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Sample records for antigen-entrapped biodegradable microparticles

  1. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO 2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO 2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO 2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO 2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO 2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO 2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel cryomilled physically cross-linked biodegradable hydrogel microparticles as carriers for inhalation therapy.

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    El-Sherbiny, I M; Smyth, H D C

    2010-01-01

    In this study, novel biodegradable physically cross-linked hydrogel microparticles were developed and evaluated in-vitro as potential carriers for inhalation therapy. These hydrogel microparticles were prepared to be respirable (desired aerodynamic size) when dry and also designed to avoid the macrophage uptake (attain large swollen size once deposited in lung). The swellable microparticles, prepared using cryomilling, were based on Pluronic® F-108 in combination with PEG grafted onto both chitosan (Cs) and its N-phthaloyl derivative (NPHCs). Polymers synthesized in the study were characterized using EA, FTIR, 2D-XRD and DSC. Morphology, particle size, density, biodegradation and moisture content of the microparticles were quantified. Swelling characteristics for both drug-free and drug-loaded microparticles showed excellent size increases (between 700-1300%) and the release profiles indicated sustained release could be achieved for up to 20 days. The respirable microparticles showed drug loading efficiency up to 92%. The enzymatic degradation of developed microparticles started within the first hour and only ∼10% weights were remaining after 10 days. In conclusion, these respirable microparticles demonstrated promising in-vitro performance for potential sustained release vectors in pulmonary drug delivery.

  3. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Karla A. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Lopes, Flavio Marques [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Unidade Universitária de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Yamashita, Fabio [Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos e Medicamentos, Laboratório de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fernandes, Kátia Flávia, E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film.

  4. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Karla A.; Lopes, Flavio Marques; Yamashita, Fabio; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film

  5. Microencapsulation of superoxide dismutase into biodegradable microparticles by spray-drying.

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    Youan, Bi-Botti Célestin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to encapsulate superoxide dismutase (SOD) into biodegradable microparticles by spray-drying technique. The nature of the organic solvent to dissolve the polymer, the method of incorporation of the drug in the organic phase (with or without a surfactant, namely sucrose ester of HLB = 6), the surfactant/polymer ratio, and the nature of the biodegradable polyesters were investigated as formulation variables. The polyesters investigated as matrix were poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(d, l, lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG-RG756), and poly(d, l-lactide) (PLA-R207) of respective molecular weight 78.2 kDa, 84.8 kDa, and 199.8 kDa. At surfactant/polymer ratio of 1/10, the SOD-retained enzymatic activities were higher (> 95%) for PLG-RG756 and PLA-R207 but relatively lower for the PCL (approximately 85%) probably due to the PCL relatively higher hydrophobicity. The obtained microparticles exhibited average volume mean diameter of 4-10 microm, the smaller for PCL and the larger for PLG-RG756 polymeric matrix. The in vitro release profile showed that SOD was completely (100%) released from PLA-R207 in 48 hr and from PLG-RG756 and PCL within 72 hr. These results showed that spray-drying with incorporation of surfactant such as sucrose ester may efficiently encapsulate SOD into biodegradable microparticles. Such formulations may improve the bioavailability of SOD and similar biopharmaceuticals.

  6. Biodegradable Microparticles for Simultaneous Detection of Counterfeit and Deteriorated Edible Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehor, Ivan; van Vreeswijk, Sophie; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.; Kegel, Willem K.; Eral, Huseyin Burak

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalized trade relations where food and pharmaceutical products cross borders effortlessly, consumers face counterfeit and deteriorated products at elevated rates. This paper presents multifunctional, biodegradable hydrogel microparticles that can provide information on the

  7. Encapsulation of antigen-loaded silica nanoparticles into microparticles for intradermal powder injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yibin; Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2014-10-15

    Epidermal powder immunisation (EPI) is being investigated as a promising needle-free delivery methods for vaccination. The objective of this work was to prepare a nanoparticles-in-microparticles (nano-in-micro) system, integrating the advantages of nanoparticles and microparticles into one vaccine delivery system for epidermal powder immunisation. Cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP-NH2) were prepared and loaded with ovalbumin as a model antigen. Loading was driven by electrostatic interactions. Ovalbumin-loaded silica nanoparticles were subsequently formulated into sugar-based microparticles by spray-freeze-drying. The obtained microparticles meet the size requirement for EPI. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the microparticles. Furthermore, the silica nanoparticles in the dry microparticles can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution showing no aggregation. The recovered ovalbumin shows integrity compared to native ovalbumin. The present nano-in-micro system allows (1) nanoparticles to be immobilized and finely distributed in microparticles, (2) microparticle formation and (3) re-dispersion of nanoparticles without subsequent aggregation. The nanoparticles inside microparticles can (1) adsorb proteins to cationic shell/surface voids in spray-dried products without detriment to ovalbumin stability, (2) deliver antigens in nano-sized modes to allow recognition by the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs.

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    Varun Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanoparticle-based vaccine development research is unexplored in large animals and humans. In this study, we illustrated the efficacy of nanoparticle-entrapped UV-killed virus vaccine against an economically important respiratory viral disease of pigs called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We entrapped PLGA [poly (lactide-co-glycolides] nanoparticles with killed PRRSV antigens (Nano-KAg and detected its phagocytosis by pig alveolar macrophages. Single doses of Nano-KAg vaccine administered intranasally to pigs upregulated innate and PRRSV specific adaptive responses. In a virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge study, Nano-KAg vaccine significantly reduced the lung pathology and viremia, and the viral load in the lungs. Immunologically, enhanced innate and adaptive immune cell population and associated cytokines with decreased secretion of immunosuppressive mediators were observed at both mucosal sites and blood. In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model.

  9. Preparation of bovine serum albumin hollow microparticles by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion technique for drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimark, Y.; Srisa-Ard, M.; Srihaman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable bovine serum albumin (BSA) hollow microparticles have been prepared by a single step and rapid water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method without any emulsifiers and templates. Aqueous BSA solution and ethyl acetate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. BSA solution was cross-linked with polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) before microparticle formation. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a water-soluble model drug to entrap in the microparticle matrix. The non-cross-linked and cross-linked BSA microparticles contained empty core structure with outer smooth surface. Inner surface and matrix of hollow microparticles consisted void structure. Drug loading did not affect the microparticle morphology. Cumulative drug released from microparticles was decreased steadily as decreasing of MB ratio and increasing of PEGDE ratio. The BSA hollow microparticles may have potential application in controlled release drug delivery application. (author)

  10. A novel bio-safe phase separation process for preparing open-pore biodegradable polycaprolactone microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Aurelio; Domingo, Concepción

    2014-09-01

    Open-pore biodegradable microparticles are object of considerable interest for biomedical applications, particularly as cell and drug delivery carriers in tissue engineering and health care treatments. Furthermore, the engineering of microparticles with well definite size distribution and pore architecture by bio-safe fabrication routes is crucial to avoid the use of toxic compounds potentially harmful to cells and biological tissues. To achieve this important issue, in the present study a straightforward and bio-safe approach for fabricating porous biodegradable microparticles with controlled morphological and structural features down to the nanometer scale is developed. In particular, ethyl lactate is used as a non-toxic solvent for polycaprolactone particles fabrication via a thermal induced phase separation technique. The used approach allows achieving open-pore particles with mean particle size in the 150-250 μm range and a 3.5-7.9 m(2)/g specific surface area. Finally, the combination of thermal induced phase separation and porogen leaching techniques is employed for the first time to obtain multi-scaled porous microparticles with large external and internal pore sizes and potential improved characteristics for cell culture and tissue engineering. Samples were characterized to assess their thermal properties, morphology and crystalline structure features and textural properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of non-porous microspheres with high entrapment efficiency of proteins by a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique.

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    Viswanathan, N B; Thomas, P A; Pandit, J K; Kulkarni, M G; Mashelkar, R A

    1999-03-08

    Emulsification-solvent removal methods have been widely used for encapsulating bioactive macromolecules like proteins and polypeptides in biodegradable polymers. We report, a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique wherein proteins and polypeptides differing in molecular weight and shape were encapsulated in polymers of current biomedical interest. When an oil was used as the processing medium in combination with a carefully selected mixed solvent system such that a stable (w/o1/o2 emulsion is formed and solvents are removed by a combination of extraction and evaporation, the entrapment efficiency was high and the product nonporous. The entrapment efficiency of globular proteins exceeded 90% while that of fibrous proteins was around 70%. Fracture studies revealed that the polymer matrix was dense. The mechanism of entrapment involved solvent-induced precipitation of the protein as the microspheres were being formed. The principle of the method will find use in preparation of non-porous polymer microparticles with reduced burst effect.

  12. PLGA nano/microparticles loaded with cresyl violet as a tracer for drug delivery: Characterization and in-situ hyperspectral fluorescence and 2-photon localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardi, Claure N., E-mail: clunardi@unb.br [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Laboratory for Functional Optical Imaging, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Gomes, Anderson J. [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Laboratory for Functional Optical Imaging, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Palepu, Sandeep; Galwaduge, P. Thilanka; Hillman, Elizabeth M.C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Laboratory for Functional Optical Imaging, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here we present the production, characterization and in-vivo assessment of cresyl violet-loaded biodegradable PLGA nano/microparticles (CV-NP and CV-MP). We demonstrate that the beneficial spectral characteristics of cresyl violet make it suitable as a tracer for particle-based drug delivery using both hyperspectral wide field and two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Particles were prepared using a cosolvent method, after which the physicochemical properties such as morphology, particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release behavior were measured in addition to spectroscopic properties, such as absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectra. The particles were then tested in an in vivo mouse model to assess their biodistribution characteristics. The location and integrity of particles after injection was determined using both hyperspectral fluorescence and two-photon microscopy within intact organs in situ. Our results show that cresyl violet is efficiently entrapped into PLGA particles, and that the particles are spherical in shape, ranging from 300 to 5070 nm in diameter. Particle biodistribution in the mouse was found to depend on particle size, as expected. Cresyl violet is shown to be an ideal tracer to assess the properties PLGA particle-based drug delivery in combination with our novel multi-scale optical imaging techniques for in-situ particle localization. - Highlights: • Cresyl violet entrapment into polymeric particles • Cresyl violet suitable as a tracer for particle-based drug delivery • Hyperspectral analysis of polymer nano/microparticles • Two-photon microscopy of polymeric nano/microparticles.

  13. Sustained antimicrobial activity and reduced toxicity of oxidative biocides through biodegradable microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Ali, Shanom; Wilson, Peter; Buanz, Asma; Gaisford, Simon; Mistry, Dharmit; Fellows, Adrian; Day, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. Small molecule precursor compounds that produce oxidative biocides with well-established antimicrobial properties could provide a range of new therapeutic products to combat resistant infections. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel biomaterials-based approach for the manufacture, targeted delivery and controlled release of a peroxygen donor (sodium percarbonate) combined with an acetyl donor (tetraacetylethylenediamine) to deliver local antimicrobial activity via a dynamic equilibrium mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. Entrapment of the pre-cursor compounds into hierarchically structured degradable microparticles was achieved using an innovative dry manufacturing process involving thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) that circumvented compound decomposition associated with conventional microparticle manufacture. The microparticles provided controlled release of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid that led to rapid and sustained killing of multiple drug-resistant organisms (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli) without associated cytotoxicity in vitro nor intracutaneous reactivity in vivo. The results from this study demonstrate for the first time that microparticles loaded with acetyl and peroxygen donors retain their antimicrobial activity whilst eliciting no host toxicity. In doing so, it overcomes the detrimental effects that have prevented oxidative biocides from being used as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. The manuscript explores a novel approach to utilize the antimicrobial activity of oxidative species for sustained killing of multiple drug-resistant organisms without causing collateral tissue damage. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to load pre-cursor compounds into porous polymeric structures that results in their release and conversion into oxidative species in a

  14. An Antigen-Presenting and Apoptosis-Inducing Polymer Microparticle Prolongs Alloskin Graft Survival by Selectively and Markedly Depleting Alloreactive CD8+ T Cells

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    Wei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selectively depleting the pathogenic T cells is a fundamental strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune disease since it retains the overall immune function of host. The concept of killer artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs has been developed by co-coupling peptide–major histocompatibility complex (pMHC multimer and anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb onto the polymeric microparticles (MPs to induce the apoptosis of antigen-specific T cells. But little information is available about its in vivo therapeutic potential and mechanism. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI-coated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microparticle (PLGA MP was fabricated as a cell-sized scaffold to covalently co-couple H-2Kb-Ig dimer and anti-Fas mAb for the generation of alloantigen-presenting and apoptosis-inducing MPs. Intravenous infusions of the biodegradable KaAPCs prolonged the alloskin graft survival for 43 days in a single MHC-mismatched murine model, depleted the most of H-2Kb-alloreactive CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and alloskin graft in an antigen-specific manner and anti-Fas-dependent fashion. The cell-sized KaAPCs circulated throughout vasculature into liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, and heart, but few ones into local allograft at early stage, with a retention time up to 36 h in vivo. They colocalized with CD8+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs while few ones contacted with CD4+ T cells, B cells, macrophage, and dendritic cells, or internalized by phagocytes. Importantly, the KaAPC treatment did not significantly impair the native T cell repertoire or non-pathogenic immune cells, did not obviously suppress the overall immune function of host, and did not lead to visible organ toxicity. Our results strongly document the high potential of PLGA MP-based KaAPCs as a novel antigen-specific immunotherapy for allograft rejection and autoimmune disorder. The in vivo mechanism of alloinhibition, tissue

  15. Application of conjugated heparin-albumin microparticles with laser-balloon angioplasty: a potential method for reducing adverse biologic reactivity after angioplasty

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    Kundu, Sourav K.; McMath, Linda P.; Zaidan, Jonathan T.; Spears, J. Richard

    1991-05-01

    Laser-balloon angioplasty (LBA) may potentially be used for local application of pharmacologically active agents which will reduce thrombogenic and proliferative responses after the angioplasty. In this study, the feasibility of applying covalently conjugated heparin- albumin microparticles onto arterial luminal surface was demonstrated. The covalent linkages were formed by reaction with 1-ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC), and the resultant conjugates were used for preparation of microparticles by employing standard emulsification and heat-crosslinking techniques. The heparin release rate from the microparticles was found to be dependent upon the degree of crosslinking. When a thin coagulum of a suspension of microparticles was formed with heat on a glass surface, the treated surface demonstrated resistance to clot formation in contact with non-anticoagulated blood. A suspension of the microparticles applied during laser-balloon angioplasty onto the luminal surface of dog carotid and femoral arteries showed persistence for up to one week without thrombus formation or occlusion of the vessel. Since the rate of biodegradation is primarily dictated by the extent of crosslinking, an optimal degree of thermal denaturation will permit longer persistence of the carrier while allowing adequate release of the entrapped pharmacologic agent. A variety of antithrombotic and antiinflammatory agents are being considered as candidate bioprotective materials for local application after angioplasty.

  16. Preparation of alginate coated chitosan microparticles for vaccine delivery

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    Wei YuQuan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absorption of antigens onto chitosan microparticles via electrostatic interaction is a common and relatively mild process suitable for mucosal vaccine. In order to increase the stability of antigens and prevent an immediate desorption of antigens from chitosan carriers in gastrointestinal tract, coating onto BSA loaded chitosan microparticles with sodium alginate was performed by layer-by-layer technology to meet the requirement of mucosal vaccine. Results The prepared alginate coated BSA loaded chitosan microparticles had loading efficiency (LE of 60% and loading capacity (LC of 6% with mean diameter of about 1 μm. When the weight ratio of alginate/chitosan microparticles was greater than 2, the stable system could be obtained. The rapid charge inversion of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles (from +27 mv to -27.8 mv was observed during the coating procedure which indicated the presence of alginate layer on the chitosan microparticles surfaces. According to the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the core-shell structure of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles was observed. Meanwhile, in vitro release study indicated that the initial burst release of BSA from alginate coated chitosan microparticles was lower than that observed from uncoated chitosan microparticles (40% in 8 h vs. about 84% in 0.5 h. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE assay showed that alginate coating onto chitosan microparticles could effectively protect the BSA from degradation or hydrolysis in acidic condition for at least 2 h. The structural integrity of alginate modified chitosan microparticles incubated in PBS for 24 h was investigated by FTIR. Conclusion The prepared alginate coated chitosan microparticles, with mean diameter of about 1 μm, was suitable for oral mucosal vaccine. Moreover, alginate coating onto the surface of chitosan microparticles could modulate the release behavior of BSA from alginate coated chitosan

  17. Development of a Sustainable Release System for a Ranibizumab Biosimilar Using Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Biodegradable Polymer-Based Microparticles as a Platform.

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    Tanetsugu, Yusuke; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Terukina, Takayuki; Ogawa, Takaya; Ohta, Masato; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Ranibizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and is widely used to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD) caused by angiogenesis. Ranibizumab has a short half-life in the eye due to its low molecular weight and susceptibility to proteolysis. Monthly intravitreal injection of a large amount of ranibizumab formulation is a burden for both patients and medical staff. We therefore sought to develop a sustainable release system for treating the eye with ranibizumab using a drug carrier. A ranibizumab biosimilar (RB) was incorporated into microparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable polymer. Ranibizumab was sustainably released from PLGA microparticles (80+% after 3 weeks). Assay of tube formation by endothelial cells indicated that RB released from PLGA microparticles inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation and this tendency was confirmed by a cell proliferation assay. These results indicate that RB-loaded PLGA microparticles are useful for sustainable RB release and suggest the utility of intraocular sustainable release systems for delivering RB site-specifically to AMD patients.

  18. Preparation and characterisation of ethylcellulose microparticles containing propolis

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    G. B. AVANçO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Ethylcellulose microparticles containing propolis ethanolic extract (PE were prepared by the emulsification and solvent evaporation method. Three ratios of ethylcellulose to PE dry residue value (DR were tested (1:0.25, 1:4 and 1:10. Moreover, polysorbate 80 was used as emulsifier in the external phase (1.0 or 1.5% w/w. Regular particle morphology without amorphous and/or sticking characteristics was achieved only when an ethylcellulose:DR ratio of 1:0.25 and 1.0% polysorbate 80 were used. Microparticles had a mean diameter of 85.83 µm. The entrapment efficiency for propolis of the microparticles was 62.99 ± 0.52%. These ethylcellulose microparticles containing propolis would be useful for developing propolis aqueous dosage forms without the strong and unpleasant taste, aromatic odour and high ethanol concentration of PE. Keywords: Brazilian propolis; ethylcellulose; emulsification and solvent evaporation; microparticle characterisation; optimisation.

  19. Sustained release biodegradable solid lipid microparticles: Formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

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    Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Afzal, Samina; Mahmood, Asif; Maheen, Safirah; Afzal, Khurram; Iqbal, Nabila; Andleeb, Mehwish; Abbas, Nazar

    2017-12-20

    For preparing nebivolol loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by the solvent evaporation microencapsulation process from carnauba wax and glyceryl monostearate, central composite design was used to study the impact of independent variables on yield (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and drug release (Y3). SLMs having a 10-40 μm size range, with good rheological behavior and spherical smooth surfaces, were produced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry pointed to compatibility between formulation components and the zeta-potential study confirmed better stability due to the presence of negative charge (-20 to -40 mV). The obtained outcomes for Y1 (29-86 %), Y2 (45-83 %) and Y3 (49-86 %) were analyzed by polynomial equations and the suggested quadratic model were validated. Nebivolol release from SLMs at pH 1.2 and 6.8 was significantly (p 0.85 value (Korsmeyer- Peppas) suggested slow erosion along with diffusion. The optimized SLMs have the potential to improve nebivolol oral bioavailability.

  20. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Huang, Wan-Ling; Kau, Sau-Wei; Yang, Yun-Pei; Yang, Chung-Da

    2014-05-14

    Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21-6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%-83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  1. Aspects of Microparticle Utilization for Potentiation of Novel Vaccines: Promises and Risks

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    Ilyinskii, P.

    Many recombinant vaccines against novel (HIV, HCV) or ever-changing (influenza) infectious agents require the presence of adjuvants/delivery vehicles to induce strong immune responses. The necessity of their improvement led to the major effort towards development of vaccine delivery systems that are generally particulate (e.g., nano- and microparticles) and have comparable dimensions to the pathogens (viruses or bacteria). The mode of action of these adjuvants is not fully understood but implies the stimulation of the innate or antigen-specific immune responses, and/or the increase of antigen uptake or processing by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Moreover, enhancement of adjuvant activity through the use of micro- and nanoparticulate delivery systems often resulted from the synergistic effects producing immune responses stronger than those elicited by the adjuvant or delivery system alone. Among particulate adjuvants, biodegradable micro- and nanoparticles of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycoside) (PLGA) or poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) have been reported to enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses against an encapsulated protein antigen. Cationic and anionic polylactide co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles have been successfully used to adsorb a variety of agents, which include plasmid DNA, recombinant proteins and adjuvant active oligonucleotides and are also currently tested in several vaccine applications. Another approach envisions specific targeting of APC, especially peripheral DC and exploitation of particulate systems that are small enough for lymphatic uptake (polystyrene nanobeads). Micro- and nanoparticles offer the possibility of enhancement of their uptake by appropriate cells through manipulation of their surface properties. Still, questions regarding toxicity and molecular interaction between micro- and nano-particles and immune cells, tissues and whole organisms remain to be addressed. These risks and other possible side effects should be assessed in

  2. Antigen entrapped in the escheriosomes leads to the generation of CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response.

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    Syed, Faisal M; Khan, Masood A; Nasti, Tahseen H; Ahmad, Nadeem; Mohammad, Owais

    2003-06-02

    In previous study, we demonstrated the potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) lipid liposomes (escheriosomes) to undergo membrane-membrane fusion with cytoplasmic membrane of the target cells including professional antigen presenting cells. Our present study demonstrates that antigen encapsulated in escheriosomes could be successfully delivered simultaneously to the cytosolic as well as endosomal processing pathways of antigen presenting cells, leading to the generation of both CD4(+) T-helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. In contrast, encapsulation of same antigen in egg phosphatidyl-choline (egg PC) liposomes, just like antigen-incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) complex, has inefficient access to the cytosolic pathway of MHC I-dependent antigen presentation and failed to generate antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. However, both egg PC liposomes as well as escheriosomes-encapsulated antigen elicited strong humoral immune response in immunized animals but antibody titre was significantly higher in the group of animals immunized with escheriosomes-encapsulated antigen. These results imply usage of liposome-based adjuvant as potential candidate vaccine capable of eliciting both cell-mediated as well as humoral immune responses. Furthermore, antigen entrapped in escheriosomes stimulates antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation and also enhances the level of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 in the immunized animals.

  3. Sustained release biodegradable solid lipid microparticles: Formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For preparing nebivolol loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs by the solvent evaporation microencapsulation process from carnauba wax and glyceryl monostearate, central composite design was used to study the impact of independent variables on yield (Y1, entrapment efficiency (Y2 and drug release (Y3. SLMs having a 10-40 μm size range, with good rheological behavior and spherical smooth surfaces, were produced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry pointed to compatibility between formulation components and the zeta-potential study confirmed better stability due to the presence of negative charge (-20 to -40 mV. The obtained outcomes for Y1 (29-86 %, Y2 (45-83 % and Y3 (49-86 % were analyzed by polynomial equations and the suggested quadratic model were validated. Nebivolol release from SLMs at pH 1.2 and 6.8 was significantly (p 0.85 value (Korsmeyer- Peppas suggested slow erosion along with diffusion. The optimized SLMs have the potential to improve nebivolol oral bioavailability.

  4. Controlled release of beta-estradiol from PLAGA microparticles: the effect of organic phase solvent on encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, D T; Kosmala, J D; Henthorn, D B; Brannon-Peppas, L

    2000-04-03

    To determine the effect of the organic solvent used during microparticle preparation on the in vitro release of beta-estradiol, a number of formulations were evaluated in terms of size, shape and drug delivery performance. Biodegradable microparticles of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were prepared containing beta-estradiol that utilized dichloromethane, ethyl acetate or a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol as the organic phase solvent during the particle preparation. The drug delivery behavior from the microparticles was studied and comparisons were made of their physical properties for different formulations. The varying solubilities of beta-estradiol and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) in the solvents studied resulted in biodegradable microparticles with very different physical characteristics. Microparticles prepared from solid suspensions of beta-estradiol using dichloromethane as the organic phase solvent were similar in appearance to microparticles prepared without drug. Microparticles prepared from dichloromethane/methanol solutions appeared transparent to translucent depending on the initial amount of drug used in the formulation. Microparticles prepared using ethyl acetate appeared to have the most homogeneous encapsulation of beta-estradiol, appearing as solid white spheres regardless of initial drug content. Studies showed that microparticles prepared from either ethyl acetate or a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol gave a more constant release profile of beta-estradiol than particles prepared using dichloromethane alone. For all formulations, an initial burst of release increased with increasing drug loading, regardless of the organic solvent used.

  5. Polyamide Microparticles Containing Vitamin C by Interfacial Polymerization: An Approach by Design of Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Ripoll

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is widely use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics products for its active properties. However ascorbic acid shows unfavourable chemical instability such as oxidation leading to formulation problems. Therefore, carriers, such as micro- and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated as delivery systems for vitamin C to improve its beneficial effects in skin treatment. However, none of the previous studies have been able to produce microparticles with a high encapsulation entrapment of vitamin C. The aim of the present study is to use an experimental design to optimize the synthesis of polyamide microparticles for the delivery of ascorbic acid. The effect of four formulation parameters on microparticles properties (size and morphology, encapsulation efficiency and yield, release kinetics were investigated using a surface response design. Finally, we were able to obtain stable microparticles containing more than 65% of vitamin C. This result confirms the effectiveness of using design of experiments for the optimisation of microparticle formulation and supports the proposal of using them as candidate for the delivery of vitamin C in skin treatment.

  6. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro.

  7. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro

  8. Detection and quantification of microparticles from different cellular lineages using flow cytometry. Evaluation of the impact of secreted phospholipase A2 on microparticle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Belleannee, Clemence; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Cloutier, Nathalie; Levesque, Tania; Jacques, Frederic; Perron, Jean; Nigrovic, Peter A; Dieude, Melanie; Hebert, Marie-Josee; Gelb, Michael H; Boilard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles, also called microvesicles, are submicron extracellular vesicles produced by plasma membrane budding and shedding recognized as key actors in numerous physio(patho)logical processes. Since they can be released by virtually any cell lineages and are retrieved in biological fluids, microparticles appear as potent biomarkers. However, the small dimensions of microparticles and soluble factors present in body fluids can considerably impede their quantification. Here, flow cytometry with improved methodology for microparticle resolution was used to detect microparticles of human and mouse species generated from platelets, red blood cells, endothelial cells, apoptotic thymocytes and cells from the male reproductive tract. A family of soluble proteins, the secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2), comprises enzymes concomitantly expressed with microparticles in biological fluids and that catalyze the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. As sPLA2 can hydrolyze phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid frequently used to assess microparticles, and might even clear microparticles, we further considered the impact of relevant sPLA2 enzymes, sPLA2 group IIA, V and X, on microparticle quantification. We observed that if enriched in fluids, certain sPLA2 enzymes impair the quantification of microparticles depending on the species studied, the source of microparticles and the means of detection employed (surface phosphatidylserine or protein antigen detection). This study provides analytical considerations for appropriate interpretation of microparticle cytofluorometric measurements in biological samples containing sPLA2 enzymes.

  9. Development of Suppositories Containing Flutamide-Loaded Alginate-Tamarind Microparticles for Rectal Administration: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bharati Shivajirao; Mahajan, Hitendra Shaligram; Surana, Sanjay Javerilal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of flutamide from suppositories containing hydrophilic tamarind alginate microparticles after rectal administration in rats was investigated with the purpose of enhancing bioavailability and to avoid hepatic toxicity. Microparticles were developed by ionic gelation method and optimized using one factorial design of response surface methodology. The optimized batch of microparticles had tamarind gum-sodium alginate (1 : 3) ratio and showed entrapment efficiency 94.969% and mucoadhesion strength 94.646% with desirability of 0.961. Suppositories loaded with microparticles were developed by fusion method using poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 in combination as suppository base. Kinetic analysis of the release data of microparticle-loaded suppositories showed time-independent release of drug. Higher values of 'n' (>0.89) represent Super Case II-type drug release. The pharmacokinetics of flutamide from flutamide tamarind alginate microparticle-loaded suppository were compared with oral suspension. Cmax of microparticle-loaded suppository was significantly larger than that of oral suspension (1.711 and 0.859 µg/mL, respectively).

  10. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis. PMID:23737670

  11. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Chuang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, such as pleurocidin (PLE, play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH. In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%. In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  12. IGF-1 release kinetics from chitosan microparticles fabricated using environmentally benign conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantripragada, Venkata P. [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to maximize growth factor encapsulation efficiency into microparticles. The novelty of this study is to maximize the encapsulated growth factors into microparticles by minimizing the use of organic solvents and using relatively low temperatures. The microparticles were fabricated using chitosan biopolymer as a base polymer and cross-linked with tripolyphosphate (TPP). Insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was encapsulated into microparticles to study release kinetics and bioactivity. In order to authenticate the harms of using organic solvents like hexane and acetone during microparticle preparation, IGF-1 encapsulated microparticles prepared by the emulsification and coacervation methods were compared. The microparticles fabricated by emulsification method have shown a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency, and cumulative release during the two-week period. The biocompatibility of chitosan microparticles and the bioactivity of the released IGF-1 were determined in vitro by live/dead viability assay. The mineralization data observed with von Kossa assay, was supported by mRNA expression levels of osterix and runx2, which are transcription factors necessary for osteoblasts differentiation. Real time RT-PCR data showed an increased expression of runx2 and a decreased expression of osterix over time, indicating differentiating osteoblasts. Chitosan microparticles prepared in optimum environmental conditions are a promising controlled delivery system for cells to attach, proliferate, differentiate and mineralize, thereby acting as a suitable bone repairing material. - Highlights: • Coacervation chitosan microparticles were biocompatible and biodegradable. • IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency increased with coacervation chitosan microparticles. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast attachment and differentiation. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast mineralization.

  13. IGF-1 release kinetics from chitosan microparticles fabricated using environmentally benign conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantripragada, Venkata P.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to maximize growth factor encapsulation efficiency into microparticles. The novelty of this study is to maximize the encapsulated growth factors into microparticles by minimizing the use of organic solvents and using relatively low temperatures. The microparticles were fabricated using chitosan biopolymer as a base polymer and cross-linked with tripolyphosphate (TPP). Insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was encapsulated into microparticles to study release kinetics and bioactivity. In order to authenticate the harms of using organic solvents like hexane and acetone during microparticle preparation, IGF-1 encapsulated microparticles prepared by the emulsification and coacervation methods were compared. The microparticles fabricated by emulsification method have shown a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency, and cumulative release during the two-week period. The biocompatibility of chitosan microparticles and the bioactivity of the released IGF-1 were determined in vitro by live/dead viability assay. The mineralization data observed with von Kossa assay, was supported by mRNA expression levels of osterix and runx2, which are transcription factors necessary for osteoblasts differentiation. Real time RT-PCR data showed an increased expression of runx2 and a decreased expression of osterix over time, indicating differentiating osteoblasts. Chitosan microparticles prepared in optimum environmental conditions are a promising controlled delivery system for cells to attach, proliferate, differentiate and mineralize, thereby acting as a suitable bone repairing material. - Highlights: • Coacervation chitosan microparticles were biocompatible and biodegradable. • IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency increased with coacervation chitosan microparticles. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast attachment and differentiation. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast mineralization

  14. Microfluidic production of polymeric functional microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kunqiang

    -bearing beads can function as non-invasive and real-time oxygen micro-sensors. Finally, we report a co-flow microfluidic method to prepare uniform polymer microparticles with macroporous texture, and investigate their application as discrete immunological biosensors for the detection of biological species. The matrix of such microparticles is based on macroporous polymethacrylate polymers configured with tailored pores ranging from hundreds of nanometers to a few microns. Subsequently, we immobilize bioactive antibodies on the particle surface, and demonstrate the immunological performance of these functionalized porous microbeads over a range of antigen concentrations.

  15. MAGNOLOL ENTRAPPED ULTRA-FINE FIBROUS MATS ELECTROSPUN FROM POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-b-POLY(L-LACTIDE) AND IN VITRO RELEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Hong-rui Song; Yong Cui; Ying-jie Deng; Xue-si Chen

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-fine fibrous mats with magnolol entrapped have been prepared by electrospinning biodegradable copolymer poly(ethylene glycol) blocked poly(L-lactide). Drug entrapment was perfect which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. According to in vitro drug release investigation by high performance liquid chromatography, it was found that fibers with 10%, 20% and 30% drug entrapped respect to polymer (mass ratio) presented dramatically different drug release behavior and degradation behavior under the effect of proteinase K. The reason may be that fibers with 10% drug entrapped was more easily affected by enzyme while, to some degree, magnolol in fibers with 20% and 30% entrapped prevented polymer from being degraded by enzyme.

  16. Salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles: formulation and in-vitro evaluation with emphasis on mathematical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Murtaza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: This study reports the laboratory optimization for the preparation of salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles by a non-solvent addition coacervation technique through adjustment of the ratio of salbutamol sulphate to ethylcellulose. The variation of drug release between the microparticles and tabletted microparticles was also investigated. "nMethods: In vitro release profiles of developed microparticles and tabletted microparticles were studied using USP XXIV dissolution apparatus I and II, respectively, in 450 ml double distilled water at 50 rpm maintained at 37°C. "nResults: White microparticles with no definite shape having good entrapment efficiency (96.68 to 97.83% and production yield (97.48 ± 1.21 to 98.35 ± 1.08% were obtained. In this investigation, initial burst effect was observed in the drug release behavior. The rate of drug release from microparticles decreased as the concentration of polyisobutylene was increased from 6% to 12% during microencapsulation. The release pattern of tabletted microparticles was affected significantly (p < 0.05 by the addition of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC as excepient and insignificantly (p > 0.05 by the type of dissolution media and stirring speed. Tabletted microparticles showed good stability and reproducibility. Ethylcellulose was found to be compatible with salbutamol sulphate. The drug release from all formulations was best fit to Higuchi's equation and the mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion from all formulations. "nConclusion: The results of this study suggest that by using ethylcellulose it is possible to design a single-unit, sustained-release oral dosage form of salbutamol sulphate for indication of twice a day.

  17. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics. PMID:21720502

  18. Trojan Microparticles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F. Vandamme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA have regulated a wide range of products, (foods, cosmetics, drugs, devices, veterinary, and tobacco which may utilize micro and nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials. Nanotechnology allows scientists to create, explore, and manipulate materials in nano-regime. Such materials have chemical, physical, and biological properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. For pharmaceutical applications and in order to improve their administration (oral, pulmonary and dermal, the nanocarriers can be spread into microparticles. These supramolecular associations can also modulate the kinetic releases of drugs entrapped in the nanoparticles. Different strategies to produce these hybrid particles and to optimize the release kinetics of encapsulated drugs are discussed in this review.

  19. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobar-Grande B

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Tobar-Grande,1 Ricardo Godoy,1 Paulina Bustos,2 Carlos von Plessing,1 Elias Fattal,3,4 Nicolas Tsapis,3,4 Claudia Olave,1 Carolina Gómez-Gaete11Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 2Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 3Univ Paris-Sud, Institut Galien Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry, France; 4CNRS, UMR 8612, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry, FranceAbstract: In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1ß, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in

  20. Encapsulation and release of the hypnotic agent zolpidem from biodegradable polymer microparticles containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Giuseppe; Lopedota, Angela; Boghetich, Giancarlo; Latrofa, Andrea; Franco, Massimo; Sanna, Enrico; Liso, Gaetano

    2003-12-11

    The goal of this study was to design a prolonged release system of the hypnotic agent zolpidem (ZP) useful for the treatment of insomnia. In this work, ZP alone or in the presence of HP-beta-CD was encapsulated in microparticles constituted by poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and the drug release from these systems was evaluated. ZP alone-loaded microparticles were prepared by the classical O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Conversely, ZP/HP-beta-CD containing microparticles were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method following two different procedures (i.e. A and B). Following procedure A, the previously produced ZP/HP-beta-CD solid complex was added to the water phase of primary emulsion. In the procedure B, HP-beta-CD was added to the aqueous phase and ZP to the organic phase. The resulting microparticles were characterized about morphology, size, encapsulation efficiency and release rates. FT-IR, X-ray, and DSC results suggest the drug is in an essentially amorphous state within the microparticles. The release profiles of ZP from microparticles were in general biphasic, being characterized by an initial burst effect and a subsequent slow ZP release. It resulted that co-encapsulating ZP with or without HP-beta-CD in PDLLA and PLGA the drug release from the corresponding microparticles was protracted. Moreover, in a preliminary pharmacological screening, the ataxic activity in rats was investigated and it was found that intragastric administration of the ZP/HP-beta-CD/PLGA microparticles prepared according to procedure B produced the same ataxic induction time as the one induced by the currently used formulation Stilnox. Interestingly moreover, there was a longer ataxic lasting and a lower intensity of ataxia produced by the ZP/HP-beta-CD/PLGA-B-formulation already after 60 min following the administration. However, a need for further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies resulted to fully evaluate

  1. Generation of reactive oxygen species from porous silicon microparticles in cell culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Suet Peng; Williams, Keryn A; Canham, Leigh T; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2010-06-01

    Nanostructured (porous) silicon is a promising biodegradable biomaterial, which is being intensively researched as a tissue engineering scaffold and drug-delivery vehicle. Here, we tested the biocompatibility of non-treated and thermally-oxidized porous silicon particles using an indirect cell viability assay. Initial direct cell culture on porous silicon determined that human lens epithelial cells only poorly adhered to non-treated porous silicon. Using an indirect cell culture assay, we found that non-treated microparticles caused complete cell death, indicating that these particles generated a toxic product in cell culture medium. In contrast, thermally-oxidized microparticles did not reduce cell viability significantly. We found evidence for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by means of the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin. Our results suggest that non-treated porous silicon microparticles produced ROS, which interacted with the components of the cell culture medium, leading to the formation of cytotoxic species. Oxidation of porous silicon microparticles not only mitigated, but also abolished the toxic effects.

  2. Properties of gelatin-based films incorporated with chitosan-coated microparticles charged with rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Ilyes; Bittante, Ana Mônica Quinta Barbosa; Lourenço, Rodrigo Vinicius; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was development an active film based on gelatin incorporated with antioxidant, rutin carried into microparticles. The complexation between oppositely charged lecithin and chitosan was applied to prepare the chitosan-coated microparticles. The generated microparticles had an average size of 520±4nm and a span of 0.3 were formulated by a rotor-stator homogenize at the homogenization speed 10,000rpm. Composite films were prepared by incorporating chitosan-coated microparticles, at various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1% (based on the weight of the gelatin powder)) in the gelatin-based films. For the prepared films, the results showed that obtained physicochemical, water vapor barrier, and mechanical were compared with native gelatin film with a slight decrease for chitosan concentration higher than 0.5%. The microstructure studies done by scanning electron microscopes, revealed different micropores embedded with oil resulting from the incorporation of the microparticles into the gelatin matrix. Moreover, the calorimetric results were comparable to those of gelatin control film with T g value 45°C and increased crystallinity percentage with increasing incorporation of microparticles. This original concept of composite biodegradable films may thus be a good alternative to incorporate liposoluble active compounds to design an active packaging with good properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of composite microparticle systems based on pectin and waste material of propolis for modified l-alanyl-l-glutamine release and with immunostimulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa Nova, Mônica; Ratti, Bianca A; Herculano, Leandro S; Bittencourt, Paulo R S; Novello, Cláudio R; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Lautenschlager, Sueli de Oliveira Silva; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

    2017-12-12

    Catabolic conditions like acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer, and burn can cause immunosuppression. Amino acids such as alanine and glutamine are essential for the activity of the immune system. Propolis is immunostimulant and the waste of propolis extraction has been reused with technological and therapeutic purposes. Therefore, this study describes the association of propolis byproduct extract (BPE) with pectin to prepare spray-dried microparticles containing the dipeptide l-alanyl-l-glutamine as stimulant systems of neutrophils. The use of a factorial design allowed selecting the best formulation, which was characterized by morphology, size, and entrapment efficiency analyses. In addition, the systems were characterized by thermal and X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, in vitro drug release, and in vitro cytotoxicity and stimulation test of neutrophils. Small well-structured microparticles with good entrapment efficiency values were achieved. Thermal stability of formulation was observed, and it was proved that pectin, BPE and l-alanyl-l-glutamine were dispersed throughout the matrix. The drug was released from the microparticles during 24 h governed by swelling and diffusion. The drug-loaded formulations showed a significant stimulating effect on neutrophils. These structures could increase the activity of immune cells, and other in vitro and in vivo studies should be performed in the future.

  4. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor in alpha-fetoprotein chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Bi, Xiaohui; Xu, Lei; Li, Yirong

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid factor causes positive interference in multiple immunoassays. Recently, negative interference has also been found in immunoassays in the presence of rheumatoid factor. The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay is widely used to determine serum alpha-fetoprotein. However, it is not clear whether the presence of rheumatoid factor in the serum causes interference in the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. Methods Serum alpha-fetoprotein was determined using the ARCHITECT alpha-fetoprotein assay. The estimation of alpha-fetoprotein recovery was carried out in samples prepared by diluting high-concentration alpha-fetoprotein serum with rheumatoid factor-positive or rheumatoid factor-negative serum. Paramagnetic microparticles coated with hepatitis B surface antigen-anti-HBs complexes were used to remove rheumatoid factor from the serum. Results The average recovery of alpha-fetoprotein was 88.4% and 93.8% in the rheumatoid factor-positive and rheumatoid factor-negative serum samples, respectively. The recovery of alpha-fetoprotein was significantly lower in the rheumatoid factor-positive serum samples than in the rheumatoid factor-negative serum samples. In two of five rheumatoid factor-positive samples, a large difference was found (9.8%) between the average alpha-fetoprotein recoveries in the serially diluted and initial recoveries. Fourteen rheumatoid factor-positive serum samples were pretreated with hepatitis B surface antigen-anti-HBs complex-coated paramagnetic microparticles. The alpha-fetoprotein concentrations measured in the pretreated samples increased significantly. Conclusions It was concluded that the alpha-fetoprotein chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay is susceptible to interference by rheumatoid factor, leading to significantly lower results. Eliminating the incidence of negative interference from rheumatoid factor should be an important goal for immunoassay providers. In the meantime

  5. Sublingual injection of microparticles containing glycolipid ligands for NKT cells and subunit vaccines induces antibody responses in oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLyria, Elizabeth S; Zhou, Dapeng; Lee, Jun Soo; Singh, Shailbala; Song, Wei; Li, Fenge; Sun, Qing; Lu, Hongzhou; Wu, Jinhui; Qiao, Qian; Hu, Yiqiao; Zhang, Guodong; Li, Chun; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Shen, Haifa

    2015-03-20

    Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a unique type of innate immune cells which exert paradoxical roles in animal models through producing either Th1 or Th2 cytokines and activating dendritic cells. Alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a synthetic antigen for NKT cells, was found to be safe and immune stimulatory in cancer and hepatitis patients. We recently developed microparticle-formulated αGalCer, which is selectively presented by dendritic cells and macrophages, but not B cells, and thus can avoid the anergy of NKT cells. In this study, we have examined the immunogenicity of microparticles containing αGalCer and protein vaccine components through sublingual injection in mice. The results showed that sublingual injection of microparticles containing αGalCer and ovalbumin triggered IgG responses in serum (titer >1:100,000), which persisted for more than 3months. Microparticles containing ovalbumin alone also induced comparable level of IgG responses. However, immunoglobulin subclass analysis showed that sublingually injected microparticles containing αGalCer and ovalbumin induced 20 fold higher Th1 biased antibody (IgG2c) than microparticles containing OVA alone (1:20,000 as compared to 1:1000 titer). Sublingual injection of microparticles containing αGalCer and ovalbumin induced secretion of both IgG (titer >1:1000) and IgA (titer=1:80) in saliva secretion, while microparticles containing ovalbumin alone only induced secretion of IgG in saliva. Our results suggest that sublingual injection of microparticles and their subsequent trafficking to draining lymph nodes may induce adaptive immune responses in mucosal compartments. Ongoing studies are focused on the mechanism of antigen presentation and lymphocyte biology in the oral cavity, as well as the toxicity and efficacy of these candidate microparticles for future applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chitosan-modified porous silicon microparticles for enhanced permeability of insulin across intestinal cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Neha; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Araújo, Francisca; Zhang, Hongbo; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Kauppila, Jussi; Sarmento, Bruno; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-08-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) based particulate systems are emerging as an important drug delivery system due to its advantageous properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and ability to tailor the particles' physicochemical properties. Here, annealed thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (AnnTHCPSi) and undecylenic acid modified AnnTHCPSi (AnnUnTHCPSi) microparticles were developed as a PSi-based platform for oral delivery of insulin. Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles to enhance the intestinal permeation of insulin. Surface modification with CS led to significant increase in the interaction of PSi microparticles with Caco-2/HT-29 cell co-culture monolayers. Compared to pure insulin, the CS-conjugated microparticles significantly improved the permeation of insulin across the Caco-2/HT-29 cell monolayers, with ca. 20-fold increase in the amount of insulin permeated and ca. 7-fold increase in the apparent permeability (P(app)) value. Moreover, among all the investigated particles, the CS-conjugated microparticles also showed the highest amount of insulin associated with the mucus layer and the intestinal Caco-2 cells and mucus secreting HT-29 cells. Our results demonstrate that CS-conjugated AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles can efficiently enhance the insulin absorption across intestinal cells, and thus, they are promising microsystems for the oral delivery of proteins and peptides across the intestinal cell membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Laminar flow assisted anisotropic bacteria absorption for chemotaxis delivery of bacteria-attached microparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Keon; Oh, Darong; Son, Seok Young; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Song, Byeonghwa; Cho, Dong-il Dan; Seo, Jong-Mo; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-12-01

    The concepts of microrobots has been drawn significant attentions recently since its unprecedented applicability in nanotechnology and biomedical field. Bacteria attached microparticles presented in this work are one of pioneering microrobot technology for self-propulsion or producing kinetic energy from ambient for their motions. Microfluidic device, especially utilizing laminar flow characteristics, were employed for anisotropic attachment of Salmonella typhimurium flagellated chemotactic bacteria to 30 um × 30 um and 50 um × 50 um microparticles that made of biodegradable polymer. Any toxic chemicals or harmful treatments were excluded during the attachment process and it finished within 100 s for the anisotropic attachment. The attachments were directly confirmed by fluorescent intensity changes and SEM visualization. Chemotaxis motions were tracked using aspartate and the maximum velocity of the bacteria-attached microrobot was measured to be 5 um/s which is comparable to prior state of art technologies. This reusable and scalable method could play a key role in chemotaxis delivery of functional microparticles such as drug delivery system.

  8. Effect of Formulation and Process Parameters on Chitosan Microparticles Prepared by an Emulsion Crosslinking Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lidia B; Avalos, Abraham; Chiaia, Nicholas; Nadarajah, Arunan

    2017-05-01

    There are many studies about the synthesis of chitosan microparticles; however, most of them have very low production rate, have wide size distribution, are difficult to reproduce, and use harsh crosslinking agents. Uniform microparticles are necessary to obtain repeatable drug release behavior. The main focus of this investigation was to study the effect of the process and formulation parameters during the preparation of chitosan microparticles in order to produce particles with narrow size distribution. The technique evaluated during this study was emulsion crosslinking technique. Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable material but lacks good mechanical properties; for that reason, chitosan was ionically crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) at three different ratios (32, 64, and 100%). The model drug used was acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). During the preparation of the microparticles, chitosan was first mixed with ASA and then dispersed in oil containing an emulsifier. The evaporation of the solvents hardened the hydrophilic droplets forming microparticles with spherical shape. The process and formulation parameters were varied, and the microparticles were characterized by their morphology, particle size, drug loading efficiency, and drug release behavior. The higher drug loading efficiency was achieved by using 32% mass ratio of TPP to chitosan. The average microparticle size was 18.7 μm. The optimum formulation conditions to prepare uniform spherical microparticles were determined and represented by a region in a triangular phase diagram. The drug release analyses were evaluated in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and were mainly completed at 24 h.

  9. Development of an Injectable Calcium Phosphate/Hyaluronic Acid Microparticles System for Platelet Lysate Sustained Delivery Aiming Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2016-11-01

    Despite the biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate (CaP) cements their low biodegradability hampers full bone regeneration. Herein the incorporation of CaP cement with hyaluronic acid (HAc) microparticles loaded with platelet lysate (PL) to improve the degradability and biological performance of the cements is proposed. Cement formulations incorporating increasing weight ratios of either empty HAc microparticles or microparticles loaded with PL (10 and 20 wt%) are developed as well as cements directly incorporating PL. The direct incorporation of PL improves the mechanical properties of the plain cement, reaching values similar to native bone. Morphological analysis shows homogeneous particle distribution and high interconnectivity between the HAc microparticles. The cements incorporating PL (with or without the HAc microparticles) present a sustained release of PL proteins for up to 8 d. The sustained release of PL modulates the expression of osteogenic markers in seeded human adipose tissue derived stem cells, thus suggesting the stimulatory role of this hybrid system toward osteogenic commitment and bone regeneration applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. On-chip bio-analyte detection utilizing the velocity of magnetic microparticles in a fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; van den Driesche, Sander; Kosel, Jü rgen; Grössinger, Roland; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    change when analyte is attached to their surface via antibody–antigen binding. When the magnetic microparticles are attracted by a magnetic field within a microfluidic channel their velocity depends on the presence of analyte. Specifically, their velocity

  11. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li FQ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Qian Li1, Cheng Yan2, Juan Bi1, Wei-Lin Lv3, Rui-Rui Ji3, Xu Chen1, Jia-Can Su3, Jin-Hong Hu31Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w and loading capacity of 20% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 µm to 8 µm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics.Keywords: scopolamine hydrobromide, chitosan, nanoparticles-in-microparticles system, spray-drying, orally disintegrating tablets

  12. Biodegradable Poly(D,L-Lactide)/Lipid Blend Microparticles Prepared by Oil-in-Water Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Yaowalak Srisuwan; Yodthong Baimark

    2014-01-01

    The effects of blend ratio and drug loading content of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLL)/stearic acid blends on microparticle characteristics and drug release behaviors were evaluated. The blend microparticles were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method for drug delivery of a poorly water-soluble model drug, indomethacin. The microparticles were characterized using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light scattering particle size analysis, differential scanni...

