression of (1) CCL26 (the most differentially expressed gene), (2) periostin, or (3) a multigene IL-13 in vitro signature (IVS). Clinically accessible biomarkers included fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) values, blood eosinophil (bEOS) counts, serum CCL26 expression, and serum CCL17 expression. Expression of airway mucosal CCL26, periostin, and IL-13-IVS all facilitated segregation of subjects into type 2-high and type 2-low asthmatic groups, but in the ADEPT study population CCL26 expression was optimal. All subjects with high airway mucosal CCL26 expression and moderate-to-severe asthma had Feno values (≥35 ppb) and/or high bEOS counts (≥300 cells/mm 3 ) compared with a minority (36%) of subjects with low airway mucosal CCL26 expression. A combination of Feno values, bEOS counts, and serum CCL17 and CCL26 expression had 100% positive predictive value and 87% negative predictive value for airway mucosal CCL26-high status. Clinical variables did not differ between subjects with type 2-high and type 2-low status. Eosinophilic inflammation was associated with but not limited to airway mucosal type 2 gene expression. A panel of clinical biomarkers accurately classified type 2 status based on airway mucosal CCL26, periostin, or IL-13-IVS gene expression. Use of Feno values, bEOS counts, and serum marker levels (eg, CCL26 and CCL17) in combination might allow patient

  6. Aeração nasal em crianças asmáticas Nasal ventilation in asthmatics children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Andrade da Cunha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar a presença de sinais de alterações na expiração de crianças asmáticas. MÉTODO: este estudo foi realizado com 30 crianças com idades entre 6 e 10 anos de ambos os sexos com diagnóstico clínico de asma confirmado pelo prontuário médico e 30 crianças não asmáticas também de ambos os sexos na mesma faixa etária. Foi avaliada a aeração nasal com o espelho milimetrado de Altmann, sendo mensurado o escape de ar nasal objetivando a verificação da saída uni ou bilateral do ar e a relação de simetria entre a narina direita e a esquerda. As imagens foram importadas para o computador por meio do scanner HP da série Scanjet 2400. A análise foi realizada no software Scion Image for Windows (Alpha 4.0.3.2. Para análise das variáveis quantitativas entre grupos foi aplicado o teste t-student e para a análise intragrupos foi aplicado o teste t-Student pareado.Todas as conclusões foram tomadas ao nível de significância de 5%, sendo usados o Excel 2000 e o SPSS v8.0, para as análises. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as crianças asmáticas e não-ásmáticas, acerca das mensurações quanto à área total e quanto às áreas das narinas direita e esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: não foi identificada a presença de sinais de alterações na expiração de crianças asmáticas, desta forma, faz-se necessário um estudo mais específico das funções nasal e pulmonar.PURPOSE: to identify the symptoms of changes in the exhalation of asthmatic children. METHOD: this study was conducted with 30 children from 6 to 10 year-old, of both genders and with asthma clinical diagnosis confirmed by medical records and 30 non-asthmatic children from 6 to 10 year-old, of both genders, and with same age. We evaluated the nasal ventilation with Altmann millimeter nasal mirror measuring the nasal air escape in order to check their unilateral or bilateral air output and the relation of

  7. Familial factors responsible for persistent crying-induced asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A G

    1987-10-01

    Crying behavior of the asthmatic child may induce wheezing symptoms. This may be a clinical problem for families with asthmatic children who exhibit frequent and persistent crying behavior. This case report identifies behaviors by the child and parents that may be responsible for continual crying. Child factors include (1) "spoiled" personality, (2) poor self-image, (3) biologic sensitivity to foods, medication, and environmental allergens producing irritability. Parental factors include poor disciplinary practices secondary to (1) disrupted home life, (2) guilt, and (3) overprotective behavior. Identification of these factors may be helpful in establishing clinical management strategies to reduce crying-induced asthma.

  8. Distribution of radioactive aerosol in the airways of children and adolescents with bronchial hyper-responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, V.; Mortensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the pulmonary distribution of inhaled radioaerosol, bronchial responsiveness, and lung function in children and adolescents. The participating subjects were divided into three groups: (1) 14 asthmatics with bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), (2) five non-asthmatic subjects with BHR, and (3) 20 controls without BHR. Pulmonary distribution of [ 99 Tc m ] albumin radioaerosol, maximal expiratory flow when 25% of forced vital capacity remain to be exhaled (MEF 25 ), and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine were measured. Twenty subjects (52%) has irregular central distribution and 19 subjects (48%) had regular distribution of radioaerosol in their lungs. No difference in distribution of radioaerosol was found between the three groups of children. The median MEF 25 among non-asthmatic subjects (80% predicted) was lower than that found in controls (92% predicted) but higher than that found in asthmatic subjects (55% predicted). A relationship was found between reduced flow at the peripheral airways, as indicated by MEF 25 and the degree of central distribution of radioaerosol. Furthermore, subjects with irregular central distribution of radioaerosol had an increase degree of bronchial responsiveness. In conclusion, children and adolescents who have flow rates in the peripheral airways or increased degree of bronchial responsiveness tend to have abnormal distribution of radioaerosols. (author)

  9. Social-economic profile of asthmatic patients assisted at a Nucleus of Integrated Medical Assistance - doi:10.5020/18061230.2008.p180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisia Torquilho Praxedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the social-economic profile of asthmatic patients who use the health services rendered by the Nucleus of Integrated Medical Assistance (NAMI, in Fortaleza- Ce. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study, of a quantitative approach, had a sample comprised by 40 asthmatic patients assisted at NAMI during the period of April to May, 2006. The data collection was accomplished by means of a standard semi-structured interview, with open and closed questions. Results: The age range between 0 to 5 years old represented the greater percentage of patients, thus obtaining 60.0% of the answered questionnaires. According to social-economic conditions, 55.0% were illiterate or were learning to read, 75.0% were using some drug prescribed at NAMI, 72.5% fully ignored the disease, 52.5% recognized the factors that triggered the asthmatic crisis and 55.0% said having often crisis. Seventy per cent (70.0% of the interviewed showed some difficulty related to the use of the drugs; 47.5% referred having different problems related to the access to the medications. Conclusion: By the analysis of the determined social-economic profile of asthmatics patients assisted at NAMI, it is concluded that great part of them are people with little instruction, due to the social exclusion in which they are found; being the majority of them children of female gender. NCT00722657

  10. EXPRESSION OF CD35 (CR-1) AND CD11B (CR3) ON CIRCULATING NEUTROPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS FROM ALLERGIC ASTHMATIC-CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, MO; DIJKHUIZEN, B; DEMONCHY, JGR; GERRITSEN, J; KAUFFMAN, HF

    Complement receptors on neutrophils and eosinophils play a role in activation and adhesion. During asthmatic reactions these receptors have been found elevated on circulating granulocytes. In the present study we compared the expression of CD35 (complement receptor type 1) and CD11b (complement

  11. Constitutively active signaling by the G protein βγ-subunit mediates intrinsically increased phosphodiesterase-4 activity in human asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Hu

    Full Text Available Signaling by the Gβγ subunit of Gi protein, leading to downstream c-Src-induced activation of the Ras/c-Raf1/MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway and its upregulation of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 activity, was recently shown to mediate the heightened contractility in proasthmatic sensitized isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM, as well as allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in an in vivo animal model of allergic asthma. This study investigated whether cultured human ASM (HASM cells derived from asthmatic donor lungs exhibit constitutively increased PDE activity that is attributed to intrinsically upregulated Gβγ signaling coupled to c-Src activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK1/2 cascade. We show that, relative to normal cells, asthmatic HASM cells constitutively exhibit markedly increased intrinsic PDE4 activity coupled to heightened Gβγ-regulated phosphorylation of c-Src and ERK1/2, and direct co-localization of the latter with the PDE4D isoform. These signaling events and their induction of heightened PDE activity are acutely suppressed by treating asthmatic HASM cells with a Gβγ inhibitor. Importantly, along with increased Gβγ activation, asthmatic HASM cells also exhibit constitutively increased direct binding of the small Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, Rap1GAP, to the α-subunit of Gi protein, which serves to cooperatively facilitate Ras activation and, thereby, enable enhanced Gβγ-regulated ERK1/2-stimulated PDE activity. Collectively, these data are the first to identify that intrinsically increased signaling via the Gβγ subunit, facilitated by Rap1GAP recruitment to the α-subunit, mediates the constitutively increased PDE4 activity detected in asthmatic HASM cells. These new findings support the notion that interventions targeted at suppressing Gβγ signaling may lead to novel approaches to treat asthma.

  12. A similar pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance is present in the airways of competitive athletes and non-exercising asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Olszewska-Ziąber, Agnieszka; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L

    2018-03-01

    Intensive exercise modifies airway inflammation and infection susceptibility. We aimed to determine the effect of exercise on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ra, IL-10) and innate immunity protein (HSPA1, sCD14) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and nasal secretions of competitive athletes, non-exercising asthmatics and healthy controls (HC). The study group consisted of 15 competitive athletes (five speed skaters and ten swimmers) aged 15-25. The control groups comprised 10 mild-to-moderate asthmatics (AC) and seven HC. Athletes were assessed in- and off-training while asthmatics and controls at one time point. Nasal lavages and EBC were collected before and after a treadmill exercise challenge. Protein levels were assessed using ELISA. TNF-α levels in EBC were significantly higher in athletes than HC, but similar to asthmatic patients. In contrast, IL-1ra EBC concentrations were significantly lower in athletes than in HC, but again similar to asthmatics. Significant positive correlations were seen between baseline concentrations of TNF-α in EBC and fall in FEV1 following exercise challenge in athletes during training period (R=0.74, pExercise caused a slight, yet significant, increase in EBC HSPA1 in athletes (p=0.02). The exercise challenge did not considerably influence TNF-α, IL-1ra, HSPA1 and sCD14 in EBC or nasal secretions. Dysregulation of the TNF-α/IL-1ra balance in EBC and nasal secretions from athletes may reflect the presence of airway inflammation induced by repeated strenuous exercise. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study of budesonide as a nebulized suspension vs pressurized metered-dose inhaler in adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nikander, K; Munch, E

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of budesonide administered as a nebulized suspension as compared to a spray with a spacer in adult asthmatics. In a double-blind, double-dummy crossover study, 26 adult patients with moderately severe unstable asthma were randomized to three 4-week...... treatment periods with budesonide 0.8 mg b.i.d. administered by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with spacer (Nebuhaler) and budesonide 1 mg and 4 mg b.i.d. administered by a Pari Inhalier Boy jet nebulizer. The nebulizer was activated only during inspiration. The total mass output was similar from...... the two devices but their fraction of small particles differed by a factor of 2 in favour of pMDI. Effect was evaluated from daily home measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), need of beta 2-agonist and symptom scores. Plasma cortisol and budesonide levels were measured in a subgroup of 10 patients...

  14. Comparisons of the complementary effect on exhaled nitric oxide of salmeterol vs montelukast in asthmatic children taking regular inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Bisgaard, Hans

    2003-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To compare the control of FeNO provided by salmeterol or montelukast add-on therapy in asthmatic children undergoing regular maintenance treatment with a daily dose of 400 microg of budesonide. METHODS: The study included children with increased FeNO despite regular treatment with budesonide, 400...... microg/d, and normal lung function. Montelukast, 5 mg/d, salmeterol, 50 microg twice daily, or placebo was compared as add-on therapy to budesonide, 400 microg, in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover study. RESULTS: Twenty-two children completed the trial. The geometric mean FeNO level...... with placebo in this group of children taking regular budesonide, 400 microg....

  15. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanisana Devi, R. K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  16. Determination of the levels of serum TNF-α, GM-CSF and HA in asthmatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Ma Yunbao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the diversity of the state of asthma and the three serum markers (TNF-α, GM-CSF and HA). Methods: RIA was adopted to measure the three markers in 66 asthmatic patients and 30 controls. Results: The levels of the three markers in patients during attack (n = 36) were significantly higher than those in controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.05). The three markers declined significantly in remission group (n = 30), but were still significantly higher than those in controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a close relationship between the levels of the three markers and the attack of asthma. Immunomodulator is therefore suggested to be used in addition to anti inflammatory treatment

  17. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanisana Devi, R.K., E-mail: bhanisanark@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Kumar, Sanjiv [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (NCCCM), Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  18. Lower values of VEGF in endometrial secretion are a possible cause of subfertility in non-atopic asthmatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Using endometrial secretion analysis, we assessed whether altered inflammatory cytokine levels can be detected in the uterine environment in asthma patients, thereby providing a possible cause of reduced fertility in asthmatics. Methods: Forty-four unexplained infertile women...... no effect on VEGF levels in uteri. Serum high sensitivity CRP was negatively correlated with VEGF in endometrial secretions. No other significant correlations were observed between peripheral blood values and markers found in utero. Conclusion: Asthma is associated with lower values of VEGF in uterine...... endometrial secretions, which might affect the receptiveness of the endometrium and thereby increase time to pregnancy. The effect appears to be associated with non-atopic asthma with general increased systemic inflammation....

  19. Analysis of quality of life among asthmatic individuals with obesity and its relationship with pulmonary function: cross-sectional study

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    Letícia Baltieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The combined effect of obesity and asthma may lead to significant impairment of quality of life (QOL. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma among obese individuals, characterize the severity of impairment of quality of life and measure its relationship with pulmonary function. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in public university hospital. METHODS: Morbidly obese individuals (body mass index > 40 kg/m2 seen in a bariatric surgery outpatient clinic and diagnosed with asthma, were included. Anthropometric data were collected, the Standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S was applied and spirometry was performed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the median of the score in the questionnaire (worse < 4 and better > 4 and were compared regarding anthropometric data and pulmonary function. RESULTS: Among the 4791 individuals evaluated, 219 were asthmatic; the prevalence of asthma was 4.57%. Of these, 91 individuals were called to start multidisciplinary follow-up during the study period, of whom 82 answered the questionnaire. The median score in the AQLQ(S was 3.96 points and, thus, the individuals were classified as having moderate impairment of their overall QOL. When divided according to better or worse QOL, there was a statistically difference in forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75%, with higher values in the better QOL group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma was 4.57% and QOL was impaired among the asthmatic obese individuals. The worst QOL domain related to environmental stimuli and the best QOL domain to limitations of the activities. Worse QOL was correlated with poorer values for FEF 25-75%.

  20. 447 Asthma Knowledge among Parents and/or Caregivers of Asthmatic Children Attending a Practical Allergy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ramírez, Eunice; Livano Prez, Mayra Alondra; Tercero-Quintanilla, Gabriela; Rosas-Vargas, Miguel Angel; del Rio, Blanca; del Río-Chivardí, Jaime Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is one of the most frequent chronic diseases, with worldwide prevalence of 1 to 18%. Patient and the patient's family education is considered by all International Guides fundamental to achieve this disease control. The aim of this study is to asses the asthma knowledge among parents and/or caregivers of pediatric asthmatic patients before and after attending to a Practical Allergy Course given at Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez by the Pediatric Allergy Department. Methods Transversal Study that included 115 persons attending to a Practical Allergy Course that answered the previously validated instrument to asses the asthma knowledge among parents or caregivers NAKQ (Newcastle Asthma Knowledge Questionnaire); its Spanish version consisting in 31 questions; before and after the practical course. A descriptive annalysis was made; usefullness of the course was determinated by x2. Stadistical packagge used was SPSS 17. Results A total of 115 questionnaires were applied, only 99 were properly answered and were included in the analysis; from these 35 were male and 64 female; 80% with high-school and middle school schooling; 92% were small families with 1 to 3 children; 90% of the families had only one child with asthma; 63% was receiving the practical course for the first time. Before attending the practical course the mean answered questions was 30 and after attending the mean answered questions was 31 (LR = 57.465; P < 0.000); for the first evaluation the mean correct answers was 19 and the latter 22 correct answers, finding statistical significant differences (LR = 30.253; P < 0.000). Conclusions We found improved asthma knowledge among parents and caregivers of asthmatic children after attending to a Practical Allergy Course.

  1. Aspirin provocation increases 8-iso-PGE2 in exhaled breath condensate of aspirin-hypersensitive asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Januszek, Rafał; Kaszuba, Marek; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Oleś, Krzysztof; Stręk, Paweł; Sanak, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Isoprostanes are bioactive compounds formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mostly arachidonic, and markers of free radical generation during inflammation. In aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatic symptoms are precipitated by ingestion of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs capable for pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 isoenzyme. We investigated whether aspirin-provoked bronchoconstriction is accompanied by changes of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC was collected from 28 AERD subjects and 25 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics before and after inhalatory aspirin challenge. Concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and prostaglandin E2 were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Leukotriene E4 was measured by immunoassay in urine samples collected before and after the challenge. Before the challenge, exhaled 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and PGE2 levels did not differ between the study groups. 8-iso-PGE2 level increased in AERD group only (p=0.014) as a result of the aspirin challenge. Urinary LTE4 was elevated in AERD, both in baseline and post-challenge samples. Post-challenge airways 8-iso-PGE2 correlated positively with urinary LTE4 level (p=0.046), whereas it correlated negatively with the provocative dose of aspirin (p=0.027). A significant increase of exhaled 8-iso-PGE2 after inhalatory challenge with aspirin was selective and not present for the other isoprostane measured. This is a novel finding in AERD, suggesting that inhibition of cyclooxygenase may elicit 8-iso-PGE2 production in a specific mechanism, contributing to bronchoconstriction and systemic overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  3. CITRIC-ACID COUGH THRESHOLD AND AIRWAY RESPONSIVENESS IN ASTHMATIC-PATIENTS AND SMOKERS WITH CHRONIC AIR-FLOW OBSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AUFFARTH, B; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANDERMARK, TW; POSTMA, DS; KOETER, GH

    The relation between citric acid cough threshold and airway hyperresponsiveness was investigated in 11 non-smoking patients with allergic asthma (mean FEV1 94% predicted) and 25 non-atopic smokers with chronic airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 65% predicted). Cough threshold was determined on two

  4. Synbiotics reduce allergen-induced T-helper 2 response and improve peak expiratory flow in allergic asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, M. A.; Lutter, R.; Smids, B. S.; Weersink, E. J. M.; van der Zee, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    P>Background: Previous studies suggest that pre/probiotics can be used in the prevention and treatment of early allergic disease in newborns and young children. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment with synbiotics (90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides, 10% long-chain

  5. Rhinovirus inhalation causes long-lasting excessive airway narrowing in response to methacholine in asthmatic subjects in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, D.; Dick, E. C.; Timmers, M. C.; de Klerk, E. P.; Spaan, W. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Exacerbations of asthma are often associated with respiratory infections, and particularly those caused by rhinovirus. The causative role of rhinovirus in these acute episodes is still unclear, since it has not been determined whether or not infection with the virus promotes excessive airway

  6. Avaliação da capacidade de exercício em adolescentes asmáticos e saudáveis Assessment of exercise capacity among asthmatic and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Basso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar o desempenho físico e as respostas obtidas nos testes de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 e do degrau de seis minutos (TD6 entre adolescentes asmáticos e saudáveis e correlacionar o índice de massa corpórea (IMC, o nível de atividade física e as variáveis espirométricas com as variáveis obtidas nos testes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 19 adolescentes asmáticos (GA e 19 saudáveis (GS, com idades entre 11 e 15 anos, de ambos os sexos, por meio da espirometria, do TC6 e do TD6 e foi quantificado o nível de atividade física pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ. RESULTADOS: No TD6, observaram-se menores valores de desempenho físico (TD6-T e frequência cardíaca (FC e maiores valores de fadiga de membros inferiores (MMII no GA. No TC6, houve correlação positiva no GA da distância percorrida (DP com o tempo de atividade intensa e da FC com o IMC e, no GS, da DP com a FC e com a frequência respiratória (FR. No TD6, houve correlação positiva no GA da ventilação voluntária máxima (VVM com a FR; do tempo de atividade moderada com o TD6-T; além de correlação negativa do TD6-T com o IMC e da dispneia com o tempo de caminhada; no GS, correlações positivas da VVM com a FR e da fadiga de MMII com IMC (pOBJECTIVES: To compare the physical performance and responses obtained in the six-minute walking test (6MWT and the six-minute step test (6MST between asthmatic and healthy adolescents; and to investigate the relationship between the responses obtained in the tests and the body mass index (BMI, physical activity level and spirometric variables. METHODS: Nineteen asthmatic adolescents (AG and 19 healthy adolescents (HG of both sexes, aged between 11 and 15 years, were assessed by means of spirometry, the 6MWT and the 6MST, and their physical activity levels were quantified using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. RESULTS: The AG had poorer physical performance, lower heart

