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Sample records for antigen psa isoforms

  1. Relationship of chronic histologic prostatic inflammation in biopsy specimens with serum isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA, and prostate health index in men with a total prostate-specific antigen of 4-10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Abrate, Alberto; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Gadda, Giulio Maria; Freschi, Massimo; Mistretta, Francesco; Lista, Giuliana; Fossati, Nicola; Larcher, Alessandro; Kinzikeeva, Ella; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Dell'Acqua, Vincenzo; Bini, Vittorio; Montorsi, Francesco; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and derivatives with chronic histologic prostatic inflammation (CHPI) in men undergoing prostate biopsy for suspected prostate cancer (PCa). This nested case-control study resulted from an observational prospective trial for the definition of sensibility, specificity, and accuracy of p2PSA, %p2PSA, and Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index (PHI), in men undergoing prostate biopsy, with a total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. CHPI was the outcome of interest and defined as the presence of moderate to large infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells with interstitial and/or glandular disruption in absence of PCa. p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were considered the index tests and compared with the established biomarker reference standard tests: tPSA, fPSA, %fPSA. Of 267 patients subjected to prostate biopsy, 73 (27.3%) patients were diagnosed with CHPI. Comparing CHPI with PCa patients, %p2PSA and PHI were found to be significantly lower, whereas fPSA and %fPSA were significantly higher. %p2PSA and PHI were the most accurate predictors of CHPI at biopsy, significantly outperforming tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA. On the contrary, no significant differences were found in PSA, p2PSA, and derivatives between CHPI and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Our findings showed that p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI values might discriminate PCa from CHPI or BPH, but not CHPI from BPH, in men with a total PSA 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. p2PSA isoform and its derivatives could be useful in clinical decision making to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with CHPI and elevated tPSA value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The percentage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index improve the diagnostic accuracy for clinically relevant prostate cancer at initial and repeat biopsy compared with total PSA and percentage free PSA in men aged ≤65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegemann, Martin; Stephan, Carsten; Cammann, Henning; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Houlgatte, Alain; Jung, Klaus; Blanchet, Jean-Sebastien; Semjonow, Axel

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively test the diagnostic accuracy of the percentage of prostate specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (%p2PSA) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and to determine their role for discrimination between significant and insignificant prostate cancer at initial and repeat prostate biopsy in men aged ≤65 years. The diagnostic performance of %p2PSA and PHI were evaluated in a multicentre study. In all, 769 men aged ≤65 years scheduled for initial or repeat prostate biopsy were recruited in four sites based on a total PSA (t-PSA) level of 1.6-8.0 ng/mL World Health Organization (WHO) calibrated (2-10 ng/mL Hybritech-calibrated). Serum samples were measured for the concentration of t-PSA, free PSA (f-PSA) and p2PSA with Beckman Coulter immunoassays on Access-2 or DxI800 instruments. PHI was calculated as (p2PSA/f-PSA × √t-PSA). Uni- and multivariable logistic regression models and an artificial neural network (ANN) were complemented by decision curve analysis (DCA). In univariate analysis %p2PSA and PHI were the best predictors of prostate cancer detection in all patients (area under the curve [AUC] 0.72 and 0.73, respectively), at initial (AUC 0.67 and 0.69) and repeat biopsy (AUC 0.74 and 0.74). t-PSA and %f-PSA performed less accurately for all patients (AUC 0.54 and 0.62). For detection of significant prostate cancer (based on Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance [PRIAS] criteria) the %p2PSA and PHI equally demonstrated best performance (AUC 0.70 and 0.73) compared with t-PSA and %f-PSA (AUC 0.54 and 0.59). In multivariate analysis PHI we added to a base model of age, prostate volume, digital rectal examination, t-PSA and %f-PSA. PHI was strongest in predicting prostate cancer in all patients, at initial and repeat biopsy and for significant prostate cancer (AUC 0.73, 0.68, 0.78 and 0.72, respectively). In DCA for all patients the ANN showed the broadest threshold probability and best net benefit. PHI as single parameter

  3. Measurement of serum isoform [-2]proPSA derivatives shows superior accuracy to magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with a total prostate-specific antigen level of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Kazuhiro; Kawahara, Takashi; Narahara, Masaki; Tokita, Takashi; Fukui, Sachi; Imano, Masashi; Mitome, Taku; Ito, Yusuke; Izumi, Koji; Osaka, Kimito; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Hayashi, Narihiko; Hasumi, Hisashi; Nawata, Shintaro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji

    2017-08-01

    More accurate diagnostic procedures for prostate cancer are needed to avoid unnecessary biopsy due to the low specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Recent studies showed that the percentage of serum isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) to free PSA (%p2PSA), the Prostate Health Index (PHI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were more accurate than PSA. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of %p2PSA, PHI and MRI in discriminating patients with and without prostate cancer. The subjects were 50 consecutive men with a PSA level of 2.0-10.0 ng/ml, who underwent prostate biopsy from October 2012 to July 2014. These patients underwent multiparametric MRI before biopsy, and their serum samples were measured for PSA, free PSA and p2PSA. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PHI, %p2PSA and MRI were compared with PSA in the diagnosis of biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer. In a univariate analysis, %p2PSA [area under the curve (AUC): 0.811] and PHI (AUC 0.795) were more accurate than MRI (AUC: 0.583) and PSA (AUC: 0.554) for prostate cancer detection. At 60% sensitivity, the specificity of PHI (76.5%) was higher than that of MRI (52.9%). For significant cancer detection, %p2PSA (AUC: 0.745), PHI (AUC: 0.791) and MRI (AUC: 0.739) were marginally more accurate than PSA (AUC: 0.696). At 85% sensitivity, the specificity of MRI (62.1%) was higher than that of PHI (34.5%). PHI and %p2PSA can be used for screening the general population and MRI can be used for detection of significant cancer in patients suspected, from screening tests, of having prostate cancer.

  4. Clinical performance of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivatives, %p2PSA and the prostate health index (PHI), in men with a family history of prostate cancer: results from a multicentre European study, the PROMEtheuS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Haese, Alexander; Abrate, Alberto; de la Taille, Alexandre; Redorta, Joan Palou; McNicholas, Thomas; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Lista, Giuliana; Larcher, Alessandro; Bini, Vittorio; Cestari, Andrea; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Graefen, Markus; Bosset, Olivier; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Breda, Alberto; de la Torre, Pablo; Fowler, Linda; Roux, Jacques; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2013-08-01

    To test the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA and the prostate health index (PHI), in men with a family history of prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing prostate biopsy for suspected PCa. To evaluate the potential reduction in unnecessary biopsies and the characteristics of potentially missed cases of PCa that would result from using serum p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI. The analysis consisted of a nested case-control study from the PRO-PSA Multicentric European Study, the PROMEtheuS project. All patients had a first-degree relative (father, brother, son) with PCa. Multivariable logistic regression models were complemented by predictive accuracy analysis and decision-curve analysis. Of the 1026 patients included in the PROMEtheuS cohort, 158 (15.4%) had a first-degree relative with PCa. p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI values were significantly higher (P PHI (AUC: 0.733) to be the most accurate predictors of PCa at biopsy, significantly outperforming total PSA ([tPSA] AUC: 0.549), free PSA ([fPSA] AUC: 0.489) and %fPSA (AUC: 0.600) (P ≤ 0.001). For %p2PSA a threshold of 1.66 was found to have the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (70.4 and 70.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.4-80.7 and 59.4-79.5 respectively). A PHI threshold of 40 was found to have the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (64.8 and 71.3%, respectively; 95% CI 52.5-75.8 and 60.6-80.5). At 90% sensitivity, the thresholds for %p2PSA and PHI were 1.20 and 25.5, with a specificity of 37.9 and 25.5%, respectively. At a %p2PSA threshold of 1.20, a total of 39 (24.8%) biopsies could have been avoided, but two cancers with a Gleason score (GS) of 7 would have been missed. At a PHI threshold of 25.5 a total of 27 (17.2%) biopsies could have been avoided and two (3.8%) cancers with a GS of 7 would have been missed. In multivariable logistic regression models, %p2PSA and PHI achieved independent predictor status and

  5. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  6. Performance of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and the prostate health index (PHI) in a Chinese hospital-based biopsy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Rong; Ye, Dingwei; Liu, Fang; Chen, Haitao; Qi, Jun; Wu, Yishuo; Zhang, Guiming; Wang, Meilin; Wang, Wenying; Sun, Jielin; Yu, Guopeng; Zhu, Yao; Ren, Shancheng; Zheng, S Lilly; Jiang, Haowen; Sun, Yinghao; Ding, Qiang; Xu, Jianfeng