  13. Smart swelling biopolymer microparticles by a microfluidic approach: synthesis, in situ encapsulation and controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aiping; Cathala, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a microfluidic synthesis of biopolymer microparticles aiming at smart swelling. Monodisperse aqueous emulsion droplets comprising biopolymer and its cross-linking agent were formed in mineral oil and solidified in the winding microfluidic channels by in situ chaotic mixing, which resulted in internal chemical gelation for hydrogels. The achievement of pectin microparticles from in situ mixing pectin with its cross-linking agent, calcium ions, successfully demonstrates the reliability of this microfluidic synthesis approach. In order to achieve hydrogels with smart swelling, the following parameters and their impacts on the swelling behaviour, stability and morphology of microparticles were investigated: (1) the type of biopolymers (alginate or mixture of alginate and carboxymethylcellulose, A-CMC); (2) rapid mixing; (3) concentration and type of cross-linking agent. Superabsorbent microparticles were obtained from A-CMC mixture by using ferric chloride as an additional external cross-linking agent. The in situ encapsulation of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was also carried out. As a potential protein drug-delivery system, the BSA release behaviours of the biopolymer particles were studied in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Compared with alginate and A-CMC microparticles cross-linked with calcium ions, A-CMC microparticles cross-linked with both calcium and ferric ions demonstrate a significantly delayed release. The controllable release profile, the facile encapsulation as well as their biocompatibility, biodegradability, mucoadhesiveness render this microfluidic approach promising in achieving biopolymer microparticles as protein drug carrier for site-specific release. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of the Incorporation of Tissue Factor into Microparticles by Serine Phosphorylation of the Cytoplasmic Domain of Tissue Factor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mary E. W.; Ettelaie, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the incorporation and release of tissue factors (TFs) into cell-derived microparticles are as yet unidentified. In this study, we have explored the regulation of TF release into microparticles by the phosphorylation of serine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of TF. Wild-type and mutant forms of TF, containing alanine and aspartate substitutions at Ser253 and Ser258, were overexpressed in coronary artery and dermal microvascular endothelial cells and microparticle release stimulated with PAR2 agonist peptide (PAR2-AP). The release of TF antigen and activity was then monitored. In addition, the phosphorylation state of the two serine residues within the released microparticles and the cells was monitored for 150 min. The release of wild-type TF as procoagulant microparticles peaked at 90 min and declined thereafter in both cell types. The TF within these microparticles was phosphorylated at Ser253 but not at Ser258. Aspartate substitution of Ser253 resulted in rapid release of TF antigen but not activity, whereas TF release was reduced and delayed by alanine substitution of Ser253 or aspartate substitution of Ser258. Alanine substitution of Ser258 prolonged the release of TF following PAR2-AP activation. The release of TF was concurrent with phosphorylation of Ser253 and was followed by dephosphorylation at 120 min and phosphorylation of Ser258. We propose a sequential mechanism in which the phosphorylation of Ser253 through PAR2 activation results in the incorporation of TF into microparticles, simultaneously inducing Ser258 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Ser258 in turn promotes the dephosphorylation of Ser253 and suppresses the release of TF. PMID:21310953

  15. Tumor cell-derived microparticles: a new form of cancer vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huafeng; Huang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    For cancer vaccines, tumor antigen availability is currently not an issue due to technical advances. However, the generation of optimal immune stimulation during vaccination is challenging. We have recently demonstrated that tumor cell-derived microparticles (MP) can function as a new form of potent cancer vaccine by efficiently activating type I interferon pathway in a cGAS/STING dependent manner.

  16. On-chip bio-analyte detection utilizing the velocity of magnetic microparticles in a fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2011-03-22

    A biosensing principle utilizing the motion of suspended magnetic microparticles in a microfluidic system is presented. The system utilizes the innovative concept of the velocity dependence of magnetic microparticles (MPs) due to their volumetric change when analyte is attached to their surface via antibody–antigen binding. When the magnetic microparticles are attracted by a magnetic field within a microfluidic channel their velocity depends on the presence of analyte. Specifically, their velocity decreases drastically when the magnetic microparticles are covered by (nonmagnetic) analyte (LMPs) due to the increased drag force in the opposite direction to that of the magnetic force. Experiments were carried out as a proof of concept. A promising 52% decrease in the velocity of the LMPs in comparison to that of the MPs was measured when both of them were accelerated inside a microfluidic channel using an external permanent magnet. The presented biosensing methodology offers a compact and integrated solution for a new kind of on-chip analysis with potentially high sensitivity and shorter acquisition time than conventional laboratory based systems.

  17. Avoiding false positive antigen detection by flow cytometry on blood cell derived microparticles: the importance of an appropriate negative control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerence Crompot

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs, also called microvesicles (MVs are plasma membrane-derived fragments with sizes ranging from 0.1 to 1μm. Characterization of these MPs is often performed by flow cytometry but there is no consensus on the appropriate negative control to use that can lead to false positive results.We analyzed MPs from platelets, B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, monocytes, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL B-cells. Cells were purified by positive magnetic-separation and cultured for 48h. Cells and MPs were characterized using the following monoclonal antibodies (CD19,20 for B-cells, CD3,8,5,27 for T-cells, CD16,56 for NK-cells, CD14,11c for monocytes, CD41,61 for platelets. Isolated MPs were stained with annexin-V-FITC and gated between 300nm and 900nm. The latex bead technique was then performed for easy detection of MPs. Samples were analyzed by Transmission (TEM and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM.Annexin-V positive events within a gate of 300-900nm were detected and defined as MPs. Our results confirmed that the characteristic antigens CD41/CD61 were found on platelet-derived-MPs validating our technique. However, for MPs derived from other cell types, we were unable to detect any antigen, although they were clearly expressed on the MP-producing cells in the contrary of several data published in the literature. Using the latex bead technique, we confirmed detection of CD41,61. However, the apparent expression of other antigens (already deemed positive in several studies was determined to be false positive, indicated by negative controls (same labeling was used on MPs from different origins.We observed that mother cell antigens were not always detected on corresponding MPs by direct flow cytometry or latex bead cytometry. Our data highlighted that false positive results could be generated due to antibody aspecificity and that phenotypic characterization of MPs is a difficult field requiring the use of several negative controls.

  18. Fabrication of PLA/CaCO3 hybrid micro-particles as carriers for water-soluble bioactive molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, Valeriya L; Zhao, Li; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2017-09-01

    We propose the use of polylactic acid/calcium carbonate (PLA/CaCO 3 ) hybrid micro-particles for achieving improved encapsulation of water-soluble substances. Biodegradable porous CaCO 3 microparticles can be loaded with wide range of bioactive substance. Thus, the formation of hydrophobic polymeric shell on surface of these loaded microparticles results on encapsulation and, hence, sealing internal cargo and preventing their release in aqueous media. In this study, to encapsulate proteins, we explore the solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion method for fabricating core/shell PLA/CaCO 3 systems. We used CaCO 3 particles as a protective core for encapsulated bovine serum albumin, which served as a model protein system. We prepared a PLA coating using dichloromethane as an organic solvent and polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant for emulsification; in addition, we varied experimental parameters such as surfactant concentration and polymer-to-CaCO 3 ratio to determine their effect on particle-size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and capsule permeability. The results show that the particle size decreased and the size distribution narrowed as the surfactant concentration increased in the external aqueous phase. In addition, when the CaCO 3 /PLA mass ratio dropped below 0.8, the hybrid micro-particles were more likely to resist treatment by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and thus retained their bioactive cargos within the polymer-coated micro-particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  20. Microparticles in cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWijk, Marja J.; VanBavel, E.; Sturk, A.; Nieuwland, R.

    2003-01-01

    Microparticles are membrane vesicles released from many different cell types. There are two mechanisms that can result in their formation, cell activation and apoptosis. In these two mechanisms, different pathways are involved in microparticle generation. Microparticle generation seems to be a well

  1. Determination of soil-entrapped methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, M.C.R.; Neue, H.U.; Lantin, R.S.; Aduna, J.B. [Soil and Water Sciences Division, Manila (Philippines)

    1996-12-31

    A sampling method was developed and modified to sample soil from paddy fields for entrapped methane determination. A 25-cm long plexiglass tube (4.4-cm i.d.) fitted with gas bag was used to sample soil and entrapped gases to a depth of 15-cm. The sampling tube was shaken vigorously to release entrapped gases. Headspace gas in sampling tube and gas bag was analyzed for methane. The procedure was verified by doing field sampling weekly at an irrigated ricefield in the IRRI Research Farm on a Maahas clay soil. The modified sampling method gave higher methane concentration because it eliminated gas losses during sampling. The method gave 98% {+-} 5 recovery of soil-entrapped methane. Results of field sampling showed that the early growth stage of the rice plant, entrapped methane increased irrespective of treatment. This suggests that entrapped methane increased irrespective of treatment. This suggests that entrapped methane was primarily derived from fermentation of soil organic matter at the early growth stage. At the latter stage, the rice plant seems to be the major carbon source for methane production. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Restructuring of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameiras, F.S.; Santos, A.M.M. dos

    1992-01-01

    Experimental grain sizes distribution of sintered (U,Gd)O 2 pellets were analysed according to the model of Lameiras for microparticles restructuring. This model, which includes the grain growth and Ostwald ripening phenomena, assumes that the microparticles restructuring is governed by two fundamental principles: minimization of the interface energy and uniformization of its distribution in space. It is also, assumed that the interface energy is stored in the grain boundaries, triple lines and quadruple points. The minimization of the interface energy can be done through three ways independent of each other: diminishing of the number of microparticles, alteration of the size distribution and alteration of the form distribution. The uniformization of the spatial distribution of the interface energy can be done through two ways also independent of each other: tendency to an uniform spatial distribution of microparticles and tendency to an uniform distribution of the interface energy per microparticle. The model accords well with these experimental data. (author)

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Potentially Antimicrobial Polymer Films Containing Starch Nano- and Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Pavelas DANILOVAS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The forming conditions of biodegradable polymer films containing iodine-modified starch particles as well as the properties of the obtained films were investigated. Cationic cross-linked starch microparticles and cationic starch nanoparticles were dispersed in cellulose acetate and hydroxyethyl cellulose solution, respectively, and composite films were spin-casted. The obtained films were characterized and their mechanical properties were assessed. The cellulose acetate solution has been found to be an appropriate matrix for the dispersion of dry modified starch microparticles, but not in the case of nanoparticles. Starch nanoparticles were obtained in an aqueous medium, and the mechanical properties of the formed cellulose acetate films are significantly reduced by water present in the casting solution. It has been estimated that a fairly high amount of nanoparticles (18 wt% can be immobilized into films of water-soluble hydroxyethyl cellulose without markedly affecting the mechanical properties of the films. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.5426

  4. Microparticle analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A device for analyzing microparticles is provided which includes a chamber with an inlet and an outlet for respectively introducing and dispensing a flowing fluid comprising microparticles, a light source for providing light through the chamber and a photometer for measuring the intensity of light transmitted through individual microparticles. The device further includes an imaging system for acquiring images of the fluid. In some cases, the device may be configured to identify and determine a quantity of the microparticles within the fluid. Consequently, a method for identifying and tracking microparticles in motion is contemplated herein. The method involves flowing a fluid comprising microparticles in laminar motion through a chamber, transmitting light through the fluid, measuring the intensities of the light transmitted through the microparticles, imaging the fluid a plurality of times and comparing at least some of the intensities of light between different images of the fluid.

  5. Photophysical characterization of cumarin-doped poly (lactic acid) microparticles and visualization of the biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shigeaki; Kiba, Takayuki; Hosokawa, Kiyotada; Nitobe, Satoru; Hirota, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hirohisa; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Kuboki, Yoshinori; Sato, Shin-Ichiro; Watari, Fumio; Rosca, Iosif D.

    2010-01-01

    We prepared fluorescent coumarin dye-doped poly (acrylic acid) microparticles, which are well known as a biodegradable polyester, and the photophysical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and spectroscopic investigation. Spherical particles with diameters ranging from 0.5 to a few μm were obtained. Based on spectroscopic investigation, the internal environment was close to that of a polar solvent such as methanol, and the dyes were dispersed without aggregation inside the particles. The obtained particles were administered to a mouse through the tail vein, and the biodistribution was then observed after some organs were excited at 1-day and 1-week post-injection. The particles were accumulated in the organs, especially in the lung and spleen. After injection, the particles were trapped temporally in the lung, and then seemed to be transported to other organs by blood circulation. This tendency is similar to the biodistribution of TiO 2 microparticles that we have reported previously.

  6. Endothelial microparticles (EMP in physiology and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sierko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial microparticles (EMP are released from endothelial cells (ECs in the process of activation and/or apoptosis. They harbor adhesive molecules, enzymes, receptors and cytoplasmic structures and express a wide range of various constitutive antigens, typical for ECs, at their surface. Under physiological conditions the concentration of EMP in the blood is clinically insignificant. However, it was reported that under pathological conditions EMP concentration in the blood might slightly increase and contribute to blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation. It has been shown that EMP directly and indirectly contribute to the activation of blood coagulation. Endothelial microparticles directly participate in blood coagulation through their surface tissue factor (TF – a major initiator of blood coagulation. Furthermore, EMP exhibit procoagulant potential via expression of negatively charged phospholipids at their surface, which may promote assembly of coagulation enzymes (TF/VII, tenases and prothrombinase complexes, leading to thrombus formation. In addition, they provide a binding surface for coagulation factors: IXa, VIII, Va and IIa. Moreover, it is possible that EMP transfer TF from TF-bearing EMP to activated platelets and monocytes by binding them through adhesion molecules. Also, EMP express von Willebrand factor, which may facilitate platelet aggregation. Apart from their procoagulant properties, it was demonstrated that EMP may express adhesive molecules and metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 at their surface and release growth factors, which may contribute to angiogenesis. Additionally, surface presence of C3 and C4 – components of the classical pathway – suggests pro-inflammatory properties of these structures. This article contains a summary of available data on the biology and pathophysiology of endothelial microparticles and their potential role in blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation.

  7. Cell behavior on microparticles with different surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Fu Xiaobing

    2010-01-01

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the cell aggregation to the site of the defect for tissue regeneration. To develop favorable microparticles for cell delivery application, we fabricated and evaluated three types of microparticles that differ in surface properties. The microparticles with varied surface morphology (smooth, pitted and multicavity) were created from chemically crosslinked gelatin particles that underwent various drying treatments. Three types of microparticles were characterized and assessed in terms of the cell behavior of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts seeded on them. The cells could attach, spread and proliferate on all types of microparticles but spread and populated more slowly on the microparticles with smooth surfaces than on those with pitted or multicavity surfaces. Microparticles with a multicavity surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment and growth rate. Furthermore, cells tested on microparticles with a multicavity surface exhibited better morphology and induced the earlier formation of extracellular-based cell-microparticle aggregation than those on microparticles with other surface morphology (smooth and pitted). Thus, microparticles with a multicavity surface show promise for attachment and proliferation of cells in tissue engineering.

  8. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Jagadish; Kang, Kyung-il; Xia, Ming; Elaish, Mohamed; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Torrelles, Jordi B; Jiang, X; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV). Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2) chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant) significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs.

  9. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Hiremath

    Full Text Available Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV. Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle (PLGA-NP based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs.

  10. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  11. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  12. Cavitational micro-particles: plasma formation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Cavitational micro-particles are a class to which the micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the octopus-shaped micro-particles belong. The cavitational micro-particles (micro-spheres, micro-tubes and octopus-shaped micro-particles) at an environmental pressure. The micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are produced in the argon plasma and are formed of vapors with low values of the molar concentration in comparison with the molar density of the gas and vapor mixture, the first one on the unstable and the last two on the stable movement of the vapors. The ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are open at the top for well-chosen values of the sub-cooling of the vapor and gas cylinders. The nitrogen in the air favors the formation of pores in the wall of the micro-spheres. In this paper we present the cavitational micro-particles, their production in the plasma and some mechanisms for their formation in the plasma. (author)

  13. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klooster, N.J.J.; Janevski, B.K.; Kitslaar, P.

    1988-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. (orig.) [de

  14. Magnetic and in vitro heating properties of implants formed in situ from injectable formulations and containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) embedded in silica microparticles for magnetically induced local hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Renard, Pol-Edern; Lortz, Rolf; Senatore, Carmine; Rapin, Jean-Philippe; Buchegger, Franz; Petri-Fink, Alke; Hofmann, Heinrich; Doelker, Eric; Jordan, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The biological and therapeutic responses to hyperthermia, when it is envisaged as an anti-tumor treatment modality, are complex and variable. Heat delivery plays a critical role and is counteracted by more or less efficient body cooling, which is largely mediated by blood flow. In the case of magnetically mediated modality, the delivery of the magnetic particles, most often superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), is also critically involved. We focus here on the magnetic characterization of two injectable formulations able to gel in situ and entrap silica microparticles embedding SPIONs. These formulations have previously shown suitable syringeability and intratumoral distribution in vivo. The first formulation is based on alginate, and the second on a poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL). Here we investigated the magnetic properties and heating capacities in an alternating magnetic field (141 kHz, 12 mT) for implants with increasing concentrations of magnetic microparticles. We found that the magnetic properties of the magnetic microparticles were preserved using the formulation and in the wet implant at 37 o C, as in vivo. Using two orthogonal methods, a common SLP (20 W g -1 ) was found after weighting by magnetic microparticle fraction, suggesting that both formulations are able to properly carry the magnetic microparticles in situ while preserving their magnetic properties and heating capacities. - Research highlights: → Magnetic formulations that form implants on injection into tissues are proposed for hyperthermia. → Superparamagnetic properties of the SPION-silica composite microparticles are preserved in the wet implants. → Heat-dissipating properties (SLP of 20 W/g of implant) support in vivo use.

  15. A concept of ferroelectric microparticle propulsion thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmolich, D.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2008-01-01

    A space propulsion concept using charged ferroelectric microparticles as a propellant is suggested. The measured ferroelectric plasma source thrust, produced mainly by microparticles emission, reaches ∼9x10 -4 N. The obtained trajectories of microparticles demonstrate that the majority of the microparticles are positively charged, which permits further improvement of the thruster

  16. The appearance of microparticles in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, G.L.; Eastham, D.A.; Kivlin, F.J.

    1978-07-01

    Microparticles have been found in submodules of accelerator tubes during the voltage conditioning process. The microparticle detector uses electrostatic induction and time-of-flight measurements to determine the charge and velocity of microparticles. Preliminary measurements with a charge sensitive limit of about 5 x 10 -15 C proves the presence of microparticles at a threshold voltage well below the onset of microdischarges or voltage breakdown. No direct evidence relating microparticles to the initiation of electrical breakdown has been found in this experiment. (author)

  17. Laser ablation of microparticles for nanostructure generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waraich, Palneet Singh; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    The process of laser ablation of microparticles has been shown to generate nanoparticles from microparticles; but the generation of nanoparticle networks from microparticles has never been reported before. We report a unique approach for the generation of nanoparticle networks through ablation of microparticles. Using this approach, two samples containing microparticles of lead oxide (Pb 3 O 4 ) and nickel oxide (NiO), respectively, were ablated under ambient conditions using a femtosecond laser operating in the MHz repetition rate regime. Nanoparticle networks with particle diameter ranging from 60 to 90 nm were obtained by ablation of microparticles without use of any specialized equipment, catalysts or external stimulants. The formation of finer nanoparticle networks has been explained by considering the low pressure region created by the shockwave, causing rapid condensation of microparticles into finer nanoparticles. A comparison between the nanostructures generated by ablating microparticle and those by ablating bulk substrate was carried out; and a considerable reduction in size and narrowed size distribution was observed. Our nanostructure fabrication technique will be a unique process for nanoparticle network generation from a vast array of materials.

  18. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, Charles F.; Pisetsky, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for β-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death

  19. Physics of microparticle acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune

    2012-01-01

    of microparticle acoustophoresis and to develop methods for future advancement of its use. Throughout the work on this thesis the author and co-workers1 have studied the physics of microparticle acoustophoresis by comparing quantitative measurements to a theoretical framework consisting of existing hydrodynamic...

  20. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  1. Effect of Diffusion on Discoloration of Congo Red by Alginate Entrapped Turnip (Brassica rapa Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic discoloration of the diazo dye, Congo red (CR, by immobilized plant peroxidase from turnip “Brassica rapa” is investigated. Partially purified turnip peroxidase (TP was immobilized by entrapment in spherical particles of calcium alginate and was assayed for the discoloration of aqueous CR solution. Experimental data revealed that pH, reaction time, temperature, colorant, and H2O2 concentration play a significant role in dye degradation. Maximum CR removal was found at pH 2.0, constant temperature of 40°C in the presence of 10 mM H2O2, and 180 mg/L of CR. More than 94% of CR was removed by alginate immobilized TP after 1 h of incubation in a batch process under optimal conditions. About 74% removal efficiency was retained after four recycles. Diffusional limitations in alginate beads such as effectiveness factor η, Thiele modulus Φ, and effective diffusion coefficients (De of Congo red were predicted assuming a first-order biodegradation kinetic. Results showed that intraparticle diffusion resistance has a significant effect on the CR biodegradation rate.

  2. Ulnar nerve entrapment in a French horn player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, R A

    1997-10-01

    Nerve entrapment syndromes are frequent among musicians. Because of the demands on the musculoskeletal system and the great agility needed to per-form, musicians often present with vague complaints early in the course of entrapment, which makes the diagnosis a challenge for the clinician. Presented here is such a case of ulnar nerve entrapment at the left elbow of a French horn player. This case points out some of the difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of nerve entrapment in musicians. It also supports the theory that prolonged elbow flexion and repetitive finger movement contribute to the development of ulnar entrapment at the elbow. Although surgery is not required for most of the musculoskeletal problems of musicians, release of an entrapped nerve refractory to conservative therapy may be career-saving for the musician.

  3. The use of response surface methodology in the evaluation of captopril microparticles manufactured using an oil in oil solvent evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanga, Sandile Maswazi; Walker, Roderick B

    2012-01-01

    Captopril (CPT) microparticles were manufactured by solvent evaporation using acetone (dispersion phase) and liquid paraffin (manufacturing phase) with Eudragit® and Methocel® as coat materials. Design of experiments and response surface methodology (RSM) approaches were used to optimize the process. The microparticles were characterized based on the percent of drug released and yield, microcapsule size, entrapment efficiency and Hausner ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in vitro dissolution studies were conducted. The microcapsules were spherical, free-flowing and IR and DSC thermograms revealed that CPT was stable. The percent drug released was investigated with respect to Eudragit® RS and Methocel® K100M, Methocel® K15M concentrations and homogenizing speed. The optimal conditions for microencapsulation were 1.12 g Eudragit® RS, 0.67 g Methocel® K100M and 0.39 g Methocel® K15M at a homogenizing speed of 1643 rpm and 89% CPT was released. The value of RSM-mediated microencapsulation of CPT was elucidated.

  4. Anchoring of ulex europaeus agglutinin to chitosan nanoparticles-in-microparticles and their in vitro binding activity to bovine submaxillary gland mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Fei, Yi-Bo; Chen, Xu; Qin, Xian-Ju; Liu, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Quan-Gang; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Focused on the natural biodegradable material of chitosan (CS), this investigation concerned its spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles (NiMPs) modified with ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA). Chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by ionotropic gelation process with pentasodium tripolyphosphate as gelatinizer. Then UEA lectin was bound onto the CS nanoparticles activated by glutaraldehyde. The conjugated spherical UEA-CS-NiMPs, prepared by spray drying method, exhibited 12-85% coupling efficiency of UEA depending upon the amount of activator glutaraldehyde. And the UEA-grafted particles showed additional higher binding tendency with bovine submaxillary gland mucin as compared to the plain chitosan microparticles. Furthermore, the activity and intrinsic fucose-specificity of UEA were still maintained after the covalent modification. It is thus evident that the UEA anchored CS-NiMPs might be used as a potential drug delivery system targeted to the specific regions of gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Acceleration of microparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, H

    2002-01-01

    A microparticle (dust) ion source has been installed at the high voltage terminal of the 3.75 MV single ended Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a beam line for microparticle experiments has been build at High Fluence Irradiation Facility (HIT) of Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo. Microparticle acceleration has been successful in obtaining expected velocities of 1-20 km/s or more for micron or submicron sized particles. Development of in situ dust detectors and analyzers on board satellites and spacecraft in the expected mass and velocity range of micrometeoroids and investigation of hypervelocity impact phenomena by using time of flight mass spectrometry, impact flash or luminescence measurement and scanning electron or laser microscope observation for metals, ceramics, polymers and semiconductors bombarded by micron-sized particles were started three years ago. (author)

  6. Microparticle Flow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    The microparticle flow sensor (MFS) is a system for identifying and counting microscopic particles entrained in a flowing liquid. The MFS includes a transparent, optoelectronically instrumented laminar-flow chamber (see figure) and a computer for processing instrument-readout data. The MFS could be used to count microparticles (including micro-organisms) in diverse applications -- for example, production of microcapsules, treatment of wastewater, pumping of industrial chemicals, and identification of ownership of liquid products.

  7. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hayashi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV, a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism.

  8. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Carolina Nunes; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice

  9. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  10. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of process variables on micromeritic properties and drug release of non-degradable microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Jelvehgari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate microencapsulated controlled release preparation of theophylline using Eudragit RS 100 as the retardant material with high entrapment efficiency. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. A mixed solvent system consisting of methanol and acetone and light liquid paraffin as oily phase were chosen. Sucrose stearate was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsification process. The prepared microspheres were characterized by drug loading, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning colorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The in vitro release studies were performed at pH 1.2 and 7.4 aqueous medium. Results: Increasing the concentration of emulsifier, sucrose fatty acid ester F-70, decreased the particle size which contributed to increased drug release rate. The drug loading microparticle Eudragit RS100 (1:6 showed 60-75% of entrapment and mean particle size 205.93-352.76 µm. The results showed that, an increase in the ratio of polymer: drug (F5, 6: 1 resulted in a reduction in the release rate of the drug which may be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the polymer. Conclusion: The release of theophylline is influenced by the drug to polymer ratio and particle size. Drug release is controlled by diffusion and the best-fit release kinetic is Higuchi model.

  12. Effects of process variables on micromeritic properties and drug release of non-degradable microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgari, Mitra; Barar, Jaleh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Shadrou, Sanam; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate microencapsulated controlled release preparation of theophylline using Eudragit RS 100 as the retardant material with high entrapment efficiency. Microspheres were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. A mixed solvent system consisting of methanol and acetone and light liquid paraffin as oily phase were chosen. Sucrose stearate was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsification process. The prepared microspheres were characterized by drug loading, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro release studies were performed at pH 1.2 and 7.4 aqueous medium. Increasing the concentration of emulsifier, sucrose fatty acid ester F-70, decreased the particle size which contributed to increased drug release rate. The drug loading microparticle Eudragit RS100(1:6) showed 60-75% of entrapment and mean particle size 205.93-352.76 μm.The results showed that, an increase in the ratio of polymer: drug (F5, 6: 1) resulted in a reduction in the release rate of the drug which may be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the polymer. The release of theophylline is influenced by the drug to polymer ratio and particle size. Drug release is controlled by diffusion and the best-fit release kinetic is Higuchi model.

  13. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  14. Stimulation of mucosal immune response following oral administration of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae (CFA/I) entrapped in liposomes in conjunction with inactivated whole-cell Vibrio cholerae vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, V F; Ionescu, M D; Palade, R; Balotescu, C; Becheanu, G; Dima, S V

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we have searched for an effective mucosal vaccine. An oral enterotoxigenic E. coli vaccine containing colonization factor antigen (CFA/I) associated with inactivated whole-cell V. cholerae vaccine (WCV) has been tested for safety and immunogenicity in animals. Five groups of animals were used. The results showed the following: (a) vaccine containing CFA/I antigen entrapped in liposomes and associated with WCV (batch C) had increased titers of specific antibodies to CFA/I antigen in 15 to 18 (83.3%) animals; (b) specific Peyer's patches (PP), lymph nodes (LN) and spleen (SPL) lymphocytes proliferation was detected following in vitro restimulation with CFA/I antigen or WCV. This response gradually increased to the highest value by the 35th postimmunization day. Moreover, lower PP, LN and spleen (SPL) proliferation was observed in rabbits receiving soluble CFA/I antigen (S-CFA/I) or free liposomes (F-L) alone; (c) adhesion of E. coli H10407 strain labelled with 3H-leucine in immunized and control animals revealed the following local effects: (i) protection of rabbit intestinal mucosa against virulent E. coli cells; (ii) inhibition of adhesion of ETEC bacteria to intestinal mucosa and (iii) significantly faster release of E. coli H 10407 strain labelled with 3H-leucine from the intestinal tract of immunized animals. The histopathological and electron microscope findings confirmed the above results. The experimental results point out an efficient protection against infection with E. coli strains (ETEC), after mucosal vaccination with CFA/I antigen entrapped in liposomes associated with inactivated whole-cell Vibrio cholerae as immunological adjuvant.

  15. Leukocyte- and endothelial-derived microparticles: a circulating source for fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Romaric; Plawinski, Laurent; Robert, Stéphane; Doeuvre, Loïc; Sabatier, Florence; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Mezzapesa, Anna; Anfosso, Francine; Leroyer, Aurelie S.; Poullin, Pascale; Jourde, Noémie; Njock, Makon-Sébastien; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Anglés-Cano, Eduardo; Dignat-George, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently assigned a new fibrinolytic function to cell-derived microparticles in vitro. In this study we explored the relevance of this novel property of microparticles to the in vivo situation. Design and Methods Circulating microparticles were isolated from the plasma of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or cardiovascular disease and from healthy subjects. Microparticles were also obtained from purified human blood cell subpopulations. The plasminogen activators on microparticles were identified by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; their capacity to generate plasmin was quantified with a chromogenic assay and their fibrinolytic activity was determined by zymography. Results Circulating microparticles isolated from patients generate a range of plasmin activity at their surface. This property was related to a variable content of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and/or tissue plasminogen activator. Using distinct microparticle subpopulations, we demonstrated that plasmin is generated on endothelial and leukocyte microparticles, but not on microparticles of platelet or erythrocyte origin. Leukocyte-derived microparticles bear urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor whereas endothelial microparticles carry tissue plasminogen activator and tissue plasminogen activator/inhibitor complexes. Conclusions Endothelial and leukocyte microparticles, bearing respectively tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase-type plasminogen activator, support a part of the fibrinolytic activity in the circulation which is modulated in pathological settings. Awareness of this blood-borne fibrinolytic activity conveyed by microparticles provides a more comprehensive view of the role of microparticles in the hemostatic equilibrium. PMID:22733025

  16. Ether lipid vesicle-based antigens impart protection against experimental listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari MA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mairaj Ahmed Ansari,1 Swaleha Zubair,2 Saba Tufail,1 Ejaj Ahmad,1 Mohsin Raza Khan,1 Zainuddin Quadri,1 Mohammad Owais,11Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, 2Women's College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, IndiaBackground: Incidence of food-borne infections from Listeria monocytogenes, a parasite that has adapted intracellular residence to avoid antibody onslaught, has increased dramatically in the past few years. The apparent lack of an effective vaccine that is capable of evoking the desired cytotoxic T cell response to obliterate this intracellular pathogen has encouraged the investigation of alternate prophylactic strategies. It should also be noted that Archaebacteria (Archae lipid-based adjuvants enhance the efficacy of subunit vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant properties of archaeosomes (liposomes prepared from total polar lipids of archaebacteria, Halobacterium salinarum combined with immunogenic culture supernatant antigens of L. monocytogenes have been exploited in designing a vaccine candidate against experimental listeriosis in murine model.Methods: Archaeosome-entrapped secretory protein antigens (SAgs of L. monocytogenes were evaluated for their immunological responses and tendency to deplete bacterial burden in BALB/c mice challenged with sublethal listerial infection. Various immunological studies involving cytokine profiling, lymphocyte proliferation assay, detection of various surface markers (by flowcytometric analysis, and antibody isotypes (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for establishing the vaccine potential of archaeosome-entrapped secretory proteins.Results: Immunization schedule involving archaeosome-encapsulated SAgs resulted in upregulation of Th1 cytokine production along with boosted memory in BALB/c mice. It also showed protective effect by reducing listerial burden in various vital organs (liver and spleen of the infected mice. However, the soluble form of the antigens (SAgs

  17. Ulnar nerve entrapment by anconeus epitrochlearis ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2012-01-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow is the second most common upper limb entrapment neuropathy other than carpal tunnel syndrome. There have been many causes identified ranging from chronic aging joint changes to inflammatory conditions or systemic disorders. Among them, uncommon anatomical variants accounts for a small number of cases. Here, we report our experience in managing ulnar nerve entrapment caused by a rare vestigial structure, anconeus epitrochlearis ligament, and provide a brief review of the literature of its management.

  18. Rational design of nanoparticles towards targeting antigen-presenting cells and improved T cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Eva; Curato, Caterina; Paisana, Maria; Rodrigues, Catarina; Porat, Ziv; Viana, Ana S; Afonso, Carlos A M; Pinto, João; Gaspar, Rogério; Moreira, João N; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Jung, Steffen; Florindo, Helena F

    2017-07-28

    Vaccination is a promising strategy to trigger and boost immune responses against cancer or infectious disease. We have designed, synthesized and characterized aliphatic-polyester (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to investigate how the nature of protein association (adsorbed versus entrapped) and polymer/surfactant concentrations impact on the generation and modulation of antigen-specific immune responses. The ability of the NP formulations to target dendritic cells (DC), be internalized and activate the T cells was characterized and optimized in vitro and in vivo using markers of DC activation and co-stimulatory molecules. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used as a model antigen in combination with the engraftment of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, carrying a transgenic OVA-responding T cell receptor (TCR), to trace and characterize the activation of antigen-specific CD4 + and CD8 + lymph node T cells upon NP vaccination. Accordingly, the phenotype and frequency of immune cell stimulation induced by the NP loaded with OVA, isolated or in combination with synthetic unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) motifs, were characterized. DC-NP interactions increased with incubation time, presenting internalization values between 50 and 60% and 30-40%, in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Interestingly, animal immunization with antigen-adsorbed NP up-regulated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHCII), while NP entrapping the antigen up-regulated MHCI, suggesting a more efficient cross-presentation. On the other hand, rather surprisingly, the surfactant used in the NP formulation had a major impact on the activation of antigen presenting cells (APC). In fact, DC collected from lymph nodes of animals immunized with NP prepared using poly(vinil alcohol) (PVA), as a surfactant, expressed significantly higher levels of CD86, MHCI and MHCII. In addition, those NP prepared with PVA and co-entrapping OVA and the toll

  19. Circulating Microparticles Alter Formation, Structure, and Properties of Fibrin Clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairova, Laily D; Nabiullina, Roza M; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Zuev, Yuriy F; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Litvinov, Rustem I; Weisel, John W

    2015-12-04

    Despite the importance of circulating microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis, there is limited evidence for potential causative effects of naturally produced cell-derived microparticles on fibrin clot formation and its properties. We studied the significance of blood microparticles for fibrin formation, structure, and susceptibility to fibrinolysis by removing them from platelet-free plasma using filtration. Clots made in platelet-free and microparticle-depleted plasma samples from the same healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. Microparticles accelerate fibrin polymerisation and support formation of more compact clots that resist internal and external fibrinolysis. These variations correlate with faster thrombin generation, suggesting thrombin-mediated kinetic effects of microparticles on fibrin formation, structure, and properties. In addition, clots formed in the presence of microparticles, unlike clots from the microparticle-depleted plasma, contain 0.1-0.5-μm size granular and CD61-positive material on fibres, suggesting that platelet-derived microparticles attach to fibrin. Therefore, the blood of healthy individuals contains functional microparticles at the levels that have a procoagulant potential. They affect the structure and stability of fibrin clots indirectly through acceleration of thrombin generation and through direct physical incorporation into the fibrin network. Both mechanisms underlie a potential role of microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis as modulators of fibrin formation, structure, and resistance to fibrinolysis.

  20. Diclofenac sodium entrapment and release from halloysite nanotubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčová, Kateřina; Deasy, Patrick B; Rabišková, Miloslava

    2013-02-01

    Halloysite was found to have interesting nanotubular geometry viable for the entrapment of various active agents. In this experiment, the ability of hollow halloysite cylinders to entrap the anionic model drug diclofenac sodium and to retard drug dissolution rate was investigated. Drugs could be incorporated into layered tubules via three different mechanisms: adsorption, intercalation and tubular entrapment. Based on the adsorption studies, some diclofenac sodium was shown to be adsorbed to the polyionic mineral surface despite its permanent negative charge. The X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD) results did not prove any intercalation reaction to occur. The most important drug-loading mechanism involved the tubular entrapment with encapsulation efficiency 48.1%. The drug release from halloysite was prolonged in comparison with the dissolution of pure drug. Halloysite itself as well as halloysite loaded with the drug proved to be appropriate material to form pellets by extrusion /spheronization method. halloysite diclofenac sodium drug entrapment pellets prolonged drug release.

  1. Heterogeneity in Neutrophil Microparticles Reveals Distinct Proteome and Functional Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Jesmond; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Norling, Lucy V; Yin, Xiaoke; Hinds, Charles; Haskard, Dorian; Mayr, Manuel; Perretti, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Altered plasma neutrophil microparticle levels have recently been implicated in a number of vascular and inflammatory diseases, yet our understanding of their actions is very limited. Herein, we investigate the proteome of neutrophil microparticles in order to shed light on their biological actions. Stimulation of human neutrophils, either in suspension or adherent to an endothelial monolayer, led to the production of microparticles containing >400 distinct proteins with only 223 being shared by the two subsets. For instance, postadherent microparticles were enriched in alpha-2 macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin, whereas microparticles produced by neutrophils in suspension were abundant in heat shock 70 kDa protein 1. Annexin A1 and lactotransferrin were expressed in both microparticle subsets. We next determined relative abundance of these proteins in three types of human microparticle samples: healthy volunteer plasma, plasma of septic patients and skin blister exudates finding that these proteins were differentially expressed on neutrophil microparticles from these samples reflecting in part the expression profiles we found in vitro. Functional assessment of the neutrophil microparticles subsets demonstrated that in response to direct stimulation neutrophil microparticles produced reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4 as well as locomoted toward a chemotactic gradient. Finally, we investigated the actions of the two neutrophil microparticles subsets described herein on target cell responses. Microarray analysis with human primary endothelial cells incubated with either microparticle subset revealed a discrete modulation of endothelial cell gene expression profile. These findings demonstrate that neutrophil microparticles are heterogenous and can deliver packaged information propagating the activation status of the parent cell, potentially exerting novel and fundamental roles both under homeostatic and disease conditions. PMID:23660474

  2. Evaluation of the biodegradation of Alaska North Slope oil in microcosms using the biodegradation model BIOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish eTorlapati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the details of a numerical model, BIOB that is capable of simulating the biodegradation of oil entrapped in the sediment. The model uses Monod kinetics to simulate the growth of bacteria in the presence of nutrients and the subsequent consumption of hydrocarbons. The model was used to simulate experimental results of Exxon Valdez oil biodegradation in laboratory columns (Venosa et al. (2010. In that study, samples were collected from three different islands: Eleanor Island (EL107, Knight Island (KN114A, and Smith Island (SM006B, and placed in laboratory microcosms for a duration of 168 days to investigate oil bioremediation through natural attenuation and nutrient amendment. The kinetic parameters of the BIOB model were estimated by fitting to the experimental data using a parameter estimation tool based on Genetic Algorithms (GA. The parameter values of EL107 and KN114A were similar whereas those of SM006B were different from the two other sites; in particular biomass growth at SM006B was four times slower than at the other two islands. Grain size analysis from each site revealed that the specific surface area per unit mass of sediment was considerably lower at SM006B, which suggest that the surface area of sediments is a key control parameter for microbial growth in sediments. Comparison of the BIOB results with exponential decay curves fitted to the data indicated that BIOB provided better fit for KN114A and SM006B in nutrient amended treatments, and for EL107 and KN114A in natural attenuation. In particular, BIOB was able to capture the initial slow biodegradation due to the lag phase in microbial growth. Sensitivity analyses revealed that oil biodegradation at all three locations were sensitive to nutrient concentration whereas SM006B was sensitive to initial biomass concentration due to its slow growth rate. Analyses were also performed to compare the half-lives of individual compounds with the decay rate of the overall PAH.

  3. Co-delivery of PLGA encapsulated invariant NKT cell agonist with antigenic protein induce strong T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, Y.; Kreutz, M.; Gileadi, U.; Tel, J.; Vasaturo, A.; Dinther, E.A.W. van; Hout-Kuijer, M.A. van; Cerundolo, V.; Figdor, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor immunity can be enhanced by the coordinated release and delivery of antigens and immune-stimulating agents to antigen-presenting cells via biodegradable vaccine carriers. So far, encapsulation of TLR ligands and tumor-associated antigens augmented cytotoxic T cell (CTLs) responses. Here,

  4. Cell-derived microparticles in haemostasis and vascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Laurent; Fontana, Pierre; Kwak, Brenda R; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2009-03-01

    Considerable interest for cell-derived microparticles has emerged, pointing out their essential role in haemostatic response and their potential as disease markers, but also their implication in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. They derive from different cell types including platelets - the main source of microparticles - but also from red blood cells, leukocytes and endothelial cells, and they circulate in blood. Despite difficulties encountered in analyzing them and disparities of results obtained with a wide range of methods, microparticle generation processes are now better understood. However, a generally admitted definition of microparticles is currently lacking. For all these reasons we decided to review the literature regarding microparticles in their widest definition, including ectosomes and exosomes, and to focus mainly on their role in haemostasis and vascular medicine.

  5. Investigation of strain-induced magnetization change in ferromagnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuklanov, A P; Nurgazizov, N I; Bizyaev, D A; Khanipov, T F; Bukharaev, A A; Yu Petukhov, V; Chirkov, V V; Gumarov, G G

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of magnetoelastic strain effect on the ferromagnetic microparticles of permalloy. An original method of sample fabrication with compressed microparticles is proposed. Magnetic force microscopy and magneto-optical Kerr experiments were carried out with unstrained and compressed microparticles. The domain walls transformation in compressed microparticles is in good agreement with numerical calculations. Hard axis of magnetization was observed on the compressed sample. (paper)

  6. Preparation of TPP-crosslinked chitosan microparticles by spray drying for the controlled delivery of progesterone intended for estrus synchronization in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Ignacio M; Busatto, Carlos A; Fioramonti, Silvana A; Pesoa, Juan I; Santiago, Liliana; Estenoz, Diana A; Luna, Julio A

    2018-02-20

    Planned reproduction in cattle involves regulation of estrous cycle and the use of artificial insemination. Cycle control includes the administration of exogenous progesterone during 5-8 days in a controlled manner allowing females to synchronize their ovulation. Several progesterone delivery systems are commercially available but they have several drawbacks. The aim of the present contribution was to evaluate chitosan microparticles entrapping progesterone as an alternative system. Microparticles were prepared by spray drying. The effect of formulation parameters and experimental conditions on particle features and delivery was studied. A mathematical model to predict progesterone plasma concentration in animals was developed and validated with experimental data. Microparticle size was not affected by formulation parameters but sphericity enhances as Tween 80 content increases and it impairs as TPP content rises. Z potential decreases as phosphate content rises. Particles remain stable in acidic solution but the addition of surfactant is required to stabilize dispersions in neutral medium. Encapsulation efficiencies was 69-75%. In vitro delivery studies showed burst and diffusion-controlled phases, being progesterone released faster at low pH. In addition, delivery extend in cows was affected mainly by particle size and hormone initial content, while the amount injected altered plasma concentration. Theoretical predictions with excellent accuracy were obtained. The mathematical model developed can help to find proper particle features to reach specific delivery rates in the animals. This not only save time, money and effort but also minimized experimentation with animals which is desired from an ethical point of view.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Keratin/Alginate Blend Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowalak Srisuwan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-in-oil (W/O emulsification-diffusion method was used for construction of keratin (Ker, alginate (Alg, and Ker/Alg blend microparticles. The Ker, Alg, and Ker/Alg blend solutions were used as the water phase, while ethyl acetate was used as the oil phase. Firstly, different concentrations of Ker solution was used to find suitable content. 1.6% w/v Ker solution was blended with the same concentration of the Alg solution for further microparticle construction. Results from scanning electron microscope analysis show that the microparticles have different shapes: spherical, bowl-like, porous, and hollow, with several sizes depending on the blend ratio. FTIR and TG analyses indicated that the secondary structure and thermal stability of the microparticles were influenced by the Ker/Alg blend ratio. The interaction between functional groups of keratin and alginate was the main factor for both β-sheet structure and Td,max values of the microparticles. The results suggested that Ker/Alg blend microparticles might be applied in many fields by varying the Ker/Alg ratio.

  8. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  9. Acoustic radiation- and streaming-induced microparticle velocities determined by microparticle image velocimetry in an ultrasound symmetry plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Laurell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present microparticle image velocimetry measurements of suspended microparticles of diameters from 0.6 to 10μm undergoing acoustophoresis in an ultrasound symmetry plane in a microchannel. The motion of the smallest particles is dominated by the Stokes drag from the induced acoustic streaming...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose novel microparticles for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaihre, Bipin [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study we developed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) microparticles through ionic crosslinking with the aqueous ion complex of zirconium (Zr) and further complexing with chitosan (CS) and determined the physio-chemical and biological properties of these novel microparticles. In order to assess the role of Zr, microparticles were prepared in 5% and 10% (w/v) zirconium tetrachloride solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) results showed that Zr was uniformly distributed on the surface of the microparticles as a result of which uniform groovy surface was obtained. We found that Zr enhances the surface roughness of the microparticles and stability studies showed that it also increases the stability of microparticles in phosphate buffered saline. The crosslinking of anionic CMC with cationic Zr and CS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. The response of murine pre-osteoblasts (OB-6) when cultured with microparticles was investigated. Live/dead cell assay showed that microparticles did not induce any cytotoxic effects as cells were attaching and proliferating on the well plate as well as along the surface of microparticles. In addition, SEM images showed that microparticles support the attachment of cells and they appeared to be directly interacting with the surface of microparticle. Within 10 days of culture most of the top surface of microparticles was covered with a layer of cells indicating that they were proliferating well throughout the surface of microparticles. We observed that Zr enhances the cell attachment and proliferation as more cells were present on microparticles with 10% Zr. These promising results show the potential applications of CMC-Zr microparticles in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Zirconium ions crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose microparticles were fabricated. • The microparticles were further stabilized by complexation with chitosan.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose novel microparticles for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaihre, Bipin; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) microparticles through ionic crosslinking with the aqueous ion complex of zirconium (Zr) and further complexing with chitosan (CS) and determined the physio-chemical and biological properties of these novel microparticles. In order to assess the role of Zr, microparticles were prepared in 5% and 10% (w/v) zirconium tetrachloride solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) results showed that Zr was uniformly distributed on the surface of the microparticles as a result of which uniform groovy surface was obtained. We found that Zr enhances the surface roughness of the microparticles and stability studies showed that it also increases the stability of microparticles in phosphate buffered saline. The crosslinking of anionic CMC with cationic Zr and CS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. The response of murine pre-osteoblasts (OB-6) when cultured with microparticles was investigated. Live/dead cell assay showed that microparticles did not induce any cytotoxic effects as cells were attaching and proliferating on the well plate as well as along the surface of microparticles. In addition, SEM images showed that microparticles support the attachment of cells and they appeared to be directly interacting with the surface of microparticle. Within 10 days of culture most of the top surface of microparticles was covered with a layer of cells indicating that they were proliferating well throughout the surface of microparticles. We observed that Zr enhances the cell attachment and proliferation as more cells were present on microparticles with 10% Zr. These promising results show the potential applications of CMC-Zr microparticles in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Zirconium ions crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose microparticles were fabricated. • The microparticles were further stabilized by complexation with chitosan.

  12. Effects of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of the Tramadol-Hcl microparticles containing Eudragit® RS and RL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit® RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix composition on microparticle properties were characterized by Laser Light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction study, FT-infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The spray-dried microparticles were evaluated in terms of shape (SEM, size distribution (Laser light scattering method, production yield, drug content, initial drug loding and encapsulation efficiency. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveals the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency (EE, and product yield were depended on polymeric composition and polymeric ratios of the microspheres prepared. Tramadol microspheres based on Eudragit® blend can be prepared by spray-drying and the nebulization parameters do not influence significantly on particle properties.