  7. Impaired Bronchoprotection Is Not Induced by Increased Smooth Muscle Mass in Chronic Treatment In Vivo with Formoterol in Asthmatic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Luo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inhaling β2-adrenoceptor agonist is first-line asthma treatment, which is used for both acute relief and prevention of bronchoconstriction. However, chronic use of β-agonists results in impaired bronchoprotection and increasing occurrences of severe asthma exacerbation, even death in clinical practice. The mechanism of β-adrenoceptor hyposensitivity has not been thoroughly elucidated thus far. Bronchial smooth muscle contraction induces airway narrowing and also mediates airway inflammation. Moreover, bronchial smooth muscle mass significantly increases in asthmatics. We aimed to establish an asthmatic model that demonstrated that formoterol induced impaired bronchoprotection and to see whether increased smooth muscle mass played a role in it. Methods: We combined routine allergen challenging (seven weeks with repeated application of formoterol, formoterol plus budesonide or physiological saline in allergen-sensitized BALB/c mouse. The bronchoprotection mediated by β-agonist was measured in five consecutive weeks. Smooth muscle mass was shown by morphometric analysis, and α-actin expression was detected by western blot. Results: The trend of bronchoprotection was wavy in drug interventional groups, which initially increased and then decreased. Chronic treatment with formoterol significantly impaired bronchoprotection. According to the morphometric analysis and α-actin expression, no significant difference was detected in smooth muscle mass in all groups. Conclusion: This experiment successfully established that a chronic asthmatic mouse model, which manifested typical features of asthmatic patients, with chronic use of formoterol, results in a loss of bronchoprotection. No significant difference was detected in smooth muscle mass in all groups, which implied some subcellular signalling changes may be the key points.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reciprocally regulate IL-22 and IL-17 cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both healthy and asthmatic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coline Plé

    Full Text Available Pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, may contribute to increased prevalence of asthma. PAH can bind to the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR, a transcription factor involved in Th17/Th22 type polarization. These cells produce IL17A and IL-22, which allow neutrophil recruitment, airway smooth muscle proliferation and tissue repair and remodeling. Increased IL-17 and IL-22 productions have been associated with asthma. We hypothesized that PAH might affect, through their effects on AhR, IL-17 and IL-22 production in allergic asthmatics. Activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 16 nonallergic nonasthmatic (NA and 16 intermittent allergic asthmatic (AA subjects were incubated with PAH, and IL-17 and IL-22 productions were assessed. At baseline, activated PBMCs from AA exhibited an increased IL-17/IL-22 profile compared with NA subjects. Diesel exhaust particle (DEP-PAH and Benzo[a]Pyrene (B[a]P stimulation further increased IL-22 but decreased IL-17A production in both groups. The PAH-induced IL-22 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Among PBMCs, PAH-induced IL-22 expression originated principally from single IL-22- but not from IL-17- expressing CD4 T cells. The Th17 transcription factors RORA and RORC were down regulated, whereas AhR target gene CYP1A1 was upregulated. IL-22 induction by DEP-PAH was mainly dependent upon AhR whereas IL-22 induction by B[a]P was dependent upon activation of PI3K and JNK. Altogether, these data suggest that DEP-PAH and B[a]P may contribute to increased IL22 production in both healthy and asthmatic subjects through mechanisms involving both AhR -dependent and -independent pathways.

  9. Assessment of health-related quality of life among Asthmatic patients: The need for structured pharmaceutical care delivery system in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeeha Malik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is considered as one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. As a result of serious physical, social, and psychological complications, asthma can reduce health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The present study was designed to assess the HRQoL including physical health, general health perception, emotional health, psychological health, and social functioning of asthmatic patients in Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Setting was public and private healthcare facilities. SF-36 was self-administered to a sample of 382 asthmatic patients. After data collection, data were clean coded and entered in SPSS version 21.0. Skewness test was performed and histograms with normal curves were used to check the normal distribution of data. Descriptive statistics comprising of frequency and percentages was calculated. The non-parametric tests including Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Walis (P ≥ 0.05 were performed to find out the difference among different variables. The results of the current study highlighted a significant impact on several domains of HRQoL for asthmatic patients. Lowest scores for HRQoL were observed in the domain of general health (27.74 ± 18.29 followed by domain of mental health (38.26 ± 20.76 whereas highest scores were observed in the domain of social functioning (45.64 ± 25.89. The results of the study concluded that asthmatic patients in Pakistan had poor HRQoL. Well-structured pharmaceutical care delivery in the healthcare facilities can contribute toward better patient knowledge and management and can ultimately improve the HRQoL of asthma patients.

  10. Active Ingredients of Epimedii Folium and Ligustri Lucidi Fructus Balanced GR/HSP90 to Improve the Sensitivity of Asthmatic Rats to Budesonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufeng Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of active ingredients of Epimedii Folium (EF and Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (LLF combined with Budesonide (Bun in asthmatic rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups, including normal group, asthma model group, Bun group, group of active ingredients of EL and LLF (EL, and group of coadministration of Bun with EL (Bun&EL. The asthmatic model was prepared by ovalbumin sensitizing and challenging. Lymphocyte apoptosis, GR protein and binding, and the protein and mRNA of GRα, GRβ, and HSP90 were tested. The results showed that Bun&EL ① markedly increased lymphocyte apoptosis, GR and HSP90 protein, and GR binding in BALF and ② enhanced the expressions of GRα and HSP90 and the ratio of GRα to GRβ or to HSP90 both in protein and in mRNA levels in lung, ③ while decrease occurred in GRβ mRNA and the mRNA ratio of GRβ to HSP90 compared with asthma or Bun group. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between GRα and GRβ in protein level, or between GRα and HSP90 both in protein and in mRNA levels. EL may effectively enhance the sensitivity of asthmatic rats to Bun via balancing GR/HSP90. And these findings will be beneficial for the treatment of asthma in the future.

  11. Oxygen-enhanced MRI vs. quantitatively assessed thin-section CT: Pulmonary functional loss assessment and clinical stage classification of asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Matsumoto, Keiko; Onishi, Yumiko; Nogami, Munenobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the efficacy of oxygen-enhanced MR imaging (O 2 -enhanced MRI) and CT for pulmonary functional loss assessment and clinical stage classification of asthmatics. Materials and methods: O 2 -enhanced MRI, CT and %FEV 1 measurement were used 34 consecutive asthmatics classified into four stages ('Mild Intermittent [n = 7]', 'Mild Persistent [n = 8], 'Moderate Persistent [n = 14]' and 'Severe Persistent [n = 5]'). Relative enhancement ratio maps for every subject were generated, and determine mean relative enhancement ratios (MRERs). Mean lung density (MLD) and the airway wall area (WA) corrected by body surface area (WA/BSA) were also measured on CT. To compare the efficacy of the two methods for pulmonary functional loss assessment, all indexes were correlated with %FEV 1 . To determine the efficacy of the two methods for clinical stage classification, all parameters for the four clinical stages were statistically compared. Results: %FEV 1 showed fair or moderate correlation with all parameters (0.15 ≤ r 2 ≤ 0.30, p 2 -enhanced MRI is as effective as CT for pulmonary functional loss assessment and clinical stage classification of asthmatics.

  12. Pregnancy alters the circulating B cell compartment in atopic asthmatic women, and transitional B cells are positively associated with the development of allergy manifestations in their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina; Lima, Jorge; Nunes, Glória; Borrego, Luís Miguel

    2016-12-01

    Maternal atopy is a risk factor for allergy. B cells are poorly studied in reproduction and atopy. We aimed to assess how pregnancy affects B cells in atopic women and whether B cells relate to allergic manifestations in offspring. Women with and without atopic asthma, pregnant and non-pregnant were enrolled for the study, and circulating B cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, using CD19, CD27, CD38, IgD, and IgM. Compared to healthy non-pregnant, atopic asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) women presented increased B cell counts, enlarged memory subsets, less transitional cells, and plasmablasts. Atopic asthmatic pregnant (AP) and healthy pregnant (HP) women showed similarities: reduced B cell counts and percentages, fewer memory cells, especially switched, and higher plasmablast percentages. Transitional B cell percentages were increased in AP women with allergic manifestations in their progeny. Atopic asthmatic non-pregnant women have a distinctive B cell compartment. B cells change in pregnancy, similarly in AP and HP women. The recognition that AP women with allergy in their progeny have a typical immune profile may help, in the future, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid the manifestation of allergic diseases in their newborns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relationship between the level of physical activity and sedentary, overweight and health-related quality of life in scholar-age asthmatic children: an explanatory study in Seville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rosa, Rosa María

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was: 1 To determine the differences between normal-weight asthmatic children and overweight asthmatic children in terms of HRQoL and amount of physical activity and sedentary and 2 To determine the relationship between amount of physical activity, sedentary and BMI and their influence on the HRQoL of this population in Seville. Method. We used a cohort design study that included 69 school-age children with controlled persistent asthma. The measures included in the study were: the questionnaire PAQL (S, to assess the HRQoL of children and the IPAQ-A questionnaire to assess the amount of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle of children. BMI was also calculated and determined if the participant was of normal-weight or overweight. Results. Overweight children scored worse on HRQoL and IPAQ-A values than their peers with normal-weight. Positive correlations were also observed between BMI and the amount of sedentary lifestyle. Negative correlations were observed between BMI and the amount of physical activity and also negative correlations were observed between BMI and HRQoL. Conclusion. BMI negatively affect HRQoL in school- age asthmatic children

  14. The absence of serum IgE antibodies indicates non-type 2 disease in young asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, N; Malinovschi, A; Nordvall, L; Janson, C; Borres, M P; Alving, K

    2018-06-01

    Atopic asthma is associated with elevated type-2 biomarkers such as fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count. However, increased type 2 markers have also been reported in traditionally defined non-atopic asthma. To determine a clinically useful level of IgE sensitization for ruling out type 2 asthma. Asthmatics (N = 408; age 10-35 years) were analysed using the multi-allergen tests Phadiatop and fx5 (ImmunoCAP). Subjects were grouped based on IgE-antibody concentrations: ≥0.35 kU A /L for at least one test (n = 326) or <0.35 kU A /L for both tests (n = 82). Τhe latter group was subsequently divided into 2 groups: IgE 0.10-0.34 kU A /L (n = 34) and IgE < 0.10 kU A /L (n = 48). The relationships between type 2 biomarkers, and inadequate asthma control (ACT < 20), reduced lung function (FEV 1  < 80%), recent asthma attacks and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine were determined. In univariate analyses, at least one type 2 marker related to each asthma outcome in subjects with IgE ≥0.35 kU A /L. In subjects with IgE 0.10-0.34 kU A /L, elevated FeNO related to reduced lung function (P = .008) and B-Eos to AHR (P = .03). No associations were found in subjects with IgE < 0.10 kU A /L. In multivariate analysis, a relationship between FeNO and reduced lung function remained in subjects with IgE < 0.35 kU A /L (P = .03). Clinically relevant elevation of type 2 biomarkers was seen in young asthmatics with IgE antibodies <0.35 kU A /L, but not those with IgE < 0.10 kU A /L. It seems possible to define non-type 2 asthma through sensitive IgE-antibody measurement. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Elevated expression of endothelin 2 in lung tissues of asthmatic rats after exposed to cigarette smoke and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fangfang; Zhu, Shuyang; Chen, Bi; Li, Jingjing

    2017-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the expression of endothelin 2 (ET-2) in bronchial epithelium of asthmatic rats. Methods Asthma models were established through intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL chicken ovalbumin (OVA)/Al(OH) 3 mixture (asthma model group, n=6); based on the asthma models, exposure to smoking gas lasted four weeks with 10 cigarettes per day (smoke-exposed asthma group, n=6); based on the smoke-exposed asthma models, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone 2 mg/(kg.d), intragastric administration of ET receptor inhibitor bosentan 100 mg/(kg.d) and combined use, respectively named dexamethasone treated group, bosentan treated group, and dexamethasone-bosentan treated group, 6 rats in every group. What's more, other 6 rats were only subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL normal saline as normal controls; in addition to the injection of saline, cigarette smoke control group (n=6) was set up by the exposure to smoking gas for four weeks with 10 cigarettes per day. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the upper lobe of the left lung for cell counting and classification. Pathological changes of the right upper lung lobe tissues were observed by HE staining. In other lung tissues, the expression of JNK1/2 was detected by Western blotting; ET-2 was tested by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and trace enzyme standard method were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Results Compared with normal control group, the number of airway inflammation cells increased in the BALF, and the expressions of ET-2, JNK1/2, MDA and GSH increased in the lung tissues of cigarette smoke control group, asthma model group and cigarette smoke-exposed asthma group. Compared with cigarette smoke-exposed asthma group, the number of airway inflammation cells decreased in the BALF, and the expressions of

  16. Sputum eosinophilia can predict responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid treatment in patients with overlap syndrome of COPD and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Komatsu, Yoshimichi; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Kubo, Keishi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma may overlap and converge in older people (overlap syndrome). It was hypothesized that patients with overlap syndrome may have different clinical characteristics such as sputum eosinophilia, and better responsiveness to treatment with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Sixty-three patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] ≤80%) underwent pulmonary function tests, including reversibility of airflow limitation, arterial blood gas analysis, analysis of inflammatory cells in induced sputum, and chest high-resolution computed tomography. The inclusion criteria for COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms included having asthmatic symptoms such as episodic breathlessness, wheezing, cough, and chest tightness worsening at night or in the early morning (COPD with asthma group). The clinical features of COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms were compared with those of COPD patients without asthmatic symptoms (COPD without asthma group). The increases in FEV(1) in response to treatment with ICS were significantly higher in the COPD with asthma group. The peripheral eosinophil counts and sputum eosinophil counts were significantly higher. The prevalence of patients with bronchial wall thickening on chest high-resolution computed tomography was significantly higher. A significant correlation was observed between the increases in FEV(1) in response to treatment with ICS and sputum eosinophil counts, and between the increases in FEV(1) in response to treatment with ICS and the grade of bronchial wall thickening. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed 82.4% sensitivity and 84.8% specificity of sputum eosinophil count for detecting COPD with asthma, using 2.5% as the cutoff value. COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms had some clinical features. ICS should be considered earlier as a potential treatment in such patients. High sputum eosinophil counts and bronchial wall thickening on

  17. Immunoregulatory Effects of Paeoniflorin Exerts Anti-asthmatic Effects via Modulation of the Th1/Th2 Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Yang, Zhaocong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Juan; Wang, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    Paeoniflorin has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in the animal study. In this study, we investigated immunoregulatory effects of paeoniflorin on anti-asthmatic effects and underlying mechanisms. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin-induced. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and paeoniflorin (10 and 20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured by the forced oscillation technique; histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; Th1/Th2 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Th1/Th2 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM); and GATA3 and T-bet were evaluated by Western blot. Our study demonstrated that, compared with model group, paeoniflorin inhibited ovalbumin (OVA)-induced increases in Raw and eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-4, IgE levels were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared; increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; histological studies demonstrated that paeoniflorin substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue and lung tissue compared with model group. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated that paeoniflorin can regulate Th1/Th2 balance. These findings suggest that paeoniflorin may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma and could be used as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma.

  18. Investigating the Relation Between Prevalence of Asthmatic Allergy with the Characteristics of the Environment Using Association Rule Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani Sadat, Y.; Karimipour, F.; Kanani Sadat, A.

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has highly increased in recent decades due to contamination of the environment with the allergy stimuli. A common treat is identifying the allergy stimulus and, then, avoiding the patient to be exposed with it. There are, however, many unknown allergic diseases stimuli that are related to the characteristics of the living environment. In this paper, we focus on the effect of air pollution on asthmatic allergies and investigate the association between prevalence of such allergies with those characteristics of the environment that may affect the air pollution. For this, spatial association rule mining has been deployed to mine the association between spatial distribution of allergy prevalence and the air pollution parameters such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 (compiled by the air pollution monitoring stations) as well as living distance to parks and roads. The results for the case study (i.e., Tehran metropolitan area) indicates that distance to parks and roads as well as CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 is related to the allergy prevalence in December (the most polluted month of the year in Tehran), while SO2 and O3 have no effect on that.

  19. Extractions of Oil from Descurainia sophia Seed Using Supercritical CO2, Chemical Compositions by GC-MS and Evaluation of the Anti-Tussive, Expectorant and Anti-Asthmatic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Gong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descurainia sophia is widely distributed in China and is one of the most troublesome annual weeds. It has diverse medicinal usage. D. sophia has abundant oil, making it an important oil plant in China. The main goal of this study was to obtain the maximum yield of the oil by an optimal selection of supercritical fluid extraction parameters. According to the central composite design and response surface methodology for supercritical fluid extraction method, a quadratic polynomial model was used to predict the yield of D. sophia seed oil. A series of runs was performed to assess the optimal extraction conditions. The results indicated that the extraction pressure had the greatest impact on oil yield within the range of the operating conditions studied. A total of approximately 67 compounds were separated in D. sophia seed oil by GC-MS, of which 51 compounds represented 98.21% of the total oils, for the first time. This study was also aimed at evaluating the anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive and expectorant activities in vivo of D. sophia seed oil which supplied for further research on bioactive constituents and pharmacological mechanisms.

  20. Eosinophils in bronchial mucosa of asthmatics after allergen challenge: effect of anti-IgE treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rensen, E. L. J.; Evertse, C. E.; van Schadewijk, W. A. A. M.; van Wijngaarden, S.; Ayre, G.; Mauad, T.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Sterk, P. J.; Rabe, K. F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anti-IgE, omalizumab, inhibits the allergen response in patients with asthma. This has not been directly related to changes in inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that anti-IgE exerts its effects by reducing airway inflammation. To that end, the effect of anti-IgE on

  1. Quantitative assessment of global and regional air trappings using non-rigid registration and regional specific volume change of inspiratory/expiratory CT scans: Studies on healthy volunteers and asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sol; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Kim, Nam Kug

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare air trapping in healthy volunteers with asthmatics using pulmonary function test and quantitative data, such as specific volume change from paired inspiratory CT and registered expiratory CT. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 9 asthmatics underwent paired inspiratory/expiratory CT. DeltaSV, which represents the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation, was measured with paired inspiratory and anatomically registered expiratory CT scans. Air trapping indexes, DeltaSV0.4 and DeltaSV0.5, were defined as volume fraction of lung below 0.4 and 0.5 DeltaSV, respectively. To assess the gravity effect of air-trapping, DeltaSV values of anterior and posterior lung at three different levels were measured and DeltaSV ratio of anterior lung to posterior lung was calculated. Color-coded DeltaSV map of the whole lung was generated and visually assessed. Mean DeltaSV, DeltaSV0.4, and DeltaSV0.5 were compared between healthy volunteers and asthmatics. In asthmatics, correlation between air trapping indexes and clinical parameters were assessed. Mean DeltaSV, DeltaSV0.4, and DeltaSV0.5 in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (all p < 0.05). DeltaSV values in posterior lung in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (p = 0.049). In asthmatics, air trapping indexes, such as DeltaSV0.5 and DeltaSV0.4, showed negative strong correlation with FEF25-75, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. DeltaSV map of asthmatics showed abnormal geographic pattern in 5 patients (55.6%) and disappearance of anterior-posterior gradient in 3 patients (33.3%). Quantitative assessment of DeltaSV (the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation) shows the difference in extent of air trapping between health volunteers and asthmatics.