  13. Cyclosporine Induces Endothelial Cell Release of Complement-Activating Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Brandon; Klawitter, Jelena; Goldberg, Ryan; McCullough, James W.; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Cooper, James E.; Christians, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Defective control of the alternative pathway of complement is an important risk factor for several renal diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Infections, drugs, pregnancy, and hemodynamic insults can trigger episodes of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in susceptible patients. Although the mechanisms linking these clinical events with disease flares are unknown, recent work has revealed that each of these clinical conditions causes cells to release microparticles. We hypothesized that microparticles released from injured endothelial cells promote intrarenal complement activation. Calcineurin inhibitors cause vascular and renal injury and can trigger hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here, we show that endothelial cells exposed to cyclosporine in vitro and in vivo release microparticles that activate the alternative pathway of complement. Cyclosporine-induced microparticles caused injury to bystander endothelial cells and are associated with complement-mediated injury of the kidneys and vasculature in cyclosporine-treated mice. Cyclosporine-induced microparticles did not bind factor H, an alternative pathway regulatory protein present in plasma, explaining their complement-activating phenotype. Finally, we found that in renal transplant patients, the number of endothelial microparticles in plasma increases 2 weeks after starting tacrolimus, and treatment with tacrolimus associated with increased C3 deposition on endothelial microparticles in the plasma of some patients. These results suggest that injury-associated release of endothelial microparticles is an important mechanism by which systemic insults trigger intravascular complement activation and complement-dependent renal diseases. PMID:24092930

  14. Effect of the levitating microparticle cloud on radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, S.; Pustylnik, M. Y.; Klumov, B. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  15. Preparation of donut-shaped starch microparticles by aqueous-alcoholic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Yousof; Sabando, Constanza; Rodríguez-Llamazares, Saddys; Bouza, Rebeca; Rojas, Claudio; Barral, Luís

    2018-04-25

    A simple method for producing donut-shaped starch microparticles by adding ethanol to a heated aqueous slurry of corn starch is presented. The obtained microparticles were analysed by SEM, XRD and DSC. The average size of microparticles was 14.1 ± 0.3 μm with holes of an average size of 4.6 ± 0.2 μm. The crystalline arrangement of the microparticles was of a V-type single helix. The change in crystallinity from A-type of the starch granules to a more open structure, where water molecules could penetrate easier within the microparticles, substantially increased their solubility and swelling power. The microparticles exhibited a higher gelatinization temperature and a lower gelatinization enthalpy than did the starch granules. The donut-shaped microparticles were stable for more than 18 months and can be used as a carrier of an active compound or as a filler in bioplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  17. Detection of EpCAM-positive microparticles in pleural fluid: A new approach to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, Elisa; Lacroix, Romaric; Judicone, Coralie; Laroumagne, Sophie; Robert, St?phane; Cointe, Sylvie; Muller, Alexandre; Kaspi, Elise; Roll, Patrice; Brisson, Alain R.; Tantucci, Claudio; Astoul, Philippe; Dignat-George, Fran?oise

    2015-01-01

    Pleural biomarkers allowing to mini-invasively discriminate benign from malignant pleural effusions are needed. Among potential candidates, microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles that vectorize antigen derived from the parent cell. We hypothesized that tumor-derived MPs could be present in the pleural liquid and help to identify patients with malignant pleural effusions. Using highly sensitive flow cytometry and cryo-electron microscopy, we showed that large amounts of MPs from hemat...

  18. Protamine-based nanoparticles as new antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Peleteiro Olmedo, Mercedes; González-Fernández, África; Alonso Fernández, María José; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2015-11-01

    The use of biodegradable nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles is an attractive approach to overcome the problems associated with the use of Alum-based classical adjuvants. Herein we report, the design and development of protamine-based nanoparticles as novel antigen delivery systems, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen as a model viral antigen. The nanoparticles, composed of protamine and a polysaccharide (hyaluronic acid or alginate), were obtained using a mild ionic cross-linking technique. The size and surface charge of the nanoparticles could be modulated by adjusting the ratio of the components. Prototypes with optimal physicochemical characteristics and satisfactory colloidal stability were selected for the assessment of their antigen loading capacity, antigen stability during storage and in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept studies. In vitro studies showed that antigen-loaded nanoparticles induced the secretion of cytokines by macrophages more efficiently than the antigen in solution, thus indicating a potential adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. Finally, in vivo studies showed the capacity of these systems to trigger efficient immune responses against the hepatitis B antigen following intramuscular administration, suggesting the potential interest of protamine-polysaccharide nanoparticles as antigen delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Concanavalin A conjugated biodegradable nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Aviral; Jain, Ashish; Shilpi, Satish; Gulbake, Arvind; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2012-11-01

    Major research issues in oral protein delivery include the stabilization of protein in delivery devices which could increase its oral bioavailability. The study deals with development of oral insulin delivery system utilizing biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and modifying its surface with Concanavalin A to increase lymphatic uptake. Surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles were characterized for conjugation efficiency of ligand, shape and surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Stability of insulin in the developed formulation was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and integrity of entrapped insulin was assessed using circular dichroism spectrum. Ex vivo study was performed on Wistar rats, which exhibited the higher intestinal uptake of Con A conjugated nanoparticles. In vivo study performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which indicate that a surface-modified nanoparticle reduces blood glucose level effectively within 4 h of its oral administration. In conclusion, the present work resulted in successful production of Con A NPs bearing insulin with sustained release profile, and better absorption and stability. The Con A NPs showed high insulin uptake, due to its relative high affinity for non-reducing carbohydrate residues i.e., fucose present on M cells and have the potential for oral insulin delivery in effective management of Type 1 diabetes condition.

  20. Concanavalin A conjugated biodegradable nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Aviral; Jain, Ashish; Shilpi, Satish; Gulbake, Arvind; Jain, Sanjay K., E-mail: drskjainin@yahoo.com [Dr. Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Pharmaceutics Research Projects Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2012-11-15

    Major research issues in oral protein delivery include the stabilization of protein in delivery devices which could increase its oral bioavailability. The study deals with development of oral insulin delivery system utilizing biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and modifying its surface with Concanavalin A to increase lymphatic uptake. Surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles were characterized for conjugation efficiency of ligand, shape and surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Stability of insulin in the developed formulation was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and integrity of entrapped insulin was assessed using circular dichroism spectrum. Ex vivo study was performed on Wistar rats, which exhibited the higher intestinal uptake of Con A conjugated nanoparticles. In vivo study performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which indicate that a surface-modified nanoparticle reduces blood glucose level effectively within 4 h of its oral administration. In conclusion, the present work resulted in successful production of Con A NPs bearing insulin with sustained release profile, and better absorption and stability. The Con A NPs showed high insulin uptake, due to its relative high affinity for non-reducing carbohydrate residues i.e., fucose present on M cells and have the potential for oral insulin delivery in effective management of Type 1 diabetes condition.

  1. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liqiang [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Huiwen, E-mail: hwzhang@iae.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Esterase SulE was entrapped in a three-dimensional network of CPE. • CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability. • CPE-SulE displayed obviously enhanced efficiency in degrading chlorimuron-ethyl. • The three-dimensional network and kinetic parameters of CPE-SulE were analysed. • CPE-SulE possesses the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated in situ. - Abstract: Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  2. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Esterase SulE was entrapped in a three-dimensional network of CPE. • CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability. • CPE-SulE displayed obviously enhanced efficiency in degrading chlorimuron-ethyl. • The three-dimensional network and kinetic parameters of CPE-SulE were analysed. • CPE-SulE possesses the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated in situ. - Abstract: Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ

  3. Profile analysis of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Depth resolved analyses of several types of microparticles are presented. Particles for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis were collected in the working environment of glass plant, steelworks and welding station using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.3 μm to 15 μm. Ion beam sputtering and sample rotation technique allowed to describe morphology i.e. the elemental structure of collected sub-micrometer particles. Also model particles Iriodin 221 (Merck) were depth profiled. The core-shell structure is found for all types of investigated particles. Steelworks particles consist mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles: lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The particles collected in the glass-works consist mainly of lead-zirconium glass cores covered by carbon and copper. Stainless-steel welding particles compose of iron, manganese and chromium cores covered by a shell rich in carbon, chlorine and fluorine. Sample rotation technique applied in SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies

  4. pH-Sensitive Microparticles with Matrix-Dispersed Active Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Calle, Luz M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods to produce pH-sensitive microparticles that have an active agent dispersed in a polymer matrix have certain advantages over microcapsules with an active agent encapsulated in an interior compartment/core inside of a polymer wall. The current invention relates to pH-sensitive microparticles that have a corrosion-detecting or corrosion-inhibiting active agent or active agents dispersed within a polymer matrix of the microparticles. The pH-sensitive microparticles can be used in various coating compositions on metal objects for corrosion detecting and/or inhibiting.

  5. Use of protein containing magnetic microparticles in radioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ithakissios, D.S.; Kubiatowicz, D.O.

    1977-01-01

    We describe a radioassay method that involves the use of magnetic protein microparticles composed of a water-insoluble protein matrix containing magnetically responsive material. We define two different types of particles according to the mechanism of action: The substrate is sorbed nonspecifically by the protein matrix of the particle or by a second substance such as charcoal or ion-exchange resin incorporated within the protein matrix of the particle. These particles are useful for separating free from bound substrate. Examples of these are albumin magnetic microparticles for use in a total thyroxine radioassay and triiodothyronine uptake test, or albumin magnetic microparticles containing charcoal for use in a vitamin B 12 radioassay. The substrate is sorbed specifically by a binding protein incorporated within the matrix of the particles. The binding protein can include antibodies or other specific nonimmune proteins. Particles of this type are useful in solid-phase radioassays. These particles are exemplified by albumin magnetic microparticles containing sockeye salmon serum, used in a solid-phase B 12 radioassay. We discuss the methods for the preparation of both types of magnetic microparticles and their use in radioassays. We describe a unique inexpensive magnetic separation rack, which provides simple, fast, and reproducible separation of the magnetic microparticles from their suspending medium during the assay

  6. Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rank, A.; Liebhardt, S.; Zwirner, J.; Burges, A.; Nieuwland, R.; Toth, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Microparticles are known to be increased in various malignancies. In this prospective study, microparticle levels were evaluated in patients with benign and malignant ovarian lesions. Patients and Methods: Microparticles from platelets/megakaryocytes, activated platelets and endothelial

  7. Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumour cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Huafeng; Xu, Pingwei; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jingwei; Lv, Meng; Li, Dapeng; Katirai, Foad; Shen, Guan-Xin; Zhang, Guimei; Feng, Zuo-Hua; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Cellular microparticles are vesicular plasma membrane fragments with a diameter of 100-1,000 nanometres that are shed by cells in response to various physiological and artificial stimuli. Here we demonstrate that tumour cell-derived microparticles can be used as vectors to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that tumour cells incubated with chemotherapeutic drugs package these drugs into microparticles, which can be collected and used to effectively kill tumour cells in murine tumour models without typical side effects. We describe several mechanisms involved in this process, including uptake of drug-containing microparticles by tumour cells, synthesis of additional drug-packaging microparticles by these cells that contribute to the cytotoxic effect and the inhibition of drug efflux from tumour cells. This study highlights a novel drug delivery strategy with potential clinical application.

  8. CIRCULATING MICROPARTICLES IN PATIENTS WITH ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES: CHARACTERIZATION AND ASSOCIATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Shruti; Cockrell, Erin; Espinola, Ricardo; Hsi, Linda; Fulton, Stacey; Khan, Mohammad; Li, Liang; Fonseca, Fabio; Kundu, Suman; McCrae, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss in the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. These antibodies cause activation of endothelial and other cell types leading to the release of microparticles with procoagulant and pro-inflammatory properties. The aims of this study were to characterize the levels of endothelial cell, monocyte, platelet derived, and tissue factor-bearing microparticles in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, to determine the association of circulating microparticles with anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein antibodies, and to define the cellular origin of microparticles that express tissue factor. Microparticle content within citrated blood from 47 patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and 144 healthy controls was analyzed within 2 hours of venipuncture. Levels of Annexin-V, CD105 and CD144 (endothelial derived), CD41 (platelet derived) and tissue factor positive microparticles were significantly higher in patients than controls. Though levels of CD14 (monocyte-derived) microparticles in patient plasma were not significantly increased, increased levels of CD14 and tissue factor positive microparticles were observed in patients. Levels of microparticles that stained for CD105 and CD144 showed a positive correlation with IgG (R = 0.60, p=0.006) and IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (R=0.58, p=0.006). The elevation of endothelial and platelet derived microparticles in patients with APS and their correlation with anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies suggests a chronic state of vascular cell activation in these individuals and an important role for β2-glycoprotein I in development of the pro-thrombotic state associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:25467081

  9. Dynamic release and clearance of circulating microparticles during cardiac stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Daniel; Ayers, Lisa V; Lima, Eduardo; Newton, Laura; Lewandowski, Adam J; Davis, Esther F; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2014-01-03

    Microparticles are cell-derived membrane vesicles, relevant to a range of biological responses and known to be elevated in cardiovascular disease. To investigate microparticle release during cardiac stress and how this response differs in those with vascular disease. We measured a comprehensive panel of circulating cell-derived microparticles by a standardized flow cytometric protocol in 119 patients referred for stress echocardiography. Procoagulant, platelet, erythrocyte, and endothelial but not leukocyte, granulocyte, or monocyte-derived microparticles were elevated immediately after a standardized dobutamine stress echocardiogram and decreased after 1 hour. Twenty-five patients developed stress-induced wall motion abnormalities suggestive of myocardial ischemia. They had similar baseline microparticle levels to those who did not develop ischemia, but, interestingly, their microparticle levels did not change during stress. Furthermore, no stress-induced increase was observed in those without inducible ischemia but with a history of vascular disease. Fourteen patients subsequently underwent coronary angiography. A microparticle rise during stress echocardiography had occurred only in those with normal coronary arteries. Procoagulant, platelet, erythrocyte, and endothelial microparticles are released during cardiac stress and then clear from the circulation during the next hour. This stress-induced rise seems to be a normal physiological response that is diminished in those with vascular disease.

  10. Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiri, Ugonna; Shields, C Wyatt; Han, Koohee; Tyler, Talmage; Velev, Orlin D; Jokerst, Nan

    2018-05-03

    Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assembly, disassembly, and reconfiguration. Here we introduce a class of semiconductor microparticles that can be comprehensively designed (in size, shape, electric polarizability, and patterned coatings) using standard microfabrication tools. These custom silicon particles draw energy from external electric fields to actively propel, while interacting hydrodynamically, and sequentially assemble and disassemble on demand. We show that a number of electrokinetic effects, such as dielectrophoresis, induced charge electrophoresis, and diode propulsion, can selectively power the microparticle motions and interactions. The ability to achieve on-demand locomotion, tractable fluid flows, synchronized motility, and reversible assembly using engineered silicon microparticles may enable advanced applications that include remotely powered microsensors, artificial muscles, reconfigurable neural networks and computational systems.

  11. A Lipid Based Antigen Delivery System Efficiently Facilitates MHC Class-I Antigen Presentation in Dendritic Cells to Stimulate CD8+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Mithun; Mazumder, Saumyabrata; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Sabur, Abdus; Shadab, Md.; Bhattacharya, Pradyot; Ali, Nahid

    2016-06-01

    The most effective strategy for protection against intracellular infections such as Leishmania is vaccination with live parasites. Use of recombinant proteins avoids the risks associated with live vaccines. However, due to low immunogenicity, they fail to trigger T cell responses particularly of CD8+ cells requisite for persistent immunity. Previously we showed the importance of protein entrapment in cationic liposomes and MPL as adjuvant for elicitation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses for long-term protection. In this study we investigated the role of cationic liposomes on maturation and antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). We observed that cationic liposomes were taken up very efficiently by DCs and transported to different cellular sites. DCs activated with liposomal rgp63 led to efficient presentation of antigen to specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, lymphoid CD8+ T cells from liposomal rgp63 immunized mice demonstrated better proliferative ability when co-cultured ex vivo with stimulated DCs. Addition of MPL to vaccine enhanced the antigen presentation by DCs and induced more efficient antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses when compared to free and liposomal antigen. These liposomal formulations presented to CD8+ T cells through TAP-dependent MHC-I pathway offer new possibilities for a safe subunit vaccine.

  12. Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rades, Thomas [School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pongjanyakul, Thaned, E-mail: thaned@kku.ac.th [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle morphology. The microparticles were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, NCT content, mucoadhesive properties, and release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa. The results showed that the microparticles formed via electrostatic interaction between MAS and protonated NCT had an irregular shape and that their NCT content increased with increasing NCT ratios in the microparticle preparation solution. High molecular weight CS (800 kDa) adsorbed to the microparticle surface and induced a positive surface charge. CS molecules intercalated into the MAS silicate layers and decreased the crystallinity of the microparticles, leading to an increase in the release rate and diffusion coefficient of NCT from the microparticles. Moreover, the microparticle surface modified with CS was found to have higher NCT permeation fluxes and mucoadhesive properties, which indicated the significant role of CS for NCT mucosal delivery. However, the enhancement of NCT permeation and of mucoadhesive properties depended on the molecular weight and concentration of CS. These findings suggest that NCT-MAS microparticle surface modified with CS represents a promising mucosal delivery system for NCT. Highlights: ► Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles were prepared using electrostatic interaction. ► Lyophilization was used for drying and maintaining an original morphology of the microparticles. ► Chitosan (CS) was used for surface modification of the microparticles at acidic pH. ► Surface modification using CS caused an increase in release and permeation of nicotine. ► Microparticle surface-modified with CS presented better mucoadhesive properties.

  13. Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Rades, Thomas; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle morphology. The microparticles were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, NCT content, mucoadhesive properties, and release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa. The results showed that the microparticles formed via electrostatic interaction between MAS and protonated NCT had an irregular shape and that their NCT content increased with increasing NCT ratios in the microparticle preparation solution. High molecular weight CS (800 kDa) adsorbed to the microparticle surface and induced a positive surface charge. CS molecules intercalated into the MAS silicate layers and decreased the crystallinity of the microparticles, leading to an increase in the release rate and diffusion coefficient of NCT from the microparticles. Moreover, the microparticle surface modified with CS was found to have higher NCT permeation fluxes and mucoadhesive properties, which indicated the significant role of CS for NCT mucosal delivery. However, the enhancement of NCT permeation and of mucoadhesive properties depended on the molecular weight and concentration of CS. These findings suggest that NCT-MAS microparticle surface modified with CS represents a promising mucosal delivery system for NCT. Highlights: ► Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles were prepared using electrostatic interaction. ► Lyophilization was used for drying and maintaining an original morphology of the microparticles. ► Chitosan (CS) was used for surface modification of the microparticles at acidic pH. ► Surface modification using CS caused an increase in release and permeation of nicotine. ► Microparticle surface-modified with CS presented better mucoadhesive properties

  14. Biocatalytic coatings for air pollution control: a proof of concept study on VOC biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, José M; Bernal, Oscar I; Flickinger, Michael C; Muñoz, Raúl; Deshusses, Marc A

    2015-02-01

    Although biofilm-based biotechnologies exhibit a large potential as solutions for off-gas treatment, the high water content of biofilms often causes pollutant mass transfer limitations, which ultimately limit their widespread application. The present study reports on the proof of concept of the applicability of bioactive latex coatings for air pollution control. Toluene vapors served as a model volatile organic compound (VOC). The results showed that Pseudomonas putida F1 cells could be successfully entrapped in nanoporous latex coatings while preserving their toluene degradation activity. Bioactive latex coatings exhibited toluene specific biodegradation rates 10 times higher than agarose-based biofilms, because the thin coatings were less subject to diffusional mass transfer limitations. Drying and pollutant starvation were identified as key factors inducing a gradual deterioration of the biodegradation capacity in these innovative coatings. This study constitutes the first application of bioactive latex coatings for VOC abatement. These coatings could become promising means for air pollution control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fission product release from HTGR coated microparticles and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Deryugin, A.I.; Lyutikov, R.A.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of fission products release from microparticles with UO 2 core and five-layer HII PyC- and SiC base protection layers of TRICO type as well as from spherical fuel elements based thereon. It is shown that relative release of short-lived xenon and crypton from microparticles does not exceed (2-3) 10 -7 . The release of gaseous fission products from fuel elements containing no damaged coated microparticles, is primarily determined by the contamination of matrix graphite with fuel. An analytical dependence is derived, the dependence described the relation between structural parameters of coated microparticles, irradiation conditions and fuel burnup at which depressurization of coated microparticles starts

  16. Antifungal Effect of a Dental Tissue Conditioner Containing Nystatin-Loaded Alginate Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2018-02-01

    In this in vitro study, nystatin-alginate microparticles were successfully fabricated to control the release of nystatin from a commercial dental tissue conditioner. These nystatin-alginate microparticles were spherical and had a slightly rough surface. The microparticles incorporated into the tissue conditioner were distributed homogeneously throughout the tissue conditioner matrix. The incorporation of the microparticles did not deteriorate the mechanical properties of the original material. The agar diffusion test results showed that the tissue conditioner containing the microparticles had a good antifungal effect against Candida albicans. The nystatin-alginate microparticles efficiently controlled the release of nystatin from the tissue conditioner matrix over the experimental period of 14 days. Moreover, the nystatin-alginate microparticles incorporated in the tissue conditioner showed effective antifungal function even at lower concentrations of nystatin. The current study suggests that the tissue conditioner containing the nystatin-alginate microparticle carrier system has potential as an effective antifungal material.

  17. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeon Suk; Kato, Reiko; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2011-01-01

    Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25) < PLLC (40 : 60) < PLGA (50 : 50) < PCG (50 : 50). These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  18. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Suk Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs. DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25 < PLLC (40 : 60 < PLGA (50 : 50 < PCG (50 : 50. These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  19. Development of Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for Dust Mite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    surface of chitosan microparticles [4]. .... The reverse-phase high performance liquid .... The surface charge of alginate ... negative charge was as a result of the alginate on the microparticle surface. ... electrostatic interaction of the positively-.

  20. In vitro release kinetics of Tolmetin from tabletted Eudragit microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Consoli, P; Puglisi, G

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper the preparation has been described, by three different techniques, of microparticles made of Eudragit RS 100 and RL 100 containing a NSAI agent, Tolmetin. Freely flowing microparticles failed to affect significantly the in vitro drug release, which displayed a similar dissolution profile after micro-encapsulation to the free drug powder. Microparticles were then converted into tablets and the effect of compression on drug delivery, as well as that of the presence of co-additives, was studied in the present work. Furthermore, microparticles were also prepared by adding MgO to the polymer matrix, to reduce the sensitivity of the drug to pH changes during its dissolution. Similarly, magnesium stearate was also used for microparticle formation as a droplet stabilizer, in order to reduce particle size and hinder rapid drug release. A mathematical evaluation, by using two semi-empirical equations, was applied to evaluate the influence of dissolution and diffusion phenomena upon drug release from microparticle tablets.

  1. Evaluating conditions for the formation of chitosan/gelatin microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/gelatin microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation. Three chitosan (CH samples, with different acetylation degrees and intrinsic viscosities, were used together with commercial gelatin (G samples. Microparticles formation was investigated at various CH/G ratios, within the pH range of 3.5 to 6.0. Reactions were carried out at 40 and 60 ºC, for 2, 4, and 6 hours. Turbidity measurements performed at 633 nm were used to monitor the process. The resulting curves revealed maximum values, which were correlated to the glucosamine content of CH samples. After isolation, yields were determined, and the microparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetry (TGA. Both techniques evidenced the formation of coacervate microparticles. The highest yields in microparticles were determined for the system comprising the CH sample with the lowest degree of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity, and the gelatin sample with the lowest bloom strength.

  2. SU-8 micropatterning for microfluidic droplet and microparticle focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuisson, Damien; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate micropatterned surfaces consisting of concentric circles and spirals which can focus an evaporating sessile droplet to a specific location on a surface. We also study the micropattern geometry to focus microparticles contained within the droplet. The micropatterned surfaces are fabricated using the photoresist SU-8. Our process enables the modification of the surface wetting via the formation of smooth trench-like defects in the SU-8 which define the micropatterns; the geometry of these micropatterns determines the droplet/microparticle focusing. It is clearly shown that the introduction of small gaps into the micropatterns promotes microparticle centring due to the modification of the depinning angle of the droplet. We also show that the use of spiral micropatterns promotes microparticle centring. Finally, microparticle focusing can be enhanced by modification of surface wetting via the addition of a thin fluorocarbon hydrophobic layer onto the SU-8

  3. Strategy for the hemocompatibility testing of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, S; Basu, S; Kratz, K; Johansson, J Bäckemo; Reinthaler, M; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-based microparticles are applied as non-thrombogenic or thrombogenic materials in a wide variety of intra- or extra-corporeal medical devices. As demanded by the regulatory agencies, the hemocompatibility of these blood contacting biomaterials has to be evaluated in vitro to ensure that the particle systems appropriately fulfill the envisioned function without causing undesired events such as thrombosis or inflammation. Currently described in vitro assays for hemocompatibility testing of particles comprise tests with different single cell types (e.g. erythrocytes or leukocytes), varying concentrations/dilutions of the used blood cells or whole blood, which are not standardized.Here, we report about an in vitro dynamic test system for studying the hemocompatibility of polymeric microparticles utilizing fresh human whole blood from apparently healthy subjects, collected and processed under standardized conditions. Spherical poly(ether imide) microparticles with an average diameter of 140±30 μm were utilized as model systems. Reported as candidate materials for the removal of uremic toxins, these microparticles are anticipated to facilitate optimal flow conditions in a dialyzer with minimal backflow and blood cell damage. Pristine (PEI) and potassium hydroxide (PEI-KOH) functionalized microparticles exhibited similarly nanoporous surfaces (PEI: ØExternal pore = 90±60 nm; PEI-KOH ØExternal pore = 150±130 nm) but varying water wettabilities (PEI: θadv = 112±10° PEI-KOH θadv = 60±2°). The nanoporosity of the microparticle surfaces allows the exchange of toxic solutes from blood towards the interconnective pores in the particle core, while an immigration of the substantially larger blood cells is inhibited.Sterilized PEI microparticles were incorporated -air-free -in a syringe-based test system and exposed to whole blood for 60 minutes under gentle agitation. Thereafter, thrombi formation on the particles surfaces were analyzed

  4. Microparticles variability in fresh frozen plasma: preparation protocol and storage time effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Antonelou, Marianna H; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Stamoulis, Konstantinos E; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles or microparticles exhibiting procoagulant and thrombogenic activity may contribute to the haemostatic potential of fresh frozen plasma. Fresh frozen plasma was prepared from platelet-rich plasma at 20 °C (Group-1 donors) or directly from whole blood at 4 °C (Group-2 donors). Each unit was aseptically divided into three parts, stored frozen for specific periods of time, and analysed by flow cytometry for procoagulant activity immediately after thaw or following post-thaw storage for 24 h at 4 °C. Donors' haematologic, biochemical and life-style profiles as well as circulating microparticles were analysed in parallel. Circulating microparticles exhibited a considerable interdonor but not intergroup variation. Fresh frozen plasma units were enriched in microparticles compared to plasma in vivo. Duration of storage significantly affected platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles. Fresh frozen plasma prepared directly from whole blood contained more residual platelets and more platelet-derived microparticles compared to fresh frozen plasma prepared from platelet-rich plasma. Consequently, there was a statistically significant difference in total, platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles between the two preparation protocols over storage time in the freezer. Preservation of the thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C did not significantly alter microparticle accumulation. Microparticle accumulation and anti-oxidant capacity of fresh frozen plasma was positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with the level of circulating microparticles in individual donors. The preparation protocol and the duration of storage in the freezer, independently and in combination, influenced the accumulation of microparticles in fresh frozen plasma units. In contrast, storage of thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C had no significant effect on the concentration of microparticles.

  5. Improved circulating microparticle analysis in acid-citrate dextrose (ACD) anticoagulant tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Bence; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Kovács, Alexandra; Barabás, Eszter; Bekő, Gabriella; Várnai, Katalin; Pállinger, Éva; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Szabó, Tamás G; Kiss, Attila A; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit I

    2014-02-01

    Recently extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microparticles also referred to as microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) have attracted substantial interest as potential biomarkers and therapeutic vehicles. However, analysis of microparticles in biological fluids is confounded by many factors such as the activation of cells in the blood collection tube that leads to in vitro vesiculation. In this study we aimed at identifying an anticoagulant that prevents in vitro vesiculation in blood plasma samples. We compared the levels of platelet microparticles and non-platelet-derived microparticles in platelet-free plasma samples of healthy donors. Platelet-free plasma samples were isolated using different anticoagulant tubes, and were analyzed by flow cytometry and Zymuphen assay. The extent of in vitro vesiculation was compared in citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) tubes. Agitation and storage of blood samples at 37 °C for 1 hour induced a strong release of both platelet microparticles and non-platelet-derived microparticles. Strikingly, in vitro vesiculation related to blood sample handling and storage was prevented in samples in ACD tubes. Importantly, microparticle levels elevated in vivo remained detectable in ACD tubes. We propose the general use of the ACD tube instead of other conventional anticoagulant tubes for the assessment of plasma microparticles since it gives a more realistic picture of the in vivo levels of circulating microparticles and does not interfere with downstream protein or RNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating tamsulosin hydrochloride-released microparticles prepared using single-step matrix coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Atsushi; Shinoda, Tatsuki; Ito, Naoki; Baba, Keizo; Oku, Naoto; Mizumoto, Takao

    2011-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum composition for sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride from microparticles intended for orally disintegrating tablets. Microparticles were prepared from an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Aquacoa®), and an aqueous copolymer based on ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate dispersion (Eudragit®) NE30D), with microcrystalline cellulose as core particles with a fluidized bed coating process. Prepared microparticles were about 200 μm diameter and spherical. The microparticles were evaluated for in vitro drug release and in vivo absorption to assess bioequivalence in a commercial product, Harnal® pellets. The optimum ratio of Aquacoat® and Eudragit® NE30D in the matrix was 9:1. We observed similar drug release profiles in microparticles and Harnal® pellets. Higuchi model analysis of the in vitro drug release from microparticles was linear up to 80% release, typical of Fickian diffusion sustained-release profile. The in vivo absorption properties from microparticles were comparable to Harnal® pellets, and there was a linear relationship between in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release. In conclusion, this development produces microparticles in single-step coating, that provided a sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride comparable to Harnal® pellets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined

  8. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  9. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-01-01

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilizing the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  10. Liposomes self-assembled from electrosprayed composite microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dengguang; Yang Junhe; Wang Xia; Tian Feng

    2012-01-01

    Composite microparticles, consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), naproxen (NAP) and lecithin (PC), have been successfully prepared using an electrospraying process and exploited as templates to manipulate molecular self-assembly for the synthesis of liposomes in situ. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations demonstrate that the microparticles have an average diameter of 960 ± 140 nm and a homogeneous structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results verify that the building blocks NAP and PC are scattered in the polymer matrix in a molecular way owing to the very fast drying of the electrospraying process and the favorable secondary interactions among the components. FESEM, scanning probe microscope (SPM) and TEM observations demonstrate that the liposomes can be achieved through molecular self-assembly in situ when the microparticles contact water thanks to ‘like prefers like’ and by means of the confinement effect of the microparticles. The liposomes have an encapsulation rate of 91.3%, and 80.7% of the drug in the liposomes can be freed into the dissolution medium in a sustained way and by a diffusion mechanism over a period of 24 h. The developed strategy not only provides a new, facile, and effective method to assemble and organize molecules of multiple components into liposomes with electrosprayed microparticles as templates, but also opens a new avenue for nanofabrication in a step-by-step and controllable way. (paper)

  11. Diagnostics of the influence of levitating microparticles on the radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustylnik, Mikhail Y.; Mitic, Slobodan; Klumov, Boris A.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1 s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  12. Influence of microparticle size on cavitation noise during ultrasonic vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cavitation noise in the ultrasonic vibration system was found to be influenced by the size of microparticles added in water. The SiO2 microparticles with the diameter smaller than 100 μm reduced the cavitation noise, and the reason was attributed to the constrained oscillation of the cavitation bubbles, which were stabilized by the microparticles.

  13. Microparticle content of platelet concentrates is predicted by donor microparticles and is altered by production methods and stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Larsen, Rune; Labrie, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    In circulation, shedding of microparticles from a variety of viable cells can be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes, by activation of coagulation or complement systems, or by physical stress. Elevated microparticle content (MPC) in donor blood might therefore indicate...... a clinical condition of the donor which, upon transfusion, might affect the recipient. In blood products, elevated MPC might also represent product stress. Surprisingly, the MPC in blood collected from normal blood donors is highly variable, which raises the question whether donor microparticles are present...... in-vivo and transfer into the final blood component, and how production methods and post-production processing might affect the MPC. We measured MPC using ThromboLUX in (a) platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of 54 apheresis donors and the corresponding apheresis products, (b) 651 apheresis and 646 pooled...

  14. Functionalized Raspberry-Like Microparticles obtained by Assembly of Nanoparticles during Electrospraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Chul; Jeong, Unyong; Hwang, Yoon Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study suggests a novel method to produce raspberry-like microparticles containing diverse functional materials inside. The raspberry-like microparticles were produced from a random assembly of uniformly-sized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The solution containing the PMMA nanoparticles were supplied through the inner nozzle and compressed air was emitted through the outer nozzle. The air supply helped fast evaporation of acetone, so it enabled copious amount of microparticles as dry powder. The microparticles were highly porous both on the surface and interiors, hence various materials with a function of UV-blocking (TiO 2 nanoparticles and methoxyphenyl triazine) or anti-aging (ethyl(4-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-5-carboxyamido) benzoate)) were loaded in large amount (17 wt % versus PMMA). The surface and interior structures of the microparticles were dependent on the characteristics of functional materials. The results clearly suggest that the process to prepare the raspberry-like microparticles can be an excellent approach to generate functional microstructures

  15. Potential roles of cell-derived microparticles in ischemic brain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Lawrence L; Jy, Wenche; Bidot, Carlos J; Nordberg, Mary L; Minagar, Alireza; Alexander, J Steven; Kelley, Roger E; Ahn, Yeon S

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study is to review the role of cell-derived microparticles in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. An extensive PubMed search of literature pertaining to this study was performed in April 2009 using specific keyword search terms related to cell-derived microparticles and ischemic stroke. Some references are not cited here as it is not possible to be all inclusive or due to space limitation. Cell-derived microparticles are small membranous vesicles released from the plasma membranes of platelets, leukocytes, red cells and endothelial cells in response to diverse biochemical agents or mechanical stresses. They are the main carriers of circulating tissue factor, the principal initiator of intravascular thrombosis, and are implicated in a variety of thrombotic and inflammatory disorders. This review outlines evidence suggesting that cell-derived microparticles are involved predominantly with microvascular, as opposed to macrovascular, thrombosis. More specifically, cell-derived microparticles may substantially contribute to ischemic brain disease in several settings, as well as to neuroinflammatory conditions. If further work confirms this hypothesis, novel therapeutic strategies for minimizing cell-derived microparticles-mediated ischemia are available or can be developed, as discussed.

  16. Bioavailability of hydrocarbons to bacterial consortia during Triton X-100 mediated biodegradation in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pęziak, Daria; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Marecik, Roman; Lisiecki, Piotr; Woźniak, Marta; Szulc, Alicja; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Triton X-100 on the biodegradation efficiency of hexadecane and phenanthrene carried out by two bacterial consortia. It was established that the tested consortia were not able to directly uptake compounds closed in micelles. It was observed that in micellar systems the nonionic synthetic surfactant was preferentially degraded (the degradation efficiency of Triton X-100 after 21 days was 70% of the initial concentration - 500 mg/l), followed by a lesser decomposition of hydrocarbon released from the micelles (30% for hexadecane and 20% for phenanthrene). However, when hydrocarbons were used as the sole carbon source, 70% of hexadecane and 30% of phenanthrene were degraded. The degradation of the surfactant did not contribute to notable shifts in bacterial community dynamics, as determined by Real-Time PCR. The obtained results suggest that if surfactant-supplementation is to be used as an integral part of a bioremediation process, then possible bioavailability decrease due to entrapment of the contaminant into surfactant micelles should also be taken into consideration, as this phenomenon may have a negative impact on the biodegradation efficiency. Surfactant-induced mobilization of otherwise recalcitrant hydrocarbons may contribute to the spreading of contaminants in the environment and prevent their biodegradation.

  17. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  18. Photochemical half-cells using mixture films of fullerene-ethylenediamine adduct microparticles and polythiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oku, Takeo; Matsumura, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, C 60 fullerene–ethylenediamine adduct microparticles were prepared. Mixture films of these microparticles and polythiophene were fabricated on indium–tin-oxide transparent electrodes by spin-coating. Incorporation of C 60 –ethylenediamine microparticles was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The coverage values of these microparticles were approximately 3–17%, which were calculated from SEM images of modified electrodes. Fluorescence spectra of modified electrodes indicated that the emission intensity of polythiophene in these mixture films was apparently quenched by these C 60 –ethylenediamine microparticles as compared with a polythiophene film without these microparticles. In the presence of methylviologen, these modified electrodes generated stable photocurrent. The photoexciting species was polythiophene, which was verified by profiles of photocurrent action spectra. The C 60 –ethylenediamine microparticles substantially enhanced the photocurrent signals generated by the polythiophene-modified electrode.

  19. "Thunderstruck": Plasma-Polymer-Coated Porous Silicon Microparticles As a Controlled Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Steven J P; Michl, Thomas D; Delalat, Bahman; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Coad, Bryan R; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the release kinetics from a drug carrier is crucial to maintain a drug's therapeutic window. We report the use of biodegradable porous silicon microparticles (pSi MPs) loaded with the anticancer drug camphothecin, followed by a plasma polymer overcoating using a loudspeaker plasma reactor. Homogenous "Teflon-like" coatings were achieved by tumbling the particles by playing AC/DC's song "Thunderstruck". The overcoating resulted in a markedly slower release of the cytotoxic drug, and this effect correlated positively with the plasma polymer coating times, ranging from 2-fold up to more than 100-fold. Ultimately, upon characterizing and verifying pSi MP production, loading, and coating with analytical methods such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetry, water contact angle measurements, and fluorescence microscopy, human neuroblastoma cells were challenged with pSi MPs in an in vitro assay, revealing a significant time delay in cell death onset.

  20. Field Effect Microparticle Generation for Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Brend Ray-Sea; Fu, Shin-Huei

    2017-01-01

    The diameter and sphericity of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules, determined by the size and the shape of calcium alginate microspheres, affect their in vivo durability and biocompatibility and the results of transplantation. The commonly used air-jet spray method generates microspheres with a wider variation in diameter, larger sphere morphology, and evenly distributed encapsulated cells. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we designed a field effect microparticle generator to create a stable electric field to prepare microparticles with a smaller diameter and more uniform morphology. Using this electric field microparticle generator the encapsulated cells will be located at the periphery of the microspheres, and thus the supply of oxygen and nutrients for the encapsulated cells will be improved compared with the centrally located encapsulated cells in the air-jet spray method.

  1. Identification of second harmonic optical effects from vaccine coated gold microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumah, N A; Ameer-Beg, S M; White, N S; Prasad, K V R; Bellhouse, B J

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the optical effects observed from uncoated and protein vaccine coated gold microparticles while imaging with two-photon excitation in the Mie scattering regime. When observed with time correlated single photon counting fluorescence lifetime microscopy, the emission from the gold microparticles appeared as an intense instrument-limited temporal response. The intensity of the emission showed a second-order dependence on the laser power and frequency doubling of the emitted light was observed for fundamental light between 890 and 970 nm. The optical effect was attributed to two-photon induced second harmonic generation. The vaccine coated gold microparticles had a much weaker second harmonic signal than the uncoated gold microparticles. Chemical analysis of the surface of the gold microparticles revealed that the vaccine coating decreases the surface charge thereby diminishing the observed second harmonic signal. These optical properties can be exploited to identify both the location of the protein vaccine coating as well as the gold microparticles in vitro and potentially to investigate the vaccine delivery kinetics in vivo

  2. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Q.; Waganaar, W.; Fontanese, J.; James, D.; Munsat, T.

    2016-01-01

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. Velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  3. Microparticles and exosomes: impact on normal and complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, Bettina; Lok, Christianne A. R.; Böing, Anita; Diamant, Michaela; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Friese, Klaus; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells release vesicles into their environment by membrane shedding (ectosomes or microparticles) and secretion (exosomes). Microparticles and exosomes occur commonly in vitro and in vivo. The occurrence, composition and function(s) of these vesicles change during disease (progression).

  4. Cell-derived microparticles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushuizen, Maarten E; Diamant, Michaela; Sturk, Augueste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles are ascribed important roles in coagulation, inflammation, and endothelial function. These processes are mandatory to safeguard the integrity of the organism, and their derangements contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. More recently, the presumed solely harmful role of microparticles has been challenged because microparticles may also be involved in the maintenance and preservation of cellular homeostasis and in promoting defense mechanisms. Here, we summarize recent studies revealing these 2 faces of microparticles in cardiovascular disease.

  5. Detection of microparticles from human red blood cells by multiparametric flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Giulia; Finetti, Elena; Manganaro, Daniele; Cordova, Nicoletta; Montagnani, Giuliano; Spano, Carlotta; Prapa, Malvina; Guarneri, Valentina; Otsuru, Satoru; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Mari, Giorgio; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo chemical and biochemical changes referred to as “storage lesions”. These events determine the loss of RBC integrity, resulting in lysis and release of microparticles. There is growing evidence of the clinical importance of microparticles and their role in blood transfusion-related side effects and pathogen transmission. Flow cytometry is currently one of the most common techniques used to quantify and characterise microparticles. Here we propose multiparametric staining to monitor and quantify the dynamic release of microparticles by stored human RBC. Material and methods RBC units (n=10) were stored under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Samples were tested at different time points to detect microparticles and determine the haemolysis rate (HR%). Microparticles were identified by flow cytometry combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, annexin V and anti-glycophorin A antibody. Results We demonstrated that CFSE can be successfully used to label closed vesicles with an intact membrane. The combination of CFSE and glycophorin A antibody was effective for monitoring and quantifying the dynamic release of microparticles from RBC during storage. Double staining with CFSE/glycophorin A was a more precise approach, increasing vesicle detection up to 4.7-fold vs the use of glycophorin A/annexin V alone. Moreover, at all the time points tested, we found a robust correlation (R=0.625; p=0.0001) between HR% and number of microparticles detected. Discussion Multiparametric staining, based on a combination of CFSE, glycophorin A antibody and annexin V, was able to detect, characterise and monitor the release of microparticles from RBC units during storage, providing a sensitive approach to labelling and identifying microparticles for transfusion medicine and, more broadly, for cell-based therapies. PMID:25369588

  6. Spectroscopic evaluation of the effect of the microparticles on radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, S; Pustylnik, M Y; Morfill, G E

    2009-01-01

    Axial distributions of 1s excited states of argon were measured in a radiofrequency (RF) discharge by a self-absorption method. Experiments were performed in the PK-3+ chamber, designed for microgravity experiments in complex (dusty) plasmas on board the International Space Station. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. Distributions, measured at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and a discharge containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  7. Microparticle injection effects on microwave transmission through an overly dense plasma layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillman, Eric D., E-mail: eric.gillman@nrl.navy.mil; Amatucci, W. E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Williams, Jeremiah [Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501 (United States); Compton, C. S. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Herndon, Virginia 20171 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Microparticles injected into a plasma have been shown to deplete the free electron population as electrons are collected through the process of microparticles charging to the plasma floating potential. However, these charged microparticles can also act to scatter electromagnetic signals. These experiments investigate microwave penetration through a previously impenetrable overly dense plasma layer as microparticles are injected and the physical phenomena associated with the competing processes that occur due to electron depletion and microwave scattering. The timescales for when each of these competing processes dominates is analyzed in detail. It was found that while both processes play a significant and dominant role at different times, ultimately, transmission through this impenetrable plasma layer can be significantly increased with microparticle injection.

  8. Changes in entrapped gas content and hydraulic conductivity with pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Maricris; Roy, James W; Smith, James E

    2013-01-01

    Water table fluctuations continuously introduce entrapped air bubbles into the otherwise saturated capillary fringe and groundwater zone, which reduces the effective (quasi-saturated) hydraulic conductivity, K(quasi), thus impacting groundwater flow, aquifer recharge and solute and contaminant transport. These entrapped gases will be susceptible to compression or expansion with changes in water pressure, as would be expected with water table (and barometric pressure) fluctuations. Here we undertake laboratory experiments using sand-packed columns to quantify the effect of water table changes of up to 250 cm on the entrapped gas content and the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity, and discuss our ability to account for these mechanisms in ground water models. Initial entrapped air contents ranged between 0.080 and 0.158, with a corresponding K(quasi) ranging between 2 and 6 times lower compared to the K(s) value. The application of 250 cm of water pressure caused an 18% to 26% reduction in the entrapped air content, resulting in an increase in K(quasi) by 1.16 to 1.57 times compared to its initial (0 cm water pressure) value. The change in entrapped air content measured at pressure step intervals of 50 cm, was essentially linear, and could be modeled according to the ideal gas law. Meanwhile, the changes in K(quasi) with compression-expansion of the bubbles because of pressure changes could be adequately captured with several current hydraulic conductivity models. © Ground Water 2012 and © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Novel hierarchical microparticles super-assembled from nanoparticles with the induction of casein micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpxiong@xmu.edu.cn; Duan, Jiangjiang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Zhaoju [Xiamen University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials (China)

    2013-08-15

    We have demonstrated a solution-based synthesis of novel waxberry-like hierarchical ZnO microparticles in the presence casein micelles under mild conditions. The microstructures of the sub-micrometer-sized hierarchical microparticles were characterized, and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical microparticle was analyzed through control experiments. The hierarchical ZnO microparticles are found to be super-assemblies of 30-70 nm ZnO nanoparticles, which are thought to be based on casein micelle induction followed by Ostwald ripening. In the same manner, copper-based hierarchical microparticles with a similar morphology have also been successfully synthesized. By controlling the synthetic time or temperature, solid or hollow microparticles can be fabricated. The narrowly distributed ZnO microparticles have a high specific surface area, exhibiting great potential application in fields such as photocatalytic and energy conversion. Our findings may meanwhile open a new bottom-up strategy in order to construct structurally sophisticated nanomaterials.

  10. Novel hierarchical microparticles super-assembled from nanoparticles with the induction of casein micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaopeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Zhaoju

    2013-08-01

    We have demonstrated a solution-based synthesis of novel waxberry-like hierarchical ZnO microparticles in the presence casein micelles under mild conditions. The microstructures of the sub-micrometer-sized hierarchical microparticles were characterized, and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical microparticle was analyzed through control experiments. The hierarchical ZnO microparticles are found to be super-assemblies of 30-70 nm ZnO nanoparticles, which are thought to be based on casein micelle induction followed by Ostwald ripening. In the same manner, copper-based hierarchical microparticles with a similar morphology have also been successfully synthesized. By controlling the synthetic time or temperature, solid or hollow microparticles can be fabricated. The narrowly distributed ZnO microparticles have a high specific surface area, exhibiting great potential application in fields such as photocatalytic and energy conversion. Our findings may meanwhile open a new bottom-up strategy in order to construct structurally sophisticated nanomaterials.

  11. Novel hierarchical microparticles super-assembled from nanoparticles with the induction of casein micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xiaopeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Zhaoju

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated a solution-based synthesis of novel waxberry-like hierarchical ZnO microparticles in the presence casein micelles under mild conditions. The microstructures of the sub-micrometer-sized hierarchical microparticles were characterized, and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical microparticle was analyzed through control experiments. The hierarchical ZnO microparticles are found to be super-assemblies of 30–70 nm ZnO nanoparticles, which are thought to be based on casein micelle induction followed by Ostwald ripening. In the same manner, copper-based hierarchical microparticles with a similar morphology have also been successfully synthesized. By controlling the synthetic time or temperature, solid or hollow microparticles can be fabricated. The narrowly distributed ZnO microparticles have a high specific surface area, exhibiting great potential application in fields such as photocatalytic and energy conversion. Our findings may meanwhile open a new bottom-up strategy in order to construct structurally sophisticated nanomaterials

  12. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da; Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  13. Light-Regulated Release of Entrapped Drugs from Photoresponsive Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniknun Sreejivungsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of a payload in a spatiotemporal fashion has a substantial impact on increasing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, a novel monolayer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs featuring light-responsive ligands was investigated as a potential drug carrier whose drug release can be triggered by UV light. Hydrophobic molecules were noncovalently entrapped in the compartments of its monolayers. Once irradiated with UV light, the dinitrobenzyl linker was cleaved, leading to release of the entrapped agent. AuNPs were characterized using UV spectrophotometry, TEM, and a zetasizer. A naturally occurring compound extracted from Goniothalamus elegans Ast was chosen as a hydrophobic model drug. Entrapment and release of dye were monitored using fluorimetry. The percent encapsulation of dye was of 13.53%. Entrapped dye can be released upon UV irradiation and can be regulated by changing irradiation time. Up to 83.95±2.2% entrapped dye can be released after irradiation for 20 minutes. In the absence of UV light, dye release was only 19.75%. For comparison purposes, AuNPs having no dinitrobenzyl groups showed a minimal release of 12.23% and 11.69% with and without UV light, respectively. This demonstrated an alternative strategy to encapsulate drugs using a noncovalent approach followed by their controlled release upon UV irradiation.

  14. [Depression status of academic high school students in Seoul: mediating role of entrapment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joo; Shin, Nah-Mee; Han, Kuem-Sun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Cheon, Sook-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2011-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate the status of depression in academic high school students and path analysis model for exploring the mediating role of entrapment to depression in relation to academic stress and perceived social support. Measurements were four reliable questionnaires measuring academic stress, social support, entrapment, and depression. Data were collected from students in 17 high schools in Seoul. Students (n=5,346) completing the questionnaires indicated depression & entrapment from academic stress. Depression was more prevalent in girls, those whose parents' household income was less than two million won, who did not live with father or mother or both due to divorce, separation, or death, and those who smoked or used alcohol. Entrapment was more prevalent in students similar to cases of depression and in seniors. According to the proposed path model, 48.6% of depression was explained by academic stress, social support, and entrapment. The indirect effect of entrapment as a mediator between academic stress and depression was verified and larger than the direct effect of academic stress on depression. Considering levels of depression and entrapment demonstrated by these students, better mental health programs with diverse strategies should be developed for their psychological well-being.

  15. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelot, Fanny; Seillès, Estelle; Biichlé, Sabeha; Berda, Yael; Gaugler, Béatrice; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2009-11-01

    Increased circulating endothelial microparticles, resulting from vascular endothelium dysfunction, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation are both encountered in common inflammatory disorders. The aim of our study was to determine whether interactions between endothelial microparticles and plasmacytoid dendritic cells could contribute to such pathologies. Microparticles generated from endothelial cell lines, platelets or activated T cells were incubated with human plasmacytoid dendritic cells sorted from healthy donor blood or with monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Dendritic cell maturation was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion as well as naive T-cell activation and polarization. Labeled microparticles were also used to study cellular interactions. Endothelial microparticles induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. In contrast, conventional dendritic cells were resistant to endothelial microparticle-induced maturation. In addition to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, endothelial microparticle-matured plasmacytoid dendritic cells secreted inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8, but no interferon-alpha) and also induced allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells to proliferate and to produce type 1 cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Endothelial microparticle endocytosis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells appeared to be required for plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Importantly, the ability of endothelial microparticles to induce plasmacytoid dendritic cells to mature was specific as microparticles derived from activated T cells or platelets (the major source of circulating microparticules in healthy subjects) did not induce such plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Our data show that endothelial microparticles specifically induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines. This novel activation pathway may be implicated in various inflammatory disorders and

  16. A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Kennedy, Dominic; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Hislop, Matthew; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay [Queensland X-Ray, Sunnybank, Queensland, 4109 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new method of diagnosing and defining functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is described. By combining ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques with dynamic plantarflexion of the ankle against resistance, functional entrapment can be demonstrated and the location of the arterial occlusion identified. This combination of imaging modalities will also define muscular anatomy for guiding intervention such as surgery or Botox injection.

  17. A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Charles; Kennedy, Dominic; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Hislop, Matthew; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A new method of diagnosing and defining functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is described. By combining ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques with dynamic plantarflexion of the ankle against resistance, functional entrapment can be demonstrated and the location of the arterial occlusion identified. This combination of imaging modalities will also define muscular anatomy for guiding intervention such as surgery or Botox injection

  18. Microparticle counts in platelet-rich and platelet-free plasma, effect of centrifugation and sample-processing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Wayne L

    2013-03-01

    This study provides the first estimates of microparticle numbers in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from normal individuals, closer to in-vivo levels, using higher-resolution flow cytometry. We measured platelet (CD41+) and annexin V+ microparticles in fresh and frozen aliquots of PRP, platelet-poor plasma, platelet-free plasma (PFP), and microparticles isolated by high-speed centrifugation. PRP from healthy individuals contained 730,000/μl total microparticles based on light-scattering measurements. A median of 27,000/μl microparticles in PRP were of platelet origin and 120,000/μl annexin V+, and of these, 24,000/μl were dual-positive procoagulant platelet microparticles. Double centrifugation of PRP removed 99% of platelets, but also 80% of annexin V+ CD41+, 93% of annexin V+ CD41-, and 58% of annexin V- CD41+ microparticles. Loss of microparticles with centrifugation varied from individual to individual. Microparticle counts after isolation by centrifugation and double washing were not significantly different than counts in the original PFP sample, but lower than in PRP. Freeze-thawing of PFP had no effect on platelet microparticle counts, but slightly increased annexin V+, CD41- counts. Freeze-thawing of isolated washed microparticles resulted in a 30-50% increase in annexin V+ microparticles. PRP contains large numbers of cellular microparticles, including platelet and annexin V+ microparticles, which are lost to varying degrees when PRP is double centrifuged to remove platelets. Microparticles remaining in PFP can be recovered by high-speed centrifugation without loss compared to the original PFP sample. Freeze-thawing has variable effects on microparticle counts depending on the sample preparation used.

  19. Effect of strenuous physical exercise on circulating cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, Vicky; Romana, Marc; Tripette, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Huisse, Marie-Geneviève; Hue, Olivier; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is associated with an inflammatory response involving the activation of several types of blood cells. In order to document the specific activation of these cell types, we studied the effect of three maximal exercise tests conducted to exhaustion on the quantitative and qualitative pattern of circulating cell-derived microparticles and inflammatory molecules in healthy subjects. This study mainly indicated that the plasma concentration of microparticles from platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was increased immediately after the strenuous exercise. In addition, the increase in plasma concentration of microparticles from PMN and platelets was still observed after 2 hours of recovery. A similar pattern was observed for the IL-6 plasma level. In contrast, no change was observed for either soluble selectins or plasma concentration of microparticles from red blood cells, monocytes and endothelial cells. In agreement, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels were not changed by the exercise. We conclude that a strenuous exercise is accompanied by platelet- and PMN-derived microparticle production that probably reflects the activation of these two cell types.

  20. Microparticles as immune regulators in infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lung Ling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their clear relationship to immunology, few existing studies have examined potential role of microparticles (MP in infectious disease. Infection with pathogens usually leads to the expression of a range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as significant stress in both infected and uninfected cells. It is thus reasonable to infer from studies to date that infection-associated inflammation also leads to MP production. MP are produced by most of the major cell types in the immune system, and appear to be involved at both the innate and adaptive levels, potentially serving different functions at each level. Thus, MP do not appear to have a universal function; instead their functions are source- or stimulus-dependent, although likely to be primarily either pro- or anti-inflammatory. Importantly, in infectious diseases MP may have the ability to deliver antigen to APC via the biological cargo acquired from their cells of origin. Another potential benefit of MP would be to transfer and/or disseminate phenotype and function to target cells. However, MP may also potentially be manipulated, particularly by intracellular pathogens for survival advantage.

  1. Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pacheco

    Full Text Available Controlled induction of phagocytosis in macrophages offers the ability to therapeutically regulate the immune system as well as improve delivery of chemicals or biologicals for immune processing. Maximizing particle uptake by macrophages through Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis could lead to new delivery mechanisms in drug or vaccine development. Fc ligand density and particle size were examined independently and in combination in order to optimize and tune the phagocytosis of opsonized microparticles. We show the internalization efficiency of small polystyrene particles (0.5 µm to 2 µm is significantly affected by changes in Fc ligand density, while particles greater than 2 µm show little correlation between internalization and Fc density. We found that while macrophages can efficiently phagocytose a large number of smaller particles, the total volume of phagocytosed particles is maximized through the non-specific uptake of larger microparticles. Therefore, larger microparticles may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population. This study is the first to treat as independent variables the physical and biological properties of Fc density and microparticle size that initiate macrophage phagocytosis. Defining the physical and biological parameters that affect phagocytosis efficiency will lead to improved methods of microparticle delivery to macrophages.

  2. Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Fabrication Using Casting And Hot Press Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park S.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable advanced polymer composites have recently received a large amount of attention. The present study aimed to design poly(lactic acid multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites (PLA/MWCNTs using a simple fabrication technique. A PLA sheet was first dissolved in dichloromethane, and MWCNTs were subsequently added at various concentrations (0.5, 1.5 and 5% while applying shear strain stirring to achieve dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. These solutions were then molded and a hot press was used to generate sheets free of voids with entrapped solvent. The prepared samples were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Our data showed composite samples free of defects and voids, indicating that the hot press is capable of generating sufficiently compact polymer matrices. Additionally, TGA and FTIR showed significant bonding interactions between the PLA matrix and the nano-fillers. Collectively, our results suggest that incorporation of CNTs as nano-fillers into biodegradable polymers may have multiple applications in many different sectors.

  3. Characterization of hybrid microparticles/Montmorillonite composite with raspberry-like morphology for Atorvastatin controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Perla; Medina-Torres, Luis; Calderas, Fausto; Bernad-Bernad, María Josefa; Gracia-Mora, Jesús; Mena, Baltasar; Manero, Octavio

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we prepared a novel composite based on hybrid gelatin carriers and montmorillonite clay (MMT) to analyze its viability as controlled drug delivery system. The objective of this research involves the characterization of composites formed by structured lipid-gelatin micro-particles (MP) and MMT clay. This analysis included the evaluation of the composite according to its rheological properties, morphology (SEM), particle size, XRD, FT-IR, and in vitro drug release. The effect of pH in the properties of the composite is evaluated. A novel raspberry-like or armor MP/MMT clay composite is reported, in which the pH has an important effect on the final structure of the composite for ad-hoc drug delivery systems. For pH values below the isoelectric point, we obtained defined morphologies with entrapment efficiencies up to 67%. The pH level controls the MP/MMT composite release mechanism, restringing drug release in the stomach-like environment. Intended for oral administration, these results evidence that the MP/MMT composite represents an attractive alternative for intestinal-colonic controlled drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of microparticles from thiolated polymers via air jet milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Herbert; Schlocker, Wolfgang; Krum, Kafedjiiski; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    Microparticles were formulated by incorporation of the model protein horseradish peroxidase in (thiolated) chitosan and (thiolated) poly(acrylic acid) via co-precipitation. Dried protein/polymer complexes were ground with an air jet mill and resulting particles were evaluated regarding size distribution, shape, zeta potential, drug load, protein activity, release pattern, swelling behaviour and cytotoxicity. The mean particle size distribution was 0.5-12 microm. Non-porous microparticles with a smooth surface were prepared. Microparticles from (thiolated) chitosan had a positive charge whereas microparticles from (thiolated) poly(acrylic acid) were negatively charged. The maximum protein load for microparticles based on chitosan, chitosan-glutathione (Ch-GSH), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and for poly(acrylic acid)-glutathione (PAA-GSH) was 7+/-1%, 11+/-2%, 4+/-0.2% and 7+/-2%, respectively. The release profile of all microparticles followed a first order release kinetic. Chitosan (0.5mg), Ch-GSH, PAA and PAA-GSH particles showed a 31.4-, 13.8-, 54.2- and a 42.2-fold increase in weight, respectively. No significant cytotoxicity could be found. Thiolated microparticles prepared by jet milling technique were shown to be stable and to have controlled drug release characteristics. After further optimizations the preparation method described here might be a useful tool for the production of protein loaded drug delivery systems.

  5. Heat exchange between a microparticle and plasma. Contribution of charge transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglov, A.A.; Gnedovets, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Heat- and mass-transfer in interaction of a microparticle with a dense plasma have been considered analytically. At that, calculation methods developed as applied to probe diagnostics of slightly ionized plasma are also used in the case of relatively high degrees of ionization, at which heat flows of plasma charged particles Qe and Qi become comparable with molecular ones. High efficiency of energy transfer during electron and ion collisions with a microparticle is due to the following: 1) effective cross section of ion collision with a microparticle, which acquires in a quasineutral plasma the potential phisub(f) < 0, surpasses the geometric one; the maximum contribution of electron and ion constituent is achieved when the cross section ion collisions with a microparticle is linearly connected with its potential, 2) with a charged microparticle electrons from distribution function ''tail'' collide, their energy exceeds potential barrier near the surface and, consequently, the mean heat energy; 3) besides the energy of a microparticle thermal movement during electron recombination and ion neutralization on its surface the heat Qsub(e) and Qsub(i), which considerably exceed the heat of molecular adsorption and mean heat energy of plasma particles at kT approximately 1 eV, are transmitted to the microparticle

  6. Rational design and evaluation of HBsAg polymeric nanoparticles as antigen delivery carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Hitesh Kumar; Pandey, Tarun; Maurya, Lakshmi; Singh, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    The present work is focused on the development and evaluation of single dose sustained-release Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loaded nanovaccine for Hepatitis B. The conventional treatment suffers from repeated administration and hence requires a booster dose. Therefore, polymeric nanovaccine of HBsAg was developed by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, utilizing central composite design for formulation optimization. The effects of independent variables (like polymer amount, stabilizer concentration, aqueous/organic phase ratio and homogenizer speed) were also studied on critical quality attributes like particle size and entrapment efficiency. Nanovaccine was characterized in terms of physicochemical parameters, release, internalization and in vivo immunological evaluation in BALB/c mice after administration by different routes such as oral, sub-cutaneous, nasal and intramuscular. The designed nanovaccine demonstrated nanometric size with smooth surface, negative zeta potential, maximum entrapment, sustained release and better internalization in macrophage and MRC-5 cell line. The immune-stimulating activity of nanovaccine administered by different routes was evaluated by measuring anti-HBsAg titre like specific immunoglobulin IgG and IgA response and cytokine level (interleukin-2, interferon-Y) measurement. The results indicated that the nanovaccine administered by intramuscular route produced better humoral as well as cellular responses and potential carriers for antigen delivery at single dose administration via intramuscular route. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication of chitosan microparticles loaded in chitosan and poly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent decades, the use of microparticle-mediated drug delivery is widely applied in the field of biomedicalapplication. Here, we report the new dressing material with ciprofloxacin-loaded chitosan microparticle (CMP) impregnatedin chitosan (CH) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) scaffold for effective delivery of drug in a ...

  8. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid) hybrid microparticles for local drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loca, D; Locs, J; Berzina-Cimdina, L

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramic is well known as bioactive and biocompatible material in bone tissue regeneration applications. Apatitic CaP, especially nano sized hydroxyapatite (NHAp), is more similar to the natural apatite presented in the bone tissue than CaP bioceramics. In the current research NHAp was modified using biodegradable polymer – poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to develop composites providing bone regeneration and local drug delivery. NHAp/PLA microcapsules were prepared using solid-in-water-in-oil-in-water (s/w 1 /o/w 2 ) encapsulation technology. The impact of primary and secondary emulsion stability on the emulsion droplet and microparticle properties was evaluated. The stability of final emulsion can be increased by varying the process parameters. Stable s/w 1 /o/w 2 emulsion using 3ml of NHAp suspension, not less than 100ml of 4% PVA water solution and 10ml of 10% PLA solution in dichloromethane can be obtained. S/w 1 /o/w 2 microencapuslation method can be effectively used for the preparation of multi-domain microcapsules achieving high NHAp encapsulation efficacy (93%)

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of uranium microparticles collected at nuclear fuel cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurov, G.; Stebelkov, V.; Kolesnikov, O.; Frolov, D.

    2001-01-01

    Any industrial process is accompanied by appearance of some quantity of microparticles of processed matter in the environment in immediate proximity to the manufacturing object. These particles can be transferred in atmosphere and can be collected at some distances from the plant. The determination of characteristics of industrial dust microparticles at nuclear fuel cycle plants (form, size, structure of surface, elemental composition, isotopic composition, presence of fission products, presence of activation products) in conjunction with the ability to connect these characteristics with certain nuclear manufacturing processes can become the main technical method of detecting of undeclared nuclear activity. Systematization of the experimental data on morphology, elemental and isotopic composition of uranium microparticles, collected at nuclear fuel cycle plants, is given. The purpose of this work is to establish the relationship between morphological characteristics of uranium dust microparticles and types of nuclear manufacture and to define the reference attributes of the most informative microparticles

  10. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  11. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  12. Reappraising entrapment neuropathies--mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Annina B; Nee, Robert J; Coppieters, Michel W

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies can be difficult because symptoms and signs often do not follow textbook descriptions and vary significantly between patients with the same diagnosis. Signs and symptoms which spread outside of the innervation territory of the affected nerve or nerve root are common. This Masterclass provides insight into relevant mechanisms that may account for this extraterritorial spread in patients with entrapment neuropathies, with an emphasis on neuroinflammation at the level of the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, as well as changes in subcortical and cortical regions. Furthermore, we describe how clinical tests and technical investigations may identify these mechanisms if interpreted in the context of gain or loss of function. The management of neuropathies also remains challenging. Common treatment strategies such as joint mobilisation, neurodynamic exercises, education, and medications are discussed in terms of their potential to influence certain mechanisms at the site of nerve injury or in the central nervous system. The mechanism-oriented approach for this Masterclass seems warranted given the limitations in the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of entrapment neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Entrapment Neuropathies in the Upper and Lower Limbs: Anatomy and MRI Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Q.; Jacobson, J.A.; Jamadar, D.A.; Gandikota, G.; Brandon, C.; Morag, Y.; Fessell, D.P.; Kim, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and non compressive, involving the supra scapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb

  14. Controlled electrosprayed formation of non-spherical microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Mak, Sze Yi; Sammut, Stephen; Shum, Ho Cheung; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication of biocompatible microparticles, such as alginate particles, with the possibility of controlling the particles' morphology in a high-throughput manner, is essential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Even though the shape of alginate particles has been shown to be an important parameter in controlling drug delivery, there are very limited manufacturing methods to produce non-spherical alginate microparticles in a high-throughput fashion. Here, we present a system that generates non-spherical biocompatible alginate microparticles with a tunable size and shape, and at high-throughput, using an electrospray technique. Alginate solution, which is a highly biocompatible material, is flown through a needle using a constant flow rate syringe pump. The alginate phase is connected to a high-voltage power supply to charge it positively. There is a metallic ring underneath the needle that is charged negatively. The applied voltage creates an electric field that forces the dispensing droplets to pass through the metallic ring toward the collection bath. During this migration, droplets break up to smaller droplets to dissipate their energy. When the droplets reach the calcium chloride bath, polymerization happens and solidifies the droplets. We study the effects of changing the distance from the needle to the bath, and the concentration of calcium chloride in the bath, to control the size and the shape of the resulting microparticles.

  15. Restructuring of microparticles in nuclear ceramic materials. Part III. Form distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameiras, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    According to the present model, the modification of the microparticle form, tending to an equiaxial one, is a way to decrease the interface energy of a microparticle set. If the microparticles are dispersed, these ones tend to the spherical form. If they form aggregates (grains), the interface energy is stored in the grain boundaries, triple lines and quadruple points. A mean topological structure combining two kinds of nearly equiaxed polyhedra is proposed for aggregates of microparticles in order to minimize the surface of the grain boundaries, the length of the triple lines and the number of the quadruple points. As the restructuring evolutes, the average grain form tends to take the one of this polyhedra structure. (author)

  16. Stimuli sensitive polymethacrylic acid microparticles (PMAA)--oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Sharma, Chandra P

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticles for controlled release of Insulin in oral administration. The microparticles were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphological studies. The swelling behaviour and drug release profile in various pH media were studied. The % swelling of gels was found to be inversely related to the amount of crosslinker added. Inclusion complex of betaCD and Insulin was studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Optimum complexation was obtained in the ratio 100 mg betaCD: 200 IU Insulin. The release pattern of Insulin from Insulin-betaCD complex encapsulated PMAA microparticles showed release of Insulin for more than seven hours.

  17. Resveratrol-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) microparticles: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Jessica B.E.; Mainardes, Rubiana M.; Farago, Paulo V.; Michel, Milton D.; Zawadzki, Sonia F.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles were obtained by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Three drug-loaded formulations were prepared with the aim of investigating the influence of composition on the encapsulation efficiency. Morphological and spectroscopic methods were performed for these materials. The microparticles revealed residual moisture close to 1.5% and encapsulation efficiency above 80%. Spherical shape and smooth surface were observed by SEM. No pores were either verified. Resveratrol-loaded microparticles showed an average particle size of around 50 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the microencapsulation reduced the drug crystallinity. The FTIR results suggest that no chemical bond was formed between polymer and drug. (author)

  18. In vitro assessment of biopolymer-modified porous silicon microparticles for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Michela; Almeida, Patrick V; Cola, Michela; Anselmi, Giulia; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-11-01

    The wound healing stands as very complex and dynamic process, aiming the re-establishment of the damaged tissue's integrity and functionality. Thus, there is an emerging need for developing biopolymer-based composites capable of actively promoting cellular proliferation and reconstituting the extracellular matrix. The aims of the present work were to prepare and characterize biopolymer-functionalized porous silicon (PSi) microparticles, resulting in the development of drug delivery microsystems for future applications in wound healing. Thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) microparticles were coated with both chitosan and a mixture of chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid, and subsequently loaded with two antibacterial model drugs, vancomycin and resveratrol. The biopolymer coating, drug loading degree and drug release behavior of the modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that both the biopolymer coating and drug loading of the THCPSi microparticles were successfully achieved. In addition, a sustained release was observed for both the drugs tested. The viability and proliferation profiles of a fibroblast cell line exposed to the modified THCPSi microparticles and the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also evaluated. The cytotoxicity and proliferation results demonstrated less toxicity for the biopolymer-coated THCPSi microparticles at different concentrations and time points comparatively to the uncoated counterparts. The ROS production by the fibroblasts exposed to both uncoated and biopolymer-coated PSi microparticles showed that the modified PSi microparticles did not induce significant ROS production at the concentrations tested. Overall, the biopolymer-based PSi microparticles developed in this study are promising platforms for wound healing applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles are associated with coagulation activation in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; Schaap, Marianne C.L.; Berckmans, René J.; Nieuwland, Rienk; Sturk, Augueste; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Biemond, Bart J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is characterized by a hypercoagulable state as a result of multiple factors, including chronic hemolysis and circulating cell-derived microparticles. There is still no consensus on the cellular origin of such microparticles and the exact mechanism by which they may enhance coagulation activation in sickle cell disease. Design and Methods In the present study, we analyzed the origin of circulating microparticles and their procoagulant phenotype during painful crises and steady state in 25 consecutive patients with sickle cell disease. Results The majority of microparticles originated from platelets (GPIIIa,CD61) and erythrocytes (glycophorin A,CD235), and their numbers did not differ significantly between crisis and steady state. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles strongly correlated with plasma levels of markers of hemolysis, i.e. hemoglobin (r=−0.58, pmicroparticles (r=0.63, p0.05). The extent of factor XI inhibition was associated with erythrocyte-derived microparticles (r=0.50, p=0.023). Conclusions We conclude that the procoagulant state in sickle cell disease is partially explained by the factor XI-dependent procoagulant properties of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles. PMID:19815831

  20. Protein encapsulation via porous CaCO3 microparticles templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodkin, Dmitry V; Larionova, Natalia I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2004-01-01

    Porous microparticles of calcium carbonate with an average diameter of 4.75 microm were prepared and used for protein encapsulation in polymer-filled microcapsules by means of electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly (ELbL). Loading of macromolecules in porous CaCO3 particles is affected by their molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the particles and also by the affinity to the carbonate surface. Adsorption of various proteins and dextran was examined as a function of pH and was found to be dependent both on the charge of the microparticles and macromolecules. The electrostatic effect was shown to govern this interaction. This paper discusses the factors which can influence the adsorption capacity of proteins. A new way of protein encapsulation in polyelectrolyte microcapsules is proposed exploiting the porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microparticles from CaCO3. It consists of protein adsorption in the pores of the microparticles followed by ELbL of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and further core dissolution. This resulted in formation of polyelectrolyte-filled capsules with protein incorporated in interpenetrating polyelectrolyte network. The properties of CaCO3 microparticles and capsules prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microelectrophoresis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lactalbumin was encapsulated by means of the proposed technique yielding a content of 0.6 pg protein per microcapsule. Horseradish peroxidase saves 37% of activity after encapsulation. However, the thermostability of the enzyme was improved by encapsulation. The results demonstrate that porous CaCO3 microparticles can be applied as microtemplates for encapsulation of proteins into polyelectrolyte capsules at neutral pH as an optimal medium for a variety of bioactive material, which can also be encapsulated by the proposed method. Microcapsules filled with encapsulated material may find applications in the field of

  1. Restructuring of microparticles in nuclear ceramic materials. Part II. Analytical derivation of the steady-state size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameiras, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    Two fundamental principles were assumed to govern the restructuring of microparticles: minimization and uniformization in space of the interface energy. Five fundamental ways, independent of each other and acting simultaneously, were identified, through which a microparticle set can be restructured according to the fundamental principles: a) decrease of the number of microparticles; b) modification of the microparticle size distribution; c) modification of the microparticles from tending to an equiaxial one; d) tendency to the distribution of microparticles uniform in space; e) tendency to the distribution of the interface energy uniform per microparticle. This presents an analytical derivation of the steady-state microparticle size distribution due to the simultaneous action of the fundamental ways b) and e). (author)

  2. Biosensing utilizing the motion of magnetic microparticles in a microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2010-10-23

    The study for the design of a compact and inexpensive biosensing device, which can be operated either by primary care personnel or by patients as opposed to skilled operators, is presented. The main parts of the proposed device are a microfluidic channel, permanent magnets and functionalized magnetic microparticles. The innovative aspect of the proposed biosensing method is that it utilizes the volumetric increase of magnetic microparticles when analyte binds to their surface. Their velocity decreases drastically when they are accelerated by an externally applied magnetic force within a microfluidic channel. This effect is utilized to detect the presence of analyte e.g. microbes. Analytical calculations showed that a decrease in velocity of approximately 23% can be achieved due to the volumetric change of a magnetic microparticle of View the MathML source1μm diameter when HIV virions of approximately View the MathML source0,135μm are bound to its surface and by keeping its magnetic properties the same. Preliminary experiments were carried out utilizing superparamagnetic microparticles coated with streptavidin and polystyrene microparticles coated with biotin.

  3. Origin and Distribution of Methane Entrapped in Calcareous Alpine Proglacial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biqing; Schroth, Martin H.; Henneberger, Ruth; Kübler, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The atmospheric methane concentration has been increasing in recent years, which is caused by imbalance between sources and sinks. Methane has been recently discovered to be entrapped in calcareous Swiss Alpine proglacial soil. This CH4 can be released upon mechanical impact and acidification. However, the amount, distribution and environmental fate of this entrapped CH4 in proglacial environment remain unknown. The entrapped CH4 in proglacial soil may be of modern or ancient origin. Modern origin includes ongoing or recent microbial CH4 production (methanogenesis) in subglacial or proglacial environments. An ancient origin mainly refers to CH4 produced thermogenically. This soil entrapped CH4 might be a common phenomenon along the entire glacial forefield, or it might only be present at few locations and depth. We present results of studies from two Swiss Alpine Glacier catchments, Wildstrubel Glacier (Canton Valais) and the Griessfirn Glacier (Canton Uri). Our main goals were 1) to assess the origin of CH4 entrapped in various glacial environments (subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial, soil and bedrocks) using geochemical and microbiological evidence; 2) to assess the spatial distribution of entrapped CH4. We performed geochemical analysis (CH4 content, gas wetness ([C1]/[C2-C3] alkane ratio), CH4 stable 13C- and 2H-isotopes, TOC) on subglacial, proglacial, and supraglacial soil samples collected from well-aerated and water-logged locations. Geochemical analysis was also selectively conducted on pore-water samples and on rock samples collected from different geological formations along the catchments. We also performed batch incubations on soil samples collected from subglacial, proglacial water-logged and supraglacial zones. In addition, for the aforementioned three types of samples, we also performed molecular analyses targeting the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase

  4. Norfloxacin release from surfactant-free nanoparticles of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, J.K. [Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea); Jeong, Y.I. [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea); Jang, M.K. [Suncheon National University, Suncheon (Korea); Lee, C.H. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea); Nah, J.W. [Suncheon National University, Suncheon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    We have prepared the surfactant-free nanoparticles of poly(DL- lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) by dialysis method and their physicochemical properties such as particle size and drug contents were investigated against various solvent. The size of PLGA nanoparticles prepared by using dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was smaller than that from acetone. Also, the order of drug contents was DMAc>DMF>DMSO=acetone. These phenomena could be expected from the fact that solvent affects the size of nanoparticles and drug contents. The PLGA nanoparticles have a good spherical shapes as observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Also, surfactant-free nanoparticles entrapping norfloxacin (NFx) have a good drug loading capacity without free-drug on the surface of nanoparticles confirmed by the analysis of X-ray powder diffraction. Release kinetics of NFx used as a model drug was governed not only by drug contents but also by particle size. Also, the biodegradation rate of PLGA nanoparticles prepared from DMF was faster than that prepared from acetone, indicating that the biodegradation of PLGA nanoparticles is size-dependent. (author). 25 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Thiol functionalized polymethacrylic acid-based hydrogel microparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Vauthier, C; Gueutin, C; Ponchel, G; Sharma, Chandra P

    2010-08-01

    In the present study thiol functionalized polymethacrylic acid-polyethylene glycol-chitosan (PCP)-based hydrogel microparticles were utilized to develop an oral insulin delivery system. Thiol modification was achieved by grafting cysteine to the activated surface carboxyl groups of PCP hydrogels (Cys-PCP). Swelling and insulin loading/release experiments were conducted on these particles. The ability of these particles to inhibit protease enzymes was evaluated under in vitro experimental conditions. Insulin transport experiments were performed on Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised intestinal tissue with an Ussing chamber set-up. Finally, the efficacy of insulin-loaded particles in reducing the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Thiolated hydrogel microparticles showed less swelling and had a lower insulin encapsulation efficiency as compared with unmodified PCP particles. PCP and Cys-PCP microparticles were able to inhibit protease enzymes under in vitro conditions. Thiolation was an effective strategy to improve insulin absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers, however, the effect was reduced in the experiments using excised rat intestinal tissue. Nevertheless, functionalized microparticles were more effective in eliciting a pharmacological response in diabetic animal, as compared with unmodified PCP microparticles. From these studies thiolation of hydrogel microparticles seems to be a promising approach to improve oral delivery of proteins/peptides. Copyright 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins Impacting Biodistribution and Cellular Association of Porous Silicon Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita E. Serda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light variable chain, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. Anionic microparticles were found to accumulate in equal abundance in murine liver and spleen, whereas cationic microparticles showed preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage uptake of both anionic and cationic microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components impacting cellular interactions and biodistribution.

  7. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based microfluidics has, in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology such as the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. Hydrogels have been used in many..., in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology, such as synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK The droplet-based microfluidic method offers...

  8. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  9. Fabrication of starch-based microparticles by an emulsification-crosslinking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch-based microparticles (MPs) fabricated by a water-in-water (w/w) emulsification-crosslinking method could be used as a controlled-release delivery vehicle for food bioactives. Due to the processing route without the use of toxic organic solvents, it is expected that these microparticles can be...

  10. Aerobic biodegradation of a nonylphenol polyethoxylate and toxicity of the biodegradation metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Encarnación; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes; Núñez-Olea, Josefa; Lechuga, Manuela

    2009-09-01

    In this paper a study was made of the biodegradation of a non-ionic surfactant, a nonylphenol polyethoxylate, in biodegradability tests by monitoring the residual surfactant matter. The influence of the concentration on the extent of primary biodegradation, the toxicity of biodegradation metabolites, and the kinetics of degradation were also determined. The primary biodegradation was studied at different initial concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg/L, (at sub-and supra-critical micelle concentration). The NPEO used in this study can be considered biodegradable since the primary biodegradation had already taken place (a biodegradation greater than 80% was found for the different initial concentration tested). The initial concentration affected the shape of the resulting curve, the mean biodegradation rate and the percentage of biodegradation reached (99% in less than 8 days at 5 mg/L, 98% in less than 13 days at 25 mg/L and 95% in 14 days at 50 mg/L). The kinetic model of Quiroga and Sales (1991) was applied to predict the biodegradation of the NPEO. The toxicity value was measured as EC(20) and EC(50). In addition, during the biodegradation process of the surfactant a toxicity analysis was made of the evolution of metabolites generated, confirming that the subproducts of the biodegradation process were more toxic than the original.

  11. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T.G.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et

  12. Ethanol oxidation on a nichrome-supported spherical platinum microparticle electrocatalyst prepared by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen-Hui; Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Wang, Dong; Chen, Tiwei; Qiao, Haiyan; Huang, Aiping [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Jianshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A novel electrode was rapidly prepared by depositing microparticle platinum onto a nichrome substrate in dilute chloroplatinic acid solution by cyclic voltammetry. The SEM results revealed that the deposits were composed of spherical Pt microparticles. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used for the characterization of the electrodes. Results of the electrochemical measurements showed that the spherical Pt microparticle electrodes retained the properties of metal platinum, increased the catalytic activity and promoted the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol. Moreover, the deposited Pt microparticles improved the electrochemical properties of the support material and reduced the dosage of noble metal platinum remarkably. The cost could be reduced dramatically by decreasing the contents of platinum. The spherical Pt microparticles deposited on the nichrome supports are likely a potential electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation. (author)

  13. Preparation and chemical stability of iron-nitride-coated iron microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xin; Liu Shixiong

    2007-01-01

    Iron-nitride-coated iron microparticles were prepared by nitridation of the surface of iron microparticles with ammonia gas at a temperature of 510 deg. C. The phases, composition, morphology, magnetic properties, and chemical stability of the particles were studied. The phases were α-Fe, ε-Fe 3 N, and γ-Fe 4 N. The composition varied from the core to the surface, with 99.8 wt% Fe in the core, and 93.8 wt% Fe and 6 wt% N in the iron-nitride coating. The thickness of the iron-nitride coating was about 0.28 μm. The chemical stability of the microparticles was greatly improved, especially the corrosion resistance in corrosive aqueous media. The saturation magnetization and the coercive force were 17.1x10 3 and 68 kA/m, respectively. It can be concluded that iron-nitride-coated iron microparticles will be very useful in many fields, such as water-based magnetorheological fluids and polishing fluids

  14. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  15. Nanoparticles with entrapped α-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela; Astete, Carlos Ernesto; Sabliov, Cristina Mirela

    2008-01-01

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped α-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of α-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of α-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% α-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the α-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% α-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% α-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  16. No Way Out: Entrapment as a Moderator of Suicide Ideation Among Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Leah; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Fruchter, Eyal; Santo, Yoav; Dahan, Eyal

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading and growing cause of death in the military during peacetime. This study sought to examine the psychological mechanisms relating to entrapment, stress, and psychological protective factors facilitating suicide ideation among military personnel. The study population comprised 168 soldiers (aged 18-21) divided into 3 groups: suicide attempters (n = 58), those receiving treatment by a mental health professional, reporting no suicidal behavior (n = 58), and controls (n = 50). In general, the suicidal group scored higher than the 2 other groups in stress levels and entrapment but lower than the other 2 groups in perceived problem-solving abilities and perceived social support. Moreover, the interaction of stress and entrapment predict suicide ideation beyond stress, protective factors, and entrapment alone. Entrapment is an important predictor of suicide ideation and can serve as a moderator, in that its presence may exacerbate the harsh situation of subjective stress within the military context and intensify it into a suicide risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cutting-edge analysis of extracellular microparticles using ImageStream(X) imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headland, Sarah E; Jones, Hefin R; D'Sa, Adelina S V; Perretti, Mauro; Norling, Lucy V

    2014-06-10

    Interest in extracellular vesicle biology has exploded in the past decade, since these microstructures seem endowed with multiple roles, from blood coagulation to inter-cellular communication in pathophysiology. In order for microparticle research to evolve as a preclinical and clinical tool, accurate quantification of microparticle levels is a fundamental requirement, but their size and the complexity of sample fluids present major technical challenges. Flow cytometry is commonly used, but suffers from low sensitivity and accuracy. Use of Amnis ImageStream(X) Mk II imaging flow cytometer afforded accurate analysis of calibration beads ranging from 1 μm to 20 nm; and microparticles, which could be observed and quantified in whole blood, platelet-rich and platelet-free plasma and in leukocyte supernatants. Another advantage was the minimal sample preparation and volume required. Use of this high throughput analyzer allowed simultaneous phenotypic definition of the parent cells and offspring microparticles along with real time microparticle generation kinetics. With the current paucity of reliable techniques for the analysis of microparticles, we propose that the ImageStream(X) could be used effectively to advance this scientific field.

  18. Biodegradability and biodegradation rate of poly(caprolactone)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) biodegradable polymer under aerobic and anaerobic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H S; Moon, H S; Kim, M; Nam, K; Kim, J Y

    2011-03-01

    The biodegradability and the biodegradation rate of two kinds biodegradable polymers; poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), were investigated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PCL-starch blend was easily degraded, with 88% biodegradability in 44 days under aerobic conditions, and showed a biodegradation rate of 0.07 day(-1), whereas the biodegradability of PBS was only 31% in 80 days under the same conditions, with a biodegradation rate of 0.01 day(-1). Anaerobic bacteria degraded well PCL-starch blend (i.e., 83% biodegradability for 139 days); however, its biodegradation rate was relatively slow (6.1 mL CH(4)/g-VS day) compared to that of cellulose (13.5 mL CH(4)/g-VS day), which was used as a reference material. The PBS was barely degraded under anaerobic conditions, with only 2% biodegradability in 100 days. These results were consistent with the visual changes and FE-SEM images of the two biodegradable polymers after the landfill burial test, showing that only PCL-starch blend had various sized pinholes on the surface due to attack by microorganisms. This result may be use in deciding suitable final disposal approaches of different types of biodegradable polymers in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of Biodegradation. Topics include:biodegradation using the tools of biotechnology, basic science aspects of biodegradation, the physiological characteristics of microorganisms, the use of selective techniques that enhance the process of microbial evolution of biodegradative genes in nature, the genetic characteristics of microorganisms allowing them to biodegrade both natural and synthetic toxic chemicals, the molecular techniques that allow selective assembly of genetic segments form a variety of bacterial strains to a single strain, and methods needed to advance biodegradation research as well as the high-priority chemical problems important to the Department of Defense or to the chemical industry

  20. Engineered polycaprolactone–magnesium hybrid biodegradable porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Man Wong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the fabrication of a new biodegradable porous scaffold composed of polycaprolactone (PCL and magnesium (Mg micro-particles. The compressive modulus of PCL porous scaffold was increased to at least 150% by incorporating 29% Mg particles with the porosity of 74% using Micro-CT analysis. Surprisingly, the compressive modulus of this scaffold was further increased to at least 236% when the silane-coupled Mg particles were added. In terms of cell viability, the scaffold modified with Mg particles significantly convinced the attachment and growth of osteoblasts as compared with the pure PCL scaffold. In addition, the hybrid scaffold was able to attract the formation of apatite layer over its surface after 7 days of immersion in normal culture medium, whereas it was not observed on the pure PCL scaffold. This in vitro result indicated the enhanced bioactivity of the modified scaffold. Moreover, enhanced bone forming ability was also observed in the rat model after 3 months of implantation. Though bony in-growth was found in all the implanted scaffolds. High volume of new bone formation could be found in the Mg/PCL hybrid scaffolds when compared to the pure PCL scaffold. Both pure PCL and Mg/PCL hybrid scaffolds were degraded after 3 months. However, no tissue inflammation was observed. In conclusion, these promising results suggested that the incorporation of Mg micro-particles into PCL porous scaffold could significantly enhance its mechanical and biological properties. This modified porous bio-scaffold may potentially apply in the surgical management of large bone defect fixation.

  1. Detection of circulating microparticles by flow cytometry: influence of centrifugation, filtration of buffer, and freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey-Hazra, Emily; Hertel, Barbara; Kirsch, Torsten; Woywodt, Alexander; Lovric, Svjetlana; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Erdbruegger, Uta

    2010-12-06

    The clinical importance of microparticles resulting from vesiculation of platelets and other blood cells is increasingly recognized, although no standardized method exists for their measurement. Only a few studies have examined the analytical and preanalytical steps and variables affecting microparticle detection. We focused our analysis on microparticle detection by flow cytometry. The goal of our study was to analyze the effects of different centrifugation protocols looking at different durations of high and low centrifugation speeds. We also analyzed the effect of filtration of buffer and long-term freezing on microparticle quantification, as well as the role of Annexin V in the detection of microparticles. Absolute and platelet-derived microparticles were 10- to 15-fold higher using initial lower centrifugation speeds at 1500 × g compared with protocols using centrifugation speeds at 5000 × g (P centrifugation speeds. Filtration of buffer with a 0.2 μm filter reduced a significant amount of background noise. Storing samples for microparticle detection at -80°C decreased microparticle levels at days 28, 42, and 56 (P centrifugation speeds should be used to minimize contamination by smaller size platelets.

  2. Polyelectrolyte microparticles for enhancing anode performance in an air–cathode μ-Liter microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan-Yu; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microparticles with high consistency and surface area per volume are fabricated. • P(DADMAC) microparticles facilitate microorganism accumulation and charge transfer. • Microbes in microparticles are capable of proliferation and electricity generation. • Microparticles increase limiting current/power output to more than 200% of biofilm. • Microparticles decrease the anode charge-transfer resistance to 44% of biofilm. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is considered an environmentally friendly energy source because it generates electrical power by digesting organic substrates in the wastewater. However, it is still challenging for MFC to become an economically affordable and highly efficient energy source due to its relatively low power output and coulombic efficiency. The aim of this study is to increase the performance of anode by using polyelectrolyte microparticles to facilitate the accumulation of microorganisms and the collection of electrons. The polyelectrolyte microparticle is subjected to microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and continuous electricity generation in an air–cathode μ-Liter MFC (μMFC) to validate its biocompatibility, ability in retaining redox species, reduced electron transfer resistance, and sustained energy generation. During the 168-hour operation, microorganisms proliferate inside the microparticle and generate around 250% power output and 200% limiting current of those from microorganism biofilm. The polyelectrolyte microparticle also decreased charge-transfer resistance of anode electrode in air–cathode μMFC by 56% compared with biofilm.

  3. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, E; Harling, S; Ludwig, F; Menzel, H; Schilling, M

    2008-05-21

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network.

  4. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, E; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M [Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Harling, S; Menzel, H [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: e.heim@tu-bs.de

    2008-05-21

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network.

  5. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, E; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M; Harling, S; Menzel, H

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network

  6. Clay Nanoparticles Elicit Long-Term Immune Responses by Forming Biodegradable Depots for Sustained Antigen Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyu; Zuo, Huali; Li, Bei; Duan, Chengcheng; Rolfe, Barbara; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely tested as new generation vaccine adjuvants, but few evoke efficient immunoreactions. Clay nanoparticles, for example, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and hectorite (HEC) nanoparticles, have shown their potent adjuvanticity in generating effective and durable immune responses. However, the mechanism by which clay nanoadjuvants stimulate the immune system is not well understood. Here, it is demonstrated that LDH and HEC-antigen complexes form loose agglomerates in culture medium/serum. They also form nodules with loose structures in tissue after subcutaneous injection, where they act as a depot for up to 35 d. More importantly, clay nanoparticles actively and continuously recruit immune cells into the depot for up to one month, and stimulate stronger immune responses than FDA-approved adjuvants, Alum and QuilA. Sustained antigen release is also observed in clay nanoparticle depots, with 50-60% antigen released after 35 d. In contrast, Alum-antigen complexes show minimal antigen release from the depot. Importantly, LDH and HEC are more effective than QuilA and Alum in promoting memory T-cell proliferation. These findings suggest that both clay nanoadjuvants can serve as active vaccine platforms for sustained and potent immune responses. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Gülçin Kaymak; Göğüş, Feride

    2003-03-01

    To determine presence of suprascapular nerve entrapment in a group of newsreel cameramen. Thirty-six men working as newsreel cameramen participated in the study. In addition to musculoskeletal and neurologic examinations, bilateral suprascapular nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography were performed. A group of 19 healthy, male volunteers were included in the study as normal controls for suprascapular nerve conduction studies. In newsreel cameramen, mean suprascapular nerve latency was 3.20 +/- 0.56 msec and 2.84 +/- 0.36 msec for right and left shoulders, respectively (P = 0.001). The mean latency difference between right and left suprascapular nerves was -0.05 +/- 0.19 msec in the control group and 0.36 +/- 0.58 msec in the cameramen group (P mobile camera on the shoulder might cause suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen. This could be considered an occupational disorder of the suprascapular nerve, like meat-packer's neuropathy.

  8. Derivation and characterization of human fetal MSCs: an alternative cell source for large-scale production of cardioprotective microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Arslan, Fatih; Tan, Soon Sim; Tan, Betty; Choo, Andre; Lee, May May; Chen, Tian Sheng; Teh, Bao Ju; Eng, John Kun Long; Sidik, Harwin; Tanavde, Vivek; Hwang, Wei Sek; Lee, Chuen Neng; El Oakley, Reida Menshawe; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Tan, Kok Hian; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2010-06-01

    The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation are increasingly thought to be mediated by MSC secretion. We have previously demonstrated that human ESC-derived MSCs (hESC-MSCs) produce cardioprotective microparticles in pig model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. As the safety and availability of clinical grade human ESCs remain a concern, MSCs from fetal tissue sources were evaluated as alternatives. Here we derived five MSC cultures from limb, kidney and liver tissues of three first trimester aborted fetuses and like our previously described hESC-derived MSCs; they were highly expandable and had similar telomerase activities. Each line has the potential to generate at least 10(16-19) cells or 10(7-10) doses of cardioprotective secretion for a pig model of MI/R injury. Unlike previously described fetal MSCs, they did not express pluripotency-associated markers such as Oct4, Nanog or Tra1-60. They displayed a typical MSC surface antigen profile and differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro. Global gene expression analysis by microarray and qRT-PCR revealed a typical MSC gene expression profile that was highly correlated among the five fetal MSC cultures and with that of hESC-MSCs (r(2)>0.90). Like hESC-MSCs, they produced secretion that was cardioprotective in a mouse model of MI/R injury. HPLC analysis of the secretion revealed the presence of a population of microparticles with a hydrodynamic radius of 50-65 nm. This purified population of microparticles was cardioprotective at approximately 1/10 dosage of the crude secretion. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Galectin-3 binding protein links circulating microparticles with electron dense glomerular deposits in lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C T; Østergaard, O; Rekvig, O P; Sturfelt, G; Jacobsen, S; Heegaard, N H H

    2015-10-01

    A high level of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) appears to distinguish circulating cell-derived microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study is to characterize the population of G3BP-positive microparticles from SLE patients compared to healthy controls, explore putative clinical correlates, and examine if G3BP is present in immune complex deposits in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. Numbers of annexin V-binding and G3BP-exposing plasma microparticles from 56 SLE patients and 36 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. Quantitation of microparticle-associated G3BP, C1q and immunoglobulins was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Correlations between microparticle-G3BP data and clinical parameters were analyzed. Co-localization of G3BP with in vivo-bound IgG was examined in kidney biopsies from one non-SLE control and from patients with class IV (n = 2) and class V (n = 1) lupus nephritis using co-localization immune electron microscopy. Microparticle-G3BP, microparticle-C1q and microparticle-immunoglobulins were significantly (P microparticle populations could be discerned by flow cytometry, including two subpopulations that were significantly increased in SLE samples (P = 0.01 and P = 0.0002, respectively). No associations of G3BP-positive microparticles with clinical manifestations or disease activity were found. Immune electron microscopy showed co-localization of G3BP with in vivo-bound IgG in glomerular electron dense immune complex deposits in all lupus nephritis biopsies. Both circulating microparticle-G3BP numbers as well as G3BP expression are increased in SLE patients corroborating G3BP being a feature of SLE microparticles. By demonstrating G3BP co-localized with deposited immune complexes in lupus nephritis, the study supports cell-derived microparticles as a major autoantigen source and provides a new understanding of the origin of

  10. Incorporation of essential oil in alginate microparticles by multiple emulsion/ionic gelation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoosh; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Dehghan, Solmaz; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-11-01

    In this study, an o/w/o multiple emulsion/ionic gelation method was developed for production of alginate microparticles loaded with Satureja hortensis essential oil (SEO). It was found that the essential oil concentration has significant influence on encapsulation efficiency (EE), loading capacity (LC) and size of microparticles. The values of EE, LC and particle mean diameter were about 52-66%, 20-26%, and 47-117 μm, respectively, when the initial SEO content was 1-3% (v/v) .The essential oil-loaded microparticles were porous, as displayed by scanning electron micrograph. The presence of SEO in alginate microparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. SEO-loaded microparticles showed good antioxidant (with DPPH radical scavenging activity of 40.7-73.5%) and antibacterial properties; this effect was greatly improved when the concentration of SEO was 3% (v/v). S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to SEO and showed a highest inhibition zone of 304.37 mm(2) in the microparticles incorporated with 3% (v/v) SEO. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst release and followed by a slow release. In addition, the release of SEO from the microparticles followed Fickian diffusion with acceptable release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SIMS depth profile analysis of environmental microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and technological research demands chemical characterization of aerosol particles so minute in size, that conventional methods for bulk analyses are simply not applicable. In this work novel application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for characterization of microparticles suspended in atmosphere of the working environment of glass plant Thomson Polkolor, Piaseczno and steelworks Huta Sendzimira, Cracow is presented. The new technique based on sample rotation in depth profile analysis of sub-micrometer particulate material was performed on SAJW-02 analyser equipped with Balzers 16 mm quadrupole spectrometer and sample rotation manipulator using 5 keV Ar + and O 2 + ion beams. The results were compared with the standard method used on ims-3f Cameca analyser 12 keV O 2 + ion beam. Grain size distributions of aerosol microparticles were estimated using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.2 μm to 15 μm. Elemental concentration and crystalline structure of the collected dust particles were performed using spark source mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction methods. SIMS depth profile analysis shows that sub-micrometer particles do not have uniform morphology, The core-shell structure has been observed for particles collected in both factories. Presented models show that the steelworks particles consists mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles :lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The cores of glass plant submicrometer particles consists mainly of lead-zirconium glass covered by a shell containing carbon and copper. Sample rotation technique applied SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies. (author)

  12. Formation of monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Kathryn; Wu, Winston Duo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Liu, Wenjie; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a protocol to synthesize monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via a unique microfluidic jet spray-drying route is reported for the first time. The microparticles demonstrated highly ordered hexagonal mesostructures with surface areas ranging from ~900 up to 1500 m(2)/g and pore volumes from ~0.6 to 0.8 cm(3)/g. The particle size could be easily controlled from ~50 to 100 μm from the same diameter nozzle via changing the initial solute content, or changing the drying temperature. The ratio of the surfactant (CTAB) and silica (TEOS), and the amount of water in the precursor were found to affect the degree of ordering of mesopores by promoting either the self-assembly of the surfactant-silica micelles or the condensation of the silica as two competing processes in evaporation induced self-assembly. The drying rate and the curvature of particles also affected the self-assembly of the mesostructure. The particle mesostructure is not influenced by the inlet drying temperature in the range of 92-160 °C, with even a relatively low temperature of 92 °C producing highly ordered mesoporous microparticles. The spray-drying derived mesoporous silica microparticles, while of larger sizes and more rapidly synthesized, showed a comparable performance with the conventional mesoporous silica MCM-41 in controlled release of a dye, Rhodamine B, indicating that these spray dried microparticles could be used for the immobilisation and controlled release of small molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines due to microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.W.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the effects of high-velocity and hypervelocity microparticles in the magnetically insulated transmission lines of multiterawatt accelerators used for particle beam fusion and radiation effects simulation. These microparticles may be a possible source for plasma production near the anode and cathode in early stages of the voltage pulse, and current carriers during and after the power pulse, resulting in power flow losses. Losses in the current pulse, due to microparticles, are estimated to be approximately 12 mA/cm 2 (0.3 kA) as a lower limit, and --0.3 A/cm 2 (7.2 kA) for microparticle initiated, anode plasma positive ion transport. We have calculated the velocities reached by these microparticles and the effects on them of Van der Waals forces. Field emission from the particles and their effects on cathode and anode plasma formation have been examined. Particle collision with the electrodes is also examined in terms of plasma production, as in the electron deposition in the particles in transit across the anode-cathode gap. Blistering of the electrode surface, thought to be due to H - bombardment was also observed and appears to be consistent with losses due to negative ions previously reported by J. P. VanDevender, R. W. Stinnett, and R. J. Anderson [App. Phys. Lett. 38, 229 (1981)

  14. Identification and quantitive analysis of calcium phosphate microparticles in intestinal tissue by nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Thoree, Vinay; Powell, Jonathan J.; Kirkby, Karen J.; Grime, Geoffrey W.