  2. Quantitative assessment of global and regional air trappings using non-rigid registration and regional specific volume change of inspiratory/expiratory CT scans: Studies on healthy volunteers and asthmatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sol; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Kim, Nam Kug [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare air trapping in healthy volunteers with asthmatics using pulmonary function test and quantitative data, such as specific volume change from paired inspiratory CT and registered expiratory CT. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 9 asthmatics underwent paired inspiratory/expiratory CT. DeltaSV, which represents the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation, was measured with paired inspiratory and anatomically registered expiratory CT scans. Air trapping indexes, DeltaSV0.4 and DeltaSV0.5, were defined as volume fraction of lung below 0.4 and 0.5 DeltaSV, respectively. To assess the gravity effect of air-trapping, DeltaSV values of anterior and posterior lung at three different levels were measured and DeltaSV ratio of anterior lung to posterior lung was calculated. Color-coded DeltaSV map of the whole lung was generated and visually assessed. Mean DeltaSV, DeltaSV0.4, and DeltaSV0.5 were compared between healthy volunteers and asthmatics. In asthmatics, correlation between air trapping indexes and clinical parameters were assessed. Mean DeltaSV, DeltaSV0.4, and DeltaSV0.5 in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (all p < 0.05). DeltaSV values in posterior lung in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (p = 0.049). In asthmatics, air trapping indexes, such as DeltaSV0.5 and DeltaSV0.4, showed negative strong correlation with FEF25-75, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. DeltaSV map of asthmatics showed abnormal geographic pattern in 5 patients (55.6%) and disappearance of anterior-posterior gradient in 3 patients (33.3%). Quantitative assessment of DeltaSV (the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation) shows the difference in extent of air trapping between health volunteers and asthmatics.

  3. Stability of FeNO and airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol in untreated asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Pernille Bækgaard; Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2017-01-01

    measured, and asthma control was assessed with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). RESULTS: A total of 41 subjects completed both visits. Mean (SD) FEV1% at baseline was 94.1% (17.7) and at re-examination 94.6% (19.7) (ns). The ACQ score was unchanged from baseline (Mean (SD): 0.90 (± 0.73)) to follow......-up 0.90 (± 0.74) (ns), as was the FEV1% (94.1% (±17.1%) vs 94.6% (19.7%)(ns) indicating that patients were clinically stable during follow-up. The response to mannitol was unchanged at follow-up (Geometric mean (CI) of Response Dose Ratio (RDR) to mannitol: 0.026(0.013-0.046) vs 0.026(0.012-0.050) (ns...

  4. [Analysis of clinical features and allergic status of asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yan; Ye, Ling; Gong, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Jin, Mei-ling

    2013-08-01

    To improve understanding of the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, including clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, pulmonary function tests and chest CT imaging of 95 asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE from January 2010 to September 2012 in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University. Of the 95 patients, 59 cases met the diagnostic criteria of ABPM. There were 34 males and 25 females, with a mean age of (53 ± 4) years and a duration of asthma for (21 ± 4) years. Thirty-six cases showed mycosis hypersensitivity (MH). There were 10 males and 26 females, with a mean age of (46 ± 6) years and a duration of asthma for (16 ± 5) years. Clinical symptoms such as wheeze (52 vs 21, χ(2) = 11.159, P = 0.001), cough (54 vs 27, χ(2) = 4.859, P = 0.030) and expectoration (43 vs 9, χ(2) = 25.731, P = 0.000) were more common in the ABPM group compared to the MH group.In the ABPM group, 58 were A. fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 34 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 1 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.While in the MH group, 15 were A.fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 24 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 17 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.In the ABPM group, the percentage of positive fumigatus-specific IgE antibody was higher (58 vs 15, χ(2) = 24.500, P = 0.000), while the percentages of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(21 vs 20, χ(2) = 3.632, P = 0.045) and Dermatophagoides farinae(17 vs 21, χ(2) = 8.118, P = 0.004) were lower. Total serum IgE [(4395 ± 1437) IU/ml vs (276 ± 133) IU/ml, T = 4.384, P = 0.000], peripheral eosinophil percentage[(12.56 ± 1.20)% vs (1.30 ± 0.15)%, t = 8.175, P = 0.000] and count [(2.09 ± 0.43)×10(9)/L vs (0.19 ± 0.04)×10(9)/L, t = 7.032, P = 0.000] were higher in the ABPM group as compared to the MH group.FEV1% slightly declined in the ABPM

  5. Early-life viral infection and allergen exposure interact to induce an asthmatic phenotype in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asquith Kelly L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early-life respiratory viral infections, notably with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, increase the risk of subsequent development of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether early-life infection with a species-specific model of RSV and subsequent allergen exposure predisposed to the development of features of asthma. Methods We employed a unique combination of animal models in which BALB/c mice were neonatally infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM, which replicates severe RSV disease in human infants and following recovery, were intranasally sensitised with ovalbumin. Animals received low-level challenge with aerosolised antigen for 4 weeks to elicit changes of chronic asthma, followed by a single moderate-level challenge to induce an exacerbation of inflammation. We then assessed airway inflammation, epithelial changes characteristic of remodelling, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and host immunological responses. Results Allergic airway inflammation, including recruitment of eosinophils, was prominent only in animals that had recovered from neonatal infection with PVM and then been sensitised and chronically challenged with antigen. Furthermore, only these mice exhibited an augmented Th2-biased immune response, including elevated serum levels of anti-ovalbumin IgE and IgG1 as well as increased relative expression of Th2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. By comparison, development of AHR and mucous cell change were associated with recovery from PVM infection, regardless of subsequent allergen challenge. Increased expression of IL-25, which could contribute to induction of a Th2 response, was demonstrable in the lung following PVM infection. Signalling via the IL-4 receptor α chain was crucial to the development of allergic inflammation, mucous cell change and AHR, because all of these were absent in receptor-deficient mice. In contrast, changes of remodelling were evident in mice

  6. B-cell exposure to self-antigen induces IL-10 producing B cells as well as IL-6- and TNF-α-producing B-cell subsets in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Anina; Kristensen, Birte; Hansen, Bjarke E

    2012-01-01

    Human B cells are able to secrete IL-10 after stimulation with mitogens, but their ability to produce IL-10 and regulate T-cell responses after stimulation with self-antigens is unclear. We co-cultured thyroglobulin-pulsed B cells from healthy donors with autologous T cells and observed production...... of IL-10 and TGF-β, in addition to TNF-α and IL-6. Pulsing with foreign antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT), induced a Th1-response with minimal IL-10 production. After thyroglobulin-pulsing, 1.10±0.50% of B cells and 1.00±0.20% of CD4(+) T cells produced IL-10, compared to 0.29±0.19% of B cells (P=0.01) and 0.......13±0.15% of CD4(+) T cells (P=0.006) following TT-pulsing. Thyroglobulin-stimulated, IL-10-secreting B cells were enriched within CD5(+) and CD24(high) cells. While thyroglobulin-pulsed B cells induced only modest proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, B cells pulsed with TT induced vigorous proliferation. Thus, B...

  7. [Effect of 1-year specific immunotherapy with standardized house dust mite vaccine on mild to moderate allergic asthmatic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-yu; Lin, Xiao-ping; Hao, Chuang-li; Zhang, Chun-qing; Sun, Bao-qing; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Ping; Sheng, Jin-yun; Wu, Adrian; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of specific immunotherapy (SIT) with standardized house dust mite (HDM) vaccine on allergic asthmatic patients. The investigation was a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. 132 patients with mild to moderate asthma who were allergic to HDM, recruited from three hospitals of China (The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Shenyang General Military Hospital, Suzhou Children's Hospital), were randomly allocated to the active group (n = 66) or the control group (n = 66) respectively. The active group received SIT with a standardized depot Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) extract absorbed to aluminium hydroxide (Alutard SQ, ALK-Abelló, Denmark), while the control group received a placebo containing histamine dihydrochloride by subcutaneous injections for 1 year. Treatment of each group was started from the initial concentration. Updosing was performed with weekly injections from four 10-fold dose-increase vials (active group: 100, 1,000, 10,000, 100,000 SQ-U/ml, control group: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 microg/ml. 100,000 SQ-U/ml of Der p extract contains 9.8 microg/ml of the majoy allergen Der p1). The single-dose was injected weekly with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 ml of each concentration in turn from the preceding 3 vials, totally for 9 weeks. Subsequently, the dose with 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 ml of the highest concentration was injected weekly from the 10th-14th week and a maintenance dose with 1 ml was reached at the 15th week. The dosing interval was then gradually increased to 2, 4, 6 weeks until the end of the first 26-weeks updosing phase (phase I, H(1)). Thereafter, the dosing continued at 6-week intervals for maintenance phase (phase II, H(2)) till the end of the complete treatment. The patient was observed for at least 30 minutes in the clinic after each injection. A total of 132 subjects were randomized and 129 subjects (64 in the active group, 65 in the control group

  8. Control of asthma for reducing the risk of bronchospasm in asthmatics undergoing general anesthesia and/or intravascular administration of radiographic contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Salzillo, Antonello; De Blasio, Francesco; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2009-07-01

    It is well known that patients suffering from bronchial asthma undergoing surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia (GA) or the administration of water soluble radiographic contrast media (RCM) have an increased risk of potentially severe bronchospasm. Nevertheless, little attention has been devoted to the possible preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of this potentially life-threatening event. It has been shown that the most important risk factor for bronchospasm during GA induction and/or the use of RCM is represented by a high degree of bronchial hyperreactivity with airway instability not adequately controlled by long-term anti-inflammatory treatment. The aim of this commentary is to underline the need for an accurate clinical and functional evaluation of asthmatics undergoing surgical procedures requiring GA or radiological procedures requiring the administration of RCM, as well as to suggest a stepwise preventive pharmacological approach for reducing the risk of bronchospasm. The authors' suggestions represent clinical experience of the respiratory section of an internal hospital-based working group whose aim is the prevention of asthmatic/anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions during the administration of anesthetics and/or RCM. The MEDLINE database was searched with a combination of keywords: general anesthesia, radio contrast media [and] bronchial asthma. The main limitation of this commentary is the scarcity of available literature on this topic. The authors suggest a therapeutic approach before surgical procedures requiring GA and/or RCM administration based on the degree of asthma control as assessed by clinical/functional criteria. In this setting, in addition to the necessity of obtaining the best control of airway reactivity, the authors suggest that an optimal control of asthma symptoms in 'real life' conditions might likely constitute a safety issue in asthmatic patients in the case of emergency procedures.

  9. The effect of omalizumab on small airway inflammation as measured by exhaled nitric oxide in moderate-to-severe asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, M Asghar; Jourd'heuil, David; Jourd'heuil, Francis; Mahon, Lori; Romero, Francisco; Feustel, Paul J; Evans, Mary; Smith, Thomas; Mitchell, Jesse; Gendapodi, Pradeep; Demeyere-Coursey, Kelly C; Townley, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FENO) is a simple, noninvasive method to evaluate eosinophilic airway inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) arising from peripheral small airways/alveoli (alveolar NO concentration [CalvNO]) can be estimated using multiple flow rates and a two-compartment model of the airways and alveoli. Omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, is approved for the treatment of allergic asthma and also has been shown to decrease FENO levels. This study investigates the effects of omalizumab, when added to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) ± long-acting beta-adrenergic agonist (LABA) treatment, on peripheral small airway/alveolar inflammation reflected by FENO measurements at higher flow rates. We hypothesized that compared with placebo, omalizumab would decrease CalvNO levels in asthmatic patients on ICS ± LABA. Forty-two patients with moderate-to-severe asthma were randomly assigned 2:1 to either omalizumab (n = 29) or placebo treatment (n = 13) for 16 weeks. Selection criteria included moderate-to-severe asthmatic patients on an ICS ± LABA, positive skin test to one or more perennial allergen, screening FENO of >13 ppb, and a baseline IgE of 30-700 IU/mL. FENO measured at multiple flow rates was used to calculate CalvNO over the course of 16 weeks. FENO levels decrease with increasing flow rates (p < 0.05 repeated measures ANOVA) but no differences between the placebo and treatment groups in overall CalvNO levels or in the changes of CalvNO with time were found. Omalizumab did not lower the CalvNO, which could have been caused by the initial low CalvNO in this asthmatic population. The model used may not be completely sufficient and/or sensitive enough to detect small changes in CalvNO.

  10. Oxygen-enhanced MRI vs. quantitatively assessed thin-section CT: Pulmonary functional loss assessment and clinical stage classification of asthmatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, 1100, Shimogatou, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898 (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Nogami, Munenobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Image-Based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Takenaka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the efficacy of oxygen-enhanced MR imaging (O{sub 2}-enhanced MRI) and CT for pulmonary functional loss assessment and clinical stage classification of asthmatics. Materials and methods: O{sub 2}-enhanced MRI, CT and %FEV{sub 1} measurement were used 34 consecutive asthmatics classified into four stages ('Mild Intermittent [n = 7]', 'Mild Persistent [n = 8], 'Moderate Persistent [n = 14]' and 'Severe Persistent [n = 5]'). Relative enhancement ratio maps for every subject were generated, and determine mean relative enhancement ratios (MRERs). Mean lung density (MLD) and the airway wall area (WA) corrected by body surface area (WA/BSA) were also measured on CT. To compare the efficacy of the two methods for pulmonary functional loss assessment, all indexes were correlated with %FEV{sub 1}. To determine the efficacy of the two methods for clinical stage classification, all parameters for the four clinical stages were statistically compared. Results: %FEV{sub 1} showed fair or moderate correlation with all parameters (0.15 {<=} r{sup 2} {<=} 0.30, p < 0.05). WA, WA/BSA and MRER of the 'Severe Persistent' group were significantly larger than those of 'Mild Intermittent' and 'Mild Persistent' groups (p < 0.05), and MRER of the 'Moderate Persistent' group significantly lower than that of the 'Mild Intermittent' group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: O{sub 2}-enhanced MRI is as effective as CT for pulmonary functional loss assessment and clinical stage classification of asthmatics.

  11. A Role of Sp1 Binding Motifs in Basal and Large T-Antigen-Induced Promoter Activities of Human Polyomavirus HPyV9 and Its Variant UF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Moens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9 was originally detected in the serum of a renal transplant patient. Seroepidemiological studies showed that ~20–50% of the human population have antibodies against this virus. HPyV9 has not yet been associated with any disease and little is known about the route of infection, transmission, host cell tropism, and genomic variability in circulating strains. Recently, the HPyV9 variant UF-1 with an eight base-pair deletion, a thirteen base-pair insertion and with point mutations, creating three putative Sp1 binding sites in the late promoter was isolated from an AIDS patient. Transient transfection studies with a luciferase reporter plasmid driven by HPyV9 or UF1 promoter demonstrated that UF1 early and late promoters were stronger than HPyV9 promoters in most cell lines, and that the UF1 late promoter was more potently activated by HPyV9 large T-antigen (LTAg. Mutation of two Sp1 motifs strongly reduced trans-activation of the late UF1 promoter by HPyV9 LTAg in HeLa cells. In conclusion, the mutations in the UF1 late promoter seem to strengthen its activity and its response to stimulation by HPyV9 LTAg in certain cells. It remains to be investigated whether these promoter changes have an influence on virus replication and affect the possible pathogenic properties of the virus.

  12. Effects of ASM-024, a modulator of acetylcholine receptor function, on airway responsiveness and allergen-induced responses in patients with mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Gauvreau, Gail M; Cockcroft, Donald W; Davis, Beth; Vachon, Luc; Cormier, Yvon; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability and clinical activity of ASM-024, a new cholinergic compound with dual nicotinic and muscarinic activity, in mild allergic asthma. The present study involved 24 stable, mild allergic asthmatic subjects. In a cross-over design, ASM-024 (50 mg or 200 mg) or placebo were administered once daily by nebulization over three periods of nine consecutive days separated by a three-week washout. The effect of each treatment on the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20), early and late asthmatic responses, and allergen-induced inflammation were measured. Seventeen subjects completed the study. During treatment with ASM-024 at 50 mg or 200 mg, the PC20 value increased respectively from a mean (± SD) 2.56±3.86 mg/mL to 4.11 mg/mL (P=0.007), and from 3.12±4.37 mg/mL to 5.23 mg/mL (P=0.005) (no change with placebo). On day 7 (day preceding allergen challenge), postdosing FEV1 increased by 2.0% with 50 mg (P=0.005) and 1.9% with 200 mg (P=0.008) (placebo -1.1%). ASM-24 had no inhibitory effect on early and late asthmatic responses, nor on sputum eosinophil or neutrophil levels. ASM-024 induced no serious adverse events, but caused cough in 22% and 48% of the subjects with 50 mg and 200 mg, respectively, compared with 10% who were on placebo. ASM-024 did not inhibit allergen-induced asthmatic response and related airway inflammation, but reduced methacholine airway responsiveness and slightly improved lung function. The mechanism by which ASM-024 improves these outcomes requires further study.

  13. Specific proliferative response of human lymphocytes to purified soluble antigens from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro cultures and to antigens from malaria patients' sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Theander, T G

    1985-01-01

    Antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, in supernatants of in vitro cultures of the parasite were affinity purified on columns prepared with the IgG fraction of the serum of an immune individual. The purified antigens induced proliferation of lymphocytes from persons who had recently had malaria....... The responses were strongest with lymphocytes from individuals infected with falciparum and ovale malaria; vivax malaria infections induced a lower level of response and lymphocytes of unsensitized individuals were little affected. Lymphocytes from unsensitized individuals did not respond to the affinity...

  14. Multiepitope fusion antigen induces broadly protective antibodies that prevent adherence of Escherichia coli strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Wollenberg, Katie M; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens.

  15. Influence of interaction of environmental risk factors and sensitization in young asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Rietz, H; Wickman, M; Nordvall, S L

    1999-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of asthma and allergy in many countries demands evaluation of potential risk factors to improve the possibility of prevention. We studied the association between exposure to cat and dog allergen and allergic sensitization in young children with asthma and interactions with potential environmental risk factors. One hundred eighty-nine young children with asthma were evaluated. IgE antibodies to cat and dog were analyzed. Questionnaires were filled in focusing on exposure to cats and dogs, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and signs of home dampness as indicated by window pane condensation (WPC) during the first years of life. House dust was analyzed for content of cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergen. There was a strong association between the degree of reported exposure to cat and dog and the concentration of the respective allergens in floor dust. A dose-response relationship was found between cat exposure, measured as either reported degree of cat exposure or cat allergen levels in dust, and sensitization both to cat and dog. No such relationship was found between exposure and sensitization to dog. WPC increased the risk for sensitization to cat (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.8), whereas ETS strongly tended to do so both to cat and dog. Interaction was found between exposure to ETS, WPC, and high levels of cat allergen (>8 microg/g dust). The presence of all 3 risk factors revealed a multiplicative interaction with a high risk of sensitization to cat (odds ratio = 42.0, 95% confidence interval 3.7-472.8). Keeping cats indoors may be a health hazard for infants and young children at risk for development of asthma, particularly when they live in a damp house and their parents smoke.