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic particles (0.5-2 μm diameter), rich in calcium and phosphorus, are found in the lumen of the mid-distal gut of all mammals investigated, including humans, and these may play a role in immuno-surveillance and immune regulation of antigens from food and symbiotic bacteria that are contained in the gut. Whether these particles can cross in to tissue of the intestinal mucosa is unclear. If so, characterising their morphology and chemical composition is an important task in elucidating their function. The analysis of calcium phosphate in biological tissues has been approached in several ways including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and, most recently in this work, with nuclear microscopy. In this paper, we describe the use of microPIXE and microRBS to locate these particles and to determine, accurately, the ratio of phosphorus to calcium using the information on sample thickness obtained from RBS to allow the PIXE ratios to be corrected. A commercial sample of hydroxy apatite was used to demonstrate accuracy and precision of the technique. Then, in a pilot study on intestinal tissue of mice, we demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate microparticles, consistent with confocal microscopy observations, and we identified the average molar P:Ca molar ratio as 1.0. Further work will confirm the exact chemical speciation of these particles and will examine the influence of differing calcium containing diets on the formation of these microparticles

  15. Identification and quantitive analysis of calcium phosphate microparticles in intestinal tissue by nuclear microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: i.gomez-morilla@surrey.ac.uk; Thoree, Vinay [Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Powell, Jonathan J. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL (United Kingdom); Kirkby, Karen J. [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, Geoffrey W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Microscopic particles (0.5-2 {mu}m diameter), rich in calcium and phosphorus, are found in the lumen of the mid-distal gut of all mammals investigated, including humans, and these may play a role in immuno-surveillance and immune regulation of antigens from food and symbiotic bacteria that are contained in the gut. Whether these particles can cross in to tissue of the intestinal mucosa is unclear. If so, characterising their morphology and chemical composition is an important task in elucidating their function. The analysis of calcium phosphate in biological tissues has been approached in several ways including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and, most recently in this work, with nuclear microscopy. In this paper, we describe the use of microPIXE and microRBS to locate these particles and to determine, accurately, the ratio of phosphorus to calcium using the information on sample thickness obtained from RBS to allow the PIXE ratios to be corrected. A commercial sample of hydroxy apatite was used to demonstrate accuracy and precision of the technique. Then, in a pilot study on intestinal tissue of mice, we demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate microparticles, consistent with confocal microscopy observations, and we identified the average molar P:Ca molar ratio as 1.0. Further work will confirm the exact chemical speciation of these particles and will examine the influence of differing calcium containing diets on the formation of these microparticles.

  16. Concentration of nanoparticles and/or microparticles in flow conditions by dielectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A device for concentration of nanoparticles and/or microparticles in liquid flow conditions by dielectrophoresis is disclosed in this invention.......A device for concentration of nanoparticles and/or microparticles in liquid flow conditions by dielectrophoresis is disclosed in this invention....

  17. Characterization of Chlorhexidine-Loaded Calcium-Hydroxide Microparticles as a Potential Dental Pulp-Capping Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasankar M. Priyadarshini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the delivery of novel calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] microparticles loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX for potential dental therapeutic and preventive applications. Herein, we introduce a new approach for drug-delivery to deep dentin-surfaces in the form of drug-loaded microparticles. Unloaded Ca(OH2 [Ca(OH2/Blank] and CHX-loaded/Ca(OH2 microparticles were fabricated by aqueous chemical-precipitation technique. The synthesized-microparticles were characterized in vitro for determination of surface-morphology, crystalline-features and thermal-properties examined by energy-dispersive X-ray scanning and transmission electron-microscopy (EDX-SEM/TEM, Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning-calorimetry (DSC. Time-related pH changes, initial antibacterial/biofilm-abilities and cytotoxicity of CHX-loaded/Ca(OH2 microparticles were evaluated. Microparticles were delivered to dentin-surfaces with subsequent SEM examination of treated dentin-substrates. The in vitro and ex vivo CHX-release profiles were characterized. Ca(OH2/Blank were hexagonal-shaped with highest z-average diameter whereas CHX-inclusion evidenced micro-metric spheres with distinguishable surface “rounded deposits” and a negative-shift in diameter. CHX:Ca(OH2/50 mg exhibited maximum encapsulation-efficiency with good antibacterial and cytocompatible properties. SEM examination revealed an intact layer of microparticles on exposed dentin-surfaces with retention of spherical shape and smooth texture. Microparticles loaded on dentin-surfaces showed prolonged release of CHX indicating substantial retention on dentin-substrates. This study validated the inherent-applicability of this novel drug-delivery approach to dentin-surfaces using micro-metric CHX-loaded/Ca(OH2 microparticles.

  18. Formulation of resveratrol entrapped niosomes for topical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Daniel; Matos, María; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Pazos, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    A new approach to the formulation of resveratrol (RSV) entrapped niosomes for topical use is proposed in this work. Niosomes were formulated with Gelot 64 (G64) as surfactant, and two skin-compatible unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids), commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations, as penetration enhancers. Niosomes were prepared by two different methods: a thin film hydration method with minor modifications followed by a sonication stage (TFH-S), and an ethanol injection modified method (EIM). Niosomes prepared with the EIM method were in the range of 299-402 nm, while the TFH-S method produced larger niosomes in the range of 293-496 nm. Moreover, niosomes with higher RSV entrapment efficiency (EE) and better stability were generated by the EIM method. Ex vivo transdermal experiments, carried out in Franz diffusion cells on newborn pig skin, indicated that niosomes prepared by the EIM method were more effective for RSV penetration in epidermis and dermis (EDD), with values up to 21% for both penetration enhancers tested. The EIM method, which yielded the best RSV-entrapped niosomes, seems to be the most suitable for scaling up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Keratin/Alginate Blend Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Srisuwan, Yaowalak; Srihanam, Prasong

    2018-01-01

    The water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification-diffusion method was used for construction of keratin (Ker), alginate (Alg), and Ker/Alg blend microparticles. The Ker, Alg, and Ker/Alg blend solutions were used as the water phase, while ethyl acetate was used as the oil phase. Firstly, different concentrations of Ker solution was used to find suitable content. 1.6% w/v Ker solution was blended with the same concentration of the Alg solution for further microparticle construction. Results from scanning ...

  20. Moldless PEGDA-Based Optoelectrofluidic Platform for Microparticle Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Mo Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an optoelectrofluidic platform which consists of the organic photoconductive material, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc, and the photocrosslinkable polymer, poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA. TiOPc simplifies the fabrication process of the optoelectronic chip due to requiring only a single spin-coating step. PEGDA is applied to embed the moldless PEGDA-based microchannel between the top ITO glass and the bottom TiOPc substrate. A real-time control interface via a touch panel screen is utilized to select the target 15 μm polystyrene particles. When the microparticles flow to an illuminating light bar, which is oblique to the microfluidic flow path, the lateral driving force diverts the microparticles. Two light patterns, the switching oblique light bar and the optoelectronic ladder phenomenon, are designed to demonstrate the features. This work integrating the new material design, TiOPc and PEGDA, and the ability of mobile microparticle manipulation demonstrates the potential of optoelectronic approach.

  1. Micro-particle filter made in SU-8 for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Urs; Fetz, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We have integrated a micro-particle filter in a polymer cantilever to filter micro-particles from a fluid while simultaneously measuring the amount of filtered particles. In a 3,8 mum thick SU-8 cantilever a filter was integrated with pore sizes between 3 and 30 mum. The chip was inserted in a mi...

  2. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Composite Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yang; Tong, Li; Chu, Jiamian; Xiao, Kecen; Zhou, Zhiyu; Dong, Wenbo; Chu, Xingwu

    2017-04-11

    Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly( γ -glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca 2+ and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA. The swelling behavior of the composite microparticles was significantly improved due to the high hydrophility of PGA. Influences of the preparing conditions on the swelling behavior of the composites were investigated. The porous microparticles could be formed while compositing of PGA. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis method. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility test of microparticles exhibited good biocompatibility with L929 cells. All results indicated that such Alg/PGA composite microparticles are a promising candidate in the field of wound dressing for hemostasis or rapid removal of exudates.

  3. Entrapment of Probiotics in Water Extractable Arabinoxylan Gels: Rheological and Microstructural Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales-Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their porous structure, aqueous environment and dietary fiber nature arabinoxylan (AX gels could have potential applications for colon-specific therapeutic molecule delivery. In addition, prebiotic and health related effects of AX have been previously demonstrated. It has been also reported that cross-linked AX can be degraded by bacteria from the intestinal microbiota. However, AX gels have not been abundantly studied as carrier systems and there is no information available concerning their capability to entrap cells. In this regard, probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium longum have been the focus of intense research activity lately. The objective of this research was to investigate the entrapment of probiotic B. longum in AX gels. AX solution at 2% (w/v containing B. longum (1 × 107 CFU/cm formed gels induced by laccase as cross-linking agent. The entrapment of B. longum decreased gel elasticity from 31 to 23 Pa, probably by affecting the physical interactions taking place between WEAX chains. Images of AX gels containing B. longum viewed under a scanning electron microscope show the gel network with the bacterial cells entrapped inside. The microstructure of these gels resembles that of an imperfect honeycomb. The results suggest that AX gels can be potential candidates for the entrapment of probiotics.

  4. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Julie; Woeller, Collynn F; Phipps, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles also changed monocyte

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins Impacting Biodistribution and Cellular Association of Porous Silicon Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serda, Rita E.; Blanco, Elvin; Mack, Aaron; Stafford, Susan J.; Amra, Sarah; Li, Qingpo; van de Ven, Anne L.; Tanaka, Takemi; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as shape, composition and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light chain variable region, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. The anionic-surface favored equal accumulation of microparticles in the liver and spleen, while cationic-surfaces favored preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage internalization of both anionic and cationic silicon microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components impacting cellular interactions and biodistribution. PMID:21303614

  6. Characterization of microparticles prepared by emulsion method from pectin and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, pectin was extracted from apple peel and formulated into microparticles in combination with zein, an edible food protein. The physical, chemical, and structural properties of the resultant pectin structures were evaluated. The resultant microparticles were also examined in vitro for c...

  7. Controlled release profiles of dipyridamole from biodegradable microspheres on the base of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel biodegradable microspheres on the base of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB designed for controlled release of antithrombotic drug, namely dipyridamole (DPD, have been kinetically studied. The profiles of release from the microspheres with different diameters 4, 9, 63, and 92 µm present the progression of nonlinear and linear stages. Diffusionkinetic equation describing both linear (PHB hydrolysis and nonlinear (diffusion stages of the DPD release profiles from the spherical subjects has been written down as the sum of two terms: desorption from the homogeneous sphere in accordance with diffusion mechanism and the zero-order release. In contrast to the diffusivity dependence on microsphere size, the constant characteristics (k of linearity are scarcely affected by the diameter of PHB microparticles. The view of the kinetic profiles as well as the low rate of DPD release are in satisfactory agreement with kinetics of weight loss measured in vitro for the PHB films. Taking into account kinetic results, we suppose that the degradation of both films and PHB microspheres is responsible for the linear stage of DPD release profiles. In the nearest future, combination of biodegradable PHB and DPD as a representative of proliferation cell inhibitors will give possibility to elaborate the novel injectable therapeutic system for a local, long-term, antiproliferative action.

  8. Selective microrobot control using a thermally responsive microclamper for microparticle manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Gwangjun; Choi, Hyunchul; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho; Jeong, Semi

    2016-01-01

    Microparticle manipulation using a microrobot in an enclosed environment, such as a lab-on-a-chip, has been actively studied because an electromagnetic actuated microrobot can have accurate motility and wireless controllability. In most studies on electromagnetic actuated microrobots, only a single microrobot has been used to manipulate cells or microparticles. However, the use of a single microrobot can pose several limitations when performing multiple roles in microparticle manipulation. To overcome the limitations associated with using a single microrobot, we propose a new method for the control of multiple microrobots. Multiple microrobots can be controlled independently by an electromagnetic actuation system and multiple microclampers combined with microheaters. To select a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots, we propose a microclamper composed of a clamper structure using thermally responsive hydrogel and a microheater for controlling the microclamper. A fundamental test of the proposed microparticle manipulation system is performed by selecting a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots. Through the independent locomotion of multiple microrobots with U- and V-shaped tips, heterogeneous microparticle manipulation is demonstrated in the creation of a two-dimensional structure. In the future, our proposed multiple-microrobot system can be applied to tasks that are difficult to perform using a single microrobot, such as cell manipulation, cargo delivery, tissue assembly, and cloning. (paper)

  9. Nano-zymography Using Laser-Scanning Confocal Microscopy Unmasks Proteolytic Activity of Cell-Derived Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briens, Aurélien; Gauberti, Maxime; Parcq, Jérôme; Montaner, Joan; Vivien, Denis; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are nano-sized vesicles released by activated cells in the extracellular milieu. They act as vectors of biological activity by carrying membrane-anchored and cytoplasmic constituents of the parental cells. Although detection and characterization of cell-derived MPs may be of high diagnostic and prognostic values in a number of human diseases, reliable measurement of their size, number and biological activity still remains challenging using currently available methods. In the present study, we developed a protocol to directly image and functionally characterize MPs using high-resolution laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Once trapped on annexin-V coated micro-wells, we developed several assays using fluorescent reporters to measure their size, detect membrane antigens and evaluate proteolytic activity (nano-zymography). In particular, we demonstrated the applicability and specificity of this method to detect antigens and proteolytic activities of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase and plasmin at the surface of engineered MPs from transfected cell-lines. Furthermore, we were able to identify a subset of tPA-bearing fibrinolytic MPs using plasma samples from a cohort of ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic therapy and in an experimental model of thrombin-induced ischemic stroke in mice. Overall, this method is promising for functional characterization of cell-derived MPs.

  10. Liver cell-derived microparticles activate hedgehog signaling and alter gene expression in hepatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Rafal P; Yang, Liu; Liu, Renshui; Jung, Youngmi; Omenetti, Alessia; Syn, Wing-Kin; Choi, Steve S; Cheong, Yeiwon; Fearing, Caitlin M; Agboola, Kolade M; Chen, Wei; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis contributes to vascular remodeling during cirrhosis. In cirrhotic livers, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (MF-HSC) produce Hedgehog (Hh) ligands. During embryogenesis Hh ligands are released from ligand-producing cells in microparticles and activate Hh signaling in endothelial cells. We studied whether adult liver cell-derived microparticles contain Hh ligands that alter hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). MF-HSC and cholangiocytes were exposed to platelet-derived growth factor to induce Hh ligands; microparticles were isolated from medium, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and immunoblots, and applied to Hh-reporter-containing cells. Microparticles were obtained from serum and bile of rats after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery and applied to normal primary liver SEC with or without cyclopamine, an Hh signaling inhibitor. Effects on SEC gene expression were evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Hh target gene expression and SEC activation markers were compared in primary SEC and in liver sections from healthy and BDL rats. Platelet-derived growth factor-treated MF-HSC and cholangiocytes released exosome-enriched microparticles containing biologically-active Hh ligands. BDL increased release of Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles into plasma and bile. Transmission electron microscopy and immunoblots revealed similarities among microparticles from all sources; all microparticles induced similar Hh-dependent changes in SEC gene expression. SEC from healthy livers did not express Hh target genes or activation markers, but both were up-regulated in SEC after BDL. Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles released from liver cells alter hepatic SEC gene expression, suggesting a novel mechanism for cirrhotic vasculopathy.

  11. Sorption of chrysoidine by row cork and cork entrapped in calcium alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria M. Nurchi

    2014-01-01

    The influence on the sorption of pH, initial dye concentration, and particle size, as well as the efficiency of the entrapment, have been investigated. The maximum sorption was found for cork samples of fine particle size (FC, in both row and entrapped forms, at pH 7; conversely, at pH 4 the difference is significant (0.12 mmol/g for row cork and 0.20 mmol/g for entrapped cork, evoking a cooperation of alginate in binding the positively charged chrysoidine molecule.

  12. Entrapped victims in motor vehicle collisions: characteristics and prehospital care in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Rogério Navarro Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the severity of trauma in entrapped victims and to identify risk factors for mortality and morbidity. INTRODUCTION: Triage and rapid assessment of trauma severity is essential to provide the needed resources during prehospital and hospital phases and for outcome prediction. It is expected that entrapped victims will have greater severity of trauma and mortality than non-entrapped subjects. METHODS: A transverse, case-control, retrospective study of 1203 victims of motor vehicle collisions treated during 1 year by the prehospital service in São Paulo, Brazil was carried out. All patients were drivers, comprising 401 entrapped victims (33.3% and 802 non-entrapped consecutive controls (66.7%. Sex, age, mortality rates, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, corporal segments, timing of the prehospital care and resource use were compared between the groups. The results were analysed by χ2, Zres, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: Entrapped victims were predominantly men (84.8%, aged 32±13.1 years, with immediate mortality of 10.2% and overall mortality of 11.7%. They had a probability of death at the scene 8.2 times greater than that of non-entrapped victims. The main cause of death was hemorrhage for entrapped victims (45.2% and trauma for non-entrapped victims. Of the entrapped victims who survived, 18.7% had a severe GCS (OR = 10.62, 12% a severe RTS (OR = 9.78 and 23.7% were in shock (OR = 3.38. Entrapped victims were more commonly transported to advanced life support units and to tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSION: Entrapped victims had greater trauma severity, more blood loss and a greater mortality than respective, non-entrapped controls.

  13. Procedure for radiotracer labelling of carbon microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallay, Z.; Soltes, L.; Novak, I.; Trnovec, T.; Berek, D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is suggested for the labelling of carbon microparticles with radioisotopes. A carbon precursor is selected from the group of polymers including phenol-formaldehyde bitumens, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, polyacrylonitrile, urea-formaldehyde or epoxy bitumens, and polysaccharides. A monodisperse fraction of the porous precursor is saturated with a solution of a salt of the radioisotope, and the carrier solvent is removed by evaporation at 360-420 K. The impregnated precursor is subsequently pyrolyzed at 870-1000 K. This method can find application in the preparation of radiactively labelled microparticles used for examining changes in the function of the cardiovascular system in experimental medicine, pharmacology, physiology and endocrinology. (P.A.)

  14. Vascular entrapment of the sciatic plexus causing catamenial sciatica and urinary symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Nucelio; Marques, Renato Moretti; Kamergorodsky, Gil; Ploger, Christine; Schor, Eduardo; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic congestion syndrome is a well-known cause of cyclic pelvic pain (Ganeshan et al., Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 30(6):1105-11, 2007). What is much less well known is that dilated or malformed branches of the internal or external iliac vessels can entrap the nerves of the sacral plexus against the pelvic sidewalls, producing symptoms that are not commonly seen in gynecological practice, such as sciatica, or refractory urinary and anorectal dysfunction (Possover et al., Fertil Steril 95(2):756-8. 2011). The objective of this video is to explain and describe the symptoms suggestive of vascular entrapment of the sacral plexus, as well as the technique for the laparoscopic decompression of these nerves. Two anecdotal cases of intrapelvic vascular entrapment are used to review the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus and demonstrate the laparoscopic surgical technique for decompression at two different sites, one on the sciatic nerve and one on the sacral nerve roots. After surgery, the patient with the sciatic entrapment showed full recovery of the sciatica and partial recovery of the myofascial pain. The patient with sacral nerve root entrapment showed full recovery with resolution of symptoms. The symptoms suggestive of intrapelvic nerve entrapment are: perineal pain or pain irradiating to the lower limbs in the absence of a spinal disorder, and lower urinary tract symptoms in the absence of prolapse of a bladder lesion. In the presence of such symptoms, the radiologist should provide specific MRI sequences of the intrapelvic portion of the sacral plexus and a team and equipment to expose and decompress the sacral nerves should be prepared.

  15. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  16. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lihui [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Yongming, E-mail: zhym@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Rittmann, Bruce E. [Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA.

  17. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lihui; Zhang, Yongming; Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rittmann, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA

  18. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sahler

    Full Text Available Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles

  19. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loizeau Sébastien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France. A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated, revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

  20. Imaging appearance of entrapped periosteum within a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Johnathan; Abel, Mark F.; Fox, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery. (orig.)

  1. MR imaging evaluation of suprascapular nerve entrapment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludig, T.; Walter, F.; Roland, J.; Blum, A.; Chapuis, D.; Mole, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the significance of muscular edema, atrophy, and fatty changes in the diagnosis of suprascapular nerve entrapment (SSNE), and to confirm muscular edema as the most significant sign of neuropathy. A retrospective study of 18 patients with suprascapular nerve entrapment was performed. All patients underwent electromyographic studies and MR imaging with a 1.5-T Echo Speed system (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis.). The diagnosis of muscle edema was reached when muscles presented a high signal on T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) fat-suppressed images. Muscular trophicity and fatty changes were analyzed on a sagittal oblique cut using SE T1-weighted images. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility using kappa test, sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed, together with negative and positive predictive value of each criterion. The topographic diagnosis was correct as edema affected the infraspinatus muscle alone when the suprascapular nerve was entrapped at the spinoglenoid notch. Both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were affected when nerve was compressed at the suprascapular notch. Sensitivity and specificity of muscular edema were, respectively, 94.5 and 100%. Muscular atrophy sensitivity and specificity were 81 and 80%, respectively. Fatty changes sensitivity and specificity were 25 and 96%, respectively. Muscular edema seems to be a more sensitive sign of SSNE than muscle atrophy and fatty changes when compared with EMG results. Magnetic resonance imaging can reach a positive, topographic, and etiologic diagnosis of SSNE. (orig.)

  2. Circulating endothelial cells and procoagulant microparticles in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Reynés

    Full Text Available AIM: Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles are prognostic factors in cancer. However, their prognostic and predictive value in patients with glioblastoma is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with standard radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide. In addition, we have analyzed the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the concomitant treatment. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were also obtained as controls. Endothelial cells were measured by an immunomagnetic technique and immunofluorescence microscopy. Microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. Microparticle-mediated procoagulant activity was measured by endogen thrombin generation and by phospholipid-dependent clotting time. Methylation status of MGMT promoter was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS: Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles were higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001. After treatment, levels of microparticles and thrombin generation decreased, and phospholipid-dependent clotting time increased significantly. A high pretreatment endothelial cell count, corresponding to the 99(th percentile in controls, was associated with poor overall survival. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27% of tumor samples and was associated to a higher overall survival (66 weeks vs 30 weeks, p<0.004. CONCLUSION: Levels of circulating endothelial cells may have prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma.

  3. Preparation of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Microparticles through a Facile Electrospinning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to fabricate Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF microparticles using electrospinning under mild processing conditions. To improve processability of the ASF solution, poly(ethylene oxide (PEO was used to regulate viscosity of ASF solution for electrospinning. It was found that the blend of ASF with PEO could form a bead-on-string structure with well spherical particles. Furthermore, aqueous ethanol and ultrasonic treatments could disrupt the nanofibrillar string structure between particles and ultimately produced water-insoluble ASF particles with submicron scale. Cell viability studies indicated that the ASF microparticles were nontoxic to EA926 cells. Moreover, fluorescent images based on FITC labeling showed that the ASF microparticles were easily uptaken by the cells. Aqueous-based electrospinning provides a potentially useful option for the fabrication of ASF microparticles based on this unique fibrous protein.

  4. Novel use of pleural ultrasound can identify malignant entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Matthew R; Lo, Ada K C; Ng, Arnold C T; Bashirzadeh, Farzad; Wang, William Y S; Fielding, David I K

    2014-11-01

    The presence of entrapped lung changes the appropriate management of malignant pleural effusion from pleurodesis to insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter. No methods currently exist to identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage. Our objectives were to develop a method to identify entrapped lung using tissue movement and deformation (strain) analysis with ultrasonography and compare it to the existing technique of pleural elastance (PEL). Prior to drainage, 81 patients with suspected malignant pleural effusion underwent thoracic ultrasound using an echocardiogram machine. Images of the atelectatic lower lobe were acquired during breath hold, allowing motion and strain related to the cardiac impulse to be analyzed using motion mode (M mode) and speckle-tracking imaging, respectively. PEL was measured during effusion drainage. The gold-standard diagnosis of entrapped lung was the consensus opinion of two interventional pulmonologists according to postdrainage imaging. Participants were randomly divided into development and validation sets. Both total movement and strain were significantly reduced in entrapped lung. Using data from the development set, the area under the receiver-operating curves for the diagnosis of entrapped lung was 0.86 (speckle tracking), 0.79 (M mode), and 0.69 (PEL). Using respective cutoffs of 6%, 1 mm, and 19 cm H2O on the validation set, the sensitivity/specificity was 71%/85% (speckle tracking), 50%/85% (M mode), and 40%/100% (PEL). This novel ultrasound technique can identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage, which could allow appropriate choice of definitive management (pleurodesis vs indwelling catheter), reducing the number of interventions required to treat malignant pleural effusion.

  5. Gel entrapment culture of rat hepatocytes for investigation of tetracycline-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chong; Meng Qin; Schmelzer, Eva; Bader, Augustinus

    2009-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes for testing drug-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gel entrapped rat hepatocytes were applied for investigation of the tetracycline-induced steatohepatitis, while hepatocyte monolayer was set as a control. The toxic responses of hepatocytes were systematically evaluated by measuring cell viability, liver-specific function, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, adenosine triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results suggested that gel entrapped hepatocytes showed cell death after 96 h of tetracycline treatment at 25 μM which is equivalent to toxic serum concentration in rats, while hepatocyte monolayer showed cell death at a high dose of 200 μM. The concentration-dependent accumulation of lipid as well as mitochondrial damage were regarded as two early events for tetracycline hepatotoxicity in gel entrapment culture due to their detectability ahead of subsequent increase of oxidative stress and a final cell death. Furthermore, the potent protection of fenofibrate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate were evidenced in only gel entrapment culture with higher expressions on the genes related to β-oxidation than hepatocyte monolayer, suggesting the mediation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial damage in tetracycline toxicity. Overall, gel entrapped hepatocytes in three-dimension reflected more of the tetracycline toxicity in vivo than hepatocyte monolayer and thus was suggested as a more relevant system for evaluating steatogenic drugs.

  6. Silicon microfluidic flow focusing devices for the production of size-controlled PLGA based drug loaded microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Kieran; Brennan, Des; Galvin, Paul; Griffin, Brendan T

    2014-06-05

    The increasing realisation of the impact of size and surface properties on the bio-distribution of drug loaded colloidal particles has driven the application of micro fabrication technologies for the precise engineering of drug loaded microparticles. This paper demonstrates an alternative approach for producing size controlled drug loaded PLGA based microparticles using silicon Microfluidic Flow Focusing Devices (MFFDs). Based on the precise geometry and dimensions of the flow focusing channel, microparticle size was successfully optimised by modifying the polymer type, disperse phase (Qd) flow rate, and continuous phase (Qc) flow rate. The microparticles produced ranged in sizes from 5 to 50 μm and were highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation <5%). A comparison of Ciclosporin (CsA) loaded PLGA microparticles produced by MFFDs vs conventional production techniques was also performed. MFFDs produced microparticles with a narrower size distribution profile, relative to the conventional approaches. In-vitro release kinetics of CsA was found to be influenced by the production technique, with the MFFD approach demonstrating the slowest rate of release over 7 days (4.99 ± 0.26%). Finally, MFFDs were utilised to produce pegylated microparticles using the block co-polymer, PEG-PLGA. In contrast to the smooth microparticles produced using PLGA, PEG-PLGA microparticles displayed a highly porous surface morphology and rapid CsA release, with 85 ± 6.68% CsA released after 24h. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of silicon MFFDs for the precise control of size and surface morphology of PLGA based microparticles with potential drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phospholipid Binding Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Is Present on Microparticles Generated In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfinger, Katrin; Badrnya, Sigrun; Furtmüller, Margareta; Handschuh, Daniela; Lindner, Herbert; Geiger, Margarethe

    2015-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor is a secreted, non-specific serine protease inhibitor with broad protease reactivity. It binds glycosaminoglycans and anionic phospholipids, which can modulate its activity. Anionic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine are normally localized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, but are exposed on activated and apoptotic cells and on plasma membrane-derived microparticles. In this report we show by flow cytometry that microparticles derived from cultured cells and activated platelets incorporated protein C inhibitor during membrane blebbing. Moreover, protein C inhibitor is present in/on microparticles circulating in normal human plasma as judged from Western blots, ELISAs, flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry. These plasma microparticles are mainly derived from megakaryocytes. They seem to be saturated with protein C inhibitor, since they do not bind added fluorescence-labeled protein C inhibitor. Heparin partially removed microparticle-bound protein C inhibitor, supporting our assumption that protein C inhibitor is bound via phospholipids. To assess the biological role of microparticle-bound protein C inhibitor we performed protease inhibition assays and co-precipitated putative binding partners on microparticles with anti-protein C inhibitor IgG. As judged from amidolytic assays microparticle-bound protein C inhibitor did not inhibit activated protein C or thrombin, nor did microparticles modulate the activity of exogenous protein C inhibitor. Among the proteins co-precipitating with protein C inhibitor, complement factors, especially complement factor 3, were most striking. Taken together, our data do not support a major role of microparticle-associated protein C inhibitor in coagulation, but rather suggest an interaction with proteins of the complement system present on these phospholipid vesicles. PMID:26580551

  8. Evaluation of Gentamicin-Entrapped Solid Lipid Microparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microbial infections, is limited by poor absorption, low bioavailability ... engineering of lipid drug delivery systems. (LBDDS) ... based SLMs), these problems could be surmounted. ..... addition to the burst effect, may also be related to high rate ...

  9. Properties of iopamidol-incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol) microparticle as an X-ray imaging flow tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Jung, Sung Yong; Lee, Jin Pyung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-02-10

    We have recently reported on poly(vinyl alcohol) microparticles containing X-ray contrast agent, iopamidol, designed as a flow tracer working in synchrotron X-ray imaging ( Biosens. Bioelectron. 2010 , 25 , 1571 ). Although iopamidol is physically encapsulated in the microparticles, it displays a great contrast enhancement and stable feasibility in in vitro human blood pool. Nonetheless, a direct relation between the absolute amount of incorporated iopamidol and the enhancement in imaging efficiency was not observed. In this study, physical properties of the designed microparticle are systematically investigated experimentally with theoretical interpretation to correlate an enhancement in X-ray imaging efficiency. The compositional ratio of X-ray contrast agent in polymeric microparticle is controlled as 1/1 and 10/1 [contrast agent/polymer microparticle (w/w)] with changed degree of cross-linkings. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), retractive force (τ) and degree of swelling of the designed polymeric microparticles are investigated. In addition, the hydrodynamic size (D(H)) and ζ-potential are evaluated in terms of environment responsiveness. The physical properties of the designed flow tracer microparticles under a given condition are observed to be strongly related with the X-ray absorption efficiency, which are also supported by the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. The designed microparticles are almost nontoxic with a reasonable concentration and time period, enough to be utilized as a flow tracer in various biomedical applications. This study would contribute to the basic understanding on the physical property connected with the imaging efficiency of contrast agents.

  10. Intracellular fate of Ureaplasma parvum entrapped by host cellular autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiumi, Fumiko; Ogawa, Michinaga; Nakura, Yukiko; Hamada, Yusuke; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitobe, Jiro; Hiraide, Atsushi; Sakai, Norio; Takeuchi, Makoto; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2017-06-01

    Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr. After 3 hr of infection, U. parvum induced the cytosolic accumulation of galectin-3 and was subsequently entrapped by the autophagy marker LC3. However, when using atg7 -/- MEF cells, autophagy was inadequate for the complete elimination of U. parvum in HeLa cells. U. parvum also colocalized with the recycling endosome marker Rab11. Furthermore, the exosomes purified from infected HeLa cell culture medium included U. parvum. In these purified exosomes ureaplasma lipoprotein multiple banded antigen, host cellular annexin A2, CD9, and CD63 were detected. This research has successfully shown that Ureaplasma spp. utilize the host cellular membrane compartments possibly to evade the host immune system. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A study on arrangement characteristics of microparticles in sedimentation on flat and round substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eunju; Son, Minhee; Kim, Kwanoh; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Choi, Doo-Sun; Kim, Jungchul; Yoon, Seok Ho; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances of microfabrication techniques have enabled diverse structures and devices on the microscale. This fabrication method using microparticles is one of the most promising technologies because it can provide a cost effective process for large areas. So, many researchers are studying modulation and manipulation of the microparticles in solution to obtain a proper arrangement. However, the microparticles are in sedimentation status during the process in many cases, which makes it difficult to control their arrangement. In this study, droplets containing microparticles were placed on a substrate with minimal force and we investigated the arrangement of these microparticles after evaporation of the liquid. Experiments have been performed with upward and downward substrates to change the direction of gravity. The geometry of substrates was also changed, which were flat or round. The results show that the arrangement depends on the size of particles and gravity and geometry of the substrate. The arrangement also depends on the movement of the contact line of the droplets, which may recede or be pinned during evaporation. This study is expected to provide a method of the fabrication process for microparticles which may not be easily manipulated due to sedimentation.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of gel containing novel elastic niosomes entrapped with diclofenac diethylammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, A; Jantrawut, P; Manosroi, J

    2008-08-06

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel elastic bilayer vesicle entrapped with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac diethylammonium (DCFD) for topical use. Eighteen bilayer vesicular formulations composing of DPPC or Tween 61 or Span 60 mixed with cholesterol (at 1:1, 3:7 and 1:1 molar ratios, respectively) and ethanol at 0-25% (v/v), by chloroform film method with sonication were developed. The elastic Tween 61 niosomes which gave no sedimentation, no layer separation, unchanged particle sizes (about 200 nm) were selected to entrap DCFD. The entrapment efficiency of the drug in the conventional and elastic Tween 61 niosomes was 65 and 93%, respectively. At least 87% of DCFD determined by HPLC remained in elastic Tween 61 niosomes when kept at 4, 27 and 45 degrees C for 3 months. The deformability index values of the elastic niosomes were 13.76 and 3.44 times higher than the conventional niosomes entrapped and not entrapped with the drug, respectively, indicating the higher flexibility of the elastic vesicle especially, when entrapped with the drug. Transdermal absorption through excised rat skin was performed by vertical Franz diffusion cell at 32+/-2 degrees C for 6h. Gel containing elastic niosomes exhibited fluxes of DCFD in the stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layer (viable epidermis and dermis, VED) and receiver chamber at 191.27+/-9.52, 16.97+/-2.77 and 3.76+/-0.54 microg/(cm2 h), whereas the commercial emulgel, containing an equivalent DCFD, gave 60.84+/-13.63, 7.33+/-1.70 and 0.14+/-0.01 microg/(cm2 h), respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced rat ear edema (n=3). DCFD entrapped in the developed elastic niosomes and incorporated in gel gave the same ear edema inhibition percentages of 23.81% at 30 min, but 2 and 9 times more inhibition percentages at 45 and 60 min than the commercial emulgel, respectively. This result has not only demonstrated the

  13. On the origin of microparticles: From “platelet dust” to mediators of intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargett, Leslie A.; Bauer, Natalie N.

    2013-01-01

    Microparticles are submicron vesicles shed from a variety of cells. Peter Wolf first identified microparticles in the midst of ongoing blood coagulation research in 1967 as a product of platelets. He termed them platelet dust. Although initially thought to be useless cellular trash, decades of research focused on the tiny vesicles have defined their roles as participators in coagulation, cellular signaling, vascular injury, and homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the science leading up to the discovery of microparticles, feature discoveries made by key contributors to the field of microparticle research, and discuss their positive and negative impact on the pulmonary circulation. PMID:24015332

  14. Circulating levels of cell-derived microparticles are reduced by mild hypobaric hypoxia: data from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Ferry, Berne; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Sadler, Ross; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Huber, Reto; Achermann, Peter; Bloch, Konrad E; Kohler, Malcolm

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxia is known to induce the release of microparticles in vitro. However, few publications have addressed the role of hypoxia in vivo on circulating levels of microparticles. This randomised, controlled, crossover trial aimed to determine the effect of mild hypoxia on in vivo levels of circulating microparticles in healthy individuals. Blood was obtained from 51 healthy male volunteers (mean age of 26.9 years) at baseline altitude (490 m) and after 24 and 48 h at moderate altitude (2,590 m). The order of altitude exposure was randomised. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet-poor plasma for levels of circulating microparticles derived from platelets, endothelial cells, leucocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, red blood cells and procoagulant microparticles. Mean (standard deviation) oxygen saturation was significantly lower on the first and second day after arrival at 2,590 m, 91.0 (2.0) and 92.0 (2.0) %, respectively, compared to 490 m, 96 (1.0) %, p microparticles (annexin V+ -221/μl 95 % CI -370.8/-119.0, lactadherin+ -202/μl 95 % CI -372.2/-93.1), platelet-derived microparticles (-114/μl 95 % CI -189.9/-51.0) and red blood cell-derived microparticles (-81.4 μl 95 % CI -109.9/-57.7) after 48 h at moderate altitude was found. Microparticles derived from endothelial cells, granulocytes, monocytes and leucocytes were not significantly altered by exposure to moderate altitude. In healthy male individuals, mild hypobaric hypoxia, induced by a short-term stay at moderate altitude, is associated with lower levels of procoagulant microparticles, platelet-derived microparticles and red blood cell-derived microparticles, suggesting a reduction in thrombotic potential.

  15. Intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensing with a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward H.; van der Werf, Kees O; Hollink, Anton J F; Wörhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, René M; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide on a silicon substrate is demonstrated. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single micro-particles with diameters

  16. Nicotine-magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Rades, Thomas; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle...

  17. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van der Werf, Kees; Hollink, Anton; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped aluminium oxide is presented. Single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are detected.

  18. Luminescence investigation of Yb3+/Er3+ codoped single LiYF4 microparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei; Zheng, Hairong; He, Enjie; Lu, Ying; Gao, Fangqi

    2014-01-01

    Tetragonal phase LiYF 4 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ microparticles are synthesized via facile hydrothermal method. Single LiYF 4 microparticle is excited with IR laser at 980 nm in a confocal setup, and strong green and weak red emissions are observed. It is found that single LiYF 4 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ microparticle with sub-structure presents stronger upconversion luminescence emission and smaller intensity ratio of red to green emission than that from LiYF 4 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ microparticle with no sub-structure. The possible mechanism, the influence of particle size and the existence of EDTA on the upconversion luminescence emission are investigated. The current study suggests that the luminescence observation with single micropaticle can effectively avoid the influence of environment and neighbor particles, which is important for investigating the luminescence properties of micro- or nano-crystals and for extending their application. - Highlights: • Single LiYF 4 microparticle is excited with IR laser at 980 nm in a confocal setup, and strong green and weak red emissions are observed. • Single LiYF 4 microparticle with different morphology exhibits different fluorescence emission intensity and intensity ratio of red to green emission. • The possible mechanism, the influence of particle size and the existence of EDTA on the upconversion emission are investigated

  19. Functionalised alginate flow seeding microparticles for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sylvana; Balagué, Isaac; Sancho, Irene; Ertürk, Nihal; Ferrando, Montserrat; Vernet, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Alginate microparticles as flow seeding fulfil all the requirements that are recommended for the velocity measurements in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). These spherical microparticles offer the advantage of being environmentally friendly, having excellent seeding properties and they can be produced via a very simple process. In the present study, the performances of alginate microparticles functionalised with a fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), for PIV have been studied. The efficacy of fluorescence is appreciated in a number of PIV applications since it can boost the signal-to-noise ratio. Alginate microparticles functionalised with RhB have high emission efficiency, desirable match with fluid density and controlled size. The study of the particles behaviour in strong acid and basic solutions and ammonia is also included. This type of particles can be used for measurements with PIV and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) simultaneously, including acid-base reactions.

  20. Red blood cell-derived microparticles isolated from blood units initiate and propagate thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels; Kohl, Kid; Tucker, Erik I; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are small phospholipid vesicles shed from RBCs in blood units, where they accumulate during storage. Because microparticles are bioactive, it could be suggested that RMPs are mediators of posttransfusion complications or, on the contrary, constitute a potential hemostatic agent. This study was performed to establish the impact on coagulation of RMPs isolated from blood units. Using calibrated automated thrombography, we investigated whether RMPs affect thrombin generation (TG) in plasma. We found that RMPs were not only able to increase TG in plasma in the presence of a low exogenous tissue factor (TF) concentration, but also to initiate TG in plasma in absence of exogenous TF. TG induced by RMPs in the absence of exogenous TF was neither affected by the presence of blocking anti-TF nor by the absence of Factor (F)VII. It was significantly reduced in plasma deficient in FVIII or F IX and abolished in FII-, FV-, FX-, or FXI-deficient plasma. TG was also totally abolished when anti-XI 01A6 was added in the sample. Finally, neither Western blotting, flow cytometry, nor immunogold labeling allowed the detection of traces of TF antigen. In addition, RMPs did not comprise polyphosphate, an important modulator of coagulation. Taken together, our data show that RMPs have FXI-dependent procoagulant properties and are able to initiate and propagate TG. The anionic surface of RMPs might be the site of FXI-mediated TG amplification and intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complex assembly. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Characterization of spray dried bioadhesive metformin microparticles for oromucosal administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios...... be prepared and analyzed using the ex vivo retention model. We observed an increase in metformin retention on porcine mucosa with increasing chitosan:metformin ratios, while no effect of increasing the chitosan molecular weight was found. Rheological characterization of feeds for spray drying was performed...... and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could...

  2. Grey water biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  3. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions

  4. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Chiva-Blanch

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke.Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls.Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions.Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger

  5. Circulating cell-derived microparticles in patients with minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, L; Ferry, B; Craig, S; Nicoll, D; Stradling, J R; Kohler, M

    2009-03-01

    Moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been associated with several pro-atherogenic mechanisms and increased cardiovascular risk, but it is not known if minimally symptomatic OSA has similar effects. Circulating cell-derived microparticles have been shown to have pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and endothelial function-impairing effects, as well as to predict subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. In 57 patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, and 15 closely matched control subjects without OSA, AnnexinV-positive, platelet-, leukocyte- and endothelial cell-derived microparticles were measured by flow cytometry. In patients with OSA, median (interquartile range) levels of AnnexinV-positive microparticles were significantly elevated compared with control subjects: 2,586 (1,566-3,964) microL(-1) versus 1,206 (474-2,501) microL(-1), respectively. Levels of platelet-derived and leukocyte-derived microparticles were also significantly higher in patients with OSA (2,267 (1,102-3,592) microL(-1) and 20 (14-31) microL(-1), respectively) compared with control subjects (925 (328-2,068) microL(-1) and 15 (5-23) microL(-1), respectively). Endothelial cell-derived microparticle levels were similar in patients with OSA compared with control subjects (13 (8-25) microL(-1) versus 11 (6-17) microL(-1)). In patients with minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea, levels of AnnexinV-positive, platelet- and leukocyte-derived microparticles are elevated when compared with closely matched control subjects without obstructive sleep apnoea. These findings suggest that these patients may be at increased cardiovascular risk, despite being minimally symptomatic.

  6. Physical Characterization of Mouse Deep Vein Thrombosis Derived Microparticles by Differential Filtration with Nanopore Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Peramo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of making advancements in the area of pro-thrombotic microparticle characterization in cardiovascular biology, we present a novel method to separate blood circulating microparticles using a membrane-based, nanopore filtration system. In this qualitative study, electron microscopy observations of these pro-thrombotic mouse microparticles, as well as mouse platelets and leukocytes obtained using a mouse inferior vena cava ligation model of deep-vein thrombosis are presented. In particular, we present mouse microparticle morphology and microstructure using SEM and TEM indicating that they appear to be mostly spherical with diameters in the 100 to 350 nm range. The nanopore filtration technique presented is focused on the development of novel methodologies to isolate and characterize blood circulating microparticles that can be used in conjunction with other methodologies. We believe that determination of microparticle size and structure is a critical step for the development of reliable assays with clinical or research application in thrombosis and it will contribute to the field of nanomedicine in thrombosis.

  7. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  8. Increased CD39 Nucleotidase Activity on Microparticles from Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visovatti, Scott H.; Hyman, Matthew C.; Bouis, Diane; Neubig, Richard; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Pinsky, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a devastating disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, and in situ thrombosis. Circulating intravascular ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine activate purinergic cell signaling pathways and appear to induce many of the same pathologic processes that underlie IPAH. Extracellular dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP and AMP occurs primarily via CD39 (ENTPD1), an ectonucleotidase found on the surface of leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells [1]. Microparticles are micron-sized phospholipid vesicles formed from the membranes of platelets and endothelial cells. Objectives: Studies here examine whether CD39 is an important microparticle surface nucleotidase, and whether patients with IPAH have altered microparticle-bound CD39 activity that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. Methodology/ Principal Findings Kinetic parameters, inhibitor blocking experiments, and immunogold labeling with electron microscopy support the role of CD39 as a major nucleotidase on the surface of microparticles. Comparison of microparticle surface CD39 expression and nucleotidase activity in 10 patients with advanced IPAH and 10 healthy controls using flow cytometry and thin layer chromatograph demonstrate the following: 1) circulating platelet (CD39+CD31+CD42b+) and endothelial (CD39+CD31+CD42b−) microparticle subpopulations in patients with IPAH show increased CD39 expression; 2) microparticle ATPase and ADPase activity in patients with IPAH is increased. Conclusions/ Significance We demonstrate for the first time increased CD39 expression and function on circulating microparticles in patients with IPAH. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these findings identify an important trigger for the development of the disease, or reflect a physiologic response to IPAH. PMID:22792409

  9. Effect of cracks in coating on gas release from a fuel microparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, A.G.; Gudkov, A.N.; Tselishchev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of cracks in protective coating on gas release from a fuel microparticle is investigated in a general form. A fuel microparticle comprizing a kern, a buffer layer and an external protective coating is considered. The pressure of radioactive inert gases in the microparticle buffer layer is evaluated within the 1000-1800 K temperature range on the base of diffusion-defect-trap transport theory. It is shown that the process of radionuclide adsorption interaction with the coating material leads to a more abrupt than by exponent, weakening of mass transfer coefficient. In this case for long-living isotopes the effect of adsorption processes manifests weaker than for short-living ones. Mass transfer coefficient for the crack system depends sufficiently on the total pressure of gas mixture under the coating while for a single cracks such dependence is not observed. A conclusion is drawn that the obtained ratios can be applied for evaluating the character of fuel microparticle protective coating destruction (single non-intersecting cracks or a crack system) using the data on various nuclide release. These ratios can be also applied for the choice of the coating thichness under which gaseous fission product release from the fuel microparticle in case of its protective coating failure does not exceed the acceptable limits

  10. Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; de Bruin, G.J.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Reinten, Hans; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Wijshoff, H.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The stability of inkjet printers is a major requirement for high-quality-printing. However, in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, air entrapment can lead to malfunctioning of the jet formation. The piezoactuator is employed to actively monitor the channel acoustics and to identify distortions at an

  11. Hierarchical assembly of viral nanotemplates with encoded microparticles via nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wui Siew; Lewis, Christina L; Horelik, Nicholas E; Pregibon, Daniel C; Doyle, Patrick S; Yi, Hyunmin

    2008-11-04

    We demonstrate hierarchical assembly of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based nanotemplates with hydrogel-based encoded microparticles via nucleic acid hybridization. TMV nanotemplates possess a highly defined structure and a genetically engineered high density thiol functionality. The encoded microparticles are produced in a high throughput microfluidic device via stop-flow lithography (SFL) and consist of spatially discrete regions containing encoded identity information, an internal control, and capture DNAs. For the hybridization-based assembly, partially disassembled TMVs were programmed with linker DNAs that contain sequences complementary to both the virus 5' end and a selected capture DNA. Fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and confocal microscopy results clearly indicate facile assembly of TMV nanotemplates onto microparticles with high spatial and sequence selectivity. We anticipate that our hybridization-based assembly strategy could be employed to create multifunctional viral-synthetic hybrid materials in a rapid and high-throughput manner. Additionally, we believe that these viral-synthetic hybrid microparticles may find broad applications in high capacity, multiplexed target sensing.

  12. Use of prebiotic carbohydrate as wall material on lime essential oil microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, Pedro Henrique; Figueiredo, Jayne de Abreu; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the use of different prebiotic biopolymers in lime essential oil microencapsulation. Whey protein isolate, inulin and oligofructose biopolymers were used. The addition of prebiotic biopolymers reduced emulsion viscosity, although it produced larger droplet sizes (0.31-0.32 µm). Moisture values (2.94-3.13 g/100 g dry solids) and water activity (0.152-0.185) were satisfactory, being within the appropriate range for powdered food quality. Total oil content, limonene retention values and antioxidant activity of the microparticles containing essential oil decreased in the presence of the carbohydrates. The addition of prebiotic biopolymers reduced the microparticle thermal stability. X-ray diffraction confirmed the amorphous characteristic of the microparticles and the interaction of the essential oil with the wall material. The presence of prebiotic biopolymers can be a good alternative for lime essential oil microparticles, mainly using fibre that has a functional food appeal and can improve consumer health.

  13. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Microparticles in high-voltage accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.L.; Eastham, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Microparticles with radii greater than 2 μm have been observed in a high voltage vacuum accelerator tube. The charge acquired by most of the particles is similar to the contact charging of a conducting sphere on a plane. (author)

  15. Microparticles and Exosomes in Gynecologic Neoplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, Rienk; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Lok Gemma, Christianne A. R.; Kenter, G.; Sturk, Augueste

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the functions of microparticles and exosomes in gynecologic neoplasias. Growing evidence suggests that vesicles released from cancer cells in gynecologic malignancies contribute to the hypercoagulable state of these patients and contribute to tumor progression by

  16. Results of conservative, surgical treatment and rehabilitation of entrapment neuropathies in elderly patients in geriatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Główczewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropahies of upper limbs can cause mainly nocturnal neuropathic pain and impaired manual dexterity. The most common entrapment neuropathy is carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar groove syndrome - ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow. Treatment of entrapment neuropathies is both analgetic therapy and physiotherapy. In the cases of conservative treatment inefficiencies surgical decompression of nerves is performed. Authors of this oublication present results of both conservative  and surgical of entrapment neuropathies in patients over 65 years old. Among the 17 patients with entraoment neuropathies 12 of them underwent surgical treatment. Achieved partial improvement in pain, mostly nocturnal and improving the quality of life and dexterity. In comparison, however, a group of younger patients who underwent surgery for the improvement was less spectacular, which may testify advancement and irreversibility of changes in older patients.

  17. Entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women’s identity, agency and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four...... in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women’s identities and agency are expressed in the context...... of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims’ apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants’ discursive accounts further suggest that stay/leave decisions of battered women in Ghana...

  18. Neurokinin 1 Receptor Mediates Membrane Blebbing and Sheer Stress-Induced Microparticle Formation in HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Panpan; Douglas, Steven D.; Meshki, John; Tuluc, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP). We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2–10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing. PMID:23024816

  19. Neurokinin 1 receptor mediates membrane blebbing and sheer stress-induced microparticle formation in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Chen

    Full Text Available Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP. We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2-10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing.

  20. Medical image of the week: lung entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 10 years ago treated with lumpectomy and radiation presented for evaluation of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with left sided pleural effusion which was recurrent requiring multiple thoracenteses. There was increased pleural fludeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on PET-CT indicative of recurrent metastatic disease. She underwent a medical pleuroscopy since the pleural effusion analysis did not reveal malignant cells although the suspicion was high and tunneled pleural catheter placement as adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Figure 1 shows a pleurscopic view of the collapsed left lung and the effusion in the left hemi thorax. Figure 2 shows extensive involvement of the visceral pleura with metastatic disease preventing complete lung inflation. Figure 3 shows persistent pneumothorax-ex-vacuo despite pleural catheter placement confirming the diagnosis of entrapment. Incomplete lung inflation can be due to pleural disease, endobronchial lesions or chronic telecasts. Lung entrapment and trapped lung ...

  1. Imaging efficiency of an X-ray contrast agent-incorporated polymeric microparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Jung, Sung Yong; Lee, Jin Pyung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric encapsulants have been widely used as a delivery vehicle for a variety of drugs and imaging agents. In this study, X-ray contrast agent (iopamidol) is encapsulated into a polymeric microparticle (polyvinyl alcohol) as a particulate flow tracer in synchrotron X-ray imaging system. The physical properties of the designed microparticles are investigated and correlated with enhancement in the imaging efficiency by experimental observation and theoretical interpretation. The X-ray absorption ability of the designed microparticle is assessed by Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Particle size, either in dried state or in solvent, primarily dominates the X-ray absorption ability under the given condition, thus affecting imaging efficiency of the designed X-ray contrast flow tracers. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I-Ching Kuan; Chia-Chi Lee; Bing-Hong Tsai; Shiow-Ling Lee; Wei-Ting Lee; Chi-Yang Yu [Department of Bioengineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil) and n-hexane content (w/w of oil) were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 deg C or room temperature.

  3. A Comparison of Aerosolization and Homogenization Techniques for Production of Alginate Microparticles for Delivery of Corticosteroids to the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samak, Yassmin O; El Massik, Magda; Coombes, Allan G A

    2017-01-01

    Alginate microparticles incorporating hydrocortisone hemisuccinate were produced by aerosolization and homogenization methods to investigate their potential for colonic drug delivery. Microparticle stabilization was achieved by CaCl 2 crosslinking solution (0.5 M and 1 M), and drug loading was accomplished by diffusion into blank microparticles or by direct encapsulation. Homogenization method produced smaller microparticles (45-50 μm), compared to aerosolization (65-90 μm). High drug loadings (40% wt/wt) were obtained for diffusion-loaded aerosolized microparticles. Aerosolized microparticles suppressed drug release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) prior to drug release in simulated colonic fluid (SCF) to a higher extent than homogenized microparticles. Microparticles prepared using aerosolization or homogenization (1 M CaCl 2 , diffusion loaded) released 5% and 17% of drug content after 2 h in SGF and 4 h in SIF, respectively, and 75% after 12 h in SCF. Thus, aerosolization and homogenization techniques show potential for producing alginate microparticles for colonic drug delivery in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward H.; van der Werf, Kees O; Hollink, Anton J F; Worhoff, Kerstin; De Ridder, Rene M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    2013-01-01

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in Al2O3:Yb3+ is presented. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single microparticles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are

  5. Diagnosis of Popliteal Venous Entrapment Syndrome by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Blood-Pool Contrast Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitzke, Dietrich; Wolf, Florian; Juelg, Gregor; Lammer, Johannes; Loewe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome is caused by aberrations or hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius muscles, which compress the neurovascular structures of the popliteal fossa, leading to symptoms of vascular and degeneration as well as aneurysm formation. Imaging of popliteal vascular entrapment may be performed with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography angiography, and conventional angiography. The use of blood-pool contrast agents in MRI when popliteal vascular entrapment is suspected offers the possibility to perform vascular imaging with first-pass magnetic resonance angiographic, high-resolution, steady-state imaging and allows functional tests all within one examination with a single dose of contrast agent. We present imaging findings in a case of symptomatic popliteal vein entrapment diagnosed by the use of blood pool contrast-enhanced MRI.

  6. Microparticle-initiated losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.W.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The author's discuss the effects of high and hypervelocity microparticles in magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and how they may be a possible source for ion production near the anode in early stages of the voltage pulse, and current carriers during and after the power pulse, resulting in power flow losses. Early losses in the voltage pulse, due to microparticles, are estimated to be approximately 0.3 mA/cm/sup 2/. Blistering of the electrode surface, thought to be due to H/sup -/ bombardment, was also observed and appears to be consistent with losses due to negative ions previously reported by one of the authors

  7. Biomimetic Molecular Signaling using DNA Walkers on Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damase, Tulsi Ram; Spencer, Adam; Samuel, Bamidele; Allen, Peter B

    2017-06-22

    We report the release of catalytic DNA walkers from hydrogel microparticles and the detection of those walkers by substrate-coated microparticles. This might be considered a synthetic biology analog of molecular signal release and reception. One type of particles was coated with components of a DNA one-step strand displacement (OSD) reaction to release the walker. A second type of particle was coated with substrate (or "track") for the molecular walker. We distinguish these particle types using fluorescence barcoding: we synthesized and distinguished multiple particle types with multicolor fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis software. This represents a step toward amplified, multiplex, and microscopically localized detection based on DNA nanotechnology.

  8. Procoagulant, tissue factor-bearing microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage of interstitial lung disease patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Novelli

    Full Text Available Coagulation factor Xa appears involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Through its interaction with protease activated receptor-1, this protease signals myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Although fibrogenic stimuli induce factor X synthesis by alveolar cells, the mechanisms of local posttranslational factor X activation are not fully understood. Cell-derived microparticles are submicron vesicles involved in different physiological processes, including blood coagulation; they potentially activate factor X due to the exposure on their outer membrane of both phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We postulated a role for procoagulant microparticles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Nineteen patients with interstitial lung diseases and 11 controls were studied. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage; interstitial lung disease patients also underwent pulmonary function tests and high resolution CT scan. Microparticles were enumerated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with a solid-phase assay based on thrombin generation. Microparticles were also tested for tissue factor activity. In vitro shedding of microparticles upon incubation with H₂O₂ was assessed in the human alveolar cell line, A549 and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue factor synthesis was quantitated by real-time PCR. Total microparticle number and microparticle-associated tissue factor activity were increased in interstitial lung disease patients compared to controls (84±8 vs. 39±3 nM phosphatidylserine; 293±37 vs. 105±21 arbitrary units of tissue factor activity; mean±SEM; p<.05 for both comparisons. Microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was inversely correlated with lung function as assessed by both diffusion capacity and forced vital capacity (r² = .27 and .31, respectively; p<.05 for both correlations. Exposure of lung epithelial cells to H₂O₂ caused an increase in microparticle-bound tissue factor

  9. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  10. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Claudia; Degoutin, Stephanie; Chai, Feng; Raoul, Gwenael; Hornez, Jean-Chritophe; Martel, Bernard; Siepmann, Juergen; Ferri, Joel; Blanchemain, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the macroporosity

  11. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Claudia [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Degoutin, Stephanie [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Chai, Feng [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Raoul, Gwenael [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Hornez, Jean-Chritophe [Laboratoire des Matériaux Céramiques et Procédés Associés (LMCPA), Université de Valenciennes, 59300 Valenciennes (France); Martel, Bernard [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Siepmann, Juergen [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Ferri, Joel [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Blanchemain, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.blanchemain@univ-lille2.fr [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France)

    2016-07-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the

  12. Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune response with intranasal immunization of mice with HIV peptides entrapped in PLG microparticles in combination with Ulex Europaeus-I lectin as M cell target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Monika; Pal, Pramod Chandra; Chitralekha, K T; Thomas, Beena Elizabeth; Tripathi, Vinita; Gupta, Siddhartha Dutta; Paranjape, Ramesh; Kulkarni, Smita; Rao, D Nageswara

    2005-12-01

    The predominant route of HIV infection is through the sexual transmission via M cells. Most of the peptide and protein vaccines show poor transport across the epithelial barrier and are commonly administered by parenteral route. In the present study four HIV peptides from envelope (gp 41-LZ (leucine zipper), gp 41-FD (fusion domain) and gp120-C2) and regulatory (Nef) region in poly lactic-co-glycolide (PLG) micro-particle delivery were evaluated in mice of outbred and with different genetic background to compare immune response versus MHC restriction. Out of the combinational and single routes of immunization attempted, the single route maintained the IgG, IgA and sIgA in sera and washes for longer duration as compared to combinational routes in which the response was declined. The study demonstrated that single intranasal immunization offered significantly higher immune response (pPP>or=SP. The cytokine measurement profile of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-6 and low levels of IL-4 in the cultural supernatants of SP, PP and LP showed mixed CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 immune response. The p24 assay showed high percent inhibition of HIV-IIIB virus with sera and washes obtained from intranasal route. Thus, overall the study highlighted the combination of UEA-1 lectin with HIV peptides in micro-particles through intranasal immunization generated systemic as well as mucosal immune response.

  13. Association between cell-derived microparticles and adverse events in patients with nonpulsatile left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Angelo; Hernandez, Ruben; George, Joggy K; Parker, Anita; Bergeron, Angela L; Pradhan, Subhashree; Vijayan, K Vinod; Civitello, Andrew; Simpson, Leo; Nawrot, Maria; Lee, Vei-Vei; Mallidi, Hari R; Delgado, Reynolds M; Dong, Jing Fei; Frazier, O H

    2014-05-01

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) expose blood cells to high shear stress, potentially resulting in the production of microparticles that express phosphatidylserine (PS+) and promote coagulation and inflammation. In this prospective study, we attempted to determine whether PS+ microparticle levels correlate with clinical outcomes in LVAD-supported patients. We enrolled 20 patients undergoing implantation of the HeartMate II LVAD (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, CA) and 10 healthy controls who provided reference values for the microparticle assays. Plasma was collected before LVAD implantation, at discharge, at the 3-month follow-up, and when an adverse clinical event occurred. We quantified PS+ microparticles in the plasma using flow cytometry. During the study period, 8 patients developed adverse clinical events: ventricular tachycardia storm in 1, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 2, arterial thrombosis in 2, gastrointestinal bleeding in 2, and stroke in 3. Levels of PS+ microparticles were higher in patients at baseline than in healthy controls (2.11% ± 1.26% vs 0.69% ± 0.46%, p = 0.007). After LVAD implantation, patient PS+ microparticle levels increased to 2.39% ± 1.22% at discharge and then leveled to 1.97% ± 1.25% at the 3-month follow-up. Importantly, levels of PS+ microparticles were significantly higher in patients who developed an adverse event than in patients with no events (3.82% ± 1.17% vs 1.57% ± 0.59%, p microparticle levels may be associated with adverse clinical events. Thus, measuring PS+ microparticle levels in LVAD-supported patients may help identify patients at increased risk for adverse events. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of microparticles in dynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten, K A; Pruuel, E R; Kashkarov, A O; Rubtsov, I A; Shechtman, L I; Zhulanov, V V; Tolochko, B P; Rykovanov, G N; Muzyrya, A K; Smirnov, E B; Stolbikov, M Yu; Prosvirnin, K M

    2016-01-01

    When a metal plate is subjected to a strong shock impact, its free surface emits a flow of particles of different sizes (shock-wave “dusting”). Traditionally, the process of dusting is investigated by the methods of pulsed x-ray or piezoelectric sensor or via an optical technique. The particle size ranges from a few microns to hundreds of microns. The flow is assumed to include also finer particles, which cannot be detected with the existing methods yet. On the accelerator complex VEPP-3-VEPP-4 at the BINP there are two experiment stations for research on fast processes, including explosion ones. The stations enable measurement of both passed radiation (absorption) and small-angle x-ray scattering on synchrotron radiation (SR). Radiation is detected with a precision high-speed detector DIMEX. The detector has an internal memory of 32 frames, which enables recording of the dynamics of the process (shooting of movies) with intervals of 250 ns to 2 μ s. Flows of nano- and microparticles from free surfaces of various materials (copper and tin) have been examined. Microparticle flows were emitted from grooves of 50-200 μ s in size and joints (gaps) between metal parts. With the soft x-ray spectrum of SR one can explore the dynamics of a single microjet of micron size. The dynamics of density distribution along micro jets were determined. Under a shock wave (∼ 60 GPa) acting on tin disks, flows of microparticles from a smooth surface were recorded. (paper)

  15. Quasi-static motion of microparticles at the depinning contact line of an evaporating droplet on PDMS surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Song; Xia, Xue-Lian; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Xianfu; Zhou, Jin-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, evaporation of sessile water droplets containing fluorescent polystyrene (PS) microparticles on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with different curing ratios was studied experimentally using laser confocal microscopy. At the beginning, there were some microparticles located at the contact line and some microparticles moved towards the line. Due to contact angle hysteresis, at first both the contact line and the microparticles were pinned. With the depinning contact line, the microparticles moved together spontaneously. Using the software ImageJ, the location of contact lines at different time were acquired and the circle centers and radii of the contact lines were obtained via the least square method. Then the average distance of two neighbor contact lines at a certain time interval was obtained to characterize the motion of the contact line. Fitting the distance-time curve at the depinning contact line stage with polynomials and differentiating the polynomials with time, we obtained the velocity and acceleration of both the contact line and the microparticles located at the line. The velocity and the maximum acceleration were, respectively, of the orders of 1 μm/s and 20-200 nm/s2, indicating that the motion of the microparticles located at the depinning contact line was quasi-static. Finally, we presented a theoretical model to describe the quasi-static process, which may help in understanding both self-pinning and depinning of microparticles.

  16. Sustained release nimesulide microparticles: evaluation of release modifying property of ethy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Ahmed, M.; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Madni, A.U.; Aamir, M.N.; Murtaza, G.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated controlled-release preparations of nimesulide were formulated. Microparticles were prepared by modified phase separation (non-solvent addition) technique using different ratios of ethylcellulose. The microparticles (M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/) were yellow, free flowing and spherical in shape with the particle size varying from 93.62 +- 14.15 to 104.19 +- 18.15 mu m. The t/sub 60%/of nimesulide release from microparticles was found to be 3 +- 0.6, 5 +- 0.6 and 8 +- 0.8 h for formulations M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/, respectively. FT-IR, XRD, and thermal analysis were done which showed that there is no interaction between the polymer and drug. The mechanism of drug release from nimesulide microparticles was studied by using Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The value of coefficient of determination (R/sup 2/) for M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/ indicates anomalous and case-II transport release mechanism. The dissolution data of designed system verified its ability to maintain plasma concentration without the need of frequent dosing. The Nimesulide microparticles prolonged drug release for 12 hours or longer. Based on the results of release studies, M/sub 3/ was opted as a suitable microparticulate formulation allowing the controlled release of nimesulide over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, its encapsulation efficiency was also comparable to the other two formulations (M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/). In conclusion, the influence of polymer concentration should be considered during formulation development. (author)

  17. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1 and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5 from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05. Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system.

  18. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Luping; Yu, Zhengyu; Pang, Fengjiao; Xu, Xiangwei; Mao, Aihua; Yuan, Wanzhe; He, Kongwang; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells) within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5)] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5) from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system. PMID:29423381

  19. Incidence of tendon entrapment and dislocation with calcaneus and pilon fractures on CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresley, Jonathan [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Subhawong, Ty K.; Singer, Adam D.; Clifford, Paul D. [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To examine the association between tibial pilon and calcaneal fracture classification and tendon entrapment or dislocation. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive CT scans with calcaneal or pilon fractures from 5 years at a level 1 trauma center. We categorized calcaneal fractures according to the Sanders classification, and pilon fractures according to the Ruedi and Allgower and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthesefragen-Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA) classifications. Ankle tendons were assessed for dislocation or entrapment. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. A total of 312 fractures (91 pilon only, 193 calcaneal only, and 14 ankles with ipsilateral pilon and calcaneal fractures) were identified in 273 patients. Twenty-two pilon, 42 calcaneal, and nine combination fractures were associated with 99 occurrences of tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Such findings were associated with multiple fractures (p = 0.002). Multifragmentary pilon fractures were associated with posterior tibial and flexor digitorum longus tendon entrapment (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 for Ruedi/Allgower and AO-OTA, respectively), and multifragmentary Sanders type 3 or 4 calcaneal fractures were associated with superior peroneal retinacular injury (p = 0.0473) compared to simple fracture patterns. Thirty-nine percent of tendon entrapments or retinacular injuries were prospectively identified, 85 % by musculoskeletal radiologists (p < 0.0001). Approximately 25 % of calcaneal and pilon fractures were retrospectively identified to contain posteromedial tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Radiologists should meticulously search for such injuries, particularly when analyzing multifragmentary and multiple fractures. (orig.)

  20. Incidence of tendon entrapment and dislocation with calcaneus and pilon fractures on CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresley, Jonathan; Subhawong, Ty K.; Singer, Adam D.; Clifford, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between tibial pilon and calcaneal fracture classification and tendon entrapment or dislocation. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive CT scans with calcaneal or pilon fractures from 5 years at a level 1 trauma center. We categorized calcaneal fractures according to the Sanders classification, and pilon fractures according to the Ruedi and Allgower and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthesefragen-Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA) classifications. Ankle tendons were assessed for dislocation or entrapment. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. A total of 312 fractures (91 pilon only, 193 calcaneal only, and 14 ankles with ipsilateral pilon and calcaneal fractures) were identified in 273 patients. Twenty-two pilon, 42 calcaneal, and nine combination fractures were associated with 99 occurrences of tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Such findings were associated with multiple fractures (p = 0.002). Multifragmentary pilon fractures were associated with posterior tibial and flexor digitorum longus tendon entrapment (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 for Ruedi/Allgower and AO-OTA, respectively), and multifragmentary Sanders type 3 or 4 calcaneal fractures were associated with superior peroneal retinacular injury (p = 0.0473) compared to simple fracture patterns. Thirty-nine percent of tendon entrapments or retinacular injuries were prospectively identified, 85 % by musculoskeletal radiologists (p < 0.0001). Approximately 25 % of calcaneal and pilon fractures were retrospectively identified to contain posteromedial tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Radiologists should meticulously search for such injuries, particularly when analyzing multifragmentary and multiple fractures. (orig.)

  1. Effect of exercise intensity on circulating microparticles in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Daniel D; Lansford, Kasey A; Hempel, Hannah K; Call, Jarrod A; Murrow, Jonathan R; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of exercise intensity on circulating microparticle populations in young, healthy men and women? What is the main finding and its importance? Acute, moderate-intensity continuous exercise and high-intensity interval exercise altered distinct microparticle populations during and after exercise in addition to a sex-specific response in CD62E + microparticles. The microparticles studied contribute to cardiovascular disease progression, regulate vascular function and facilitate new blood vessel formation. Thus, characterizing the impact of intensity on exercise-induced microparticle responses advances our understanding of potential mechanisms underlying the beneficial vascular adaptations to exercise. Circulating microparticles (MPs) are biological vectors of information within the cardiovascular system that elicit both deleterious and beneficial effects on the vasculature. Acute exercise has been shown to alter MP concentrations, probably through a shear stress-dependent mechanism, but evidence is limited. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity on plasma levels of CD34 + and CD62E + MPs in young, healthy men and women. Blood samples were collected before, during and after two energy-matched bouts of acute treadmill exercise: interval exercise (10 × 1 min intervals at ∼95% of maximal oxygen uptake V̇O2max) and continuous exercise (65% V̇O2max). Continuous exercise, but not interval exercise, reduced CD62E + MP concentrations in men and women by 18% immediately after exercise (from 914.5 ± 589.6 to 754.4 ± 390.5 MPs μl -1 ; P interval exercise did not alter CD62E + MPs per se, the concentrations after interval exercise were higher than those observed after continuous exercise (P interval exercise in men or women. Our results suggest that exercise-induced MP alterations are intensity dependent and sex specific and impact MP populations differentially. © 2018 The Authors

  2. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, XRD and PIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very heterogeneous.

  3. Fish entrapment of the seawater intake of a power plant at Karachi coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, M.; Niaz Risvi, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study deals with the entrapment of fishes in the intake of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. A total of 62 species of marine fishes belonging to 43 genera were observed entrapped in the seawater intake. Therapon puta, Liza waigiensis, Abudefduf septemfasciatus, and Lagoceptalus inermis were the most common. Mass mortalities of the juveniles of Sardinella sindensis were recorded in September and October of 1974, 1975, and 1977. Commercially important fishes such as sardines, mullets and anchovies, were entrapped in the intake of the power plant in considerable numbers at various times of the year. The majority of fishes removed from the screen washes of the power plants were killed by impingement. (Auth.)

  4. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil and n-hexane content (w/w of oil were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 °C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 °C or room temperature.

  5. Functionalized diatom silica microparticles for removal of mercury ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yang; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Losic, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    Diatom silica microparticles were chemically modified with self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTES) and n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS), and their application for the adsorption of mercury ions (Hg(II)) is demonstrated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the functional groups (–SH or –NH 2 ) were successfully grafted onto the diatom silica surface. The kinetics and efficiency of Hg(II) adsorption were markedly improved by the chemical functionalization of diatom microparticles. The relationship among the type of functional groups, pH and adsorption efficiency of mercury ions was established. The Hg(II) adsorption reached equilibrium within 60 min with maximum adsorption capacities of 185.2, 131.7 and 169.5 mg g -1 for particles functionalized with MPTMS, APTES and AEAPTMS, respectively. The adsorption behavior followed a pseudo-second-order reaction model and Langmuirian isotherm. These results show that mercapto- or amino-functionalized diatom microparticles are promising natural, cost-effective and environmentally benign adsorbents suitable for the removal of mercury ions from aqueous solutions.

  6. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  7. Dynamic transformation of self-assembled structures using anisotropic magnetized hydrogel microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Takinoue, Masahiro; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a system through which the self-assembly of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles is achieved, which also enables dynamic transformation of the assembled structures. Using a centrifuge-based microfluidic device, anisotropic hydrogel microparticles encapsulating superparamagnetic materials on one side are fabricated, which respond to a magnetic field. We successfully achieve dynamic assembly using these hydrogel microparticles and realize three different self-assembled structures (single and double pearl chain structures, and close-packed structures), which can be transformed to other structures dynamically via tuning of the precessional magnetic field. We believe that the developed system has potential application as an effective platform for a dynamic cell manipulation and cultivation system, in biomimetic autonomous microrobot organization, and that it can facilitate further understanding of the self-organization and complex systems observed in nature.

  8. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  9. Development of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) microparticles for the nasal administration of exenatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millotti, Gioconda; Vetter, Anja; Leithner, Katharina; Sarti, Federica; Shahnaz Bano, Gul; Augustijns, Patrick; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a microparticulate formulation for nasal delivery of exenatide utilizing a thiolated polymer. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cys) and unmodified PAA microparticles loaded with exenatide were prepared via coprecipitation of the drug and the polymer followed by micronization. Particle size, drug load and release of incorporated exenatide were evaluated. Permeation enhancing properties of the formulations were investigated on excised porcine respiratory mucosa. The viability of the mucosa was investigated by histological studies. Furthermore, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) studies were performed. Microparticles displayed a mean size of 70-80 µm. Drug encapsulation was ∼80% for both thiolated and non-thiolated microparticles. Exenatide was released from both thiolated and non-thiolated particles in comparison to exenatide in buffer only within 40 min. As compared to exenatide dissolved in buffer only, non-thiolated and thiolated microparticles resulted in a 2.6- and 4.7-fold uptake, respectively. Histological studies performed before and after permeation studies showed that the mucosa is not damaged during permeation studies. CBF studies showed that the formulations were cilio-friendly. Based on these results, poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine-based microparticles seem to be a promising approach starting point for the nasal delivery of exenatide.

  10. Aerosol-Assisted Fast Formulating Uniform Pharmaceutical Polymer Microparticles with Variable Properties toward pH-Sensitive Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is highly attractive for oral drug delivery. Microparticles are a common form of drug carrier for this purpose. There is still a high demand on efficient methods to fabricate microparticles with uniform sizes and well-controlled particle properties. In this paper, uniform hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP-based pharmaceutical microparticles loaded with either hydrophobic or hydrophilic model drugs have been directly formulated by using a unique aerosol technique, i.e., the microfluidic spray drying technology. A series of microparticles of controllable particle sizes, shapes, and structures are fabricated by tuning the solvent composition and drying temperature. It is found that a more volatile solvent and a higher drying temperature can result in fast evaporation rates to form microparticles of larger lateral size, more irregular shape, and denser matrix. The nature of the model drugs also plays an important role in determining particle properties. The drug release behaviors of the pharmaceutical microparticles are dependent on their structural properties and the nature of a specific drug, as well as sensitive to the pH value of the release medium. Most importantly, drugs in the microparticles obtained by using a more volatile solvent or a higher drying temperature can be well protected from degradation in harsh simulated gastric fluids due to the dense structures of the microparticles, while they can be fast-released in simulated intestinal fluids through particle dissolution. These pharmaceutical microparticles are potentially useful for site-specific (enteric delivery of orally-administered drugs.

  11. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  12. The synthesis and the electric-responsiveness of hydrogels entrapping natural polyelectrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutani, Kouichi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao

    2001-01-01

    A mixture of vinyl monomer, a natural polyelectrolyte--hyaluronic acid--and crosslinker was polymerized and crosslinked to entrap the natural polymer into the synthetic gel. The controlled release of the model drug from the obtained gel was studied under the on-off switching of electric field. It was proved that electric-responsive drug releases were possible using hyaluronic acid entrapping gel and the electro-responsiveness was greatly affected by various factors such as degree of swelling, crosslinking density, kind and composition of vinyl monomer and crosslinkers

  13. The synthesis and the electric-responsiveness of hydrogels entrapping natural polyelectrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutani, Kouichi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao

    2001-04-01

    A mixture of vinyl monomer, a natural polyelectrolyte—hyaluronic acid—and crosslinker was polymerized and crosslinked to entrap the natural polymer into the synthetic gel. The controlled release of the model drug from the obtained gel was studied under the on-off switching of electric field. It was proved that electric-responsive drug releases were possible using hyaluronic acid entrapping gel and the electro-responsiveness was greatly affected by various factors such as degree of swelling, crosslinking density, kind and composition of vinyl monomer and crosslinkers.

  14. Improving the performance of electrochemical microsensors based on enzymes entrapped in a redox hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitala, J.J.; Michael, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Microsensors based on carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with enzyme-entrapping redox hydrogels facilitate the in vivo detection of substances of interest within the central nervous system, including hydrogen peroxide, glucose, choline and glutamate. The hydrogel, formed by cross-linking a redox polymer, entraps the enzymes and mediates electron transfer between the enzymes and the electrode. It is important that the enzymes are entrapped in their enzymatically active state. Should entrapment cause enzyme denaturation, the sensitivity and the selectivity of the sensor may be compromised. Synthesis of the redox polymer according to published procedures may yield a product that precipitates when added to aqueous enzyme solutions. Casting hydrogels from solutions that contain the precipitate produces microsensors with low sensitivity and selectivity, suggesting that the precipitation disrupts the structure of the enzymes. Herein, we show that a surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), can prevent the precipitation and improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors

  15. Self-organized internal architectures of chiral micro-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Clementina; Mazzulla, Alfredo; Desiderio, Giovanni; Pagliusi, Pasquale; De Santo, Maria P.; Cipparrone, Gabriella; Perrotta, Ida

    2014-01-01

    The internal architecture of polymeric self-assembled chiral micro-particles is studied by exploring the effect of the chirality, of the particle sizes, and of the interface/surface properties in the ordering of the helicoidal planes. The experimental investigations, performed by means of different microscopy techniques, show that the polymeric beads, resulting from light induced polymerization of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets, preserve both the spherical shape and the internal self-organized structures. The method used to create the micro-particles with controlled internal chiral architectures presents great flexibility providing several advantages connected to the acquired optical and photonics capabilities and allowing to envisage novel strategies for the development of chiral colloidal systems and materials

  16. Complexation as an approach to entrap cationic drugs into cationic nanoparticles administered intranasally for Alzheimer's disease management: preparation and detection in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Amira S; Farid, Ragwa M; ElGamal, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    Complexation was investigated as an approach to enhance the entrapment of the cationic neurotherapeutic drug, galantamine hydrobromide (GH) into cationic chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for Alzheimer's disease management intranasally. Biodegradable CS-NPs were selected due to their low production cost and simple preparation. The effects of complexation on CS-NPs physicochemical properties and uptake in rat brain were examined. Placebo CS-NPs were prepared by ionic gelation, and the parameters affecting their physicochemical properties were screened. The complex formed between GH and chitosan was detected by the FT-IR study. GH/chitosan complex nanoparticles (GH-CX-NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation, and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and stability for 4 and 25 °C for 3 months. Both placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were prepared, administered to male Wistar rats intranasally, and their delivery to different brain regions was detected 1 h after administration using fluorescence microscopy and software-aided image processing. Optimized placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs had a diameter 182 and 190 nm, and a zeta potential of +40.4 and +31.6 mV, respectively. GH encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 23.34 and 9.86%, respectively. GH/chitosan complexation prolonged GH release (58.07% ± 6.67 after 72 h), improved formulation stability at 4 °C in terms of drug leakage and particle size, and showed insignificant effects on the physicochemical properties of the optimized placebo CS-NPs (p > 0.05). Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were detected in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, orbitofrontal and parietal cortices. Complexation is a promising approach to enhance the entrapment of cationic GH into the CS-NPs. It has insignificant effect on the physicochemical properties of CS-NPs. GH-CX-NPs were successfully

  17. Effect of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) molecular weight on the release of dexamethasone sodium phosphate from microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraswekin, Saowanee; Prakongpan, Sompol; Bodmeier, Roland

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) molecular weight (Resomer RG 502H, RG 503H, and RG 504H) on the release behavior of dexamethasone sodium phosphate-loaded microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by three modifications of the solvent evaporation method (O/W-cosolvent, O/W-dispersion, and W/O/W-methods). The encapsulation efficiency of microparticles prepared by the cosolvent- and W/O/W-methods increased from approximately 50% to >90% upon addition of NaCl to the external aqueous phase, while the dispersion method resulted in lower encapsulation efficiencies. The release of dexamethasone sodium phosphate from PLGA microparticles (>50 microm) was biphasic. The initial burst release correlated well with the porosity of the microparticles, both of which increased with increasing polymer molecular weight (RG 504H > 503H > 502H). The burst was also dependent on the method of preparation and was in the order of dispersion method > WOW method > consolvent method. In contrast to the higher molecular weight PLGA microparticles, the release from RG 502H microparticles prepared by cosolvent method was not affected by volume of organic solvent (1.5-3.0 ml) and drug loading (4-13%). An initial burst of approximately 10% followed by a 5-week sustained release phase was obtained. Microparticles with a size <50 microm released in a triphasic manner; an initial burst was followed by a slow release phase and then by a second burst.

  18. Study of Formulation Variables Influencing Polymeric Microparticles by Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra B. Naik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare diclofenac sodium loaded microparticles by single emulsion [oil-in-water (o/w] solvent evaporation method. The 22 experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the effect of two formulation variables on microspheres properties using the Design-Expert® software and evaluated for their particle size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. The graphical and mathematical analysis of the design showed that the independent variables were a significant effect on the encapsulation efficiency and drug release of microparticles. The low magnitudes of error and significant values of R2 prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The microspheres showed high encapsulation efficiency with an increase in the amount of polymer and decrease in the amount of PVA in the formulation. The particles were found to be spherical with smooth surface. Prolonged drug release and enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of polymeric microparticles can be successfully obtained with an application of experimental design technique.

  19. Magnetic-Responsive Microparticles that Switch Shape at 37 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Uto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape-memory polymers have seen tremendous research efforts driven by the need for better drug carries and biomedical devices. In contrast to these advancements, fabrication of shape-memory particles which actuate at body temperature remains scarce. We developed a shape-memory microparticle system with dynamically tunable shapes under physiological temperature. Temperature-responsive poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL microparticles were successfully prepared by an in situ oil-in-water (o/w emulsion polymerization technique using linear telechelic and tetra-branched PCL macromonomers. By optimizing the mixing ratios of branched PCL macromonomers, the crystal-amorphous transition temperature was adjusted to the biological relevant temperature. The particles with a disk-like temporal shape were achieved by compression. The shape recovery from the disk to spherical shape was also realized at 37 °C. We also incorporated magnetic nanoparticles within the PCL microparticles, which can be remote-controllable by a magnet, in such a way that they can be actuated and manipulated in a controlled way.

  20. Development, optimization and evaluation of curcumin loaded biodegradable crosslinked gelatin film for the effective treatment of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sheetal; Bansal, Monika; Khan, Gayasuddin; Yadav, Sarita K; Singh, Ashish K; Prakash, Pradyot; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2018-07-01

    Aim of the present study was to prepare curcumin (CUR) loaded biodegradable crosslinked gelatin (GE) film to alleviate the existing shortcomings in the treatment of periodontitis. Gelatin film was optimized to provide anticipated mucoadhesive strength, mechanical properties, folding endurance, and prolonged drug release over treatment duration, for successful application in the periodontitis. The film was developed by using solvent casting technique and "Design of Experiments" approach was employed for evaluating the influence of independent variables on dependent response variables. Solid-state characterization of the film was performed by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. Further, prepared formulations were evaluated for drug content uniformity, surface pH, folding endurance, swelling index, mechanical strength, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro biodegradation, and in vitro drug release behavior. Solid state characterization of the formulation showed that CUR is physico-chemically compatible with other excipients and CUR was entrapped in an amorphous form inside the smooth and uniform film. The optimized film showed degree of crosslinking 51.04 ± 2.4, swelling index 138.10 ± 1.25, and folding endurance 270 ± 3 with surface pH around 7.0. Crosslinker concentrations positively affected swelling index and biodegradation of film due to altered matrix density of the polymer. Results of in vitro drug release demonstrated the capability of the developed film for efficiently delivering CUR in a sustained manner up to 7 days. The developed optimized film could be considered as a promising delivery strategy to administer medicament locally into the periodontal pockets for the safe and efficient management of periodontitis.

  1. Furosemide Loaded Silica-Lipid Hybrid Microparticles: Formulation Development, in vitro and ex vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraj, Swapna; Ammula, Divya; Nagabandi, Vijaykumar

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the current research work was to formulate and evaluate furosemide loaded silica lipid hybrid microparticles for improved oral delivery. A novel silica-lipid hybrid microparticulate system is used for enhancing the oral absorption of low solubility and low permeability of (BCS Class IV) drugs. Silica-lipid hybrid microparticles include the drug solubilising effect of dispersed lipids and stabilizing effect of hydrophilic silica particles to increase drug solubilisation, which leads to enhanced oral bioavailability. The slica lipid hybrid (SLH) microparticles were composed of poorly soluble drug (furosemide), dispersion of oil phase (Soya bean oil and miglyol) in lecithin (Phospholipoid 90H), non-ionic surfactant (Polysorbate 80) and adsorbent (Aerosol 380). Saturation solubility studies were performed in different oils and surfactants with increased concentration of drug revealed increased solubility of furosemide. In vitro dissolution studies conducted under simulated gastric medium revealed 2-4 fold increase in dissolution efficiencies for SLH microparticles compared to that of pure drug (furosemide) and marketed formulation Lasix®. Ex vivo studies showed enhanced lipid digestibility, which improved drug permeability. Solid-state characterization of SLH microparticles by X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis confirmed non-crystalline nature and more compatibility of furosemide in silica-lipid hybrid microparticles. It can be concluded that the role of lipids and hydrophilic silica based carrier highlighted in enhancing solubility and permeability, and hence the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

  2. Chronic Localized Back Pain Due to Posterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (POCNES): A New Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Oliver B; Maatman, Robert C; Scheltinga, Marc R; van Laarhoven, Kees; Roumen, Rudi M

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process. Somatosensory testing using swab and alcohol gauze demonstrated the presence of skin hypo- and dysesthesia over the painful area. Local pressure on this painful spot elicited an extreme pain response that did not irradiate towards the periphery. These findings were highly suggestive of a posterior version of the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), a condition leading to a severe localized neuropathic pain in anterior portions of the abdominal wall. She demonstrated a beneficial albeit temporary response after lidocaine infiltration as dictated by an established diagnostic and treatment protocol for ACNES. She subsequently underwent a local neurectomy of the involved superficial branch of the intercostal nerve. This limited operation had a favorable outcome resulting in a pain-free return to normal activities up to this very day (follow-up of 24 months).We propose to name this novel syndrome "posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome" (POCNES). Each patient with chronic localized back pain should undergo simple somatosensory testing to detect the presence of overlying skin hypo- and dysesthesia possibly reflecting an entrapped posterior cutaneous nerve.Key words: Chronic pain, back pain, posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment, peripheral nerve entrapment, surgical treatment for pain, anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment.

  3. microRNA expression profile in human coronary smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles is a source of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta

    2016-01-01

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of extracellular vesicles is a potential tool for clinical practice. Despite the key role of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in cardiovascular pathology, there is limited information about the presence of miRNAs in microparticles secreted by this cell type, including human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Here, we tested whether HCASMC-derived microparticles contain miRNAs and the value of these miRNAs as biomarkers. HCASMC and explants from atherosclerotic or non-atherosclerotic areas were obtained from coronary arteries of patients undergoing heart transplant. Plasma samples were collected from: normocholesterolemic controls (N=12) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients (N=12). Both groups were strictly matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. Microparticle (0.1-1μm) isolation and characterization was performed using standard techniques. VSMC-enriched miRNAs expression (miR-21-5p, -143-3p, -145-5p, -221-3p and -222-3p) was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Total RNA isolated from HCASMC-derived microparticles contained small RNAs, including VSMC-enriched miRNAs. Exposition of HCASMC to pathophysiological conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia, induced a decrease in the expression level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p in microparticles, not in cells. Expression levels of miR-222-3p were lower in circulating microparticles from FH patients compared to normocholesterolemic controls. Microparticles derived from atherosclerotic plaque areas showed a decreased level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p compared to non-atherosclerotic areas. We demonstrated for the first time that microparticles secreted by HCASMC contain microRNAs. Hypercholesterolemia alters the microRNA profile of HCASMC-derived microparticles. The miRNA signature of HCASMC-derived microparticles is a source of cardiovascular biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  4. Diving with microparticles in acoustic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Sound can move particles. A good example of this phenomenon is the Chladni plate, in which an acoustic wave is induced in a metallic plate and particles migrate to the nodes of the acoustic wave. For several years, acoustophoresis has been used to manipulate microparticles in microscopic scales...

  5. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or leviated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap. Laser desorption has previously been demonstrated in ion trap devices by applying the sample to a probe which is inserted so as to place the sample at the surface of the ring electrode. Our technique requires the placement of a microparticle in the center of the trap. Our initial experiments have been performed on falling microparticles rather than levitated particles to eliminate voltage switching requirements when changing from particle to ion trapping modes

  6. Synchronous ultrasonic Doppler imaging of magnetic microparticles in biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyshnyi, Michael Ph. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kuznetsov_oa@yahoo.com; Pyshnaya, Svetlana V.; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoly A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    We considered applicability of acoustic imaging technology for the detection of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles inside soft biological tissues. Such particles are widely used for magnetically targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. We developed a new method of ultrasonic synchronous tissue Doppler imaging with magnetic modulation for in vitro and in vivo detection and visualization of magnetic ultradisperse objects in soft tissues. Prototype hardware with appropriate software was produced and the method was successfully tested on magnetic microparticles injected into an excised pig liver.

  7. Synchronous ultrasonic Doppler imaging of magnetic microparticles in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyshnyi, Michael Ph.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Pyshnaya, Svetlana V.; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.

    2009-01-01

    We considered applicability of acoustic imaging technology for the detection of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles inside soft biological tissues. Such particles are widely used for magnetically targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. We developed a new method of ultrasonic synchronous tissue Doppler imaging with magnetic modulation for in vitro and in vivo detection and visualization of magnetic ultradisperse objects in soft tissues. Prototype hardware with appropriate software was produced and the method was successfully tested on magnetic microparticles injected into an excised pig liver.

  8. Design and characterization of core-shell mPEG-PLGA composite microparticles for development of cell-scaffold constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Yanhong; Gallego, Monica Ramos; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2013-01-01

    /DS or Alg/CS/DS particles in the mPEG-PLGA microparticles were significantly dependent on the operating conditions, including the flow rate ratio (Qout/Qin) and the viscosity of the polymer solutions (Vout, Vin) between the outer and the inner feeding channels. The core-shell composite microparticles.......e. more sustainable cell growth was induced by the DS released from the core-shell composite microparticles comprising Alg/CS/DS particles. After seeding fibroblasts onto the composite microparticles, excellent cell adhesion was observed, and a successful assembly of the cell-scaffold constructs...... was induced within 7 days. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a novel strategy for fabrication of core-shell composite microparticles comprising additional particulate drug carriers in the core, which provides controlled delivery of DS and favorable cell biocompatibility; an approach to potentially...

  9. Free microparticles-An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  10. Review Article: Fabricated Microparticles: An Innovative Method to Minimize the Side Effects of NSAIDs in Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan; Moin, Afrasim; Veerabhadrappa, Gangadharappa Hosahalli

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs. A trend in NSAID development has been to improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing the severity of GI side effects by altering dosage through modified release to optimize drug delivery. One such approach is the use of fabricated microparticles such as microcapsules and microspheres as carriers of drugs. Microparticles provide delivery of macromolecules and micromolecules via different routes and effectively control the release profile of such drugs. Microcapsules and microspheres are compatible with most natural and synthetic polymers and can be used for several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, nasal, intra-ocular, topical, and the like. Because of greater stability and multiple manufacturing techniques, microspheres and microcapsules are preferred as drug carriers over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Microparticles provide effective protection of the encapsulated agent against degradation by enzymatic activities, controlled and confined delivery of drugs from a few hours to months, and ingenious administration compared to alternative forms of controlled-release parenteral dosages, such as macro-sized implants. This comprehensive overview of fabricated microparticles describes microencapsulation technologies to produce microparticles for targeted therapy of arthritis and other

  11. Improved positioning and detectability of microparticles in droplet microfluidics using two-dimensional acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlin, M.; Fornell, A.; Bruus, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , by using acoustic actuation, (99.8 ± 0.4)% of all encapsulated microparticles can be detected compared to only (79.0 ± 5.1)% for unactuated operation. In our experiments we observed a strong ordering of the microparticles in distinct patterns within the droplet when using 2D acoustophoresis; to explain...

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Organogels Containing Hyaluronan Microparticles for Topical Delivery of Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsolo, Erol Eli; Eroğlu, İpek; Tanrıverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Özer, Özgen

    2018-04-01

    Cellulite is a dermal disorder including the extracellular matrix, the lymphatic and microcirculatory systems and the adipose tissue. Caffeine is used as the active moiety depending its preventive effect on localization of fat in the cellular structure. Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan-HA) is a natural constituent of skin that generates formation and poliferation of new cells having a remarkable moisturizing ability. The aim of this study is to formulate HA microparticles loaded with caffeine via spray-drying method. Resulting microparticle formulations (33.97 ± 0.3 μm, span < 2, 88.56 ± 0.42% encapsulation efficiency) were distributed in lecithin organogels to maintain the proper viscosity for topical application. Following the characterization and cell culture studies, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation studies were performed. The accumulated amount of caffeine was twice higher than the aqueous solution for the microparticle-loaded organogels at 24 h (8262,673 μg/cm 2 versus 4676,691 μg/cm 2 ). It was related to the sustained behaviour of caffeine release from the microparticles. As a result, lecithin organogel containing HA-encapsulated microparticles could be considered as suitable candidate formulations for efficient topical drug delivery system of caffeine. In addition to that, synergistic effect of this combination appears as a promising approach for long-acting treatment of cellulite.

  13. 16 CFR 1211.7 - Inherent entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the full upmost position both with and without any external entrapment protection device... that represents the most severe operating condition. Any accessories having an effect on the intended... the requirement. The means supplied to comply with the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section...

  14. 16 CFR 1211.8 - Secondary entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary entrapment protection requirements. 1211.8 Section 1211.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112, Telephone (800) 854-7179 or Global...

  15. Investigation of Water Absorption and Diffusion in Microparticles Containing Xylitol to Provide a Cooling Effect by Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, F.; Bedek, G.; Devaux, E.; Dupont, D.; Deranton, D.

    2009-08-01

    Polyurethane microparticles containing xylitol as a sweat sensor system were prepared by interfacial polymerization. The structural and thermal properties of the resultant microparticles were studied. The surface morphology and chemical structure of microparticles were investigated using an optical microscope (OM) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), respectively. The thermal properties of samples were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thus, two types of microparticles were synthesized by varying the percentage of monomers introduced. The obtained morphology is directly related to the synthesis conditions. DSC analysis indicated that the mass content of crystalline xylitol was up to 63.8 %, which resulted in a high enthalpy of dilution of 127.7 J · g-1. Furthermore, the water release rate monitored by TGA analysis was found to be faster from the microparticles than from raw xylitol. Thus, the microparticles could be applied for thermal energy storage and moisture sensor enhancement.

  16. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The functional groups of the starch and gelatin blend matrices were determined from the FTIR spectra. Blend microparticles with a nearly spherical shape and internal porous structure were observed from SEM images. The average particle size of the gelatin microparticles depended on the crosslinker ratio but not on the starch/gelatin blend ratio. The in vitro drug release content significantly decreased as the crosslinker ratio increased and the starch blend ratio decreased. The results demonstrated that the starch/gelatin blend microparticles should be a useful controlled release delivery carrier for water-soluble drugs.

  17. Microparticle content of platelet concentrates is predicted by donor microparticles and is altered by production methods and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Larsen, Rune; Labrie, Audrey; Heaton, Andrew; Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-08-01

    In circulation, shedding of microparticles from a variety of viable cells can be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes, by activation of coagulation or complement systems, or by physical stress. Elevated microparticle content (MPC) in donor blood might therefore indicate a clinical condition of the donor which, upon transfusion, might affect the recipient. In blood products, elevated MPC might also represent product stress. Surprisingly, the MPC in blood collected from normal blood donors is highly variable, which raises the question whether donor microparticles are present in-vivo and transfer into the final blood component, and how production methods and post-production processing might affect the MPC. We measured MPC using ThromboLUX in (a) platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of 54 apheresis donors and the corresponding apheresis products, (b) 651 apheresis and 646 pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) with plasma and 414 apheresis PCs in platelet additive solution (PAS), and (c) apheresis PCs before and after transportation, gamma irradiation, and pathogen inactivation (N = 8, 7, and 12 respectively). ThromboLUX-measured MPC in donor PRP and their corresponding apheresis PC samples were highly correlated (r = 0.82, P = .001). The average MPC in pooled PC was slightly lower than that in apheresis PC and substantially lower in apheresis PC stored with PAS rather than plasma. Mirasol Pathogen Reduction treatment significantly increased MPC with age. Thus, MPC measured in donor samples might be a useful predictor of product stability, especially if post-production processes are necessary. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Moran; Miriam, Altstein

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes development of a sol-gel based immunoaffinity method for the steroid hormone levonorgestrel (LNG) and the effects of changes in the sol-gel matrix format on the activity of the entrapped antibodies (Abs) and on matrix structure. The best sol-gel format for Ab entrapment was found to be a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) based matrix at a TMOS:water ratio of 1:8, containing 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) of MW 0.4 kDa. Addition of higher percentages of PEG or a higher MW PEG did not improve activity. No activity was obtained with a TMOS:water ratio of 1:12, most likely because of the very dense polymer that resulted from these polymerization conditions. Only minor differences in the non-specific binding were obtained with the various formats. TMOS was found to be more effective than tetrakis (2-hydroxyethyl)orthosilicate (THEOS) for entrapment of anti-levonorgestrel (LNG) Abs. However, aging the THEOS-based sol-gel for a few weeks at 4 °C stabilized the entrapped Abs and increased its binding capacity. Confocal fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled immunoglobulines (IgGs) entrapped in the sol-gel matrix showed that the entrapped Abs were distributed homogenously within the gel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown the diverse structures of the various sol-gel formats and precursors. PMID:28880001

  19. SERS-Fluorescence Dual-Mode pH-Sensing Method Based on Janus Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shuai; Sun, Xiaoting; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yaning; Wang, Yue; Xu, Zhangrun; Chen, Mingli; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-11-15

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-fluorescence dual-mode pH-sensing method based on Janus microgels was developed, which combined the advantages of high specificity offered by SERS and fast imaging afforded by fluorescence. Dual-mode probes, pH-dependent 4-mercaptobenzoic acid, and carbon dots were individually encapsulated in the independent hemispheres of Janus microparticles fabricated via a centrifugal microfluidic chip. On the basis of the obvious volumetric change of hydrogels in different pHs, the Janus microparticles were successfully applied for sensitive and reliable pH measurement from 1.0 to 8.0, and the two hemispheres showed no obvious interference. The proposed method addressed the limitation that sole use of the SERS-based pH sensing usually failed in strong acidic media. The gastric juice pH and extracellular pH change were measured separately in vitro using the Janus microparticles, which confirmed the validity of microgels for pH sensing. The microparticles exhibited good stability, reversibility, biocompatibility, and ideal semipermeability for avoiding protein contamination, and they have the potential to be implantable sensors to continuously monitor pH in vivo.