  16. Effects of cigarette smoke on methacholine- and AMP-induced air trapping in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Luis; Palop, Julio; Llusar, Ruth; Herrera, Susana; Perez-Frances, Carmen; Lanuza, Amparo; Aguilar, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Objective: No information is available on the effect of cigarette smoke on bronchoconstrictor-induced air trapping in asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional influence of smoking on methacholine- and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-induced air trapping in subjects with asthma. Airway responsiveness to methacholine and AMP, bronchial (J'awNO) and alveolar (CANO) nitric oxide (NO) and exhaled breath condensate pH were measured in 68 adults (23 current smokers with asthma, 23 non-smokers with asthma and 22 current or former smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD). The degree of air trapping induced by each bronchoconstrictor agent was expressed by the percent fall in forced vital capacity (FVC) at a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s relative to FVC after saline inhalation (ΔFVC%). The ΔFVC% for AMP was higher in both smokers with asthma and patients with COPD than in non-smokers with asthma (p<0.001). By contrast, ΔFVC% for methacholine was similar in the three groups of subjects (p=0.69). In smokers with asthma, but not in the other two groups, there was a correlation between the residual volume/total lung capacity at baseline and the ΔFVC% induced by each bronchoconstrictor agent. Mean values for J'awNO were higher in non-smokers with asthma than in the other two groups (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that factors underlying bronchoconstriction induced by indirect agonists are different in smokers and non-smokers with asthma. These observations might be clinically relevant, because triggers that frequently induce bronchial obstruction in the real world act by an indirect mechanism.

  17. Lower leukotriene C4 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic subjects after 2.5 years of inhaled corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oosterhoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids has been shown to result in improvement of symptoms and lung function in subjects with asthma. Arachidonic acid (AA metabolites are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. It was assessed whether differences could be found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL AA metabolite levels between subjects with asthma who were treated for 2.5 years with inhaled bronchodilators alone or in combination with inhaled corticosteroids. Prostaglandin (PGD2, PGF2α, 6-keto-PGF1α, thromboxane B2, leukotriene (LTC4 and LTB4 levels and cell numbers were assessed in BAL fluid from 22 non-smoking asthmatic subjects. They were participating in a randomized, double-blind multicentre drug trial over a period of 2.5 years. Results of the group treated with inhaled corticosteroids (CS+: beclomethasone 200 μg four times daily were compared with the other group (CS− which was treated with either ipratropium bromide (40 μg four times daily or placebo. BAL LTC4 levels of asthmatic subjects were significantly lower after 2.5 years inhaled corticosteroid therapy (CS+, 9(1–17 pg/ml vs. CS−, 16(6-53 pg/ml; p = 0.01. The same trend was observed for the PGD2 levels. The results suggest that inhaled corticosteroids may exert their beneficial effect on lung function via a mechanism in which inhibition of LTC4 synthesis in the airways is involved.

  18. Enantioselective resolution of Rac-terbutaline and evaluation of optically pure R-terbutaline hydrochloride as an efficient anti-asthmatic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng, Huimin; Zhang, Hao; Jayachandra, R; Li, Junxiao; Wu, Jie; Tan, Wen

    2018-06-01

    Terbutaline is a β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among the two isomers of terbutaline (TBT 2), R-isomer was found to be the potent enantiomer in generating therapeutic effect, while S-isomer has been reported to show side effects. In this study, R-terbutaline hydrochloride (R-TBH 6) was synthesized through chiral resolution from the racemic terbutaline sulfate (rac-TBS 1) with 99.9% enantiomeric excess (ee) in good overall yield (53.6%). Further, R-TBH 6 nebulized solution was prepared in half dosage of Bricanyl®, which is a marketed product of racemic terbutaline and evaluated in vitro aerosol performance and in vivo anti-asthmatic effect on guinea pigs via. pulmonary delivery. From the investigation, it is evident that R-TBH 6 nebulized solution of half dosage performed similar fine aerosol characteristics and anti-asthmatic effect with Bricanyl®. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls – Physical Activity Questionnaire application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Santos-Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level.Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. Patients and methods: We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. Results: 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males answered the questionnaire.There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40 ± 0,7 vs 2,48 ± 0,62; p = 0,32. Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p = 0,011 and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p = 0,036. No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Conclusion: Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Resumo: Introdução: O questionário PAQ (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen é um questionário validado, que mede os níveis de atividade física em jovens através de perguntas referentes aos últimos 7 dias. É obtido um resultado final (1 indica um nível de atividade física baixo e 5 um nível elevado

  20. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes from asthmatic patients are primed for enhanced expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 mRNA : associations with lung function and serum IgE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, P; Ten Hacken, NHT; Vellenga, E; Kauffman, HF; Postma, DS

    Background The TH2-like cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 play a pivotal role in airway wall inflammation in asthma and these cytokines are increased in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from asthmatic patients. It is unclear why specifically TH2-like cytokines are increased in

  1. Goodbye warts, hello vitiligo: Candida antigen-induced depigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Erin N; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2013-01-01

    Depigmentation after the use of topical immune modulators is a rare but reported event. Herein we present what is to our knowledge the first case of vitiligo at a site of Candida antigen injection. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuto Kobayashi; Toru Miura; Tomoko Haba; Miyuki Sato; Masao Takei; Isao Serizawa

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those st...

  3. Useful marker of oscillatory lung function in methacholine challenge test-comparison of reactance and resistance with dose-response slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Won; Shin, Youn Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Chang, Sun Jung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Hyeong Yun; Han, Man Yong

    2014-06-01

    There are few studies focusing on the comparison of resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) in impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in the bronchial challenge test using dose-response slope (DRS), a quantitative index of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conducted a case-control study of 144 asthmatic and 218 non-asthmatic children to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two-point linear DRS for FEV1 , Rrs5 , and Xrs5 (DRS_FEV1 , DRS_Rrs5 , and DRS_Xrs5 ) and assessed various diagnostic cut-off points of provocation concentrations (PC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. DRS_FEV1 had a stronger correlation with DRS_Xrs5 (r = 0.739, P  percent change of FEV1 (Pch_FEV1 ) (0.735) > Pch_Xrs5 (0.727) > Abs_Rrs5 (0.690) > Pch_Rrs5 (0.630). PC78 _Xrs5 and PC0.17 _Xrs5 of IOS showed considerably good sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of PC20 _FEV1 by spirometry. Additional 18 (13%) children who showed normal spirometric measures were identified as asthmatics with the use of IOS. The utility of the DRS_Xrs5 to differentiate asthmatics from controls was comparable to that of the DRS_FEV1 and better than that of the DRS_Rrs5 . In addition, IOS could detect additional asthmatic patients who did not show positive responses in spirometry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The IVAIRE project--a randomized controlled study of the impact of ventilation on indoor air quality and the respiratory symptoms of asthmatic children in single family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, P; Aubin, D; Gingras, V; Daigneault, P; Ducharme, F; Gauvin, D; Fugler, D; Leclerc, J-M; Won, D; Courteau, M; Gingras, S; Héroux, M-È; Yang, W; Schleibinger, H

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial was carried out to measure the impact of an intervention on ventilation, indoor air contaminants, and asthma symptoms of children. Eighty-three asthmatic children living in low-ventilated homes were followed over 2 years. Several environmental parameters were measured during the summer, fall, and winter. The children were randomized after Year 1 (43 Intervention; 40 Control). The intervention included the installation of either a Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) or Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV). During the fall and winter seasons, there was a significant increase in the mean ventilation rate in the homes of the intervention group. A statistically significant reduction in mean formaldehyde, airborne mold spores, toluene, styrene, limonene, and α-pinene concentrations was observed in the intervention group. There was no significant group difference in change in the number of days with symptoms per 14 days. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of children who experienced any wheezing (≥1 episode) and those with ≥4 episodes in the 12-month period in the intervention group. This study indicates that improved ventilation reduces air contaminants and may prevent wheezing. Due to lack of power, a bigger study is needed. Positive findings from this study include the fact that, upon recruitment, most of the single family homes with asthmatic children were already equipped with a mechanical ventilation system and had relatively good indoor air quality. However, the 8-h indoor guideline for formaldehyde (50 μg/m3) was frequently exceeded and the ventilation rates were low in most of the homes, even those with a ventilation system. Both ERVs and HRVs were equally effective at increasing air exchange rates above 0.30 ACH and at preventing formaldehyde concentrations from exceeding the 50 μg/m3 guideline during the fall and winter seasons. Furthermore, the ERVs were effective at preventing excessively low relative

  5. A simple and rapid micromethod for genomic DNA extraction from jugal epithelial cells. Application to human lymphocyte antigen typing in one large family of atopic/asthmatic probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Y; Swierczewski, E; Lockhart, A

    1994-10-01

    We describe a rapid and reliable micromethod for DNA isolation from buccal epithelial cells from the interior mouth mucosa. This convenient, noninvasive method could be applied to genetic typing in a small number of cells (about 2000 cells per cheek). We have shown that DNA released by this method is suitable for further amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this protocol, coupled with the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method, we analyzed the allelic sequence diversity of the human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes in an extended family of 33 persons containing 14 asthmatic or atopic members. Six of eight DQA1 alleles, and 11 DQB1, 20 DPB1, and 10 DR haplotypes could be identified in a single DNA sample. Our results suggest that the DR53 group haplotype is frequently associated with allergic asthma and atopy. The micromethod described here may be useful in genetic epidemiology, especially in family studies involving small children.

  6. Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing to improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids among adult asthmatics: results from a randomized controlled pilot feasibility trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavoie KL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kim L Lavoie,1–3 Gregory Moullec,1,2,4 Catherine Lemiere,2 Lucie Blais,2 Manon Labrecque,2 Marie-France Beauchesne,2 Veronique Pepin,2,4 André Cartier,2 Simon L Bacon1,2,41Montreal Behavioural Medicine Centre, 2Research Centre, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal – A University of Montreal Affiliated Hospital, Montréal, 3Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM, Succursale Center-Ville, Montreal, 4Department of Exercise Science, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Daily adherence to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS regimens is one of the most important factors linked to achieving optimal asthma control. Motivational interviewing (MI is a client-centered communication style that focuses on enhancing intrinsic motivation to engage in appropriate self-management behaviors. MI has been shown to improve a variety of health behaviors including medication adherence in other disorders, but its efficacy for the improvement of ICS adherence in asthmatics has yet to be examined. This pilot “proof of concept” trial assessed the feasibility of MI to improve daily ICS adherence and asthma control levels in adult asthmatics.Methods: Fifty-four poorly controlled (Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ] score ≥1.5, highly nonadherent (filled <50% of ICS medication in the last year adult asthmatics were recruited from the outpatient asthma clinic of a university-affiliated hospital. Participants underwent baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to MI (3×30 minutes sessions within a 6-week period, n=26 or a usual care (UC control group (n=28. ICS adherence (% pharmacy refills and asthma control (ACQ, Asthma Control Test [ACT] were measured at 6 and 12 months postintervention. Mixed model repeated measure analyses for both intent-to-treat and per-protocol were used. Results were adjusted for a priori-defined covariates including baseline adherence. Patients in the MI group also reported their impressions of

  7. Long term effects of prenatal and postnatal airborne PAH exposures on ventilatory lung function of non-asthmatic preadolescent children. Prospective birth cohort study in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camann, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5 and 9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25-75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37 ng/m(3)) amounted to 53 mL (p=0.050) and the deficit of FEF25-75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m(3)) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25-75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m(3)) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71 mL, p=0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL AIRBORNE PAH EXPOSURE ON VENTILATORY LUNG FUNCTION OF NON-ASTHMATIC PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN KRAKOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5–9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25–75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m3) amounted to 53 mL (p = 0.050) and the deficit of FEF25–75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m3) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25–75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m3) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p = 0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. PMID:25300014

  9. Mycobacteria-specific cytokine responses as correlates of treatment response in active and latent tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Vanessa; Tebruegge, Marc; Zufferey, Christel; Germano, Susie; Forbes, Ben; Cosentino, Lucy; McBryde, Emma; Eisen, Damon; Robins-Browne, Roy; Street, Alan; Denholm, Justin; Curtis, Nigel

    2017-08-01

    A biomarker indicating successful tuberculosis (TB) therapy would assist in determining appropriate length of treatment. This study aimed to determine changes in mycobacteria-specific antigen-induced cytokine biomarkers in patients receiving therapy for latent or active TB, to identify biomarkers potentially correlating with treatment success. A total of 33 adults with active TB and 36 with latent TB were followed longitudinally over therapy. Whole blood stimulation assays using mycobacteria-specific antigens (CFP-10, ESAT-6, PPD) were done on samples obtained at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. Cytokine responses (IFN-γ, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IP-10, MIP-1β, and TNF-α) in supernatants were measured by Luminex xMAP immunoassay. In active TB cases, median IL-1ra (with CFP-10 and with PPD stimulation), IP-10 (CFP-10, ESAT-6), MIP-1β (ESAT-6, PPD), and TNF-α (ESAT-6) responses declined significantly over the course of therapy. In latent TB cases, median IL-1ra (CFP-10, ESAT-6, PPD), IL-2 (CFP-10, ESAT-6), and IP-10 (CFP-10, ESAT-6) responses declined significantly. Mycobacteria-specific cytokine responses change significantly over the course of therapy, and their kinetics in active TB differ from those observed in latent TB. In particular, mycobacteria-specific IL-1ra responses are potential correlates of successful therapy in both active and latent TB. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peptide fragments induce a more rapid immune response than intact proteins in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusová, R; Tucková, L; Halada, P; Bezouska, K; Bilej, M

    1999-01-01

    The effect of in vivo proteolytic processing of protein antigen was studied in Eisenia foetida earthworms. Parenteral administration of the protein antigen induces elevated levels of an antigen-binding protein (ABP) which recognizes the protein used for stimulation. When the protein antigen is administered simultaneously with nontoxic serine proteinase inhibitor, ABP levels remain close to background. On the other hand, the in vivo adaptive response of earthworms to peptide fragments obtained by coelomic fluid digestion of the foreign antigen occurs even in the presence of proteinase inhibitor and, moreover, is significantly faster as compared to the response to intact antigen. These findings confirm the role of proteolytic processing in earthworms. MALDI mass spectrometric analysis of the fragments after coelomic fluid digestion has revealed the presence of the peptide fragments with molecular weights in the mass range 700-1100 Da.

  11. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław A. Jędrychowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to

  12. The effects of concomitant GERD, dyspepsia, and rhinosinusitis on asthma symptoms and FeNO in asthmatic patients taking controller medications

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    Ishizuka T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamotsu Ishizuka,1,2 Takeshi Hisada,2 Yosuke Kamide,2 Haruka Aoki,2 Kaori Seki,2 Chisato Honjo,1 Hiroyuki Sakai,1 Maiko Kadowaki,1 Yukihiro Umeda,1 Miwa Morikawa,1 Masaki Anzai,1 Shingo Ameshima,1 Takeshi Ishizaki,1 Kunio Dobashi,2 Masanobu Yamada,2 Motoyasu Kusano3 1Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui, 2Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Endoscopy and Endoscopic Surgery, Gunma University Hospital, Maebashi, Japan Background: Losing the sense of smell, which suggests eosinophilic rhinosinusitis, is a subjective symptom, sometimes reported in asthmatic patients taking controller medication. Upper abdominal symptoms, suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD or functional dyspepsia, occur also in these patients. However, the relationship between these symptoms, concomitant with asthma, and the intensity of eosinophilic airway inflammation remains obscure. Objective: To assess the symptoms of asthma and rhinosinusitis, and to examine the relationship between the symptoms and bronchial inflammation, a new questionnaire, the G scale, was developed. To investigate the effects of GERD, dyspepsia, and rhinosinusitis on asthma symptoms and bronchial inflammation, the symptoms of asthma and rhinosinusitis obtained by the G scale, upper abdominal symptoms obtained by the modified F scale, a questionnaire for GERD and dyspepsia, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO were analyzed. Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed in four hospitals in Gunma prefecture, and a retrospective analysis was done using data obtained from five hospitals in Gunma prefecture and Fukui prefecture, Japan. A total of 252 patients diagnosed as having asthma participated in the prospective study. Results: The frequency of daytime phlegm or losing the sense of smell had a positive correlation with FeNO levels in asthmatic

  13. Sputum eosinophilia can predict responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid treatment in patients with overlap syndrome of COPD and asthma

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    Kubo K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kitaguchi1,*, Yoshimichi Komatsu1,*, Keisaku Fujimoto2, Masayuki Hanaoka1, Keishi Kubo1 1First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Shinshu University School of Health Sciences, Matsumoto, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma may overlap and converge in older people (overlap syndrome. It was hypothesized that patients with overlap syndrome may have different clinical characteristics such as sputum eosinophilia, and better responsiveness to treatment with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS.Methods: Sixty-three patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] ≤80% underwent pulmonary function tests, including reversibility of airflow limitation, arterial blood gas analysis, analysis of inflammatory cells in induced sputum, and chest high-resolution computed tomography. The inclusion criteria for COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms included having asthmatic symptoms such as episodic breathlessness, wheezing, cough, and chest tightness worsening at night or in the early morning (COPD with asthma group. The clinical features of COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms were compared with those of COPD patients without asthmatic symptoms (COPD without asthma group.Results: The increases in FEV1 in response to treatment with ICS were significantly higher in the COPD with asthma group. The peripheral eosinophil counts and sputum eosinophil counts were significantly higher. The prevalence of patients with bronchial wall thickening on chest high-resolution computed tomography was significantly higher. A significant correlation was observed between the increases in FEV1 in response to treatment with ICS and sputum eosinophil counts, and between the increases in FEV1 in response to treatment with ICS and the grade of bronchial wall thickening. Receiver operating

  14. The effect of inhaled budesonide on symptoms, lung function, and cold air and methacholine responsiveness in 2- to 5-year-old asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    ) with moderately severe asthma in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study involving 8 wk of treatment. Budesonide (BUD) 400 microgram twice daily was administered via a pressurized metered-dose inhaler and metal spacer device. Symptom scores (SSc) and use of short...

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03, Alone and in Combination, on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Allergic Asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Gabrieli, Arianna; De Grandi, Roberta; Toscano, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 alone and in combination and their immunomodulatory activity in asthmatic subjects. Subjects affected by allergic asthma were recruited. Initially, LS01 and BR03 were analyzed for their growth compatibility by a broth compatibility assay. To study the antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains, an agar diffusion assay was performed. Finally, cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with LS01 and BR03 was determined by means of specific quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The growth of some clinical pathogens were slightly inhibited by LS01 and LS01-BR03 co-culture supernatant not neutralized to pH 6.5, while only the growth of E. coli and S. aureus was inhibited by the supernatant of LS01 and LS01-BR03 neutralized to pH 6.5. Furthermore, LS01 and BR03 combination was able to decrease the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by PBMCs, leading to an intense increase in IL-10 production. L. salivarius LS01 and B. breve BR03 showed promising probiotic properties and beneficial immunomodulatory activity that are increased when the 2 strains are used in combination in the same formulation.

  16. Usefulness of modified Pulmonary Index Score (mPIS) as a quantitative tool for the evaluation of severe acute exacerbation in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Takeshi; Tokuyama, Kenichi; Itano, Atsushi; Morita, Eiji; Ueda, Yutaka; Katsunuma, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Acute exacerbation of asthma is divided qualitatively into mild, moderate, and severe attacks and respiratory failure. This system is, however, not suitable for estimating small changes in respiratory condition with time and for determining the efficacy of treatments, because it has a qualitative, but not quantitative nature. To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative estimation of asthma exacerbation, modified Pulmonary Index Score (mPIS) values were measured in 87 asthmatic children (mean age, 5.0 ± 0.4 years) during hospitalization. mPIS was calculated by adding the sum of scores for 6 items (scores of 0-3 were given for each item). These consisted of heart rate, respiratory rate, accessory muscle use, inspiratory-to-expiratory flow ratio, degree of wheezing, and oxygen saturation in room air. Measurements were made at visits and at hospitalization and were then made twice a day until discharge. mPIS values were highly correlated among raters. mPIS values at visits were 9.1 ± 0.1 and 12.6 ± 0.4 in subjects with moderate and severe attacks, respectively (p asthma attacks, including the determination of a treatment plan, and prediction of the period of hospitalization in admitted patients, although prospective studies would be required to establish our hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of long-term inhalation of glucocorticoids on the level of leptin, IL-13 and IL-2 in bronchial asthmatic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jiongwei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of long-term inhalation of glucocorticoids on the level of leptin, IL-13, and IL-2 in bronchial asthmatic patient. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the serum IL-13 and IL-2 level in 60 healthy persons (normal control group) and 70 bronchial asthma patients untreated and 3, 6, 12 months post-treatment, meanwhile leptin was determined by radio immunoassay. Results: The serum levels of leptin, Il-13, and IL-2 in were significantly increased in patient with bronchial asthma compared with that in the normal control group. The serum levels of leptin, IL-13, and IL-2 in children with asthma were decreased gradually after inhaling glucocorticoids for 3 months (P<0.05). The treatment of inhaled glucocorticoids for 6 and 12 months can attenuate the elevation of leptin, IL-13, and IL-2 compared with that before the treatment. Conclusion: Long-term inhaled glucocorticoid is an important means for asthma, and the effects are related to the decrease of level of leptin, IL-13, and IL-2. (authors)

  18. Quality of life in asthmatic children and their caregivers after two-year treatment with omalizumab, a real-life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sztafińska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, has been successfully used as a supplementary therapy to improve asthma control in children aged ≥ 6 years with severe persistent allergic asthma. Aim : To demonstrate the quality of life in children with severe asthma and their caregivers, and changes from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 and daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICS dose after 2-year treatment with omalizumab. Material and methods : Participants were seen in the clinic at enrollment (visit 1, after 16 weeks (visit 2, after 52 weeks (visit 3 and after 104 weeks (visit 4 of treatment with omalizumab. We evaluated lung function, ICS use and the quality of life with the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ and the Pediatric Asthma Caregiver’s Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ. Results : Nineteen children and caregivers were enrolled. Significant improvement was observed in PAQLQ and PACQLQ scores, both in all domains and in total scores. Significant differences were found between the first and the other visits. A positive correlation between PAQLQ and PACQLQ at the first and at the second visit was found, 63.3% of patients achieved reduction in ICS doses. We did not notice any significant improvement in FEV 1 . Conclusions : The improvement in quality of life in asthmatic children and adolescents observed after omalizumab correlates with the improvement of quality of life in caregivers, reduction in ICS use but not with FEV 1 .

  19. A novel double-isotope technique for the enzymatic assay of plasma histamine: application to estimation of mast cell activation assessed by antigen challenge in asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; Ind, P.W.; Causon, R.; Lee, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of plasma histamine may provide an index of mast cell activation (degranulation) and can be measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay based on its specific conversion to (/sup 3/H)-methylhistamine in the presence of histamine-N-methyltransferase and (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. In this assay, the separation of excess (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine from (/sup 3/H)-methylhistamine requires several steps, for which a correction factors is necessary to maintain precision. In the present modification, duplicate 50-microliters aliquots of each plasma sample were incubated with histamine-N-methyltransferase and (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A further aliquot, with an added standard of 200 ng/ml histamine, was incubated with histamine-N-methyl-transferase and (/sup 14/C)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. This standard was converted to (/sup 14/C)-methylhistamine, and its recovery at the end of the assay corrected both for varying efficiency of methylation among plasma samples and for losses during the subsequent extraction and separation stages. The sensitivity of the assay was 25 pg/ml. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 7.2% and 11.6%, respectively. In five asthmatics, antigen challenge caused a 28% fall in FEV1, and this was associated with a twofold to threefold rise in plasma histamine concentration. This assay may thus prove a useful method for assessing the role of mast cell release of mediators in vivo

  20. Evaluation of the immune response to CRA and FRA recombinant antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; de Lorena, Virginia Maria Barros; Nakazawa, Mineo; da Silva, Ana Paula Galvão; Montarroyos, Ulisses; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Yara de Miranda

    2003-01-01

    Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated in 44 C57BL/6 mice immunized with the Trypanosoma cruzi recombinant antigens CRA and FRA. Both antigens induced cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity response. The levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 were high in CRA immunized mice. IgG3 was the predominant isotype. Although no difference in antibody levels was observed in FRA-immunized mice when compared to control mice, both antigens were able to induce lymphoproliferation in immunized mice. Significant differences were observed between incorporation of [ H]- thymidine by spleen cell stimulated in vitro with CRA or FRA and the control group. These results suggest that CRA and FRA could be involved in mechanisms of resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

  1. Increased body mass index predicts severity of asthma symptoms but not objective asthma traits in a large sample of asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildstrup, Line; Backer, Vibeke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and different indicators of asthma severity in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. METHODS: A total of 1186 subjects, 14-44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms and furthermore height and weight, skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured...

  2. Extracellular phospholipase production of oral Candida albicans isolates from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, denture wearers and healthy individuals following brief exposure to polyene, echinocandin and azole antimycotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna N.B. Ellepola

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Candida albicans is the primary causative agent of oral candidosis, and one of its key virulent attributes is considered to be its ability to produce extracellular phospholipases that facilitate cellular invasion. Oral candidosis can be treated with polyenes, and azoles, and the more recently introduced echinocandins. However, once administered, the intraoral concentration of these drugs tend to be sub-therapeutic and rather transient due to factors such as the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature. Hence, intra-orally, the pathogenic yeasts may undergo a brief exposure to antifungal drugs. We, therefore, evaluated the phospholipase production of oral C. albicans isolates following brief exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of the foregoing antifungals. Materials and methods Fifty C. albicans oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to sub-therapeutic concentrations of nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin, ketoconazole and fluconazole for one hour. Thereafter the drugs were removed and the phospholipase production was determined by a plate assay using an egg yolk-agar medium. Results The phospholipase production of these isolates was significantly suppressed with a percentage reduction of 10.65, 12.14, 11.45 and 6.40% following exposure to nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin and ketoconazole, respectively. This suppression was not significant following exposure to fluconazole. Conclusions Despite the sub-therapeutic, intra oral, bioavailability of polyenes, echinocandins and ketoconazole, they are likely to produce a persistent antifungal effect by suppressing phospholipase production, which is a key virulent attribute of this common pathogenic yeast.

  3. The postantifungal effect and phospholipase production of oral Candida albicans from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, denture wearers and healthy individuals following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Joseph, Bobby K; Khan, Z U

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is the major aetiological agent of oral candidosis and one of its important virulent factors is the production of extracellular phospholipases, which can be modulated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antifungal agents thus decreasing their pathogenicity. Hence, considering that chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) is a common antimicrobial mouthwash used in dentistry and that its concentration in the mouth reaches subtherapeutic levels during dosage intervals due to the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature, the postantifungal effect (PAFE) and the phospholipase production of oral C. albicans following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG was studied. Fifty C. albicans planktonic oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to three subtherapeutic concentrations of CG (0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125%) for 1 h. Isolates unexposed to CG was the control group. Thereafter the antiseptic was removed and the PAFE and phospholipase production was determined by a turbidometric method and a plate assay using an egg yolk agar medium respectively. Mean PAFE (hours) of 50 oral isolates of C. albicans following 1-h exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG was 6.97, 1.85 and 0.62 respectively. The phospholipase production of these isolates was significantly suppressed with a percentage reduction of 21.68, 18.20 and 14.04% following exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG respectively. Brief exposure of C. albicans isolates to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG would wield an antifungal effect by suppressing growth and phospholipase production, thereby quelling its pathogenicity. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. A critical role of T follicular helper cells in human mucosal anti-influenza response that can be enhanced by immunological adjuvant CpG-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljurayyan, A N; Sharma, R; Upile, N; Beer, H; Vaughan, C; Xie, C; Achar, P; Ahmed, M S; McNamara, P S; Gordon, S B; Zhang, Q

    2016-08-01

    T Follicular helper cells (TFH) are considered critical for B cell antibody response, and recent efforts have focused on promoting TFH in order to enhance vaccine efficacy. We studied the frequency and function of TFH in nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) from children and adults, and its role in anti-influenza antibody response following stimulation by a live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or an inactivated seasonal virus antigen (sH1N1). We further studied whether CpG-DNA promotes TFH and by which enhances anti-influenza response. We showed NALT from children aged 1.5-10 years contained abundant TFH, suggesting efficient priming of TFH during early childhood. Stimulation by LAIV induced a marked increase in TFH that correlated with a strong production of anti-hemagglutinin (HA) IgA/IgG/IgM antibodies in tonsillar cells. Stimulation by the inactivated sH1N1 antigen induced a small increase in TFH which was markedly enhanced by CpG-DNA, accompanied by enhanced anti-HA antibody responses. In B cell co-culture experiment, anti-HA responses were only seen in the presence of TFH, and addition of plasmacytoid dendritic cell to TFH-B cell co-culture enhanced the TFH-mediated antibody production following CpG-DNA and sH1N1 antigen stimulation. Induction of TFH differentiation from naïve T cells was also shown following the stimulation. Our results support a critical role of TFH in human mucosal anti-influenza antibody response. Use of an adjuvant such as CpG-DNA that has the capacity to promote TFH by which to enhance antigen-induced antibody responses in NALT tissue may have important implications for future vaccination strategies against respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestinal helminth infestation is associated with increased bronchial responsiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Peter D; de Pereira, Marilyn U; Pinto, Leonardo A; Jones, Marcus H; Pitrez, Paulo M; Stein, Renato T

    2008-07-01

    Non-atopic asthma is the predominant phenotype in non-affluent parts of Latin America. We recently reported that infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides increased the risk of non-atopic asthma in less affluent areas of Brazil but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine whether helminth infestation is associated with heightened bronchial responsiveness (BHR), a common finding in asthma. A random sample of 50 asthmatic and 50 non-asthmatic controls (mean age 10.1 years) were selected from a larger cohort (n = 1,011) without knowledge of their helminth infestation status. Three stool samples were collected from each child on different days and each sample was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for quantitative determination of helminth eggs. Bronchial provocation tests were performed with inhaled 4.5% hypertonic saline using the ISAAC Phase II standardized protocol. There was no difference between the prevalence of positive BHR in the asthmatics (20.4%) compared with the controls (14.6%) (P = 1.0). Helminth infestation was detected in 24.0% of children, with A. lumbricoides being the most common. Children with high load infestation (>or=100 eggs/g) were five times more likely to have BHR than children with low load or no infestation. Despite the small sample size the results of the present study suggest that the link between high load helminth infestation and non-atopic asthma may be mediated via heightened bronchial responsiveness, possibly due to an inflammatory response to the pulmonary phase of the helminth life cycle.

  6. The effects of PM2.5 on asthmatic and allergic diseases or symptoms in preschool children of six Chinese cities, based on China, Children, Homes and Health (CCHH) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fei'er; Lin, Zhijing; Chen, Renjie; Norback, Dan; Liu, Cong; Kan, Haidong; Deng, Qihong; Huang, Chen; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Liu, Wei; Wang, Juan; Lu, Chan; Qian, Hua; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The urbanization and industrialization in China is accompanied by bad air quality, and the prevalence of asthma in Chinese children has been increasing in recent years. To investigate the associations between ambient PM 2.5 levels and asthmatic and allergic diseases or symptoms in preschool children in China, we assigned PM 2.5 exposure data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project to 205 kindergartens at a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° in six cities in China (Shanghai, Nanjing, Chongqing, Changsha, Urumqi, and Taiyuan). A hierarchical multiple logistical regression model was applied to analyze the associations between kindergarten-level PM 2.5 exposure and individual-level outcomes of asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The individual-level variables, including gender, age, family history of asthma and allergic diseases, breastfeeding, parental smoking, indoor dampness, interior decoration pollution, household annual income, and city-level variable-annual temperature were adjusted. A total of 30,759 children (average age 4.6 years, 51.7% boys) were enrolled in this study. Apart from family history, indoor dampness, and decoration as predominant risk factors, we found that an increase of 10 μg/m 3 of the annual PM 2.5 was positively associated with the prevalence of allergic rhinitis by an odds ratio (OR) of 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 1.29) and diagnosed asthma by OR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.18). Those who lived in non-urban (vs. urban) areas were exposed to more severe indoor air pollution arising from biomass combustion and had significantly higher ORs between PM 2.5 and allergic rhinitis and current rhinitis. Our study suggested that long-term exposure to PM 2.5 might increase the risks of asthmatic and allergic diseases or symptoms in preschool children in China. Compared to those living in urban areas, children living in suburban or rural areas had a higher risk of PM 2.5 exposure. - Highlights: • Long-term ambient PM 2.5 can be

  7. Quality of life assessment in asthmatic patients receiving fluticasone compared with equipotent doses of beclomethasone or budesonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sabin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the quality of life in patients with asthma receiving either fluticasone or other inhaled steroids like beclomethasone or budesonide. To assess the effect of equipotent dosage of inhaled steroids at 3 months duration. Methods: Patients were randomised to receive either fluticasone or beclomethasone/budesonide. After spirometry, St. George′s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was administered at baseline and at 15 th , 30 th , 45 th , 60 th and 90 th day, to assess improvement in lung function and HRQoL. Results: Out of 96 patients who were enrolled, eighty patients completed three months duration of the study, while sixteen patients dropped out. Forty patients received fluticasone and forty received either beclomethasone or budesonide. No significant difference (p>0.05 was found in the baseline values of St. George′s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ scores and Forced Expiratory Volume at first second (FEV 1 between the two groups. However, significant difference (p< 0.05 was noted between the above two groups, in Quality of Life (QoL but not in pulmonary functions, on 15th day favoring fluticasone. No significant difference (p>0.05 was noted either in QoL or in pulmonary function tests on subsequent follow-ups. Conclusion: Early response in terms of improved QoL was observed in fluticasone treated group in patients with moderate to severe asthma.

  8. Health-related quality of life assessment using St. George′s respiratory questionnaire in asthmatics on inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sabin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Chronic diseases like asthma have significant effects on patients′ health-related quality of life (HRQoL. HRQoL measures additional indices as compared to objective measurements like spirometry. Aims: To assess and compare disease-specific quality of life in asthma patients using St. George′s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ receiving fluticasone, beclomethasone, and budesonide (BUD. Settings and Design: A prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: A 6-month follow-up of 277 patients with mild, moderate, and severe persistent asthma was randomized to receive fluticasone propionate (FP, BUD, or beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP in equipotent doses according to their global initiative on asthma (GINA severity. Statistical analysis used: Data analyzed using SPSS version: 13.0. General linear-repeated measures using the post-hoc bonferroni method assessed significance between treatment groups. Results: Significant decrease (P < 0.05 in each SGRQ domains and total scores as well as improvement in FEV 1 (P < 0.05 was observed in all study subjects. A significant early response (P < 0.05 was noted after 15 days treatment in patients receiving FP with respect to SGRQ (activity, impact and total scores and dyspnea indices, but not FEV 1 . This improvement with FP was due to its greater effect in patients with moderate and severe persistent asthma. No difference was noted subsequently in all outcome measures studied until 6 months. Conclusions: There was evidence for an early QoL improvement to FP as compared to BUD or BDP in moderate and severe persistent asthma. Subsequently, the three ICS showed similar improvements in lung functions and dyspnea indices throughout the study.

  9. Source-specific pollution exposure and associations with pulmonary response in the Atlanta Commuters Exposure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jenna R; Ladva, Chandresh N; Russell, Armistead G; Golan, Rachel; Peng, Xing; Shi, Guoliang; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U; Waller, Lance A; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2018-01-03

    Concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants are frequently higher within commuting vehicles than in ambient air. Pollutants found within vehicles may include those generated by tailpipe exhaust, brake wear, and road dust sources, as well as pollutants from in-cabin sources. Source-specific pollution, compared to total pollution, may represent regulation targets that can better protect human health. We estimated source-specific pollution exposures and corresponding pulmonary response in a panel study of commuters. We used constrained positive matrix factorization to estimate source-specific pollution factors and, subsequently, mixed effects models to estimate associations between source-specific pollution and pulmonary response. We identified four pollution factors that we named: crustal, primary tailpipe traffic, non-tailpipe traffic, and secondary. Among asthmatic subjects (N = 48), interquartile range increases in crustal and secondary pollution were associated with changes in lung function of -1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.45, -0.22) and -2.19% (95% CI: -3.46, -0.92) relative to baseline, respectively. Among non-asthmatic subjects (N = 51), non-tailpipe pollution was associated with pulmonary response only at 2.5 h post-commute. We found no significant associations between pulmonary response and primary tailpipe pollution. Health effects associated with traffic-related pollution may vary by source, and therefore some traffic pollution sources may require targeted interventions to protect health.

  10. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G

    1998-01-01

    GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well...... as the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). In addition, M. tuberculosis and MT-CF-induced T-cell lines were tested in the same assays against the panel of purified and complex antigens. The compiled data from PBMC and T-cell lines tested for antigen-induced proliferation and IFN...

  11. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. ObjectiveWe aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. MethodsThe Copenhagen...... was assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. ResultsThe immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17...... (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic...

  12. Determinação de escore e nota de corte do módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood para discriminação de adultos asmáticos em estudos epidemiológicos Determining the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults in epidemiological studies using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire

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    Elayne de Fátima Maçãira

    2005-12-01

    using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, which is composed of questions related to eight dichotomous features of asthma. We determined the score and cut-off point required to accurately identify asthmatic adults, calculating sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. The method was validated against the clinical and functional diagnosis of asthma. The reproducibility of individual questions was evaluated by conducting second interviews with half of the patients some weeks later. RESULTS: The score ranged from 0 to 14 points. A score = 5 allowed patients with asthma to be distinguished from those without (sensitivity = 93%; specificity = 100%; Youden index = 0.93. Most questions presented satisfactory reproducibility in the second interviews conducted after 48.2 ± 11.1 days (kappa and weighted kappa ranging from 0.43 to 1.00 for individual questions. CONCLUSION: For studies of adult asthma prevalence, the determination/validation of a cut-off point allows an alternative interpretation of the information gathered through the application of the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, taking into account the totality of the data rather than responses to individual questions.