  20. Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid: Formulation, in vitro cytoprotection and in vivo anti-platelet effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto; Borsato, Débora Maria; Almeida, Martinha Antunes; Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to obtain new spray-dried microparticles containing ferulic acid (FA) prepared by using a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® L100). Microparticles were intended for oral use in order to provide a controlled release, and improved in vitro and in vivo biological effects. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were obtained by spray-drying. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell-based effects, and in vivo platelet aggregation were investigated. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were successfully prepared by spray-drying. Formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency, i.e. close to 100%. Microparticles were of spherical and almost-spherical shape with a smooth surface and a mean diameter between 2 and 3 μm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between FA and polymer. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. FA-loaded microparticles showed a slower dissolution rate than pure drug. The chosen formulation demonstrated higher in vitro cytoprotection, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential and also improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. These results support an experimental basis for the use of FA spray-dried microparticles as a feasible oral drug delivery carrier for the controlled release of FA and improved cytoprotective and anti-platelet effects. - Highlights: • Ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles with high drug-loading were obtained. • Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid showed improved in vitro cytoprotective effect. • Ferulic acid spray-dried microparticles had potential as in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. • In vivo studies demonstrated an enhanced antiplatelet effect for ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles.

  1. Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid: Formulation, in vitro cytoprotection and in vivo anti-platelet effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Borsato, Débora Maria [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Almeida, Martinha Antunes [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zawadzki, Sônia Faria [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Kanunfre, Carla Cristine [Postgraduate Program in Biomedical Science, Department of General Biology, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Farago, Paulo Vitor, E-mail: pvfarago@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This paper aimed to obtain new spray-dried microparticles containing ferulic acid (FA) prepared by using a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® L100). Microparticles were intended for oral use in order to provide a controlled release, and improved in vitro and in vivo biological effects. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were obtained by spray-drying. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell-based effects, and in vivo platelet aggregation were investigated. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were successfully prepared by spray-drying. Formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency, i.e. close to 100%. Microparticles were of spherical and almost-spherical shape with a smooth surface and a mean diameter between 2 and 3 μm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between FA and polymer. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. FA-loaded microparticles showed a slower dissolution rate than pure drug. The chosen formulation demonstrated higher in vitro cytoprotection, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential and also improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. These results support an experimental basis for the use of FA spray-dried microparticles as a feasible oral drug delivery carrier for the controlled release of FA and improved cytoprotective and anti-platelet effects. - Highlights: • Ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles with high drug-loading were obtained. • Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid showed improved in vitro cytoprotective effect. • Ferulic acid spray-dried microparticles had potential as in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. • In vivo studies demonstrated an enhanced antiplatelet effect for ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles.

  2. Circulating cell-derived microparticles in women with pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Palacio-Garcia, Carles; Farran-Codina, Immaculada; Zarzoso, Cristina; Cabero-Roura, Luis; Vilardell-Tarres, Miquel

    2011-09-01

    To analyze cell-derived microparticles (cMP) in pregnancy loss (PL), both recurrent miscarriages (RM) and unexplained fetal loss (UFL). Non-matched case-control study was performed at Vall d'Hebron Hospital. Cell-derived microparticles of 53 PL cases, 30 with RM, 16 with UFL, and 7 (RM + UFL), were compared to 38 healthy pregnant women. Twenty healthy non-pregnant women act as controls. Cell-derived microparticles were analyzed through flow cytometry. Results are given as total annexin (A5+), endothelial-(CD144+/CD31+ CD41-), platelet-(CD41+), leukocyte-(CD45+) and CD41- c-MP/μL of plasma. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLA) were analyzed according to established methods. Comparing PL versus healthy pregnant, we observed a significant endothelial cMP decrease in PL. When comparing RM subgroup with controls, we observed significant decreases in endothelial cMP. When comparing the PL positive for aPLA versus PL-aPLA-negative, no cMP numbering differences were seen. Pregnancy loss seems to be related to endothelial cell activation and/or consumption. A relationship between aPLA and cMP could not be demonstrated. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Multipole electrodynamic ion trap geometries for microparticle confinement under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M., E-mail: bogdan.mihalcea@inflpr.ro; Vişan, Gina T.; Ganciu, Mihai [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Atomiştilor Str. Nr. 409, 077125 Măgurele, Ilfov (Romania); Giurgiu, Liviu C. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor Str. Nr. 405, 077125 Măgurele (Romania); Stan, Cristina [Department of Physics, Politehnica University, 313 Splaiul Independenţei, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitrucho@yandex.ru; Deputatova, Lidiya; Syrovatka, Roman [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya Str. 13, Bd. 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in case of multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions. An 8- and 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap is mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics is simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.

  4. Multipole electrodynamic ion trap geometries for microparticle confinement under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M.; Vişan, Gina T.; Ganciu, Mihai; Giurgiu, Liviu C.; Stan, Cristina; Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry; Deputatova, Lidiya; Syrovatka, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in case of multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions. An 8- and 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap is mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics is simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.

  5. Results from the hydrodynamic element of the 1994 entrapment zone study in Suisun Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, J.R.; Gartner, J.W.; Stacey, M.

    1998-01-01

    The entrapment zo as long been considered an important region of the San Francisco estuary. It has been the subject of several previous studies, and its location has been suggested as an index of condition of the estuarine ecosystem.A close correlate of this location, X2 1, is now used as a management objective on the basis that X2 is correlated with the abundance or survival of several estuarine-dependent species. X2 is a crude tool to use for this purpose, but it can be refined only through improved understanding of the various mechanisms underlying these correlations. These mechanisms probably differ among species, but for species resident in and near the entrapment zone, the correlation with X2 may be due to variations in intenSity oftrapping mechanisms with pOSition of the entrapment zone. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate these trapping mechanisms, the nature of the entrapment zone as habitat, and the responses of the entrapment zone to changes in X2 or outflow from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Studies ofthe entrapment zone ofthe San Francisco estuary have been conducted in springs of 1994, 1995, and 1996. These studies have been funded by the Interagency Ecological Program and conducted by scientists from IEP member agencies, the Romberg Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, Bodega Marine Laboratory, and the University of California at Santa Cruz. This report presents results from 1994, a low-flow year. Subsequent reports will describe results from 1995 and 1996 and highlight differences among years. This report is organized in chapters that comprise more-or-Iess independent papers, with an introductory chapter for the entire study. This Executive Summary presents highlights of the overall study plan and summarizes the major findings.

  6. Intranasal delivery of cationic PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine encoding IL-6 elicited protective immunity against FMDV challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. In this study, cationic PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering FMDV DNA vaccine encoding the FMDV capsid protein and the bovine IL-6 gene as a means of enhancing mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals. Three eukaryotic expression plasmids with or without bovine IL-6 gene (pc-P12A3C, pc-IL2AP12A3C and pc-P12AIL3C were generated. The two latter plasmids were designed with the IL-6 gene located either before or between the P12A and 3C genes, respectively, as a means of determining if the location of the IL-6 gene affected capsid assembly and the subsequent immune response. Guinea pigs and rats were intranasally vaccinated with the respective chitosan-coated PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine formulations. Animals immunized with pc-P12AIL3C (followed by animals vaccinated with pc-P12A3C and pc-IL2AP12A3C developed the highest levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA antibody responses and the highest levels of sIgA (secretory IgA present in mucosal tissues. However, the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies were generated in pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and then in pc-P12A3C-immunized animals. pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals also developed stronger cell mediated immune responses (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and pc-P12A3C-immunized animals as evidenced by antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and expression levels of IFN-γ by both CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells. The percentage of animals protected against FMDV challenge following immunizations with pc-IL2AP12A3C, pc-P12AIL3C or pc-P12A3C were 3/5, 1/5 and 0/5, respectively. These data suggested that intranasal delivery

  7. Microparticles of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan: microscopic, a nuclear imaging and an in vivo test analysis for burn treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Albernaz, Martha S; Canema, Daniel; Weismüller, Gilberto; Barros, Eduardo Bede; Magalhães, Luciana; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-02-01

    The use of drug-loaded nanoparticles and microparticles has been increasing, especially for cosmetic and drug delivery purposes. In this work, a new microparticle formulation was developed for use in the healing process of skin burns in a composition of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan. In order to observe the morphological properties, Raman and atomic force microscopy evaluation were performed. The biodistribution studies were analyzed by using a nuclear methodology, labeling the microparticles with Technetium-99m and in vivo test was procedure to analyzed the cicatrization process. The results of AFM analysis show the formation and the adherence property of the microparticles. Raman analyses show the distribution of each component in the microparticle. The nuclear method used shows that the biodistribution of the microparticles remained in the skin. The in vivo cicatrization test showed that the poloxamer gel containing the microparticles make a better cicatrization in relation to the other formulations tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of the spray chilling method to deliver hydrophobic components: physical characterization of microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food industry has been developing products to meet the demands of increasing number of consumers who are concerned with their health and who seek food products that satisfy their needs. Therefore, the development of processed foods that contain functional components has become important for this industry. Microencapsulation can be used to reduce the effects of processing on functional components and preserve their bioactivity. The present study investigated the production of lipid microparticles containing phytosterols by spray chilling. The matrices comprised mixtures of stearic acid and hydrogenated vegetable fat, and the ratio of the matrix components to phytosterols was defined by an experimental design using the mean diameters of the microparticles as the response variable. The melting point of the matrices ranged from 44.5 and 53.4 ºC. The process yield was melting point dependent; the particles that exhibited lower melting point had greater losses than those with higher melting point. The microparticles' mean diameters ranged from 13.8 and 32.2 µm and were influenced by the amount of phytosterols and stearic acid. The microparticles exhibited spherical shape and typical polydispersity of atomized products. From a technological and practical (handling, yield, and agglomeration points of view, lipid microparticles with higher melting point proved promising as phytosterol carriers.

  9. Biodegradable congress 2012; Bioschmierstoff-Kongress 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Within the Guelzower expert discussions at 5th and 6th June, 2012 in Oberhausen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of biodegradable lubricants by means of research and development as well as public relations (Steffen Daebeler); (2) Biodegradable lubricants - An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the engaged product groups (Hubertus Murrenhoff); (3) Standardization of biodegradable lubricants - CEN/DIN standard committees - state of the art (Rolf Luther); (4) Market research for the utilization of biodegradable lubricants and means of proof of sustainability (Norbert Schmitz); (5) Fields of application for high performance lubricants and requirements upon the products (Gunther Kraft); (6) Investigations of biodegradable lubricants in rolling bearings and gears (Christoph Hentschke); (7) Biodegradable lubricants in central lubrication systems Development of gears and bearings of offshore wind power installations (Reiner Wagner); (8) Investigations towards environmental compatibility of biodegradable lubricants used in offshore wind power installations (Tolf Schneider); (9) Development of glycerine based lubricants for the industrial metalworking (Harald Draeger); (10) Investigations and utilization of biodegradable oils as electroinsulation oils in transformers (Stefan Tenbohlen); (11) Operational behaviour of lubricant oils in vegetable oil operation and Biodiesel operation (Horst Hamdorf); (12) Lubrication effect of lubricating oil of the third generation (Stefan Heitzig); (13) Actual market development from the view of a producer of biodegradable lubricants (Frank Lewen); (14) Utilization of biodegradable lubricants in forestry harvesters (Guenther Weise); (15) New biodegradable lubricants based on high oleic sunflower oil (Otto Botz); (16) Integrated fluid concept - optimized technology and service package for users of biodegradable lubricants (Juergen Baer); (17) Utilization of a bio oil sensor to control

  10. Mode-based microparticle conveyor belt in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Oliver A; Euser, Tijmen G; Russell, Philip St J

    2013-12-02

    We show how microparticles can be moved over long distances and precisely positioned in a low-loss air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber using a coherent superposition of two co-propagating spatial modes, balanced by a backward-propagating fundamental mode. This creates a series of trapping positions spaced by half the beat-length between the forward-propagating modes (typically a fraction of a millimeter). The system allows a trapped microparticle to be moved along the fiber by continuously tuning the relative phase between the two forward-propagating modes. This mode-based optical conveyor belt combines long-range transport of microparticles with a positional accuracy of 1 µm. The technique also has potential uses in waveguide-based optofluidic systems.

  11. Study of conditions of production and characterization of noble metal micro-particles suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malabre, Catherine

    1983-01-01

    As the production and identification of metal micro-particle suspensions are some aspects of issues related to nuclear fuel reprocessing, this research thesis reports the use of ruthenium, molybdenum, niobium, palladium and rhodium (fission metals) to generate such micro-particles. They are produced by erosion of two electrodes between which occurs an electric arc discharge in aqueous media. Different analytic methods are developed to determine the characteristics of so-produced colloidal solutions. A granulometry study is performed by transmission electronic microscopy, light quasi-elastic scattering, and turbidimetry associated to centrifugation. This has lead to the production of steady micro-particle suspensions which have been used in a first set of industrial trials [fr

  12. Innovation in detection of microparticles and exosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, E.; Coumans, F.; Varga, Z.; Krumrey, M.; Nieuwland, R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-derived or extracellular vesicles, including microparticles and exosomes, are abundantly present in body fluids such as blood. Although such vesicles have gained strong clinical and scientific interest, their detection is difficult because many vesicles are extremely small with a diameter of

  13. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and characterize a gastroretentive floating drug delivery system for diltiazem hydrochloride using psyllium husk and sodium alginate as natural herbal carriers to improve the therapeutic effect of the drug in cardiac patients. Methods: Floating microparticles containing diltiazem hydrochloride were ...

  14. Endotoxin-induced monocytic microparticles have contrasting effects on endothelial inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Wen

    Full Text Available Septic shock is a severe disease state characterised by the body's life threatening response to infection. Complex interactions between endothelial cells and circulating monocytes are responsible for microvasculature dysfunction contributing to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Here, we intended to determine whether microparticles derived from activated monocytes contribute towards inflammatory processes and notably vascular permeability. We found that endotoxin stimulation of human monocytes enhances the release of microparticles of varying phenotypes and mRNA contents. Elevated numbers of LPS-induced monocytic microparticles (mMP expressed CD54 and contained higher levels of transcripts for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6 and IL-8. Using a prothrombin time assay, a greater reduction in plasma coagulation time was observed with LPS-induced mMP than with non-stimulated mMP. Co-incubation of mMP with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 triggered their time-dependent uptake and significantly enhanced endothelial microparticle release. Unexpectedly, mMP also modified signalling pathways by diminishing pSrc (tyr416 expression and promoted endothelial monolayer tightness, as demonstrated by endothelial impedance and permeability assays. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that LPS-induced mMP have contrasting effects on the intercellular communication network and display a dual potential: enhanced pro-inflammatory and procoagulant properties, together with protective function of the endothelium.

  15. Microparticle Shedding by Erythrocytes, Monocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscular Cells Is Reduced by Aspirin in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Peña, Esther; Ybarra, Juan; Pou, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is increasing. Diabetes induces metabolic stress on blood and vascular cells, promoting platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. The level of vascular cell activation can be measured by the number and phenotype of microparticles found in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a platelet-inhibitory dose of aspirin on the number and type of microparticles shed to the circulation. Forty-three diabetic patients were enrolled in the study and received a daily dose of 100mg of aspirin for 10 days to cover the average platelet life-span in the circulation. Before and after the intervention period, circulating microparticles were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry. Type 1 diabetic patients had about twice the number of tissue factor-positive circulating microparticles (derived both from platelets and monocytes) and endothelial-derived E-selectin positive microparticles than type 2 diabetic patients. Aspirin therapy significantly inhibited platelets since cyclooxygenase 1 derived thromboxane generation levels were reduced by 99%. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes, activated monocytes, and smooth muscle cells were significantly reduced after 10 days of aspirin administration. These results indicate that: a) vascular and blood cells in type 1 diabetic patients are exposed to more sustained stress shown by their specific microparticle origin and levels; b) aspirin therapy inhibits vascular wall cell activation and microparticle shedding, and c) the effects of aspirin are similar in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Injectable hydrogel functionalised with thrombocyte-rich solution and microparticles for accelerated cartilage regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampichová, M; Buzgo, M; Křížková, B; Prosecká, E; Pouzar, M; Štrajtová, L

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects arise due to injury or osteochondral disease such as osteonecrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. In adult patients cartilage has minimal ability to repair itself and the lesions develop into degenerative arthritis. Overcoming the low regenerative capacity of the cartilage cells and the Hayflick limit poses a challenge for the therapy of osteochondral defects. Composite scaffolds with appropriate biomechanical properties combined with a suitable blend of proliferation and differentiation factors could be a solution. The aim of this in vitro study was to develop a novel functionalised hydrogel with an integrated drug delivery system stimulating articular cartilage regeneration. Injectable collagen/ hyaluronic acid/fibrin composite hydrogel was mixed with nanofibre-based microparticles. These were loaded with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone. In addition, the effect of thrombocyte-rich solution (TRS) was studied. The gels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultivated for 14 days. The viability, proliferation and morphology of the cells were evaluated using molecular and microscopic methods. Scaffold degradation was also assessed. The cultivation study showed that MSCs remained viable in all experimental groups, which indicated good biocompatibility of the gel. However, the number of cells in the groups enriched with microparticles was lower than in the other groups. On the other hand, confocal microscopy showed higher cell viability and rounded morphology of the cells, which can be associated with chodrogenic differentiation. The scaffolds containing microparticles showed significantly higher stability during the 14-day experiment. Our results suggest that the addition of microparticles to the scaffold improved cell differentiation into the chondrogenic lineage, resulting in a lower proliferation rate. Cell viability was better in the groups enriched with microparticles that served as an efficient drug delivery system. In

  17. Preparation of gold microparticles using halide ions in bulk block copolymer phases via photoreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2009-01-01

    Gold microparticles were prepared from the gold salt in the solid bulk phase of a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer via a photoreduction process in the presence of halide ions. The shapes and sizes of the gold microparticles were found to be dependent on the types and amount of halide ions as well as the types of cations used due to the combined effects of the adsorption power and oxidative dissolution ability of the additives on gold surfaces. Gold nanorods were obtained when poly(ethylene oxide) was used instead of the block copolymer. This suggests that the poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) parts in the block copolymer are essential for the formation of gold microparticles, even though the degree of the direct interaction between the PPO blocks and gold salt is not significant. - Graphical abstract: Gold microparticles were successfully prepared using halide ions as additives in the polymeric bulk phase via photoreduction with the glow lamp irradiation.

  18. Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Chutoprapat, Romchat; Sato, Yuji; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Hsueh, Kesyin; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2011-03-01

    Bioactive compounds [ferulic acid (F), gamma-oryzanol (O) and phytic acid (P)] in rice bran have been widely used as antioxidants in skin care products. However, one of the major problems of antioxidants is the deterioration of their activities during long exposure to air and light. Niosomes have been used to entrap many degradable active agents not only for stability improvement, but also for increasing skin hydration. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities [by in vitro ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibition assay] and in vivo human skin hydration effects of gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes. Gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes showed higher antioxidant activity (ORAC value) at 20-28 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram of the sample than the placebo gel and cream which gave 16-18 micromolTE/g. Human sebum treated with these formulations showed more lipid peroxidation inhibition activity than with no treatment of about 1.5 times. The three different independent techniques including corneometer, vapometer and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) indicated the same trend in human skin hydration enhancement of the gel or cream formulations containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes of about 20, 3 and 30%, respectively. This study has demonstrated the antioxidant activities and skin hydration enhancement of the rice bran bioactive compounds when entrapped in niosomes and incorporated in cream formulations.

  19. The influence of mannitol on morphology and disintegration of spray-dried nano-embedded microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torge, Afra; Grützmacher, Philipp; Mücklich, Frank; Schneider, Marc

    2017-06-15

    Nano-embedded microparticles represent a promising approach to deliver nanoparticles to the lungs. Microparticles with an appropriate aerodynamic diameter enable an application by dry powder inhaler and the transport of nanoparticles into the airways. By disintegration after deposition, nanoparticles can be released to exhibit their advantages such as a sustained drug release and delivery of the drug across the mucus barrier. The use of an appropriate matrix excipient to embed the nanoparticles is essential for the necessary disintegration and release of nanoparticles. In this context we investigated the influence of mannitol on the morphology, aerodynamic properties and disintegration behavior of nano-embedded microparticles. PLGA nanoparticles and mannitol were spray dried each as sole component and in combination in three different ratios. An influence of the mannitol content on the morphology was observed. Pure mannitol microparticles were solid and spherical, while the addition of nanoparticles resulted in raisin-shaped hollow particles. The different morphologies can be explained by diffusion processes of the compounds described by the Péclet-number. All powders showed suitable aerodynamic properties. By dispersion of the powders in simulated lung fluid, initial nanoparticle sizes could be recovered for samples containing mannitol. The fraction of redispersed nanoparticles was increased with increasing mannitol content. To evaluate the disintegration under conditions with higher comparability to the in vivo situation, spray-dried powders were exposed to >90% relative humidity. The disintegration behavior was monitored by analyzing roughness values by white light interferometry and supporting SEM imaging. The exposure to high relative humidity was shown to be sufficient for disintegration of the microparticles containing mannitol, releasing morphologically unchanged nanoparticles. With increasing mannitol content, the disintegration occurred faster and to a

  20. Facile moldless fabrication of disk-shaped and reed blood cell-like microparticles using photopolymerization of tripropylene glycol diacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jongchul; Won, June; Song, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A facile method for the moldless fabrication of 2- or 3-dimensional microparticles is proposed by using a photopolymerization technique. Using only a monomer solution of tripropylene glycol diacrylate, a film mask and standard UV lithography equipment, we were able to fabricate microparticles of various shapes, such as disks, dimpled disks similar in shape to red blood cells, and slender gourd shapes, unlike previous moldless fabrication techniques requiring expensive and/or sophisticated equipment. The simple method could produce more than one million particles in a single batch, indicating that it can be applied to the mass production of polymer microparticles. Analyses of scanning electron micrographs and optical micrographs of the microparticles indicated that their size distribution was highly monodisperse. Detailed fabrication processes and statistics on the microparticle sizes are given in this paper. (technical note)

  1. Liposome Entrapment of Bacteriophages Improves Wound Healing in a Diabetic Mouse MRSA Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chhibber

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic populations are more prone to developing wound infections which results in poor and delayed wound healing. Infection with drug resistant organisms further worsen the situation, driving searches for alternative treatment approaches such as phage therapy. Major drawback of phage therapy, however, is low phage persistence in situ, suggesting further refinement of the approach. In the present work we address this issue by employing liposomes as delivery vehicles. A liposome entrapped phage cocktail was evaluated for its ability to resolve a Staphylococcus aureus-induced diabetic excission wound infection. Two characterized S. aureus specific lytic phages, MR-5 and MR-10 alone, in combination (cocktail, or entrapped in liposomes (versus as free phages were assesed for their therapeutic efficacy in resolving diabetic wound infection. Mice treated with free phage cocktail showed significant reduction in wound bioburden, greater wound contraction and faster tissue healing than with free monophage therapy. However, to further enhance the availability of viable phages the encapsulation of phage cocktail in the liposomes was done. Results of in vitro stability studies and in vivo phage titer determination, suggests that liposomal entrapment of phage cocktail can lead to better phage persistence at the wound site. A 2 log increase in phage titre, however, was observed at the wound site with liposome entrapped as compared to the free phage cocktail, and this was associaed with increased rates of infection resolution and wound healing. Entrapment of phage cocktails within liposomes thus could represent an attractive approach for treatment of bacterial infections, not responding to antibiotis as increased phage persistence in vitro and in vivo at the wound site was observed.

  2. Stump entrapment of the anterior cruciate ligament in late childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B.; Laor, Tal; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Displacement of a portion of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) into the intercondylar notch can cause a focal fibrotic reaction similar to that seen following ACL reconstruction. This displacement, which can result in locking or limitation of knee extension, is termed stump entrapment and is described in adult MR imaging literature. We present a pictorial essay of the etiology and appearance of stump entrapment on MR imaging of the knee in an older child and adolescents and review the significance of this finding. (orig.)

  3. Phospholipid composition of cell-derived microparticles determined by one-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheim, A. M.; Kolb, A. M.; Sturk, A.; Nieuwland, R.

    2002-01-01

    Microparticles in the circulation activate the coagulation system and may activate the complement system via C-reactive protein upon conversion of membrane phospholipids by phospholipases. We developed a sensitive and reproducible method to determine the phospholipid composition of microparticles.

  4. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  5. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  6. External validation of structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) models for predicting the biodegradability of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, J; Pandard, P; Richard, B

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradation is an important mechanism for eliminating xenobiotics by biotransforming them into simple organic and inorganic products. Faced with the ever growing number of chemicals available on the market, structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) and quantitative structure-biodegradation relationship (QSBR) models are increasingly used as surrogates of the biodegradation tests. Such models have great potential for a quick and cheap estimation of the biodegradation potential of chemicals. The Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite™ includes different models for predicting the potential aerobic biodegradability of organic substances. They are based on different endpoints, methodologies and/or statistical approaches. Among them, Biowin 5 and 6 appeared the most robust, being derived from the largest biodegradation database with results obtained only from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) test. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive performances of these two models from a set of 356 chemicals extracted from notification dossiers including compatible biodegradation data. Another set of molecules with no more than four carbon atoms and substituted by various heteroatoms and/or functional groups was also embodied in the validation exercise. Comparisons were made with the predictions obtained with START (Structural Alerts for Reactivity in Toxtree). Biowin 5 and Biowin 6 gave satisfactorily prediction results except for the prediction of readily degradable chemicals. A consensus model built with Biowin 1 allowed the diminution of this tendency.

  7. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    Loizeau Sébastien; Rossier Yvan; Gaudet Jean-Paul; Refloch Aurore; Besnard Katia; Angulo-Jaramillo Rafael; Lassabatere Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration c...

  8. Cantilever-based micro-particle filter with simultaneous single particle detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Currently, separation of whole blood samples on lab-on-a-chip systems is achieved via filters followed by analysis of the filtered matter such as counting of blood cells. Here, a micro-chip based on cantilever technology is developed, which enables simultaneous filtration and counting of micro-particles...... from a liquid. A hole-array is integrated into a micro-cantilever, which is inserted into a microfluidic channel perpendicular to the flow. A metal pad at the apex of the cantilever enables an optical read-out of the deflection of the cantilever. When a micro-particle is too large to pass a hole...

  9. The signature of circulating microparticles in heart failure patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Berezin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of pattern of circulating endothelial cell-derived microparticles, platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs, and monocyte-derived microparticles (MMPs in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients with chronic heart failure (CHF is not still understood. The aim of the study was to investigate a pattern of circulating microparticles (MPs in MetS patients with CHF in relation to neurohumoral and inflammatory activation. The study retrospectively involved 101 patients with MetS and 35 healthy volunteers. Biomarkers were measured at baseline of the study. The results of the study have shown that numerous circulating PMPs- and MMPs in subjects with MetS (with or without CHF insufficiently distinguished from level obtained in healthy volunteers. We found elevated level of CD31+/annexin V+ MPs in association with lower level of CD62E+ MPs. Therefore, we found that biomarkers of biomechanical stress serum N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide and inflammation (high-sensitive C-reactive protein ,osteoprotegerin remain statistically significant predictors for decreased CD62E+ to CD31+/annexin V+ ratio in MetS patients with CHF. In conclusion, decreased CD62E+ to CD31+/annexin V+ ratio reflected that impaired immune phenotype of MPs may be discussed as a surrogate marker of CHF development in MetS population.

  10. Luminescence investigation of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped single LiYF{sub 4} microparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wei; Zheng, Hairong, E-mail: hrzheng@snnu.edu.cn; He, Enjie; Lu, Ying; Gao, Fangqi

    2014-08-01

    Tetragonal phase LiYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} microparticles are synthesized via facile hydrothermal method. Single LiYF{sub 4} microparticle is excited with IR laser at 980 nm in a confocal setup, and strong green and weak red emissions are observed. It is found that single LiYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} microparticle with sub-structure presents stronger upconversion luminescence emission and smaller intensity ratio of red to green emission than that from LiYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} microparticle with no sub-structure. The possible mechanism, the influence of particle size and the existence of EDTA on the upconversion luminescence emission are investigated. The current study suggests that the luminescence observation with single micropaticle can effectively avoid the influence of environment and neighbor particles, which is important for investigating the luminescence properties of micro- or nano-crystals and for extending their application. - Highlights: • Single LiYF{sub 4} microparticle is excited with IR laser at 980 nm in a confocal setup, and strong green and weak red emissions are observed. • Single LiYF{sub 4} microparticle with different morphology exhibits different fluorescence emission intensity and intensity ratio of red to green emission. • The possible mechanism, the influence of particle size and the existence of EDTA on the upconversion emission are investigated.

  11. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-04-29

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  12. Endothelial microparticle-mediated transfer of MicroRNA-126 promotes vascular endothelial cell repair via SPRED1 and is abrogated in glucose-damaged endothelial microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hoelscher, Marion; Cattelan, Arianna; Schmitz, Theresa; Proebsting, Sebastian; Wenzel, Daniela; Vosen, Sarah; Franklin, Bernardo S; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2013-10-29

    Repair of the endothelium after vascular injury is crucial for preserving endothelial integrity and preventing the development of vascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of endothelial cell repair are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether endothelial microparticles (EMPs), released from apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs), influence EC repair. Systemic treatment of mice with EMPs after electric denudation of the endothelium accelerated reendothelialization in vivo. In vitro experiments revealed that EMP uptake in ECs promotes EC migration and proliferation, both critical steps in endothelial repair. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed, and microRNA (miR)-126 was identified as the predominantly expressed miR in EMPs. The following experiments demonstrated that miR-126 was transported into recipient human coronary artery endothelial cells by EMPs and functionally regulated the target protein sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1). Knockdown of miR-126 in EMPs abrogated EMP-mediated effects on human coronary artery endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro and reendothelialization in vivo. Interestingly, after simulating diabetic conditions, EMPs derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-126 and showed reduced endothelial repair capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, expression analysis of miR-126 in circulating microparticles from 176 patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus revealed a significantly reduced miR-126 expression in circulating microparticles from diabetic patients. Endothelial microparticles promote vascular endothelial repair by delivering functional miR-126 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-126-induced EC repair is altered.

  13. Defeat and entrapment: more than meets the eye? Applying network analysis to estimate dimensions of highly correlated constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, Thomas; Teismann, Tobias; Stenzel, Jana-Sophie; Glaesmer, Heide; de Beurs, Derek

    2018-01-25

    Defeat and entrapment have been shown to be of central relevance to the development of different disorders. However, it remains unclear whether they represent two distinct constructs or one overall latent variable. One reason for the unclarity is that traditional factor analytic techniques have trouble estimating the right number of clusters in highly correlated data. In this study, we applied a novel approach based on network analysis that can deal with correlated data to establish whether defeat and entrapment are best thought of as one or multiple constructs. Explanatory graph analysis was used to estimate the number of dimensions within the 32 items that make up the defeat and entrapment scales in two samples: an online community sample of 480 participants, and a clinical sample of 147 inpatients admitted to a psychiatric hospital after a suicidal attempt or severe suicidal crisis. Confirmatory Factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the proposed structure fits the data. In both samples, bootstrapped exploratory graph analysis suggested that the defeat and entrapment items belonged to different dimensions. Within the entrapment items, two separate dimensions were detected, labelled internal and external entrapment. Defeat appeared to be multifaceted only in the online sample. When comparing the CFA outcomes of the one, two, three and four factor models, the one factor model was preferred. Defeat and entrapment can be viewed as distinct, yet, highly associated constructs. Thus, although replication is needed, results are in line with theories differentiating between these two constructs.

  14. Heparin induced alterations in clearance and distribution of blood-borne microparticles following operative trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, T M; Antikatzides, T G

    1979-04-01

    The influence of systemic heparin administration on the vascular clearance and tissue distribution of blood-borne microparticles was evaluated in normal rats and rats after operation (laparotomy plus intestinal manipulation) utilizing an (131)I- colloid which is phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Intravenous heparin administration (100 USP/100g body weight) into normal animals three minutes prior to colloid injection (50 mg/lOOg) induced a significant increase in pulmonary localization of the microparticles as compared to nonheparinized control rats, while hepatic and splenic uptake were decreased. Surgical trauma decreased hepatic RE uptake and increased pulmonary localization of the microparticles when injected systemically at 60 minutes postsurgery. Heparin administration 60 minutes after surgery and three minutes prior to colloid injection, magnified the increased pulmonary localization response with an associated further depression of the RES. The ability of heparin to alter both RE clearance function and lung localization of microparticles was dose dependent and a function of the interval between heparin administration and systemic particulate infusion. Thus, low dose heparin administration was capable of stimulating RE activity while heparin in doses of excess of 50 USP units/lOOg body weight decreased RE function. These findings suggest that the functional state of the hepatic RE system can be greatly affected in a dose-dependent manner by systemic heparin administration which may influence distribution of blood-borne microparticles.

  15. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  16. Biodegradation of selected offshore chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Aina C.; Petersen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    A review of biodegradation data for specific oil field chemicals and chemical groups were performed in order to evaluate if the current categorisation of these were appropriate based on the biodegradation properties. Data were compiled from databases like ECHA and MITI and from the literature. For compounds with limited or inconclusive test data, biodegradation was also estimated by the BIOWIN models, and the EAWAG-BBD pathway prediction system was used to predict plausible biodegradation pat...

  17. Microassembly using a Cluster of Paramagnetic Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Brink, F.V; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We use a cluster of paramagnetic microparticles to carry out a wireless two-dimensional microassembly operation. A magnetic-based manipulation system is used to control the motion of the cluster under the influence of the applied magnetic fields. Wireless motion control of the cluster is implemented

  18. Comparative study on the biodegradation and biocompatibility of silicate bioceramic coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy as biodegradable biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, M.; Fathi, M. H.; Savabi, O.; Razavi, S. M.; Hashemibeni, B.; Yazdimamaghani, M.; Vashaee, D.; Tayebi, L.

    2014-03-01

    Many clinical cases as well as in vivo and in vitro assessments have demonstrated that magnesium alloys possess good biocompatibility. Unfortunately, magnesium and its alloys degrade too quickly in physiological media. In order to improve the biodegradation resistance and biocompatibility of a biodegradable magnesium alloy, we have prepared three types of coating include diopside (CaMgSi2O6), akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O6) and bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy through a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. In this research, the biodegradation and biocompatibility behavior of samples were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro analysis was performed by cytocompatibility and MTT-assay and the in vivo test was conducted on the implantation of samples in the greater trochanter of adult rabbits. The results showed that diopside coating has the best bone regeneration and bredigite has the best biodegradation resistance compared to others.

  19. Debt rescheduling: the economics of entrapment under globalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being, by definition, the alteration of the terms of repayment of a loan with respect to the grace period permissible, the interest rates chargeable, and the overall maturity period, its adoption and application by Nigeria has not only proved dysfunctional, but also instrumental to debt perpetuation and entrapment. The paper is a ...

  20. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome in a young girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Salwa; Thomas, Karen; Miller, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is well-described in adults, but is an uncommon cause of lower-limb pain in children. We present an 11.5-year-old girl with thrombosed aneurysm of the right popliteal artery, subsequently diagnosed with bilateral type I PAES. Multimodality illustration of the radiological findings is presented. (orig.)

  1. Effects of inoculum type and bulk dissolved oxygen concentration on achieving partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-07-01

    An entrapment of nitrifiers into gel matrix is employed as a tool to fulfill partial nitrification under non-limiting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in bulk solutions. This study aims to clarify which of these two attributes, inoculum type and DO concentration in bulk solutions, is the decisive factor for partial nitrification in an entrapped-cell based system. Four polyvinyl alcohol entrapped inocula were prepared to have different proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and nitrite-oxidizing activity. At a DO concentration of 3 mg l(-1), the number of active NOB cells in an inoculum was the decisive factor for partial nitrification enhancement. However, when the DO concentration was reduced to 2 mg l(-1), all entrapped cell inocula showed similar degrees of partial nitrification. The results suggested that with the lower bulk DO concentration, the preparation of entrapped cell inocula is not useful as the DO level becomes the decisive factor for achieving partial nitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or levitated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap

  3. Use Of Biodegradation Ratios In Monitoring Trend Of Biostimulated Biodegradation In Crude Oil Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorondu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with biodegradation experiment on soil contaminated with crude oil. The soil sample sets A BC D E F G were amended with inorganic fertilizer to enhance microbial growth and hydrocarbon degradation moisture content of some of the sets were as well varied. Biodegradation ratios nC17Pr nC18Ph and nC17nC18PrPh were used to monitor biodegradation of soil sets A BC D E F G for a period of 180. The soil samples were each contaminated with the same amount of crude oil and exposed to specific substrate treatment regarding the amount of nutrients and water content over the same period of time. The trend in biodegradation of the different soil sample sets shows that biodegradation ratio nC17nC18PrPh was more reflective of and explains the biodegradation trend in all the sample sets throughout the period of the experiment hence a better parameter ratio for monitoring trend of biostimulated biodegradation. The order of preference of the biodegradation ratios is expressed as nC18Ph nC17Pr nC17nC18 PrPh. This can be a relevant support tool when designing bioremediation plan on field.

  4. Pharmaceutical microparticle engineering with electrospraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wan, Feng; Kristensen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles of Celecoxib, dispersed in a matrix of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), were prepared by electrospraying using different solvent mixtures to investigate the influence upon particle formation and the resulting particle characteristics. Mixtures consisting of a good solvent, ace...... demonstrated by the increasingly higher drug release rates. The results demonstrate the importance of solvent composition in particle preparation and indicate potential for exploiting this dependence to improve pharmaceutical particle design and performance....

  5. Surface-functionalized polymethacrylic acid based hydrogel microparticles for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Bouchemal, K; Sharma, C P; Vauthier, C

    2010-02-01

    Aim of the present work was to develop novel thiol-functionalized hydrogel microparticles based on poly(methacrylic acid)-chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCP) for oral drug delivery applications. PCP microparticles were prepared by a modified ionic gelation process in aqueous medium. Thiol modification of surface carboxylic acid groups of PCP micro particles was carried out by coupling l-cysteine with a water-soluble carbodiimide. Ellman's method was adopted to quantify the sulfhydryl groups, and dynamic light-scattering technique was used to measure the average particle size. Cytotoxicity of the modified particles was evaluated on Caco 2 cells by MTT assay. Effect of thiol modification on permeability of paracellular marker fluorescence dextran (FD4) was evaluated on Caco 2 cell monolayers and freshly excised rat intestinal tissue with an Ussing chamber set-up. Mucoadhesion experiments were carried out by an ex vivo bioadhesion method with excised rat intestinal tissue. The average size of the PCP microparticles was increased after thiol modification. Thiolated microparticles significantly improved the paracellular permeability of FD4 across Caco 2 cell monolayers, with no sign of toxicity. However, the efficacy of thiolated system remained low when permeation experiments were carried out across excised intestinal membrane. This was attributed to the high adhesion of the thiolated particles on the gut mucosa. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that surface thiolation is an interesting strategy to improve paracellular permeability of hydrophilic macromolecules. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid calcium carbonate/polymer microparticles containing silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Maciej; Bulwan, Maria; Kania, Gabriela; Nowakowska, Maria; Zapotoczny, Szczepan

    2012-12-01

    We report here on synthesis and characterization of novel hybrid material consisting of silver nanoparticles (nAgs) embedded in calcium carbonate microparticles (μ-CaCO3) serving as carriers for sustained release. nAgs are commonly used as antimicrobial agents in many commercial products (textiles, cosmetics, and drugs). Although they are considered to be safe, their interactions with human organisms are still not fully understood; therefore it is important to apply them with caution and limit their presence in the environment. The synthesis of the new material was based on the co-precipitation of CaCO3 and nAg in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Such designed system enables sustained release of nAg to the environment. This hybrid colloidal material (nAg/μ-CaCO3) was characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic methods. The release of nAg from μ-CaCO3 microparticles was followed in water at various pH values. Microbiological tests confirmed the effectiveness of these microparticles as an antibacterial agent. Importantly, the material can be stored as a dry powder and subsequently re-suspended in water without the risk of losing its antimicrobial activity. nAg/μ-CaCO3 was applied here to insure bacteriostatic properties of down feathers that may significantly prolong their lifetime in typical applications. Such microparticles may be also used as, e.g., components of coatings and paints protecting various surfaces against microorganism colonization.

  7. Hybrid calcium carbonate/polymer microparticles containing silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlugosz, Maciej; Bulwan, Maria; Kania, Gabriela; Nowakowska, Maria; Zapotoczny, Szczepan, E-mail: zapotocz@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2012-12-15

    We report here on synthesis and characterization of novel hybrid material consisting of silver nanoparticles (nAgs) embedded in calcium carbonate microparticles ({mu}-CaCO{sub 3}) serving as carriers for sustained release. nAgs are commonly used as antimicrobial agents in many commercial products (textiles, cosmetics, and drugs). Although they are considered to be safe, their interactions with human organisms are still not fully understood; therefore it is important to apply them with caution and limit their presence in the environment. The synthesis of the new material was based on the co-precipitation of CaCO{sub 3} and nAg in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Such designed system enables sustained release of nAg to the environment. This hybrid colloidal material (nAg/{mu}-CaCO{sub 3}) was characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic methods. The release of nAg from {mu}-CaCO{sub 3} microparticles was followed in water at various pH values. Microbiological tests confirmed the effectiveness of these microparticles as an antibacterial agent. Importantly, the material can be stored as a dry powder and subsequently re-suspended in water without the risk of losing its antimicrobial activity. nAg/{mu}-CaCO{sub 3} was applied here to insure bacteriostatic properties of down feathers that may significantly prolong their lifetime in typical applications. Such microparticles may be also used as, e.g., components of coatings and paints protecting various surfaces against microorganism colonization.

  8. Hybrid calcium carbonate/polymer microparticles containing silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Długosz, Maciej; Bulwan, Maria; Kania, Gabriela; Nowakowska, Maria; Zapotoczny, Szczepan

    2012-01-01

    We report here on synthesis and characterization of novel hybrid material consisting of silver nanoparticles (nAgs) embedded in calcium carbonate microparticles (μ-CaCO 3 ) serving as carriers for sustained release. nAgs are commonly used as antimicrobial agents in many commercial products (textiles, cosmetics, and drugs). Although they are considered to be safe, their interactions with human organisms are still not fully understood; therefore it is important to apply them with caution and limit their presence in the environment. The synthesis of the new material was based on the co-precipitation of CaCO 3 and nAg in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Such designed system enables sustained release of nAg to the environment. This hybrid colloidal material (nAg/μ-CaCO 3 ) was characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic methods. The release of nAg from μ-CaCO 3 microparticles was followed in water at various pH values. Microbiological tests confirmed the effectiveness of these microparticles as an antibacterial agent. Importantly, the material can be stored as a dry powder and subsequently re-suspended in water without the risk of losing its antimicrobial activity. nAg/μ-CaCO 3 was applied here to insure bacteriostatic properties of down feathers that may significantly prolong their lifetime in typical applications. Such microparticles may be also used as, e.g., components of coatings and paints protecting various surfaces against microorganism colonization.

  9. Anatomical etiology of “pseudo-sciatica” from superior cluneal nerve entrapment: a laboratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Hiroshi Kuniya,1 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Spine & Spinal Cord Surgery, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Objective: The superior cluneal nerve (SCN may become entrapped where it pierces the thoracolumbar fascia over the iliac crest; this can cause low back pain (LBP and referred pain radiating into the posterior thigh, calf, and occasionally the foot, producing the condition known as “pseudo-sciatica.” Because the SCN was thought to be a cutaneous branch of the lumbar dorsal rami, originating from the dorsal roots of L1–L3, previous anatomical studies failed to explain why SCN causes “pseudo-sciatica”. The purpose of the present anatomical study was to better elucidate the anatomy and improve the understanding of “pseudo-sciatica” from SCN entrapment. Materials and methods: SCN branches were dissected from their origin to termination in subcutaneous tissue in 16 cadavers (5 male and 11 female with a mean death age of 88 years (range 81–101 years. Special attention was paid to identify SCNs from their emergence from nerve roots and passage through the fascial attachment to the iliac crest. Results: Eighty-one SCN branches were identified originating from T12 to L5 nerve roots with 13 branches passing through the osteofibrous tunnel. These 13 branches originated from L3 (two sides, L4 (six sides, and L5 (five sides. Ten of the 13 branches showed macroscopic entrapment in the tunnel. Conclusion: The majority of SCNs at risk of nerve entrapment originated from the lower lumbar nerve. These anatomical results may explain why patients with SCN entrapment often evince leg pain or tingling that mimics sciatica. Keywords: superior cluneal nerve, entrapment neuropathy, dorsal rami

  10. Concept of safe tank-type water cooled and moderated reactor with HTGR microparticle fuel compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, A.O.; Kukharkin, N.E.; Mosevitskij, I.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Popov, S.V.; Udyanskij, Yu.N.; Tsibul'skij, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    Concept of safe tank-type water-cooled and moderated reactor on the basis of HTGR fuel microparticles which enable to avoid environment contamination with radioactive products under severe accidents, is proposed. Results of neutron-physical and thermal-physical studies of water cooled and moderated reactor with HTGR microparticle compacts are presented. Characteristics of two reactors with thermal power of 500 and 1500 MW are indicated within the concept frames. The reactor behaviour under severe accident connected with complete loss of water coolant is considered. It is shown that under such an accident the fission products release from fuel microparticles does not occur

  11. Flexible, cathodoluminescent and free standing mesoporous silica films with entrapped quasi-2D perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakopoulou, Anastasia; Papadatos, Dionysios; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    The effective entrapment of hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductors (HOIS) into mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid matrices, formed as free standing flexible films, is presented for the first time. A blend of quasi-2D HOIS, simply synthesized by mixing two-dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) HOIS, exhibiting strong photoluminescence, is embedded into porous silica matrices during the sol-gel synthesis, using tetraethylorthosilicate as precursor and Pluronic F-127 triblock copolymer as structure directing agent, under acidic conditions. The final nanostructure hybrid forms flexible, free standing films, presenting high cathodoluminescence and long stable excitonic luminescence, indicating the protective character of the hybrid matrix towards the entrapped perovskite. A significant result is that the photoluminescence of the entrapped HOIS is not affected even after films' prolonged exposure to water.

  12. Entrapment of Guide Wire in an Inferior Vena Cava Filter: A Technique for Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel; Saddekni, Souheil; Hamed, Maysoon Farouk; Fitzpatrick, Farley

    2013-01-01

    Entrapment of a central venous catheter (CVC) guide wire in an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a rare, but reported complication during CVC placement. With the increasing use of vena cava filters (VCFs), this number will most likely continue to grow. The consequences of this complication can be serious, as continued traction upon the guide wire may result in filter dislodgement and migration, filter fracture, or injury to the IVC. We describe a case in which a J-tipped guide wire introduced through a left subclavian access without fluoroscopic guidance during CVC placement was entrapped at the apex of an IVC filter. We describe a technique that we used successfully in removing the entrapped wire through the left subclavian access site. We also present simple useful recommendations to prevent this complication.

  13. Endothelial microparticle formation by angiotensin II is mediated via Ang II receptor type I/NADPH oxidase/ Rho kinase pathways targeted to lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dylan; Montezano, Augusto C; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; He, Ying; Carter, Anthony; Touyz, Rhian M

    2011-08-01

    Circulating microparticles are increased in cardiovascular disease and may themselves promote oxidative stress and inflammation. Molecular mechanisms underlying their formation and signaling are unclear. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Rho kinase, and lipid rafts in microparticle formation and examined their functional significance in endothelial cells (ECs). Microparticle formation from angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated ECs and apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice was assessed by annexin V or by CD144 staining and electron microscopy. Ang II promoted microparticle formation and increased EC O(2)(-) generation and Rho kinase activity. Ang II-stimulated effects were inhibited by irbesartan (Ang II receptor type I blocker) and fasudil (Rho kinase inhibitor). Methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin, which disrupt lipid rafts/caveolae, blocked microparticle release. Functional responses, assessed in microparticle-stimulated ECs, revealed increased O(2)(-) production, enhanced vascular cell adhesion molecule/platelet-EC adhesion molecule expression, and augmented macrophage adhesion. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor blocked the prooxidative and proinflammatory effects of microparticles. In vitro observations were confirmed in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice, which displayed vascular inflammation and high levels of circulating endothelial microparticles, effects that were reduced by apocynin. We demonstrated direct actions of Ang II on endothelial microparticle release, mediated through NADPH oxidase, ROS, and Rho kinase targeted to lipid rafts. Microparticles themselves stimulated endothelial ROS formation and inflammatory responses. Our findings suggest a feedforward system whereby Ang II promotes EC injury through its own endothelial-derived microparticles.

  14. Harvesting microalgae with microwave synthesized magnetic microparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, G.; Šafařík, Ivo; Brányik, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 130, FEB (2013), s. 472-477 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : harvesting microalgae * iron oxide magnetic microparticles * non-covalent interactions * microwave treatment * cell demagnetization Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  15. Heterogeneous membranes filled with hypercrosslinked microparticle adsorbent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, Jiří; Krystl, V.; Hrabánek, P.; Bernauer, B.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 65, 1-2 (2005), s. 57-68 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0680 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous membranes * hypercrosslinked adsorbent * microparticle s Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2005

  16. Phthalates biodegradation in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Herbert H P; He, Jianzhong

    2008-08-01

    Phthalates are synthesized in massive amounts to produce various plastics and have become widespread in environments following their release as a result of extensive usage and production. This has been of an environmental concern because phthalates are hepatotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic by nature. Numerous studies indicated that phthalates can be degraded by bacteria and fungi under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. This paper gives a review on the biodegradation of phthalates and includes the following aspects: (1) the relationship between the chemical structure of phthalates and their biodegradability, (2) the biodegradation of phthalates by pure/mixed cultures, (3) the biodegradation of phthalates under various environments, and (4) the biodegradation pathways of phthalates.