  13. Oscillometric and spirometric bronchodilator response in preschool children with and without asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Youn Ho; Jang, Sun Jung; Yoon, Jung Won; Jee, Hye Mi; Choi, Sun Hee; Yum, Hye Yung; Warburton, David; Han, Man Yong

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator responses (BDR) are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of asthma; however, their acceptability and repeatability have not been evaluated using quality control criteria for preschool children. OBJECTIVES: To compare conventional spirometry with an impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in healthy and asthmatic preschool children. METHODS: Data from 30 asthmatic children and 29 controls (two to six years of age) who underwent IOS and spirometry before and after salbutamol administration were analyzed. RESULTS: Stable asthmatic subjects significantly differed versus controls in their spirometry-assessed BDR (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1], forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of forced vital capacity) as well as their IOS-assessed BDR (respiratory resistance at 5 Hz [Rrs5], respiratory reactance at 5 Hz and area under the reactance curve). However, comparisons based on the area under the ROC curve for ΔFEV1 % initial versus ΔRrs5 % initial were 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.87), respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity for ΔFEV1 ≥9% were 0.53 and 0.93, respectively. Importantly, sensitivity increased to 0.63 when either ΔFEV1 ≥9% or ΔRrs5 ≥29% was considered as an additional criterion for the diagnosis of asthma. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of asthma diagnosis in preschool children may be increased by combining spirometry with IOS when measuring BDR. PMID:22891189

  14. The effects of PM2.5 on asthmatic and allergic diseases or symptoms in preschool children of six Chinese cities, based on China, Children, Homes and Health (CCHH) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei'er; Lin, Zhijing; Chen, Renjie; Norback, Dan; Liu, Cong; Kan, Haidong; Deng, Qihong; Huang, Chen; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Liu, Wei; Wang, Juan; Lu, Chan; Qian, Hua; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Xin; Qu, Fang; Sundell, Jan; Zhang, Yinping; Li, Baizhan; Sun, Yuexia; Zhao, Zhuohui

    2018-01-01

    The urbanization and industrialization in China is accompanied by bad air quality, and the prevalence of asthma in Chinese children has been increasing in recent years. To investigate the associations between ambient PM 2.5 levels and asthmatic and allergic diseases or symptoms in preschool children in China, we assigned PM 2.5 exposure data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project to 205 kindergartens at a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° in six cities in China (Shanghai, Nanjing, Chongqing, Changsha, Urumqi, and Taiyuan). A hierarchical multiple logistical regression model was applied to analyze the associations between kindergarten-level PM 2.5 exposure and individual-level outcomes of asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The individual-level variables, including gender, age, family history of asthma and allergic diseases, breastfeeding, parental smoking, indoor dampness, interior decoration pollution, household annual income, and city-level variable-annual temperature were adjusted. A total of 30,759 children (average age 4.6 years, 51.7% boys) were enrolled in this study. Apart from family history, indoor dampness, and decoration as predominant risk factors, we found that an increase of 10 μg/m 3 of the annual PM 2.5 was positively associated with the prevalence of allergic rhinitis by an odds ratio (OR) of 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 1.29) and diagnosed asthma by OR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.18). Those who lived in non-urban (vs. urban) areas were exposed to more severe indoor air pollution arising from biomass combustion and had significantly higher ORs between PM 2.5 and allergic rhinitis and current rhinitis. Our study suggested that long-term exposure to PM 2.5 might increase the risks of asthmatic and allergic diseases or symptoms in preschool children in China. Compared to those living in urban areas, children living in suburban or rural areas had a higher risk of PM 2.5 exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunologic and hematologic responses in ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S

    1989-08-01

    Immunologic and hematologic responses were examined in 4 ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection and in 5 helminth-free ponies. Two ponies were inoculated with 200 larvae and 2 were inoculated with 700 larvae of S vulgaris and then were reinoculated with the same numbers of larvae 34 weeks later. Initial response of the ponies inoculated with S vulgaris was S vulgaris antigen-induced lymphocyte response that developed 1.5 to 3 weeks after inoculation and did not persist. Development of antigen-reactive lymphocytes was followed sequentially by a biphasic complement-fixing antibody response, then biphasic eosinophilia. Antibody titer to S vulgaris antigen was higher in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with that in ponies given 200 larvae of S vulgaris. Also, the second peak in antibody titer and in absolute number of eosinophils was observed earlier in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with ponies inoculated with 200 S vulgaris larvae, and subsided before or from about 24 weeks after inoculation. The prepatent period for S vulgaris infection was 24 to 25 weeks. After reinoculation with S vulgaris, a degree of increased lymphocyte responsiveness was apparent but, by 17 weeks after reinoculation, only the primary peak in the absolute number of eosinophils indicated an anamnestic response. Essentially, antibody was not detectable after reinoculation.

  16. Effects of two inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-agonist combinations on small-airway dysfunction in mild asthmatics measured by impulse oscillometry

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    Diong B

    2013-08-01

    propionate/salmeterol, while R5–R20, AX, Rp, and Cp were not significantly different within 240 minutes after budesonide/formoterol.Conclusion: These two ICS/LABA combinations initially improved the peripheral airway function of 12- to 45-year-old asthmatics significantly in about 5 minutes or less, as measured by R5–R20, AX, Rp, and/or Cp. After regular dosing for 4 weeks, pre- to postdose differences in these parameters had diminished significantly due to improved predose status of peripheral airways. Single dosing with ICS/LABA combinations in mild persistent asthma improves small-airway function, and the effect is maintained over a 12-hour interval by regular use for 4 weeks.Keywords: asthma, ICS/LABA combination, impulse oscillometry parameters, lung-model parameters, peripheral airway resistance, peripheral airway compliance

  17. Susceptibility of asthmatic children to respiratory infection Susceptibilidade de crianças asmáticas a infecções respiratórias

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    Júlio C. R. Pereira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A case-control study of patients with pneumonia was conducted to investigate whether wheezing diseases could be a risk factor. METHODS: A random sample was taken from a general university hospital in S. Paulo City between March and August 1994 comprising 51 cases of pneumonia paired by age and sex to 51 non-respiratory controls and 51 healthy controls. Data collection was carried out by two senior paediatricians. Diagnoses of pneumonia and presence of wheezing disease were independently established by each paediatrician for both cases and controls. Pneumonia was radiologically confirmed and repeatability of information on wheezing diseases was measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors. RESULTS: Wheezing diseases, interpreted as proxies of asthma, were found to be an important risk factor for pneumonia with an odds ratio of 7.07 (95%CI= 2.34-21.36, when the effects of bedroom crowding (odds ratio = 1.49 per person, 95%CI= 0.95-2.32 and of low family income (odds ratio = 5.59 against high family income, 95%CI= 1.38-22.63 were controlled. The risk of pneumonia attributable to wheezing diseases is tentatively calculated at 51.42%. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that at practice level asthmatics should deserve proper surveillance for infection and that at public health level pneumonia incidence could be reduced if current World Health Organisation's guidelines were reviewed as to include comprehensive care for this illness.OBJETIVO: Investigar, através de um estudo caso-controle de pacientes com pneumonia, se as doenças chiadoras poderiam constituir-se em fator de risco. MÉTODOS: De um hospital universitário, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, entre março e agosto de 1994, foi tomada uma amostra de 51 casos de pneumonia pareados por sexo e idade a 51 controles sadios e 51 controles não respiratórios. O diagnóstico de pneumonia e a presença de doença chiadora foram investigados de forma independente por

  18. Metapneumovirus humano (hMPV asociado con exacerbación de asma aguda bronquial severa Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV associated to severe bronchial asthmatic crisis

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    M. A. López

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El metapneumovirus humano (hMPV es un nuevo agente causal de infección aguda del tracto respiratorio, recientemente reportado tras su hallazgo en niños, jóvenes, adultos y ancianos. Las manifestaciones clínicas producidas por el hMPV son indistinguibles de aquellas provocadas por los virus respiratorios clásicamente conocidos, y varían desde infección asintomática hasta neumonía complicada. Por otro lado, se han descrito casos de exacerbación de asma bronquial asociados a la infección con hMPV. En este trabajo se describe el caso de un niño hospitalizado que presentó una crisis asmática bronquial severa con sospecha de una infección viral asociada. Por el test de inmunofluorescencia indirecta no se detectaron virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR, adenovirus, virus influenza a - b ni virus parainfluenza 1, 2 y 3. En un intento por detectar la presencia de hMPV, se realizó una RT-PCR para la amplificación de los genes N y F con resultado positivo. Conforme a nuestro conocimiento, esta sería la primera descripción de un caso de exacerbación de asma asociado a hMPV en nuestra región. Los resultados de este estudio serían similares a los reportados por otros autores, quienes postulan que, a semejanza de lo que ocurre con el VSR, una infección por hMPV puede gatillar una enfermedad respiratoria crónica, como el asma.Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV is a recently reported agent of acute infection in the respiratory tract. It has been found in children as well as in young adults and elders. The clinical manifestations produced by hMPV are indistinguishable from those by common respiratory virus, and can evolve from asymptomatic infection into severe pneumonia. On the other hand, some authors have described cases of bronchial asthma exacerbation associated with hMPV infection. In this work we report a case of a child who presented a severe bronchial asthmatic crisis with a suspected viral associated infection. Immunofluorescence tests

  19. Relationship of bronchodilator response with oxygen pulse and ventilatory threshold in children with asthma: the effect of body composition and progressive aerobic activity in an environment with low humidity

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    Samera Puyan majd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily complications. The purpose of the present study was to relationship bronchodilator response (BDR with oxygen pulse (OP and ventilatory threshold (VT in asthma children with various body compositions during progressive aerobic activities. Material and Methods: 25 obese children (BMI>25 and %fat>30with asthma(10 subjects, and healthy children (15 subjects  and 25 lean children(BMI<20 and %fat<20 with asthma(13 subjects, and healthy children (7 subjects performed an exercise protocol in a constant temperature environment 2 ± 22 ° C and humidity (5 ± 35%. During exercise, the steady-state levels of cardio-respiratory parameters were measured using gas analyzer (K4B2. Results: The results showed that after a progressive aerobic activity, values peak oxygen consumption(vo2peak ​​, bronchodilator(BDR, oxygen pulse(OP and ventilatory threshold(VT  in lean and obese asthmatic children were lower than in healthy lean and obese children. In addition, lean children with asthma had lower VT and higher VO2peak , OP and BDR values​​, as compared obese asthmatic children. Between BDR and VT in lean and obese asthmatic children an inverse relationship between BDR and OP and a direct link to asthma in obese children and obese asthmatic children, there was a negative relationship non-significant. Conclusion: Compared with lean children, asthma, obesity as an additional load will affect lung function and increase the pressure on childhood asthma. Therefore, we can accept that obesity may limit performance of exercise in childhood asthma.

  20. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid; Silva Mendes, Diego da; Melo, Christianne Bandeira; Martins, Marco Aurélio; Silva Dias, Celidarque da; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca ++ influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  1. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Mendes, Diego da [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Melo, Christianne Bandeira [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Martins, Marco Aurélio [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Dias, Celidarque da [Laboratório de Fitoquímica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Piuvezam, Márcia Regina, E-mail: mrpiuvezam@ltf.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  2. Immune responses of B. malayi thioredoxin (TRX) and venom allergen homologue (VAH) chimeric multiple antigen for lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraha, Gandhirajan; Jeyaprita, Parasurama Jawaharlal; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Sheeba, Tamilvanan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Although multiple vaccine strategy for lymphatic filariasis has provided tremendous hope, the choice of antigens used in combination has determined its success in the previous studies. Multiple antigens comprising key vaccine candidates from different life cycle stages would provide a promising strategy if the antigenic combination is chosen by careful screening. In order to analyze one such combination, we have used a chimeric construct carrying the well studied B. malayi antigens thioredoxin (BmTRX) and venom allergen homologue (BmVAH) as a fusion protein (TV) and evaluated its immune responses in mice model. The efficacy of fusion protein vaccine was explored in comparison with the single antigen vaccines and their cocktail. In mice, TV induced significantly high antibody titer of 1,28,000 compared to cocktail vaccine TRX+VAH (50,000) and single antigen vaccine TRX (16,000) or VAH (50,000). Furthermore, TV elicited higher level of cellular proliferative response together with elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 indicating a Th1/Th2 balanced response. The isotype antibody profile showed significantly high level of IgG1 and IgG2b confirming the balanced response elicited by TV. Immunization with TV antigen induced high levels of both humoral and cellular immune responses compared to either cocktail or antigen given alone. The result suggests that TV is highly immunogenic in mice and hence the combination needs to be evaluated for its prophylactic potential.

  3. Validez en el registro del pico espiratorio máximo de niños asmáticos de la Ciudad de México Validity of peak flow record in asthmatic children residing in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Jiménez-Millán

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la concordancia entre el pico espiratorio forzado (PEF registrado por padres de niños asmáticos y el PEF electrónico que es el almacenado en el AirWatch (PEFe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se obtuvo el PEF de 42 niños de 5 a 15 años de edad del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez de la Ciudad de México entre octubre de 1998 y 1999. Los padres registraron el valor máximo del PEF en un diario de salud. Se calculó la correlación de Spearman entre el PEFe y el PEFr. Utilizamos un modelo logístico de efectos mixtos. RESULTADOS: La correlación del PEFe y el PEFr fue r= 0.96 (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the concordance between maximum peak expiratory flow records (PEFr reported by the parents of asthmatic children and the electronic values stored by the AirWatch device (PEFe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Records of PEF measurements between October 1998 and 1999 were obtained from 42 asthmatic children 5 to 15 years of age recruited at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, in Mexico City. Parents recorded the maximum value in the health diary. Spearman correlation was calculated between PEFe and PEFr and a mixed-effects logistic model was used. RESULTS: The correlation between PEFe and PEFr was r=0.96 (p<0.05 among children with a diagnosis of moderate or severe asthma and r=0.40 (p<0.05 among children diagnosed with mild asthma. Follow-up time, asthma severity, gender and age of the child and their interactions were predictors of the differences between PEFe and PEFr. CONCLUSIONS: Parents of children with moderate or severe asthma from 6 to 8 years of age report PEF values with greater accuracy during follow-up than others.

  4. Histórias de criança: as narrativas de crianças asmáticas no brincar Children's stories: asthmatic children's narratives in play

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    Cláudia Maria Teixeira Goulart

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo examinou como crianças com asma constroem significados sobre sua doença e informações que recebem a este respeito. Levou-se a efeito três estudos de caso com crianças participantes de um Programa de Educação em Asma, utilizando uma abordagem cultural que usa as narrativas como um meio de buscar significações. Foram realizadas observações no ambiente hospitalar e entrevistas com mães. Usou-se as narrativas do brincar, já que este permite ampliar o estudo da subjetividade infantil. A análise das narrativas fundamentaram-se no modelo estrutural de Todorov e os resultados evidenciaram que as narrativas no brincar apresentam uma estrutura peculiar, explicada pelas particularidades psíquicas destas crianças. Elementos da cultura estiveram presentes nas narrativas, permitindo a análise de como a criança negocia seus significados pessoais e familiares com os significados da cultura médico-hospitalar. Discutiu-se as implicações do tipo de abordagem educacional que informa as crianças a respeito de sua doença.This study examined how asthmatic children construct meanings about asthma and the information given to them. A case-study design was used with three subjects involved in a Program of Asthma. A cultural approach which assumes the use of narratives was used to search for children's meanings. Observations in the hospital and interviews with the children's mothers were carried out. Narratives of play were examined to investigate children's subjectivity. These narratives were analysed using Todorov' s structural model. Results showed structural alterations in narratives generated in play which may be explained by asthmatic children's psychological particularities. Culture features were strongly present allowing for the analysis of how children negotiate their personal and familiar meanings with the meanings of the medical culture in which they are embedded. The educational approach which informs children about their

  5. Efecto de budesonida sobre la densidad y el metabolismo óseo en niños asmáticos Effect of budesonide on bone density and bone metabolism of asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Paoli de Valeri

    2000-08-01

    conducted in 38 prepubertal children aged 6 to 11 years, selected from the pediatric chest outpatient clinic of the Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Three study groups were assembled: 9 asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide (300 µg/day for over 6 months (Group A; 14 asthmatic children not treated with inhaled corticosteroids (Group B; and 15 non-asthmatic children (Group C. All of them underwent testing of bone formation and resorption markers, and measurement of bone mineral density (DMO and content (CMO. Statistical analysis consisted of central tendency and dispersion measures, analysis of variance, and Fisher and Scheffe tests for comparison of means. RESULTS: In the groups studied (A, B, and C calcium serum levels were 9.1±0.3; 9.6±0.4; 9.3±0.6 mg/ml, respectively; osteocalcine levels were 14.8±4.6; 13.0±2.5; 11.9±3.4 ng/dl; the type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP levels were 19.6±16.5; 14.2±15.4; 13.0±18.3 µg/l; the DMO levels were 0.67±0.06; 0.68±0.06; 0.69±0.06 g/cm²; and the CMO levels were 1 158.8±217.4; 1 106.4±256.1; 1 176.5±240.5 g, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of 100-400 µg/day of inhaled budesonide for a period of six months, did not change the bone mineral density and metabolism of asthmatic children.

  6. Correlation of cutaneous sensitivity and cytokine response in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy occurs in a significant portion of pediatric asthma. Various cells and their mediators/cytokines play a pivotal role in orchestrating the airway inflammatory response in asthma. Objective: To study the cutaneous hypersensitivity, Th1, Th2, and Th17 response of pediatric population with asthma and genetic predisposition to atopy, by determining total immunoglobulin E (IgE level in response to various food allergens. Materials and Methods: Fifty asthmatic children with a history of worsening symptoms by various food allergens (study group and twenty healthy children (control group were included. Food allergy was assessed through skin prick test (SPT of various food allergens. Total serum IgE level was measured by sandwich ELISA, and T-cell (Th1, Th2, and Th17-dependent cytokines were measured by flow cytometry. Results: All 50 asthmatic children in the study group showed SPT positivity against various food allergens (rice = 17; banana, fish and groundnut = 10; wheat = 9; milk and orange = 7; egg = 6; and mango = 4. The average total IgE level in the study group was 316.8 ± 189.8 IU/mL. A significant positive correlation of total IgE with interleukin 17 (IL-17 (r = 0.796; P < 0.0001, IL-13 (r = 0.383; P = 0.01, and IL-4 (r = 0.263; P = 0.043 level was noted. A significant negative correlation of total IgE was noted with interferon gamma (r = −0.5823; P < 0.0001 and IL-10 (r = −0.4474; P < 0.001 level and the duration of breastfeeding (r = −0.31, P = 0.03. Conclusions: The present study found a positive correlation between total serum IgE level and Th2, Th17 cytokines in a pediatric population with asthma. A significant negative correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and the cytokines.

  7. INCREASED AIRWAYS INFLAMMATION AND MODIFIED BAL CELL SURFACE PHENOTYPES IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO COARSE SIZE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although associations between inhalation of PM10 and disease morbidity and mortality appear stronger for fine (PM2.5) vs coarse (PM2.5-10) or ultrafine/UF (PM<0.1) PM. In vitro studies suggest that PM2.5-10 are more potent in inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from alve...

  8. Histologic effects of mandibular protrusion splints in antigen-induced TMJ arthritis in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    von Bremen, Julia; K?hler, Kernt; Siudak, Krystyna; Zahner, Daniel; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Background Although it is common clinical practice to treat children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) with functional appliances, the scientific evidence for this is limited. The aim of this study was to study the histologic effects of mandibular protrusion splints in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in rabbits. Methods Twenty-eight ten-week old New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: AO (TMJ arthritis, no splint), AS (TMJ arthritis, mandibular splint ...

  9. The Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Prevents Antigen-induced Biphasic Nasal Obstruction in Brown Norway Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kawasaki

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study provides a simple model of allergic biphasic nasal obstruction in BN rats, and also suggests that the PDE4 inhibitor may alleviate nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  10. 166Ho-chitosan as a radiation synovectomy agent - antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sug Jun; Lee, Soo Yong; Jeon, Dae Geun; Lee, Jong Seok

    1998-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy is a noninvasive therapy that has been investigated as an alternative to surgical synovectomy. It has been successfully employed in the treatment of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthropathies. In this study, we developed experimental animal model for radiation synovectomy. A model system in which a single injection of ovalbumin into the knee joints of previously sensitized rabbits consistently produced a chronic arthritis which was histologically similiar to human rheumatoid arthritis. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  11. Deficiency of RAMP1 attenuates antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyu Li

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the lung, characterized by breathing difficulty during an attack following exposure to an environmental trigger. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is a neuropeptide that may have a pathological role in asthma. The CGRP receptor is comprised of two components, which include the G-protein coupled receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1. RAMPs, including RAMP1, mediate ligand specificity in addition to aiding in the localization of receptors to the cell surface. Since there has been some controversy regarding the effect of CGRP on asthma, we sought to determine the effect of CGRP signaling ablation in an animal model of asthma. Using gene-targeting techniques, we generated mice deficient for RAMP1 by excising exon 3. After determining that these mice are viable and overtly normal, we sensitized the animals to ovalbumin prior to assessing airway resistance and inflammation after methacholine challenge. We found that mice lacking RAMP1 had reduced airway resistance and inflammation compared to wildtype animals. Additionally, we found that a 50% reduction of CLR, the G-protein receptor component of the CGRP receptor, also ameliorated airway resistance and inflammation in this model of allergic asthma. Interestingly, the loss of CLR from the smooth muscle cells did not alter the airway resistance, indicating that CGRP does not act directly on the smooth muscle cells to drive airway hyperresponsiveness. Together, these data indicate that signaling through RAMP1 and CLR plays a role in mediating asthma pathology. Since RAMP1 and CLR interact to form a receptor for CGRP, our data indicate that aberrant CGRP signaling, perhaps on lung endothelial and inflammatory cells, contributes to asthma pathophysiology. Finally, since RAMP-receptor interfaces are pharmacologically tractable, it may be possible to develop compounds targeting the RAMP1/CLR interface to assist in the treatment of asthma.

  12. {sup 166}Ho-chitosan as a radiation synovectomy agent - antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sug Jun; Lee, Soo Yong; Jeon, Dae Geun; Lee, Jong Seok [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy is a noninvasive therapy that has been investigated as an alternative to surgical synovectomy. It has been successfully employed in the treatment of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthropathies. In this study, we developed experimental animal model for radiation synovectomy. A model system in which a single injection of ovalbumin into the knee joints of previously sensitized rabbits consistently produced a chronic arthritis which was histologically similiar to human rheumatoid arthritis. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  13. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zan, Yanlu [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yuxia, E-mail: yzhang@wehi.edu.au [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tien, Po, E-mail: tienpo@sun.im.ac.cn [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs.

  14. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan, Yanlu; Zhang, Yuxia; Tien, Po

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs

  15. [Intragastric provocation and antigen-induced in vitro histamine liberation by the food additive E 102].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubschläger, W; Ruschmeyer, J; Zabel, P; Schlaak, M

    1988-06-01

    Adverse reactions to tartrazine have been known since 1958. The mechanism of this reaction, a not IgE-mediated, anaphylactoid reaction, is not fully understood. The demonstration of this adverse reaction by provocative challenge feeding may be problematic by a score of subjective symptoms because of the placebo effect. This report deals with the intragastral provocation under endoscopic control with tartrazine and tartrazine-induced histamine release in vitro from gastric mucosa and from blood. Two patients with anamnestically suspected adverse reactions to tartrazine were studied. Correspondence of in vivo and in vitro testing with tartrazine could be demonstrated.

  16. Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen induces genome instability by E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, H J; Wendzicki, J A; Shuda, Y; Moore, P S; Chang, Y

    2017-12-07

    The formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle is an essential process for the equal segregation of duplicated DNA into two daughter cells during mitosis. As a result of deregulated cellular signaling pathways, cancer cells often suffer a loss of genome integrity that might etiologically contribute to carcinogenesis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) small T (sT) oncoprotein induces centrosome overduplication, aneuploidy, chromosome breakage and the formation of micronuclei by targeting cellular ligases through a sT domain that also inhibits MCV large T oncoprotein turnover. These results provide important insight as to how centrosome number and chromosomal stability can be affected by the E3 ligase targeting capacity of viral oncoproteins such as MCV sT, which may contribute to Merkel cell carcinogenesis.

  17. Differences in the Antigens of Helicobacter pylori Strains Influence on the Innate Immune Response in the In Vitro Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Skvarc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Helicobacter pylori importantly determines the pathogenesis of infection as well as the success of antibiotic eradication of the bacteria. Strains of H. pylori were gathered from 14 patients who failed to eradicate H. pylori infection with antibiotics—therapy resistant strains (TRS—or from patients who were able to eradicate H. pylori infection—therapy susceptible strains (TSS. The THP-1 cells were stimulated with H. pylori antigens. Cathepsin X expression on THP-1 cells and concentration of cytokines in the supernatant of THP-1 cells were measured with a flow cytometer. TSS H. pylori antigens increased the proportion of cathepsin X positive cells compared to TRS H. pylori antigens. TSS H. pylori antigens induced higher secretion of IL-12 and IL-6 compared to TRS H. pylori antigens (P<0.001; 0.02. Polymyxin B, a lipid A inhibitor, lowered the secretion of IL-12 and IL-6 in TRS and TSS. We demonstrated a H. pylori strain-dependent cathepsin X and cytokine expression that can be associated with H. pylori resistance to eradication due to lack of effective immune response. Differences in lipid A of H. pylori might have an influence on the insufficient immune response, especially on phagocytosis.

  18. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double...... and sputum analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data were pooled and demonstrated that 10 subjects had baseline sputum eosinophilia >or= 5%. Only high-dose ICS therapy (ie, 160 and 320 microg) significantly attenuated the sputum eosinophil percentage. Sputum eosinophil percentage significantly correlated...... eosinophil counts. In contrast, high-dose ICS therapy provided a significantly greater improvement in EIB in subjects with sputum eosinophilia compared to those with an eosinophil count of eosinophilic groups in the magnitude of improvement in EIB was evident after the first...

  19. Corticosteróides inalatórios e crescimento em crianças asmáticas ambulatoriais Inhaled corticosteroid treatment and growth of asthmatic children seen at outpatient clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete E. Arend

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do uso de corticosteróides inalatórios no aumento estatural e ponderal de crianças asmáticas tratadas ambulatorialmente MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte prospectivo de 1 ano, no qual 124 crianças asmáticas com 3 a 16 anos de idade que haviam recebido prescrição para uso de corticosteróides inalatórios há pelo menos 12 meses foram avaliadas quanto aos escore z altura/idade, peso/idade, índice de massa corporal e altura alvo parental estimada para a idade atual. Os critérios de exclusão foram: peso de nascimento menor que 2.500 g, desnutrição, doenças crônicas e uso de corticóide sistêmico por mais de 7 dias consecutivos. RESULTADOS: A média ± desvio padrão dos escores z altura/idade inicial e final foi, respectivamente, de 0,06±1,2 e 0,01±1,2, (IC95% 0,05-0,11; dos escores z peso/idade inicial e final foi de 0,6±1,5 e 0,5±1,5, respectivamente (IC95% 1,84-6,6. Esses valores não diferiram significativamente (p = 0,199 e p = 0,808. Quando estratificados em grupos bem e mal controlados da asma, púberes e não-púberes, também não houve perda estatural. CONCLUSÃO: Em relação às curvas NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics, não houve prejuízo na estatura e peso corporal de crianças/adolescentes que utilizaram corticosteróides inalatórios por mais de 1 ano nas doses preconizadas para prevenir asma.OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the effect of inhaled corticosteroid use on gain in height and weight of asthmatic pediatric outpatients. METHODS: A one-year prospective cohort study was carried out with 124 asthmatic children aged 3 to 16 years who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids for at least 12 months, evaluating z-scores for height/age, weight/age, body mass index and parental target height for current age. Exclusion criteria were: birth weight less than 2,500 g, malnutrition, chronic diseases and systemic corticoid use for more than 7 consecutive days. RESULTS: The mean

  20. Hipersensibilidade a fungos em crianças asmáticas de uma comunidade do Recife, Pernambuco Hypersensitivity to molds in asthmatic children from a community of Recife, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla de Albuquerque Osório

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a sensibilização a testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata para fungos em crianças asmáticas, residentes em comunidade urbana de baixa renda. MÉTODOS: no período de março de 1997 a junho de 1998 foram avaliadas 13 crianças com mais de três episódios de dispnéia nos últimos 12 meses, selecionadas a partir de um estudo transversal, em que todos os 123 escolares de 6 a 10 anos residentes na comunidade responderam ao questionário International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Nas 13 crianças com asma em atividade, foram aplicados testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata para avaliar resposta a seis extratos fúngicos padronizados: Aspergillus mix, Penicillium mix, Hormodendrum cladosporidiodes, Alternaria tenius, Helminthosporium interseninatum e Mold mix. RESULTADOS: dentre as 13 crianças analisadas, 12 apresentaram sensibilididade a pelo menos um dos fungos testados (12/13, cujos extratos com maior frequência de positividade foram: Aspergillus mix (7/13, Penicillium mix (6/13 e Hormodendrum cladosporidiodes (5/13. CONCLUSÕES: a freqüência elevada de hipersensibilidade aos extratos de fungos nas crianças avaliadas sugere a necessidade de estudos analíticos observacionais para esclarecer uma possível associação causal entre fungos e asma.OBJECTIVES: to identify prick test hypersensitivity to molds in asthmatic school children in a low-income urban community. METHODS: thirteen children who had more than three asthma attacks in the last 12 months from March'1997 to June'1998 were evaluated. These children were selected from a previous cross-sectional survey studying 123 children from 6 to 10 years old residing at the low-income urban community of Campo do Banco-Várzea, Recife, Pernambuco. The 123 children were tested by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood survey to determine asthma. The 13 asthmatic children selected were evaluated with the prick test

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi vaccine candidate antigens Tc24 and TSA-1 recall memory immune response associated with HLA-A and -B supertypes in Chagasic chronic patients from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Lizama, Liliana E; Cruz-Chan, Julio V; Aguilar-Cetina, Amarú Del C; Herrera-Sanchez, Luis F; Rodriguez-Perez, Jose M; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel E; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria J; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Jones, Kathryn; Hotez, Peter; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi antigens TSA-1 and Tc24 have shown promise as vaccine candidates in animal studies. We evaluated here the recall immune response these antigens induce in Chagasic patients, as a first step to test their immunogenicity in humans. We evaluated the in vitro cellular immune response after stimulation with recombinant TSA-1 (rTSA-1) or recombinant Tc24 (rTc24) in mononuclear cells of asymptomatic Chagasic chronic patients (n = 20) compared to healthy volunteers (n = 19) from Yucatan, Mexico. Proliferation assays, intracellular cytokine staining, cytometric bead arrays, and memory T cell immunophenotyping were performed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Chagasic patients showed significant proliferation after stimulation with rTc24 and presented a phenotype of T effector memory cells (CD45RA-CCR7-). These cells also produced IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent IL10, after stimulation with rTSA-1 and rTc24 proteins. Overall, both antigens recalled a broad immune response in some Chagasic patients, confirming that their immune system had been primed against these antigens during natural infection. Analysis of HLA-A and HLA-B allele diversity by PCR-sequencing indicated that HLA-A03 and HLA-B07 were the most frequent supertypes in this Mexican population. Also, there was a significant difference in the frequency of HLA-A01 and HLA-A02 supertypes between Chagasic patients and controls, while the other alleles were evenly distributed. Some aspects of the immune response, such as antigen-induced IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD8+ proliferation, showed significant association with specific HLA-A supertypes, depending on the antigen considered. In conclusion, our results confirm the ability of both TSA-1 and Tc24 recombinant proteins to recall an immune response induced by the native antigens during natural infection in at least some patients. Our data support the further development of these antigens as therapeutic

  2. Responsibility and Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2011-01-01

    The debate on the role and identity of Christian social ethics in liberal democracy touches upon the question about the relationship between universality and speci-ficity. Rather than argue for the difference between these approaches, it can be argued that they are to be understood in a different......The debate on the role and identity of Christian social ethics in liberal democracy touches upon the question about the relationship between universality and speci-ficity. Rather than argue for the difference between these approaches, it can be argued that they are to be understood...... contemporary positions of communicative ethics, H. Richard Niebuhr’s understanding of responsibility as responsiveness, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Christological concept of responsibility in a constructive dialogue with each other, the article has attempted to outline main tenets of a responsive concept...

  3. Efeito da acidificação esofágica na obstrução brônquica de pacientes asmáticos com refluxo gastroesofágico The effect of esophageal acidification on bronchial obstruction in asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Sousa de Araujo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A relação entre asma e refluxo gastroesofágico permanece pouco compreendida. O reflexo vagal e a microaspiração estão entre os mecanismos propostos para explicar a piora da asma pelo refluxo gastroesofágico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo após a acidificação esofágica. MÉTODO: O estudo investigou os efeitos da infusão ácida em treze voluntários portadores de asma moderada e refluxo gastroesofágico. Foram realizadas espirometrias antes e depois da inserção esofágica de uma sonda nasogástrica 8F e um cateter de pHmetria. Outras medidas de volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo foram realizadas depois de quinze minutos de infusão de solução salina no ponto médio entre o esfíncter esofágico superior e o inferior, e depois de quinze minutos da acidificação esofágica, a cada cinco minutos mantida a acidificação, até a obtenção de um valor estável (variação BACKGROUND: The relationship between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux is, as yet, not completely understood. Among the mechanisms thought to be responsible for gastroesophageal reflux-related worsening of asthma symptoms are the vagovagal reflex and microaspiration. OBJECTIVE: To assess forced expiratory volume in one second after acid infusion. METHOD: This study investigated the effect of acid infusion in 13 volunteers with moderate asthma and gastroesophageal reflux. Spirometry was performed before and after insertion of an 8F nasogastric tube and a pH meter. After 15 minutes of saline solution infusion into the midpoint between the upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter, and again after 15 minutes of esophageal acidification (with hydrochloric acid of the same area, forced expiratory volume in one second was reassessed. Acidification was repeated every 5 minutes until forced expiratory volume in one second values stabilized (variation: < 5%. RESULTS: Mean forced expiratory volume in

  4. Features of the bronchial bacterial microbiome associated with atopy, asthma, and responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Juliana; Lynch, Susan V; Nariya, Snehal; Bhakta, Nirav R; Beigelman, Avraham; Castro, Mario; Dyer, Anne-Marie; Israel, Elliot; Kraft, Monica; Martin, Richard J; Mauger, David T; Rosenberg, Sharon R; Sharp-King, Tonya; White, Steven R; Woodruff, Prescott G; Avila, Pedro C; Denlinger, Loren C; Holguin, Fernando; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lugogo, Njira; Moore, Wendy C; Peters, Stephen P; Que, Loretta; Smith, Lewis J; Sorkness, Christine A; Wechsler, Michael E; Wenzel, Sally E; Boushey, Homer A; Huang, Yvonne J

    2017-07-01

    Compositional differences in the bronchial bacterial microbiota have been associated with asthma, but it remains unclear whether the findings are attributable to asthma, to aeroallergen sensitization, or to inhaled corticosteroid treatment. We sought to compare the bronchial bacterial microbiota in adults with steroid-naive atopic asthma, subjects with atopy but no asthma, and nonatopic healthy control subjects and to determine relationships of the bronchial microbiota to phenotypic features of asthma. Bacterial communities in protected bronchial brushings from 42 atopic asthmatic subjects, 21 subjects with atopy but no asthma, and 21 healthy control subjects were profiled by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial composition and community-level functions inferred from sequence profiles were analyzed for between-group differences. Associations with clinical and inflammatory variables were examined, including markers of type 2-related inflammation and change in airway hyperresponsiveness after 6 weeks of fluticasone treatment. The bronchial microbiome differed significantly among the 3 groups. Asthmatic subjects were uniquely enriched in members of the Haemophilus, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, and Porphyromonas species and the Sphingomonodaceae family and depleted in members of the Mogibacteriaceae family and Lactobacillales order. Asthma-associated differences in predicted bacterial functions included involvement of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid metabolism pathways. Subjects with type 2-high asthma harbored significantly lower bronchial bacterial burden. Distinct changes in specific microbiota members were seen after fluticasone treatment. Steroid responsiveness was linked to differences in baseline compositional and functional features of the bacterial microbiome. Even in subjects with mild steroid-naive asthma, differences in the bronchial microbiome are associated with immunologic and clinical features of the disease. The specific differences identified

  5. Ambient air pollution, lung function and airway responsiveness in children with asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Melly, Steve; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike; Vonk, Judith M.; Williams, Paul V.; Shapiro, Gail G.; McKone, Edward F.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Lumley, Thomas; Fuhlbrigge, Anne N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R

    2016-01-01

    Background Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy children, longitudinal analyses of pollution effects in asthma are lacking. Objective To investigate pollution effects in a longitudinal asthma study and effect modification by controller medications. Methods We examined associations of lung function and methacholine responsiveness (PC20) with ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in 1,003 asthmatic children participating in a 4-year clinical trial. We further investigated whether budesonide and nedocromil modified pollution effects. Daily pollutant concentrations were linked to zip/postal code of residence. Linear mixed models tested associations of within-subject pollutant concentrations with FEV1 and FVC %predicted, FEV1/FVC and PC20, adjusting for seasonality and confounders. Results Same-day and 1-week average CO levels were negatively associated with post-bronchodilator %predicted FEV1 (change(95%CI) per IQR: −0.33(−0.49, −0.16), −0.41(−0.62, −0.21), respectively) and FVC (−0.19(−0.25, −0.07), −0.25(−0.43, −0.07)). Longer-term four-month averages of CO were negatively associated with prebronchodilator %predicted FEV1 and FVC (−0.36(−0.62, −0.10), −0.21(−0.42, −0.01)). Four-month averaged CO and ozone levels were negatively associated with FEV1/FVC (ppollution adversely influences lung function and PC20 in asthmatic children. Treatment with controller medications may not protect but worsens the CO effects on PC20. This clinical trial design evaluates modification of pollution effects by treatment without confounding by indication. PMID:26187234

  6. Importin-13 genetic variation is associated with improved airway responsiveness in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasky-Su Jessica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoid function is dependent on efficient translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of cells. Importin-13 (IPO13 is a nuclear transport receptor that mediates nuclear entry of GR. In airway epithelial cells, inhibition of IPO13 expression prevents nuclear entry of GR and abrogates anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Impaired nuclear entry of GR has been documented in steroid-non-responsive asthmatics. We hypothesize that common IPO13 genetic variation influences the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of asthma, as measured by change in methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR-PC20. Methods 10 polymorphisms were evaluated in 654 children with mild-to-moderate asthma participating in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP, a clinical trial of inhaled anti-inflammatory medications (budesonide and nedocromil. Population-based association tests with repeated measures of PC20 were performed using mixed models and confirmed using family-based tests of association. Results Among participants randomized to placebo or nedocromil, IPO13 polymorphisms were associated with improved PC20 (i.e. less AHR, with subjects harboring minor alleles demonstrating an average 1.51–2.17 fold increase in mean PC20 at 8-months post-randomization that persisted over four years of observation (p = 0.01–0.005. This improvement was similar to that among children treated with long-term inhaled corticosteroids. There was no additional improvement in PC20 by IPO13 variants among children treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusion IPO13 variation is associated with improved AHR in asthmatic children. The degree of this improvement is similar to that observed with long-term inhaled corticosteroid treatment, suggesting that IPO13 variation may improve nuclear bioavailability of endogenous glucocorticoids.

  7. Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddock, Sandra; Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We define and discuss the concept of corporate responsibility. We suggest that corporate responsibility has some unique characteristics, which makes it different from earlier conceptions of corporate social responsibility. Our discussion further shows commonalities and differences between corporate...... responsibility and related concepts, such as corporate citizenship and business ethics. We also outline some ways in which corporations have implemented corporate responsibility in practice....

  8. dNP2-ctCTLA-4 inhibits German cockroach extract-induced allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness via inhibition of Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sangho; Ho Sohn, Jung; Koo, Ja-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won; Choi, Je-Min

    2017-08-04

    German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model. The intranasal delivery efficiency of the dNP2-dTomato protein to the lungs was higher in GCE-induced asthmatic lung parenchymal cells compared to the sham cells. Intranasal administration of the dNP2-ctCTLA-4 protein inhibited airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced airway inflammation and remodeling, including goblet cell metaplasia and collagen deposition around the bronchi. The number of infiltrated cells, including eosinophils, and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-γ in the lungs were significantly reduced, presumably owing to inhibition of Th2 differentiation. However, intranasal administration of CTLA4-Ig did not inhibit airway inflammation. These results collectively suggest that dNP2-ctCTLA-4 is an efficient intranasally applicable candidate biologic for treating allergic asthma.

  9. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  10. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  11. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G

    1998-01-01

    We have screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis (TB) patients for proliferative reactivity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion against a panel of purified recombinant (r) and natural (n) culture filtrate (rESAT-6, nMPT59, nMPT64 and nMPB70) and somatic-derived (r......GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well...... as the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). In addition, M. tuberculosis and MT-CF-induced T-cell lines were tested in the same assays against the panel of purified and complex antigens. The compiled data from PBMC and T-cell lines tested for antigen-induced proliferation and IFN...

  12. Relational responsibilities in responsive evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visse, M.A.; Abma, T.A.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how we can enhance our understanding of the moral responsibilities in daily, plural practices of responsive evaluation. It introduces an interpretive framework for understanding the moral aspects of evaluation practice. The framework supports responsive evaluators to better

  13. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...