  17. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment.

  18. Origin and fate of dietary nanoparticles and microparticles in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jonathan J; Faria, Nuno; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Pele, Laetitia C

    2010-05-01

    Humans have evolved with oral exposure to dietary microparticles and nanoparticles as a normal occurrence but the ever-growing exploitation of nanotechnology is likely to increase exposure further, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, unlike the situation with respirable particles, relatively little is known about gastrointestinal intake and handling of nanoparticles. With a long term interest in gut exposure and responses to dietary microparticles, our group is now applying its expertise to nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we aim to address (i) the current challenges associated with the characterisation of particle-host or particle-cell interactions, (ii) the origin and mechanisms of uptake of particles in the gastrointestinal tract, especially via the Peyer's patch and (iii) potential cellular effects of nanoparticles in the generation of reactive oxygen species and inflammasome activation, or microparticles in their adjuvant activity in pro-inflammatory signalling and immune responsiveness. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chitosan microparticles: influence of the gelation process on the release profile and oral bioavailability of albendazole, a class II compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirilli, Gisela N; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Mamprin, María E; Bolmaro, Raúl E; Salomón, Claudio J; Lamas, María C

    2014-11-01

    Encapsulation of albendazole, a class II compound, into polymeric microparticles based on chitosan-sodium lauryl sulfate was investigated as a strategy to improve drug dissolution and oral bioavailability. The microparticles were prepared by spray drying technique and further characterized by means of X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of a novel polymeric structure between chitosan and sodium lauryl sulfate, after the internal or external gelation process, was observed by infrared spectroscopy. The efficiency of encapsulation was found to be between 60 and 85% depending on the internal or external gelation process. Almost spherically spray dried microparticles were observed using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution results indicated that the microparticles prepared by internal gelation released 8% of the drug within 30 min, while the microparticles prepared by external gelation released 67% within 30 min. It was observed that the AUC and Cmax values of ABZ from microparticles were greatly improved, in comparison with the non-encapsulated drug. In conclusion, the release properties and oral bioavailability of albendazole were greatly improved by using spraydried chitosan-sodium lauryl sulphate microparticles.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liang Tang [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Jin Yan, E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 {mu}m were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Liang Tang; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Jin Yan

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 μm were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  2. A computational model for heterogeneous heating during pulsed laser irradiation of polymers doped with light-absorbing microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    characteristics. This work presents a study based on a computational model of laser heating of polymer doped with light-absorbing microparticles accounting for the heterogeneous nature of heating. The work aims at gaining a fundamental insight into the nature of the heating process and to understand the role......Doping of polymers with light-absorbing microparticles to increase their optical properties is a commonly used pre-treatment technique in laser processing of polymers. The presence of these particles plays an important role during laser heating of the polymer that influences its surface...... of microparticles. The results suggest that apart from the laser intensity and pulse duration, the properties of the microparticles including their size and distribution also play an important role during the laser heating of polymers....

  3. Dielectrophoretic Manipulation and Separation of Microparticles Using Microarray Dot Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Yafouz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a dielectrophoretic system for the manipulation and separation of microparticles. The system is composed of five layers and utilizes microarray dot electrodes. We validated our system by conducting size-dependent manipulation and separation experiments on 1, 5 and 15 μm polystyrene particles. Our findings confirm the capability of the proposed device to rapidly and efficiently manipulate and separate microparticles of various dimensions, utilizing positive and negative dielectrophoresis (DEP effects. Larger size particles were repelled and concentrated in the center of the dot by negative DEP, while the smaller sizes were attracted and collected by the edge of the dot by positive DEP.

  4. Platelet-, leucocyte- and red cell-derived microparticles in stored whole blood, with and without leucofiltration, with and without ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shunnichi; Nollet, Kenneth E; Ngoma, Alain M; Ono, Takako; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-02-01

    Storage lesion, including microparticle formation, has been partially characterised in whole blood, but not in all combinations of pre-storage leucofiltration and/or irradiation. Single-donor whole blood products were processed into four subunits: with and without leucofiltration, with and without X-irradiation (25 Gy). Platelet-, leucocyte-, and erythrocyte-derived microparticles and free haemoglobin were measured periodically throughout 42 days of storage. Pre-storage leucofiltration substantially reduced platelet- and leucocyte-derived microparticle counts throughout storage. Irradiation, in contrast, had no significant effect on microparticle counts. A gate for all microparticles showed a substantial time-dependent increase in unfiltered whole blood. A time-dependent increase in free haemoglobin was greatest in unfiltered, irradiated whole blood. This study indicates that leucofiltration can prevent the formation of leucocyte- and platelet-derived microparticles, and might reduce haemolysis in irradiated whole blood, either by removing factors that provoke haemolysis, or by selective retention of senescent or effete red cells most prone to haemolysis.

  5. Membrane properties involved in calcium-stimulated microparticle release from the plasma membranes of S49 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lauryl E; Nelson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2014-01-01

    This study answered the question of whether biophysical mechanisms for microparticle shedding discovered in platelets and erythrocytes also apply to nucleated cells: cytoskeletal disruption, potassium efflux, transbilayer phospholipid migration, and membrane disordering. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton of S49 lymphoma cells and produced rapid release of microparticles. This release was significantly inhibited by interventions that impaired calcium-activated potassium current. Microparticle release was also greatly reduced in a lymphocyte cell line deficient in the expression of scramblase, the enzyme responsible for calcium-stimulated dismantling of the normal phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry. Rescue of the scrambling function at high ionophore concentration also resulted in enhanced particle shedding. The effect of membrane physical properties was addressed by varying the experimental temperature (32-42°C). A significant positive trend in the rate of microparticle release as a function of temperature was observed. Fluorescence experiments with trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene and Patman revealed significant decrease in the level of apparent membrane order along that temperature range. These results demonstrated that biophysical mechanisms involved in microparticle release from platelets and erythrocytes apply also to lymphocytes.

  6. PLGA/DPPC/trimethylchitosan spray-dried microparticles for the nasal delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride: in vitro, ex vivo and cytocompatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavasili, Christina [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Bouropoulos, Nikolaos [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Rio, Patras (Greece); Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Sygellou, Lamprini [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S. [Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Fatouros, Dimitrios G., E-mail: dfatouro@pharm.auth.gr [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece)

    2016-02-01

    In the present study we investigated polymer-lipid microparticles loaded with ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for nasal delivery. RH microparticles were further evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ζ-potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro release studies were performed in simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES) pH 5.5 at 35 °C. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted across sheep nasal mucosa. Cytocompatibility was tested in cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). SEM studies revealed spheroid microparticles in the range of 2.09 μm to 2.41 μm. The presence of trimethylchitosan (TMC) induced a slight shift towards less negative ζ-potential values. Surface chemistry (XPS) revealed the presence of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) onto microparticles' surface, further corroborating the FT-IR and XRD findings. In vitro release studies showed that the microparticle composition can partly modulate the release of RH. Ex vivo studies demonstrated a 2.35-folded enhancement of RH permeation when RH was co-formulated with TMC of low molecular weight, compared to the control. All formulations tested were found to be non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that polymer-lipid microparticles may be a promising carrier for the nasal delivery of RH. - Highlights: • Development of microparticles comprising PLGA/DPPC/TMC for nasal drug delivery. • Physicochemical characterization showed that DPPC dominated microparticles' surface. • Microparticles enhanced permeation of ropinirole across sheep nasal epithelium. • The cytotoxicity assay with Calu-3 cells demonstrated satisfactory cell viability.

  7. PLGA/DPPC/trimethylchitosan spray-dried microparticles for the nasal delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride: in vitro, ex vivo and cytocompatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavasili, Christina; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Sygellou, Lamprini; Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.; Fatouros, Dimitrios G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated polymer-lipid microparticles loaded with ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for nasal delivery. RH microparticles were further evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ζ-potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro release studies were performed in simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES) pH 5.5 at 35 °C. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted across sheep nasal mucosa. Cytocompatibility was tested in cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). SEM studies revealed spheroid microparticles in the range of 2.09 μm to 2.41 μm. The presence of trimethylchitosan (TMC) induced a slight shift towards less negative ζ-potential values. Surface chemistry (XPS) revealed the presence of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) onto microparticles' surface, further corroborating the FT-IR and XRD findings. In vitro release studies showed that the microparticle composition can partly modulate the release of RH. Ex vivo studies demonstrated a 2.35-folded enhancement of RH permeation when RH was co-formulated with TMC of low molecular weight, compared to the control. All formulations tested were found to be non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that polymer-lipid microparticles may be a promising carrier for the nasal delivery of RH. - Highlights: • Development of microparticles comprising PLGA/DPPC/TMC for nasal drug delivery. • Physicochemical characterization showed that DPPC dominated microparticles' surface. • Microparticles enhanced permeation of ropinirole across sheep nasal epithelium. • The cytotoxicity assay with Calu-3 cells demonstrated satisfactory cell viability.

  8. External validation of EPIWIN biodegradation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, R; Traas, T P; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Hulzebos, E M

    2005-01-01

    The BIOWIN biodegradation models were evaluated for their suitability for regulatory purposes. BIOWIN includes the linear and non-linear BIODEG and MITI models for estimating the probability of rapid aerobic biodegradation and an expert survey model for primary and ultimate biodegradation estimation. Experimental biodegradation data for 110 newly notified substances were compared with the estimations of the different models. The models were applied separately and in combinations to determine which model(s) showed the best performance. The results of this study were compared with the results of other validation studies and other biodegradation models. The BIOWIN models predict not-readily biodegradable substances with high accuracy in contrast to ready biodegradability. In view of the high environmental concern of persistent chemicals and in view of the large number of not-readily biodegradable chemicals compared to the readily ones, a model is preferred that gives a minimum of false positives without a corresponding high percentage false negatives. A combination of the BIOWIN models (BIOWIN2 or BIOWIN6) showed the highest predictive value for not-readily biodegradability. However, the highest score for overall predictivity with lowest percentage false predictions was achieved by applying BIOWIN3 (pass level 2.75) and BIOWIN6.

  9. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spe...

  10. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on hemoglobin entrapped in titania sol-gel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiuhong; Ju Huangxian

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was entrapped in a titania sol-gel matrix and used as a mimetic peroxidase to construct a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide. The Hb entrapped titania sol-gel film was obtained with a vapor deposition method, which simplified the traditional sol-gel process for protein immobilization. The morphologies of both titania sol-gel and the Hb films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved to be chemically clean, porous, homogeneous. This matrix provided a biocompatible microenvironment for retaining the native structure and activity of the entrapped Hb and a very low mass transport barrier to the substrates. H 2 O 2 could be reduced by the catalysis of the entrapped hemoglobin at -300 mV without any mediator. The reagentless H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a fast response (less than 5 s) and sensitivity as high as 1.29 mA mM -1 cm -2 . The linear range for H 2 O 2 determination was from 5.0x10 -7 to 5.4x10 -5 M with a detection limit of 1.2x10 -7 M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the encapsulated hemoglobin was calculated to be 0.18±0.02 mM. The stability of the biosensor was also evaluated

  11. Analysis of sorption into single ODS-silica gel microparticles in acetonitrile-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Kakizaki, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    Intraparticle mass transfer processes of Phenol Blue (PB) in single octadecylsilyl (ODS)-silica gel microparticles in acetonitrile-water were analyzed by microcapillary manipulation and microabsorption methods. An absorption maximum of PB, the sorption isotherm parameters, and the sorption rate in the microparticle system were highly dependent on the percentage of acetonitrile in solution. The results are discussed in terms of the microscopic polarity surrounding PB in the ODS phase and the relationship between the isotherm parameters and the sorption rate.

  12. Computer tomographic demonstration of the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, W.; Zwicker, H.

    1979-01-01

    The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be diagnosed by computer tomography with a greater degree of certainty than by angiography. The advantage of computer tomography depends on the simultaneous demonstration of the position of the vessel and of the surrounding muscles and their abnormal situation. (orig.) [de

  13. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  14. Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Amelian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral

  15. Dexamethasone-loaded poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) microparticles for controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekes, Manoela Klueppel; Paula, Josiane Padilha de; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zawadzki, Sonia Faria

    2009-01-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) has been widely used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study was to obtain DEX-loaded poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) microparticles prepared by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The drug loading and the encapsulation efficiency were determined by a previously validated UV method at 233 nm. Morphological, spectroscopical and dissolution analyses were also performed. The microparticles (formulation F no. 0, F no. 1 and F no. 2) were successfully obtained as off-white powders. A drug loading of 92.27 mg.g -1 and 218.54 mg.g -1 and an encapsulation efficiency of 93.96 % and 87.43 % were respectively observed for F no. 1 and F no. 2. Particles showed spherical and rough aspect by SEM. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the encapsulation reduced the drug crystallinity. FTIR spectra showed that no chemical bonding occurred between PHBV and DEX. Drug-loaded microparticles revealed controlled release profiles compared to pure DEX. (author)

  16. Toughening and healing of composites by CNTs reinforced copolymer nylon micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Tsokanas, P.; Tsantzalis, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, nylon micro-particles, both undoped and doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes played the role of the self-healing agent into carbon fibre/epoxy composites (CFRPs). These micro-particles were blended with epoxy matrix and the resulting mixture was used for the composites fabrication. Three types of composites were manufactured; the reference CFRP and the modified CFRPs with undoped and doped nylon micro-particles. After manufacturing, these composites were tested under mode I and II fracture loading conditions and it was shown that the interlaminar fracture toughness characteristics of both nylon modified composites were significantly increased. After first fracture, healing process was activated for the tested nylon modified samples and revealed high fracture toughness characteristics recovery. Morphology examinations supported the results and elucidated the involved toughening and failure mechanisms. Finally, the in-plane mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of all the composites were characterized for identifying possible knock-down effects due to the nylon modification of composites.

  17. SODIUM TITANATE NANOBELT AS A MICROPARTICLE TO INDUCE CLAY FLOCCULATION WITH CPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Liu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium titanate nanobelt was synthesized by treating titanium dioxide hydrothermally in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. The product was characterized by SEM analysis and zeta potential measurement. It served as a microparticle to constitute a microparticle retention system with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM, while the microparticle system was employed to induce the flocculation of kaolin clay. The flocculation behavior of kaolin clay in such a system was investigated by using a photometric dispersion analyzer connected with a dynamic drainage jar. It was found that the sodium titanate nanobelt carried negative charges and had a lower zeta potential at higher pH. It gave a large synergistic flocculation effect with CPAM at a very low dosage, and showed higher flocculation effect with CPAM under neutral and weak alkaline conditions. A suitably high shear level was helpful for the re-flocculation of clay by sodium titanate nanobelt. The clay flocculation induced by CPAM/titanate nanobelt system demonstrated high shear resistance and also generated dense flocs.

  18. Silver microparticles plus fibrin tissue sealant prevents incisional hernias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Frank E; Young, David M; Grenert, James P; Harris, Hobart W

    2018-07-01

    Open abdominal surgery is frequently complicated by the subsequent development of an incisional hernia. Consequently, more than 400,000 incisional hernia repairs are performed each year, adding over $15 billion per year to U.S. health-care expenditures. While the vast majority of studies have focused on improved surgical techniques or prosthetic materials, we examined the use of metallic silver microparticles to prevent incisional hernia formation through enhanced wound healing. A rodent incisional hernia model was used. Eighty-two rats were randomly placed into two control groups (saline alone and silver microparticles alone), and three experimental groups (0 mg/cm, 2.5 mg/cm, and 25 mg/cm of silver microparticles applied with a fibrin sealant). Incisional hernia incidence and size, tensile strength, and tissue histology were assessed after 28 days. A significant reduction of both incisional hernia incidence and hernia size was observed between the control groups and 2.5 mg/cm group, and between the control and 25 mg/cm group by nearly 60% and 90%, respectively (P < 0.05). Histological samples showed a noticeable increase in new fibrosis in the treated animals as compared with the controls, whereas the tensile strength between the groups did not differ. The novel approach of using silver microparticles to enhance wound healing appears to be a safe and effective method to prevent incisional hernias from developing and could herald a new era of medicinal silver use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Complement activation on the surface of cell-derived microparticles during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass - is retransfusion of pericardial blood harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, E; van den Goor, J M; de Mol, B A; Schaap, M C; Ko, L-Y; Sturk, A; Hack, C E; Nieuwland, R

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether cell-derived microparticles play a role in complement activation in pericardial blood of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and whether microparticles in pericardial blood contribute to systemic complement activation upon retransfusion. Pericardial blood of 13 patients was retransfused in 9 and discarded in 4 cases. Microparticles were isolated from systemic blood collected before anesthesia (T1) and at the end of CPB (T2), and from pericardial blood. The microparticles were analyzed by flow cytometry for bound complement components C1q, C4 and C3, and bound complement activator molecules C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP), immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG. Fluid-phase complement activation products (C4b/c, C3b/c) and activator molecules were determined by ELISA. Compared with systemic T1 blood, pericardial blood contained increased C4b/c and C3b/c, and increased levels of microparticles with bound complement components. In systemic T1 samples, microparticle-bound CRP, whereas in pericardial blood, microparticle-bound SAP and IgM were associated with complement activation. At the end of CPB, increased C3b/c (but not C4b/c) was present in systemic T2 blood compared with T1, while concentrations of microparticles binding complement components and of those binding complement activator molecules were similar. Concentrations of fluid-phase complement activation products and microparticles were similar in patients whether or not retransfused with pericardial blood. In pericardial blood of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB, microparticles contribute to activation of the complement system via bound SAP and IgM. Retransfusion of pericardial blood, however, does not contribute to systemic complement activation.

  20. Optical and non-optical methods for detection and characterization of microparticles and exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, E; Hoekstra, A G; Sturk, A; Otto, C; van Leeuwen, T G; Nieuwland, R

    2010-12-01

    Microparticles and exosomes are cell-derived microvesicles present in body fluids that play a role in coagulation, inflammation, cellular homeostasis and survival, intercellular communication, and transport. Despite increasing scientific and clinical interest, no standard procedures are available for the isolation, detection and characterization of microparticles and exosomes, because their size is below the reach of conventional detection methods. Our objective is to give an overview of currently available and potentially applicable methods for optical and non-optical determination of the size, concentration, morphology, biochemical composition and cellular origin of microparticles and exosomes. The working principle of all methods is briefly discussed, as well as their applications and limitations based on the underlying physical parameters of the technique. For most methods, the expected size distribution for a given microvesicle population is determined. The explanations of the physical background and the outcomes of our calculations provide insights into the capabilities of each method and make a comparison possible between the discussed methods. In conclusion, several (combinations of) methods can detect clinically relevant properties of microparticles and exosomes. These methods should be further explored and validated by comparing measurement results so that accurate, reliable and fast solutions come within reach. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. Microencapsulation of superoxide dismutase into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microparticles by reverse micelle solvent evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youan, Bi-Botti Célestin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to encapsulate superoxide dismutase (SOD) in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles by reverse micelle solvent evaporation. The concentration of PCL, the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), and concentration of the sucrose ester used as surfactant in the organic phase were investigated as formulation variables. Relatively higher encapsulation efficiency (approximately 48%) and retained enzymatic activity (>90%) were obtained with microparticle formulation made from the 20% (w/v) PCL and 0.05% (w/v) sucrose ester of HLB = 6. This formulation allowed the in vitro release of SOD for at least 72 hr. These results showed that reverse micelle solvent evaporation can be used to efficiently encapsulate SOD in PCL microparticles. Such formulations may improve the bioavailability of SOD.

  2. Investigation of Carnuba Wax as Matrix in the Formulation of Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, release potential and drug release mechanisms of solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) prepared with different concentrations of two non ionic surfactants using carnauba wax as the lipid matrix. SLMs were prepared by melt dispersion technique, whereby ...

  3. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  4. Matrix-assisted relaxation in Fe(phen)2(NCS)2 spin-crossover microparticles, experimental and theoretical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enachescu, Cristian; Stancu, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Tissot, Antoine; Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the influence of the embedding matrix on the relaxation of Fe(phen) 2 (NCS) 2 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) spin-transition microparticles as revealed by experiments and provide an explanation within the framework of an elastic model based on a Monte-Carlo method. Experiments show that the shape of the high-spin → low-spin relaxation curves is drastically changed when the particles are dispersed in glycerol. This effect was considered in the model by means of interactions between the microparticles and the matrix. A faster start of the relaxation for microparticles embedded in glycerol is due to an initial positive local pressure acting on the edge spin-crossover molecules from the matrix side. This local pressure diminishes and eventually becomes negative during relaxation, as an effect of the decrease of the volume of spin-crossover microparticles from high-spin to low-spin.

  5. Permeation of antigen protein-conjugated nanoparticles and live bacteria through microneedle-treated mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Li, Xinran; Sandoval, Michael A; Rodriguez, B Leticia; Sloat, Brian R; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which pretreatment with microneedles can enhance skin permeation of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Permeation of live bacteria, which are physically nanoparticles or microparticles, through mouse skin pretreated with microneedles was also studied to evaluate the potential risk of microbial infection. Methods and results: It was found that pretreatment of mouse skin with microneedles allowed permeation of solid lipid nanoparticles, size 230 nm, with ovalbumin conjugated on their surface. Transcutaneous immunization in a mouse skin area pretreated with microneedles with ovalbumin nanoparticles induced a stronger antiovalbumin antibody response than using ovalbumin alone. The dose of ovalbumin antigen determined whether microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with ovalbumin nanoparticles induced a stronger immune response than subcutaneous injection of the same ovalbumin nanoparticles. Microneedle treatment permitted skin permeation of live Escherichia coli, but the extent of the permeation was not greater than that enabled by hypodermic injection. Conclusion: Transcutaneous immunization on a microneedle-treated skin area with antigens carried by nanoparticles can potentially induce a strong immune response, and the risk of bacterial infection associated with microneedle treatment is no greater than that with a hypodermic injection. PMID:21753877

  6. Hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in posttraumatic stress disorder: their association with suicidal behavior and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown an increased frequency of suicidal behaviors in those with PTSD, but few studies have investigated the factors that underlie the emergence of suicidal behavior in PTSD. Two theories of suicide, the Cry of Pain and the Schematic Appraisal Model of Suicide, propose that feelings of hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment are core components of suicidality. This study aimed to examine the association between suicidal behavior and hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in trauma victims with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The results demonstrated that hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment were significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in those with PTSD. Hopelessness and defeat were also significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in trauma victims without PTSD. In those with PTSD, the relationship between suicidal behavior and hopelessness and entrapment remained significant after controlling for comorbid depression. The findings provide support for the contemporary theories of suicidality and have important clinical implications.

  7. Spray-dried HPMC microparticles of Indomethacin: Impact of drug-polymer ratio and viscosity of the polymeric solution on dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanazi, Fars K.; El-Badry, M.; Alsarra, Ibrahim A.

    2006-01-01

    Polymeric microparticles prepared by spray-drying techniques were investigated to enhance the dissolution rate of indomethacin (IM) in comparison with conventional microparticles prepared by co-precipitation solid dispersion method. Drug-polymer ratios and viscosity of polymeric solutions as potential factors were used in order to enhance the dissolution rate of IM. Spray-drying technique was used for preparing of microparticles using aqueous suspension of IM in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer solution. The effect of drug-polymer ratios on dissolution rates of IM was studied in simulating intestinal medium. IM was analyzed spectrophotometrically at λ =320nm. For each drug-polymer ratios, low and high viscosity polymeric solutions were prepared and their impacts on the dissolution of IM were observed. Microparticles were morphologically characterized by optical microscopy. The interaction between IM and HPMC was studied by differential scanning caloremetry (DSC) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). Spherical fluffy microparticles of IM were obtained using HPMC. It was observed that the prepared spray-dried microparticles significantly increase the dissolution rate of IM. The increase in dissolution rates was achieved with drug: polymer ratios 1: 1 as well as 1:2 and interestingly, the decrease in drug content in ratio exceeding 1:2 resulted in reduction in dissolution rates. Also, with all drug-polymer ratios, the low viscosity polymeric solutions gave the higher dissolution rates. In conclusion, HPMC microparticles loaded with IM were prepared by spray drying-technique and the potential of this technique to enhance the dissolution was studied. The findings indicate that the dissolution profile of IM microparticles prepared by spray -drying technique relied on drug-polymer ratios and viscosity of polymeric solutions. (author)

  8. Development of liposomes entrapped in alginate beads for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Divya; Gulbake, Arvind; Tiwari, Jyoti; Jain, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Folic Acid conjugated liposomes encapsulating Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) were entrapped in alginate beads and further coated with Eudragit-S-100 for effective delivery to colon tumors. Liposomes were prepared by cast film method and folic acid was coupled on the surface of liposomes. They were further entrapped in alginate beads which were Eudragit coated for degradation in the colonic region. The prepared beads were characterized for shape and surface morphology, percentage entrapment efficiency and drug release studies. The in vitro drug release was investigated using a USP dissolution paddle type apparatus in different simulated gastrointestinal fluids. In vivo studies of the beads containing free drug, folic acid coupled and uncoupled liposomes bearing L-OHP was administered orally at the dose of 10mg L-OHP/kg body weight to tumor bearing NUDE/SCID mice. γ-Scintigraphic study showed that Eudragit coated alginate beads entered into the colon of Balb/c mice between 4.20 and 4.50h after oral administration. In vivo data showed that folic acid coupled liposomes entrapped in alginate beads delivered 2.82 ± 0.58 and 21.52 ± 2.76 μg L-OHP/g tissues in the colon and tumor after 12h, reflecting its targeting potential to colon and tumor. The results clearly demonstrate that Eudragit coated calcium alginate beads bearing folic acid coupled liposome can be used as a prospective carrier for drug delivery to colon specific tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  10. Entrapment of cultured pancreas islets in three-dimensional collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, S H; Peshwa, M V; Sutherland, D E; Hu, W S

    1992-01-01

    In vitro culture of islets of Langerhans decreases their immunogenicity, presumably by eliminating passenger leukocytes and other Ia+ presenting cells within the islets. Islets cultivated in petri dishes either at 37 degrees C or at 25 degrees C gradually disintegrate during culture in a time-dependent manner which is related to the free-floating condition of the islets. Also, a fraction of the islets disperse as single cells and beta-cell aggregates or adhere to the bottom of the culture dishes. Thus, the retrieval rate of transplantable islets is dampened due to their disintegration and spontaneous dispersion in conventional petri dish cultures. Entrapment of freshly harvested islets of Langerhans in a three-dimensional collagen matrix was studied as an alternative method for islet cultivation. The contraction of collagen fibrils during in vitro culture counteracts the dispersion of islets and helps in maintaining their integrity while in culture. It was observed that the entrapped islets maintain satisfactory morphology, viability, and capability of glucose-dependent insulin secretion for over 2 wk. The oxygen consumption rate and glucose metabolism of these islets was not deranged when entrapped in collagen. Also, the retrieval of islets is easier and more efficient than that observed in conventional culture systems. Our results indicate that culture of islets in three-dimensional collagen gels can potentially develop into an ideal system applicable to clinical transplantation of cultured islets or beta-cell aggregates.

  11. Platelet Lysate-Modified Porous Silicon Microparticles for Enhanced Cell Proliferation in Wound Healing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Flavia; Mori, Michela; Riva, Federica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Liu, Dongfei; Salonen, Jarno; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-01-13

    The new frontier in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds is the use of micro- and nanoparticles to deliver drugs or growth factors into the wound. Here, we used platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivative of platelets, consisting of a multifactorial cocktail of growth factors, to modify porous silicon (PSi) microparticles and assessed both in vitro and ex vivo the properties of the developed microsystem. PL-modified PSi was assessed for its potential to induce proliferation of fibroblasts. The wound closure-promoting properties of the microsystem were then assessed in an in vitro wound healing assay. Finally, the PL-modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in an ex vivo experiment over human skin. It was shown that PL-modified PSi microparticles were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell proliferation in different experimental settings. In addition, this microsystem promoted the closure of the gap between the fibroblast cells in the wound healing assay, in periods of time comparable with the positive control, and induced a proliferation and regeneration process onto the human skin in an ex vivo experiment. Overall, our results show that PL-modified PSi microparticles are suitable microsystems for further development toward applications in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds.

  12. Biodegradable Mulches Based on Poly(vinyl Alcohol, Kenaf Fiber, and Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Khoon Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol/kenaf fiber (PVOH/KF composites with entrapped urea. The major FTIR peaks of these composites could be identified. These composites are intended for agricultural applications as biodegradable mulches and could be potential carrier materials for fertilizer. The water solubility, release behavior, chemical properties, and thermal stability of the composites were evaluated. The composites lost 25% of their weight after 7 days in water. In a wet environment, urea was released from the composites through its dissolution in water, and around 57% of the urea was released from the composites in 24 h; Thermagravimetric analysis showed that these composites were stable up 150 C. These composites would be able to withstand rain and protect seedlings from the sun when applied in the field as mulches. For around three to four weeks, these biobased mulches could slowly disintegrate as the PVOH binder was gradually dissolved by moisture, releasing the kenaf fibers to serve as soil fertilizer without leaving any undegradable waste for disposal. Hence, they would not pose any risks to the land or biological systems.

  13. Micro-Particles Motion in an Evaporating Droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jung Yeul; Yoo, Jung Yul; Kim, Young Won

    2007-01-01

    Nano-particles (on the order of 1 to 100 nm) contained within the droplet are moved by liquid flow and stacked at the contact line. The self-pinned contact line under the evaporating droplet is very interesting in the field of patterning and separation of particles and biocells. Models accounting for the nano-particles' flow and deposit patterns have been reported and verified by various experiments. Here, we report for the first time a phenomenon where micro-particles (on the order of 1 μm) in the colloid droplet flow to the center of droplet. There are three modes of fluid and particle flow in the evaporating droplet. In the first mode, a self-pinned contact line is maintained and the fluid and micro/nano-particles flow to the contact line. In the second mode, micro/nano-particles self-assemble at the near contact line, as reported by Jung and Kwak. In the final mode, only micro-particles are adverted to the center of the droplet due to movement of the contact line

  14. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by light- induced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photo- conductive layer ...

  15. Wettability transition induced transformation and entrapment of polymer nanostructures in cylindrical nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xunda; Mei, Shilin; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2011-12-06

    We apply the concept of wettability transition to manipulate the morphology and entrapment of polymer nanostructures inside cylindrical nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. When AAO/polystyrene (PS) hybrids, i.e., AAO/PS nanorods or AAO/PS nanotubes, are immersed into a polyethylene glycol (PEG) reservoir above the glass transition temperature of PS, a wettability transition from wetting to nonwetting of PS can be triggered due to the invasion of the more wettable PEG melt. The wettability transition enables us to develop a nondestructive method to entrap hemispherically capped nanorods inside nanopores. Moreover, we can obtain single nanorods with the desired aspect ratio by further dissolving the AAO template, in contrast to the drawbacks of nonuniformity or destructiveness from the conventional ultrasonication method. In the case of AAO/PS nanotubes, the wettability transition induced dewetting of PS nanotube walls results in the disconnection and entrapment of nonwetting PS domains (i.e., nanospheres, nanocapsules, or capped nanorods). Moreover, PEG is then washed to recover the pristine wettability of PS on the alumina surface; further annealing of the PS nanospheres inside AAO nanopores under vacuum can generate some unique nanostructures, particularly semicylindrical nanorods. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Preparation, characterization and nonlinear absorption studies of cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, H.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2012-07-01

    Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper(II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR studies revealed that the formation of pure single-phase cubic. Raman and EPR spectral studies show the presence of CuO in as-synthesized powders of Cu2O. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm 6 ns laser pulses. Samples-exhibited both saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap), we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) in the case of nanoclusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  17. Novel polymeric bioerodable microparticles for prolonged-release intrathecal delivery of analgesic agents for relief of intractable cancer-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Felicity Y; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Lam, Ai-Leen; Whittaker, Andrew K; Smith, Maree T

    2015-07-01

    Intractable cancer-related pain complicated by a neuropathic component due to nerve impingement is poorly alleviated even by escalating doses of a strong opioid analgesic. To address this unmet medical need, we developed sustained-release, bioerodable, hydromorphone (potent strong opioid)- and ketamine (analgesic adjuvant)-loaded microparticles for intrathecal (i.t.) coadministration. Drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water method with evaporation. Encapsulation efficiency of hydromorphone and ketamine in PLGA (50:50) microparticles was 26% and 56%, respectively. Microparticles had the desired size range (20-60 μm) and in vitro release was prolonged at ≥28 days. Microparticles were stable for ≥6 months when stored refrigerated protected from light in a desiccator. Desirably, i.t. injected fluorescent dye-labeled PLGA microparticles in rats remained in the lumbar region for ≥7 days. In a rat model of neuropathic pain, i.t. coinjection of hydromorphone- and ketamine-loaded microparticles (each 1 mg) produced analgesia for 8 h only. Possible explanations include inadequate release of ketamine and/or hydromorphone into the spinal fluid, and/or insufficient ketamine loading to prevent development of analgesic tolerance to the released hydromorphone. As sub-analgesic doses of i.t. ketamine at 24-48 h intervals restored analgesia on each occasion, insufficient ketamine loading appears problematic. We will investigate these issues in future work. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles for Cr(VI) adsorption: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Ali; Demirbel, Emel; Tekin, Nalan; Osman, Bilgen; Beşirli, Necati

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) can oxidize biological molecules and be one of the most harmful substance. • Magnetic seperation techniques are used on different applications in many fields. • Magnetic systems can be used for rapid and selective removal as a magnetic processor. • We investigate properties of both new material and other magnetic adsorbents reported in the literatures on the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions. • No researchments were reported on adsorption of Cr(VI) with magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles, poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate(EG)–vinylphenyl boronic acid(VPBA)) [m-poly(EG–VPBA)], produced by suspension polymerization and characterized, was found to be an efficient solid polymer for Cr(VI) adsorption. The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were prepared by copolymerizing of ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EG) with 4-vinyl phenyl boronic acid (VPBA). The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were used at adsorbent/Cr(VI) ion ratios. The influence of pH, Cr(VI) initial concentration, temperature of the removal process was investigated. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2. Langmuir isotherm and Dubinin–Radushkvich isotherm were found to better fit the experiment data rather than Fruendlich isotherm. The kinetics of the adsorption process of Cr(VI) on the m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were investigated using the pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models, results showed that the pseudo-second order equation model provided the best correlation with the experimental results. The thermodynamic

  19. Circulating procoagulant microparticles in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Johannes; Ay, Cihan; Weinstabl, Harald; Dunkler, Daniela; Simanek, Ralph; Vormittag, Rainer; Freyssinet, Jean-Marie; Zielinski, Christoph; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that microparticles (MPs) are important mediators of the interaction between cancer and the hemostatic system. We conducted a large prospective cohort study to determine whether the number of circulating procoagulant MPs is elevated in cancer patients and whether the elevated MP levels are predictive of occurrence of venous thrombembolism (VTE). We analyzed plasma samples of 728 cancer patients from the ongoing prospective observational Vien...

  20. Activity of daptomycin- and vancomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone microparticles against mature staphylococcal biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ferreira I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inês Santos Ferreira,1 Ana F Bettencourt,1 Lídia MD Gonçalves,1 Stefanie Kasper,2 Bertrand Bétrisey,3 Judith Kikhney,2 Annette Moter,2 Andrej Trampuz,4 António J Almeida1 1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Biofilmcenter, German Heart Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL microparticles with enhanced antibiofilm activity against mature biofilms of clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Daptomycin was encapsulated into PCL microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes, formulations containing vancomycin were also prepared. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, thermal behavior, and in vitro release were assessed. All formulations exhibited a spherical morphology, micro­meter size, and negative surface charge. From a very early time stage, the released concentrations of daptomycin and vancomycin were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration and continued so up to 72 hours. Daptomycin presented a sustained release profile with increasing concentrations of the drug being released up to 72 hours, whereas the release of vancomycin stabilized at 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of the microparticles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against planktonic and sessile MRSA and S. epidermidis. Regarding planktonic bacteria, daptomycin-loaded PCL microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. Isothermal

  1. Ca/Al of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions as an indicator for post-entrapment processes at mid-ocean ridges?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.T.; Yang, Y.M.; Yan, Q.S.; Shi, Z.F.; Zhu, Z.W.; Su, W.C.; Qin, C.J.; Ye, J.

    2016-07-01

    The composition of melt inclusions in basalts erupted at mid-ocean ridges may be modified by post-entrapment processes, so the present composition of melt inclusions may not represent their original composition at the time of entrapment. By combining the melt inclusion composition in samples from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 19°S analyzed in this study, and from the Petrological Database, we found that post-entrapment crystallization processes resulted in higher Ca/Al, Mg#[100×atomic Mg2+/(Mg2++Fe2+)], MgO and FeO contents, and lower CaO and Al2O3 contents of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions relative to those hosted in olivine. In addition, melt inclusions hosted in plagioclase with anorthite content larger than 80mol.% had been modified more readily than others. By discussing the relationships between Ca/Al and fractional crystallization, post-entrapment crystallization, and the original melt composition, we propose that Ca/Al can be regarded as an indicator of the effect of post-entrapment processes on melt inclusion composition. Specifically, i) when Ca/Al<0.78, melt inclusion compositions corrected for fractional crystallization to Mg#=72 can represent the primary magma at mid-ocean ridges; ii) when 0.78entrapment crystallization effects, and can reveal the original melt composition after correcting for these effects; iii) when Ca/Al>1.0, the compositions of melt inclusions do not reflect the original melt composition nor preserve information about the mantle source. According to these criteria, plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions with Ca/Al>1.0 in basalts from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at19°S cannot represent the composition of the melt at the moment of their entrapment. (Author)

  2. Ca/Al of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions as an indicator for post-entrapment processes at mid-ocean ridges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.T.; Yang, Y.M.; Yan, Q.S.; Shi, Z.F.; Zhu, Z.W.; Su, W.C.; Qin, C.J.; Ye, J.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of melt inclusions in basalts erupted at mid-ocean ridges may be modified by post-entrapment processes, so the present composition of melt inclusions may not represent their original composition at the time of entrapment. By combining the melt inclusion composition in samples from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 19°S analyzed in this study, and from the Petrological Database, we found that post-entrapment crystallization processes resulted in higher Ca/Al, Mg#[100×atomic Mg2+/(Mg2++Fe2+)], MgO and FeO contents, and lower CaO and Al2O3 contents of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions relative to those hosted in olivine. In addition, melt inclusions hosted in plagioclase with anorthite content larger than 80mol.% had been modified more readily than others. By discussing the relationships between Ca/Al and fractional crystallization, post-entrapment crystallization, and the original melt composition, we propose that Ca/Al can be regarded as an indicator of the effect of post-entrapment processes on melt inclusion composition. Specifically, i) when Ca/Al 1.0, the compositions of melt inclusions do not reflect the original melt composition nor preserve information about the mantle source. According to these criteria, plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions with Ca/Al>1.0 in basalts from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at19°S cannot represent the composition of the melt at the moment of their entrapment. (Author)

  3. One-Step Production of Protein-Loaded PLGA Microparticles via Spray Drying Using 3-Fluid Nozzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Andersen, Sune Klint

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles.......The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles....

  4. Biodegradable Sonobuoy Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of Water Temperature and the Presence of Salt on the Disintegration Time of MonoSol A200 PVOH...polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). The proposed film would disintegrate , dissolve, and eventually biodegrade to prevent long-term effects on marine life. Ensuring no...Standard Specification for Non-Floating Biodegradable Plastics in the Marine Environment. Results showed that no PHA grades were toxic to the marine

  5. Orbital Floor Fracture with Atypical Extraocular Muscle Entrapment Pattern and Intraoperative Asystole in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Farhan I.; Grant, Michael P.; Mahoney, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscle entrapment in a nondisplaced orbital fracture, although a well-known entity in pediatric trauma, is atypical in adults. It can present with a triad of bradycardia, nausea, and in rare cases, syncope, and result in severe fibrosis of damaged and incarcerated muscle. We present a case of muscle entrapment in a partially nondisplaced two-wall orbital fracture with accompanying preoperative bradycardia and intraoperative asystole in an adult PMID:26576246

  6. Air Entrapment and Drop Formation in Piezo Inkjet Printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bos, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Piezo drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printers are used in an increasing number of applications for their reliable deposition of droplets onto a substrate. Droplets of a few picoliters are ejected from an ink jet nozzle at a frequency of up to 50 kHz. However, entrapment of an air microbubble into the

  7. Critical solvent properties affecting the particle formation process and characteristics of celecoxib-loaded PLGA microparticles via spray-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas

    2013-01-01

    ) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. METHODS: Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties...... and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). RESULTS: Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent...

  8. A directional entrapment modification on the polyethylene surface by the amphiphilic modifier of stearyl-alcohol poly(ethylene oxide) ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Chen, Yi; Huang, Juexin; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Jiaying

    2018-05-01

    A novel entrapment modification method involving directional implantation of the amphiphilic modifier of stearyl-alcohol poly(ethylene oxide) ether (AEO) into the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) surface is proposed. This modification technique allows the AEO modifier to be able to spontaneously attain and subsequently penetrate into the swollen HDPE surface with its hydrophobic stearyl segment, while its hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segment spontaneously points to water. The AEO modifier with a HLB number below 8.7 was proved appropriate for the directional entrapment, Nevertheless, AEOs with larger HLB numbers were also effective modifiers in the presence of salt additives. In addition, a larger and hydrophobic micelle, induced respectively by the AEO concentration above 1.3 × 10-2 mol/L and the entrapping temperature above the cloud point of AEO, could lead to a sharp contact angle decline of the modified surface. Finally, a hydrophilic HDPE surface with the modifier coverage of 38.9% was reached by the directional entrapment method, which is far larger than that of 19.2% by the traditional entrapment method.

  9. Skin penetration and photoprotection of topical formulations containing benzophenone-3 solid lipid microparticles prepared by the solvent-free spray-congealing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rodrigo Molina; Siqueira, Silvia; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira; Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Solid-lipid microparticles loaded with high amounts of the sunscreen UV filter benzophenone-3 were prepared by spray congealing with the objective of decreasing its skin penetration and evaluate whether the sunscreen's photoprotection were impaired by the microencapsulation process. The microparticles were produced using the natural lipids carnauba wax or bees wax and three different concentrations of benzophenone-3 (30, 50 and 70%) using spray congealing technique. The microparticles presented properties suitable for topical application, such as spherical morphology, high encapsulation efficiency (95.53-102.2%), average particle sizes between 28.5 and 60.0 µm with polydispersivities from 1.2 to 2.5. In studies of in vitro skin penetration and preliminary stability, formulations of gel cream containing carnauba wax solid lipid microparticles and 70% benzophenone-3 when compared to the formulation added of bees wax solid-lipid microparticles containing 70% benzophenone-3, was stable considering the several parameters evaluated and were able to decrease the penetration of the UV filter into pig skin. Moreover, the formulations containing solid lipid microparticles with 70% benzophenone-3 increased the photoprotective capacity of benzophenone-3 under UV irradiation. The results show that spray-congealed microparticles are interesting solid forms to decrease the penetration solar filters in the skin without compromising their photoprotection.

  10. Hemocompatible ɛ-polylysine-heparin microparticles: A platform for detecting triglycerides in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Chi, Bo; Chu, Meilin; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhan, Shuyue; Shi, Rongjia; Xu, Hong; Mao, Chun

    2018-01-15

    Triglycerides are clinically important marker for atherosclerosis, heart disease and hypertension. Here, a platform for detecting triglycerides in whole blood directly was developed based on hemocompatible ɛ-polylysine-heparin microparticles. The obtained products of ɛ-polylysine-heparin microparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ζ-potential. Moreover, the blood compatibility of ɛ-polylysine-heparin microparticles was characterized by in vitro coagulation tests, hemolysis assay and whole blood adhesion tests. Considering of uniform particle size, good dispersibility and moderate long-term anticoagulation capability of the microparticles, a Lipase-(ɛ-polylysine-heparin)-glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed to detect triglycerides. The proposed biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity towards triglycerides, in which case the sensitivity was 0.40μAmg -1 dLcm -2 and the detection limit was 4.67mgdL -1 (S/N = 3). Meanwhile, the Lipase-(ɛ-polylysine-heparin)-GCE electrode had strong anti-interference ability as well as a long shelf-life. Moreover, for the detection of triglycerides in whole blood directly, the detection limit was as low as 5.18mgdL -1 . The new constructed platform is suitable for detecting triglycerides in whole blood directly, which provides new analytical systems for clinical illness diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. External and Intraparticle Diffusion of Coumarin 102 with Surfactant in the ODS-silica Gel/water System by Single Microparticle Injection and Confocal Fluorescence Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Matsuta, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase.

  12. External and intraparticle diffusion of coumarin 102 with surfactant in the ODS-silica gel/water system by single microparticle injection and confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Matsuta, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase. (author)

  13. Histological evaluation of different biodegradable and non-biodegradable membranes implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, S; Pinholt, E M; Madsen, J E

    2000-01-01

    Different types of biodegradable membranes have become available for guided tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically three different biodegradable membranes (Bio-Gide, Resolut and Vicryl) and one non-biodegradable membrane (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/e-PTFE...... that e-PTFE was well tolerated and encapsulated by a fibrous connective tissue capsule. There was capsule formation around Resolut and Vicryl and around Bio-Gide in the early phase there was a wide inflammatory zone already. e-PTFE and Vicryl were stable materials while Resolut and Bio-Gide fragmented...

  14. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillman, Eric D., E-mail: eric.gillman.ctr@nrl.navy.mil [National Research Council Postdoctoral Associate at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Amatucci, W. E. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  15. Physical and arsenic adsorption properties of maghemite and magnetite sub-microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Santillan, M. E.; Pariona, N.; Bravo-C., J.; Herrera-Trejo, M.; Montejo-Alvaro, F.; Zarate, A.; Perry, D. L.; Mtz-Enriquez, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The topotactic transformation from magnetite to maghemite sub-microparticles was demonstrated by a variety of techniques that include X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and vis-NIR diffuse reflectance. The physical, chemical, and morphological properties of the particles were correlated with their adsorptive properties in water with respect to arsenic (V). The adsorptive properties of the iron oxide are increased by changing the crystal phases involved, specifically, the transformation of magnetite to maghemite. Maghemite sub-microparticles are capable of efficiently decreasing the arsenic content in water from 100 ppb to below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 10 ppb.

  16. Simultaneous capture and sequential detection of two malarial biomarkers on magnetic microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwalter, Christine F; Ricks, Keersten M; Bitting, Anna L; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Wright, David W

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a rapid magnetic microparticle-based detection strategy for malarial biomarkers Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRPII). In this assay, magnetic particles functionalized with antibodies specific for pLDH and PfHRPII as well as detection antibodies with distinct enzymes for each biomarker are added to parasitized lysed blood samples. Sandwich complexes for pLDH and PfHRPII form on the surface of the magnetic beads, which are washed and sequentially re-suspended in detection enzyme substrate for each antigen. The developed simultaneous capture and sequential detection (SCSD) assay detects both biomarkers in samples as low as 2.0parasites/µl, an order of magnitude below commercially available ELISA kits, has a total incubation time of 35min, and was found to be reproducible between users over time. This assay provides a simple and efficient alternative to traditional 96-well plate ELISAs, which take 5-8h to complete and are limited to one analyte. Further, the modularity of the magnetic bead-based SCSD ELISA format could serve as a platform for application to other diseases for which multi-biomarker detection is advantageous. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodegradable modified Phba systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniscenko, L.; Dzenis, M.; Erkske, D.; Tupureina, V.; Savenkova, L.; Muizniece - Braslava, S.

    2004-01-01

    Compositions as well as production technology of ecologically sound biodegradable multicomponent polymer systems were developed. Our objective was to design some bio plastic based composites with required mechanical properties and biodegradability intended for use as biodegradable packaging. Significant characteristics required for food packaging such as barrier properties (water and oxygen permeability) and influence of γ-radiation on the structure and changes of main characteristics of some modified PHB matrices was evaluated. It was found that barrier properties were plasticizers chemical nature and sterilization with γ-radiation dependent and were comparable with corresponding values of typical polymeric packaging films. Low γ-radiation levels (25 kGy) can be recommended as an effective sterilization method of PHB based packaging materials. Purposely designed bio plastic packaging may provide an alternative to traditional synthetic packaging materials without reducing the comfort of the end-user due to specific qualities of PHB - biodegradability, Biocompatibility and hydrophobic nature

  18. Distinct features of circulating microparticles and their relationship to clinical manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Østergaard, Ole; Johnsen, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the abundance, origin, and annexin V (AnxV)-binding capabilities of circulating microparticles (MPs) in SLE patients and healthy controls and to determine any associations with clinical parameters.......Characterization of the abundance, origin, and annexin V (AnxV)-binding capabilities of circulating microparticles (MPs) in SLE patients and healthy controls and to determine any associations with clinical parameters....

  19. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride—In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted.

  1. Multivalent presentation of MPL by porous silicon microparticles favors T helper 1 polarization enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, Ismail M; Hearnden, Claire H; Liu, Xuewu; Yang, Marie; Williams, Laura; Savage, David J; Gu, Jianhua; Rhudy, Jessica R; Yokoi, Kenji; Lavelle, Ed C; Serda, Rita E

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and proinflammatory monocytes, and the depletion of resident macrophages and mast cells at the injection site. Injection of microparticle-bound MPL resulted in enhanced secretion of the T helper 1 associated cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α by peritoneal exudate and lymph node cells in response to secondary stimuli while decreasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. MPL-pSi microparticles independently exhibited anti-tumor effects and enhanced tumor suppression by low dose doxorubicin nanoliposomes. Intravascular injection of the MPL-bound microparticles increased serum IL-1β levels, which was blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. The microparticles also potentiated tumor infiltration by dendritic cells, cytotoxic T lymp