  14. Clinical characteristics of childhood asthmatics in Johannesburg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8utland 8, King S, Vaughan-WllIlams E. Changes in asthma prevalence: two surveys 15 Ye31'S apart. AIl;h Dis Child 1989: 64, 1452-1456. 2. Ninan TK. Russell G. Respiratory symptoms and atopy 10 Aberdeell schoolChildren: ellidence from two SlJrveys 25 years apart. BMJ 1992: 304: 873·875. 3. Robertson CF, Heycock ...

  15. Sputum Neutrophilia in Severe Persistent Asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseem, A.; Zaidi, S. B. H.; Liaqat, J.; Iftikhar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of sputum neutrophilia in patients with severe persistent bronchial asthma. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to November 2010. Methodology: Cases of severe persistent bronchial asthma, aged between 12 and 40 years, were included. Sputum samples were collected by induction with hypertonic saline (4.5%). All samples were centrifuged and differential neutrophil count was calculated. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11. Results: Out of 195 patients, there were 129 (66.2%) males and 66 (33.8%) females. The mean age was 27.01 A +- 6.92 years. Mean sputum neutrophilic count was 126.47 A +- 16.52 x 106/ml and the mean neutrophilic percentage was 63.187 A +- 8.3363. Sputum neutrophilia was present in 84 patients (43.1%), out of whom, 56 were males and 28 females. In patients with sputum neutrophilia, mean neutrophilic count was 142.40 A +- 8.49 x 106/ml and the mean neutrophilic percentage was 71.2024 A +- 4.2441%. Conclusion: Sputum neutrophilia is a frequent finding in cases with severe persistent bronchial asthma. Presence of sputum neutrophilia in such cases can lessen the inappropriate use of corticosteroids with their associated long-term side effects. (author)

  16. Chronic Insulin Exposure Induces ER Stress and Lipid Body Accumulation in Mast Cells at the Expense of Their Secretory Degranulation Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Greineisen

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies (LB are reservoirs of precursors to inflammatory lipid mediators in immunocytes, including mast cells. LB numbers are dynamic, increasing dramatically under conditions of immunological challenge. We have previously shown in vitro that insulin-influenced lipogenic pathways induce LB biogenesis in mast cells, with their numbers attaining steatosis-like levels. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperinsulinemia resulting from high fat diet is associated with LB accumulation in murine mast cells and basophils. We characterize the lipidome of purified insulin-induced LB, and the shifts in the whole cell lipid landscape in LB that are associated with their accumulation, in both model (RBL2H3 and primary mast cells. Lipidomic analysis suggests a gain of function associated with LB accumulation, in terms of elevated levels of eicosanoid precursors that translate to enhanced antigen-induced LTC4 release. Loss-of-function in terms of a suppressed degranulation response was also associated with LB accumulation, as were ER reprogramming and ER stress, analogous to observations in the obese hepatocyte and adipocyte. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic insulin elevation drives mast cell LB enrichment in vitro and in vivo, with associated effects on the cellular lipidome, ER status and pro-inflammatory responses.

  17. Corporate Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Appeals to corporate responsibility often simply take for granted that businesses have ethical responsibilities that go beyond just respecting the law. This paper addresses arguments to the effect that businesses have no such responsibilities. The interesting claim is not that businesses have no ethical responsibility at all but that their primal responsibility is to increase their profits. The extent to which there is reason to take such arguments seriously delineates the limits of corporate...

  18. Fatores de risco para consultas em pronto-socorro por crianças asmáticas no Sul do Brasil Asthmatic children's risk factors for emergency room visits, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Chatkin

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Traçar um perfil das crianças asmáticas do município de Pelotas, RS, conhecer o manejo da doença e os fatores de risco associados a consultas em pronto-socorro, motivadas por asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal aninhado a um estudo de coorte, realizado na área urbana de Pelotas, cidade de médio porte do Sul do Brasil. Participaram 981 crianças de 4-5 anos, pertencentes à coorte de 1993. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de asma encontrada na amostra estudada foi de 25,4%. A morbidade por asma foi elevada: 31% das crianças asmáticas haviam procurado o pronto-socorro no último ano, 57% tinham consultado médico e 26%, de 1 a 4 anos, foram internadas por asma. Na análise geral, escolaridade e renda familiar baixas associaram-se com consultas em pronto-socorro (RO=4,1 para 0 a 4 anos de escolaridade e RO=6,5 para menos de 1 salário-mínimo. Dormir em quartos com 3 ou mais pessoas também mostrou-se associado (RO=2,2, bem como severidade das crises (RO=2,7, uso de medicamentos para asma no último ano (RO=1,9 e internações por asma (RO=3,0. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de asma entre crianças pré-escolares em Pelotas é alta, levando a grande morbidade. Encontraram-se como fatores preditores de consultas em pronto-socorro por asma, após análise multivariada, a baixa escolaridade das mães, severidade das crises e internação por asma.OBJECTIVES: To study a sample of asthmatic children to get to know how the disease is managed by caretakers and to identify predictive factors associated with attendance in emergency room for asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study nested in a cohort was undertaken in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. 981 children aged 4-5 years, who belong to the cohort of 1993, participated in this study. RESULTS: The asthma prevalence in the children sample was 25.4%. Morbidity for asthma was quite high: 31% of the children were seen in emergency rooms in the last year, 57% attended medical clinics and

  19. Responsibility navigator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Edler, Jakob; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo; Randles, Sally; Walhout, Bart; Walhout, Bart; Gough, Clair; Lindner, Ralf; Lindner, Ralf; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Randles, Sally; Bedsted, Bjorn; Gorgoni, Guido; Griessler, Erich; Loconto, Allison; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Research and innovation activities need to become more responsive to societal challenges and concerns. The Responsibility Navigator, developed in the Res-AGorA project, supports decision-makers to govern such activities towards more conscious responsibility. What is considered “responsible” will

  20. Polarized secretion of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 by human airway epithelia 16HBE14o- cells in response to cationic polypeptide challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wai-ming Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The airway epithelium participates in asthmatic inflammation in many ways. Target cells of the epithelium can respond to a variety of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Damage to the surface epithelium occurs following the secretion of eosinophil-derived, highly toxic cationic proteins. Moreover, the surface epithelium itself is responsible for the synthesis and release of cytokines that cause the selective recruitment, retention, and accumulation of various inflammatory cells. To mimic the damage seen during asthmatic inflammation, the bronchial epithelium can be challenged with highly charged cationic polypeptides such as poly-L-arginine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells, 16HBE14o- cells, were "chemically injured" by exposing them to poly-l-arginine as a surrogate of the eosinophil cationic protein. Cytokine antibody array data showed that seven inflammatory mediators were elevated out of the 40 tested, including marked elevation in interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were elevated as measured with real-time PCR. Cell culture supernatants from apical and basolateral compartments were collected, and the IL-6 and IL-8 production was quantified with ELISA. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by 16HBE14o- epithelia into the apical compartment was significantly higher than that from the basolateral compartment. Using specific inhibitors, the production of IL-6 and IL-8 was found to be dependent on p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 MAPK, and NF-kappaB pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results clearly demonstrate that damage to the bronchial epithelia by poly-L-arginine stimulates polarized IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. This apically directed secretion of cytokines may play an important role in orchestrating epithelial cell responses to inflammation.

  1. Responsible nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    In National Responsibility and Global Justice, David Miller defends the view that a member of a nation can be collectively responsible for an outcome despite the fact that: (i) she did not control it; (ii) she actively opposed those of her nation's policies that produced the outcome; and (iii......) actively opposing the relevant policy was costly for her. I argue that Miller's arguments in favor of this strong externalist view about responsibility and control are insufficient. Specifically, I show that Miller's two models of synchronic collective responsibility*the like-minded group model...

  2. Fatores de risco para hospitalização de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos Risk factors for hospital admissions among asthmatic children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lasmar

    2002-08-01

    prestar adequada assistência a crianças e adolescentes asmáticos, especialmente para os menores de dois anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence rate and risk factors for hospital admissions among asthma children and to evaluate care delivered to these patients. METHODS: Three-hundred and twenty-five asthmatic children attending a public outpatient reference clinic were studied. Of them, 202 were hospitalized. Care was evaluated using a questionnaire covering general aspects of hospital stay and biological, demographics, socioeconomic and asthma-related factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to measure the association between hospital admissions and selected independent variables. RESULTS: Of the total, 62.2% had already been hospitalized due to asthma, 64.9% developed asthma episodes, and 60.9% were hospitalized in their first year of life. Most (76.0% had moderate to severe asthma. Despite that, 94.2% were not on anti-inflammatory drugs and were treated only during isolated acute episodes. None of these were regularly seen in primary health care centers for a periodic control of their steroid inhalants. Most parents (97.8% referred not to know how to take care of asthma children. Symptoms onset is normally seen before the age of 12 months (OR=3.20; 95%CI 1.55-6,61 or between 12 and 24 months (OR=3.89; 95%CI 1.62-9.36. Mothers have attended school for less than 7 years (OR=3.06; 95%CI 1.62-5.76. Disease severity (OR=2.32; 95%CI 1.24-3.88, 2 or more monthly visits to emergency wards (OR=2.19; 95%CI 1.24-3.88, and referred recurrent pneumonia (OR=2.00; 95%IC 1.06-3.80 were the main risk factors for hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Organizing health care services is crucial to reduce hospital admissions and provide adequate care for asthma children and adolescents, especially those less than 2 years old.

  3. Activation of cross-reactive mucosal T and B cell responses in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue in vitro by Modified Vaccinia Ankara-vectored influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Jennifer; Ahmed, Muhammed S; Sharma, Ravi; Upile, Navdeep; Beer, Helen; Achar, Priya; Puksuriwong, Suttida; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel; McNamara, Paul; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Zhang, Qibo

    2016-03-29

    Recent efforts have been focused on the development of vaccines that could induce broad immunity against influenza virus, either through T cell responses to conserved internal antigens or B cell response to cross-reactive haemagglutinin (HA). We studied the capacity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-vectored influenza vaccines to induce cross-reactive immunity to influenza virus in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in vitro. Adenotonsillar cells were isolated and stimulated with MVA vaccines expressing either conserved nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1) (MVA-NP-M1) or pandemic H1N1 HA (MVA-pdmH1HA). The MVA vaccine uptake and expression, and T and B cell responses were analyzed. MVA-vectored vaccines were highly efficient infecting NALT and vaccine antigens were highly expressed by B cells. MVA-NP-M1 elicited T cell response with greater numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and tissue-resident memory T cells than controls. MVA-pdmH1HA induced cross-reactive anti-HA antibodies to a number of influenza subtypes, in an age-dependent manner. The cross-reactive antibodies include anti-avian H5N1 and mainly target HA2 domain. MVA vaccines are efficient in infecting NALT and the vaccine antigen is highly expressed by B cells. MVA vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens induce cross-reactive T and B cell responses in human NALT in vitro, suggesting the potential as mucosal vaccines for broader immunity against influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microneedle Array Design Determines the Induction of Protective Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses Induced by a Recombinant Live Malaria Vaccine in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John B.; Pearson, Frances E.; Vrdoljak, Anto; McGrath, Marie G.; Crean, Abina M.; Walsh, Patrick T.; Doody, Timothy; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Moore, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine delivery into the skin has received renewed interest due to ease of access to the immune system and microvasculature, however the stratum corneum (SC), must be breached for successful vaccination. This has been achieved by removing the SC by abrasion or scarification or by delivering the vaccine intradermally (ID) with traditional needle-and-syringes or with long microneedle devices. Microneedle patch-based transdermal vaccine studies have predominantly focused on antibody induction by inactivated or subunit vaccines. Here, our principal aim is to determine if the design of a microneedle patch affects the CD8+ T cell responses to a malaria antigen induced by a live vaccine. Methodology and Findings Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing a malaria antigen was percutaneously administered to mice using a range of silicon microneedle patches, termed ImmuPatch, that differed in microneedle height, density, patch area and total pore volume. We demonstrate that microneedle arrays that have small total pore volumes induce a significantly greater proportion of central memory T cells that vigorously expand to secondary immunization. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming induced significantly greater T cell immunity post-boost and equivalent protection against malaria challenge compared to ID vaccination. Notably, unlike ID administration, ImmuPatch-mediated vaccination did not induce inflammatory responses at the site of immunization or in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that the design of microneedle patches significantly influences the magnitude and memory of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses and can be optimised for the induction of desired immune responses. Furthermore, ImmuPatch-mediated delivery may be of benefit to reducing unwanted vaccine reactogenicity. In addition to the advantages of low cost and lack of pain, the development of optimised microneedle array designs for the induction

  5. Microneedle array design determines the induction of protective memory CD8+ T cell responses induced by a recombinant live malaria vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Carey

    Full Text Available Vaccine delivery into the skin has received renewed interest due to ease of access to the immune system and microvasculature, however the stratum corneum (SC, must be breached for successful vaccination. This has been achieved by removing the SC by abrasion or scarification or by delivering the vaccine intradermally (ID with traditional needle-and-syringes or with long microneedle devices. Microneedle patch-based transdermal vaccine studies have predominantly focused on antibody induction by inactivated or subunit vaccines. Here, our principal aim is to determine if the design of a microneedle patch affects the CD8(+ T cell responses to a malaria antigen induced by a live vaccine.Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA expressing a malaria antigen was percutaneously administered to mice using a range of silicon microneedle patches, termed ImmuPatch, that differed in microneedle height, density, patch area and total pore volume. We demonstrate that microneedle arrays that have small total pore volumes induce a significantly greater proportion of central memory T cells that vigorously expand to secondary immunization. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming induced significantly greater T cell immunity post-boost and equivalent protection against malaria challenge compared to ID vaccination. Notably, unlike ID administration, ImmuPatch-mediated vaccination did not induce inflammatory responses at the site of immunization or in draining lymph nodes.This study demonstrates that the design of microneedle patches significantly influences the magnitude and memory of vaccine-induced CD8(+ T cell responses and can be optimised for the induction of desired immune responses. Furthermore, ImmuPatch-mediated delivery may be of benefit to reducing unwanted vaccine reactogenicity. In addition to the advantages of low cost and lack of pain, the development of optimised microneedle array designs for the induction of T cell responses by live vaccines aids

  6. Individual canine Airway Response Variability to a Deep Inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, a DI can reverse (bronchodilation or prevent (bronchoprotection induced airway constriction. For individuals with asthma or COPD, these effects may be attenuated or absent. Previous work showed that the size and duration of a DI affected the subsequent response of the airways. Also, increased airway tone lead to increased airway size variability. The present study examined how a DI affected the temporal variability in individual airway baseline size and after methacholine challenge in dogs using High-Resolution Computed Tomography. Dogs were anesthetized and ventilated, and on 4 separate days, HRCT scans were acquired before and after a DI at baseline and during a continuous intravenous infusion of methacholine (Mch at 3 dose rates (17, 67, and 200 μg/mm. The Coefficient of Variation was used as an index of temporal variability in airway size. We found that at baseline and the lowest dose of Mch, variability decreased immediately and 5 minutes after the DI ( P < 0.0001. In contrast, with higher doses of Mch, the DI caused a variable response. At a rate of 67 μg/min of Mch, the temporal variability increased after 5 minutes, while at a rate of 200 μg/min of Mch, the temporal variability increased immediately after the DI. Increased airway temporal variability has been shown to be associated with asthma. Although the mechanisms underlying this temporal variability are poorly understood, the beneficial effects of a DI to decrease airway temporal variability was eliminated when airway tone was increased. If this effect is absent in asthmatics, this may suggest a possible mechanism for the loss of bronchoprotective and bronchodilatory effects after a DI in asthma.

  7. Neutrophil predominance in induced sputum from asthmatic patients: Therapeutic implications and role of clara cell 16-KD protein Predominio de neutrófilos en esputo inducido de asmáticos: Implicancias terapéuticas y rol de la proteína 16-kD de la célula clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Uribe Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is considered to be a main protagonist in asthma; however, often discordances between clinical manifestations and response to treatment are observed. We aimed to determine the occurrence of neutrophil predominance in asthma and to identify its characteristics on the basis of clinical-functional features, induced sputum cellular pattern and soluble molecules, to guide the appropriated anti-inflammatory therapy. A total of 41 patients were included in randomized groups: 21-40 year-old, with stable mild-to-severe asthma, steroid-naïve and non-smokers. An induced sputum sample was obtained under basal conditions, a second one after treatment with budesonide (400 µg b.i.d. or montelukast (10 mg/d for six weeks, and a final one after a 4-week washout period. By cytospin we evaluated eosinophil (EP or neutrophil predominance (NP, and in supernatant we determined LTE4, and CC16. Peak expiratory flow variability (PEFV was measured. A total of 23/41 patients corresponded to EP and 18/41 patients to NP. The PEFV was higher in EP than in NP. LTE4 was higher with NP than with EP. No difference was found for CC16. Montelukast reduced the predominant cell in both subsets, whereas budesonide only reduced eosinophils in EP. Budesonide and montelukast reduced PEFV in EP but not in NP. Considering the total treated-samples in each subset, CC16 level increased significantly in EP. In conclusion: a NP subset of asthmatic patients was identified. These patients show a lower bronchial lability; the leukotriene pathway is involved which responds to anti-leukotriene treatment. This phenotype shows a poor recovery of CC16 level after treatment.El eosinófilo es considerado la célula protagonista principal en el asma; sin embargo, a menudo se observan discordancias entre las manifestaciones clínicas y la respuesta de los pacientes al tratamiento. Nos propusimos determinar la ocurrencia de predominio de neutrófilos en el asma e identificar las caracter

  8. Competing responsibly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effects of different competitive conditions on the determination and evaluation of strategies of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Although the mainstream of current thinking in business ethics recognizes that a firm should invest in social responsibility, the

  9. Query responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Łupkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the phenomenon of answering a query with a query. Although such answers are common, no large scale, corpus-based characterization exists, with the exception of clarification requests. After briefly reviewing different theoretical approaches on this subject, we present a corpus study of query responses in the British National Corpus and develop a taxonomy for query responses. We point at a variety of response categories that have not been formalized in previous dialogue work, particularly those relevant to adversarial interaction. We show that different response categories have significantly different rates of subsequent answer provision. We provide a formal analysis of the response categories in the framework of KoS.

  10. Beta-Adrenergic Receptors and Mechanisms in Asthma: The New Long-Acting Beta-Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Townley

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to review β-adrenergic receptors and mechanisms in the immediate and late bronchial reaction in asthma and the new long-acting β-agonist. This will be discussed in light of the controversy of the potential adverse effect of regular use of long-acting β-agonists. We studied the effect of formoterol on the late asthmatic response (LAR and airway inflammation in guinea-pigs. Formoterol suppressed the LAR, antigen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, although isoproterenol failed to inhibit these parameters. β-Adrenergic hyporesponsiveness, and cholinergic and a- adrenergic hyperresponsiveness have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. A decrease in β-adrenoreceptor function can result either from exogenously administered β-agonist or from exposure to allergens resulting in a late bronchial reaction. There is increasing evidence that eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes which are of primary importance in the late bronchial reaction are also modulated by β2- adrenoreceptors. In functional studies of guinea-pig or human isolated trachea and lung parenchyma, PAF and certain cytokines significantly reduced the potency of isoproterenol to reverse methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction. The effect of glucocorticoids on pulmonary β-adrenergic receptors and responses suggests an important role for glucocorticoids to increase β-adrenergic receptors and responsiveness.

  11. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Brix, Susanne; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Birch, Sune; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic lung disease that commonly originates in early childhood. Colonization of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial strains Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with increased risk of later childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort was followed prospectively, and asthma was diagnosed at age 7 years. The immune response to H influenzae, M catarrhalis, and S pneumoniae was analyzed in 292 infants using PBMCs isolated and stored since the age of 6 months. The immune response was assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. The immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17 (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. Children with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria colonizing the airways in early life might lead to chronic airway inflammation and childhood asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of allergic asthma: Modulation of Th2 cells and their responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erb Klaus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atopic asthma is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease characterised by recurrent episodes of