    2014-11-01

    The use of serum [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivative, the prostate health index (PHI), in detecting prostate cancer (PCa) have been consistently shown to have better performance than total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) in discriminating biopsy outcomes in western countries. However, little is known about their performance in Chinese men. Our objective is to test the performance of p2PSA and PHI and their added value to tPSA in discriminating biopsy outcomes in Chinese men. Consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy in three tertiary hospitals in Shanghai, China during 2012-2013 were recruited. Serum tPSA, free PSA (fPSA), and p2PSA were measured centrally using Beckman Coulter's DxI 800 Immunoassay System. The primary outcome is PCa and the secondary outcome is high-grade PCa (Gleason Score of 4 + 3 or worse). Discriminative performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), detection rate and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA). Among 636 patients who underwent prostate biopsy, PHI was a significant predictor of biopsy outcomes, independent of other clinical variables. The AUC in discriminating PCa from non-PCa was consistently higher for PHI than tPSA in the entire cohort (0.88 vs. 0.81) as well as in patients with tPSA at 2-10 ng/ml (0.73 vs. 0.53), at 10.1-20 ng/ml (0.81 vs. 0.58), and at tPSA >20 ng/ml (0.90 vs. 0.80). The differences were statistically significant in all comparisons, P prostate biopsy in China. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antigenic determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and development of assays specific for different forms of PSA.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, O.; Peter, A.; Andersson, I.; Nilsson, K.; Grundstr?m, B.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by immunization with purified free PSA, i.e. not in complex with any protease inhibitor (F-PSA) and PSA in complex with alpha1-anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT). Epitope mapping of PSA using the established monoclonal antibody revealed a complex pattern of independent and partly overlapping antigenic domains in the PSA molecule. Four independent antigenic domains and at least three partly overlapping domains were exposed both...

  8. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/prostatespecificantigenpsatest.html Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures ...

  9. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  10. Re-examining Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density: Defining the Optimal PSA Range and Patients for Using PSA Density to Predict Prostate Cancer Using Extended Template Biopsy.

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    Jue, Joshua S; Barboza, Marcelo Panizzutti; Prakash, Nachiketh S; Venkatramani, Vivek; Sinha, Varsha R; Pavan, Nicola; Nahar, Bruno; Kanabur, Pratik; Ahdoot, Michael; Dong, Yan; Satyanarayana, Ramgopal; Parekh, Dipen J; Punnen, Sanoj

    2017-07-01

    To compare the predictive accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density vs PSA across different PSA ranges and by prior biopsy status in a prospective cohort undergoing prostate biopsy. Men from a prospective trial underwent an extended template biopsy to evaluate for prostate cancer at 26 sites throughout the United States. The area under the receiver operating curve assessed the predictive accuracy of PSA density vs PSA across 3 PSA ranges (10 ng/mL). We also investigated the effect of varying the PSA density cutoffs on the detection of cancer and assessed the performance of PSA density vs PSA in men with or without a prior negative biopsy. Among 1290 patients, 585 (45%) and 284 (22%) men had prostate cancer and significant prostate cancer, respectively. PSA density performed better than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer within a PSA of 4-10 ng/mL (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.70 vs 0.53, P PSA >10 mg/mL (AUC: 0.84 vs 0.65, P PSA density was significantly more predictive than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer in men without (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.67, P PSA increases, PSA density becomes a better marker for predicting prostate cancer compared with PSA alone. Additionally, PSA density performed better than PSA in men with a prior negative biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a possible biomarker in non-prostatic cancer: A review.

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    Pérez-Ibave, Diana Cristina; Burciaga-Flores, Carlos Horacio; Elizondo-Riojas, Miguel-Ángel

    2018-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease produced by epithelial prostatic cells and its main function is to liquefy seminal coagulum. Currently, PSA is a biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and it was the first cancer biomarker approved by the FDA. The quantity and serum isoforms of male PSA, allows distinguishing between carcinoma and benign inflammatory disease of the prostate. Initially, it was thought that PSA was produced only by the prostate, and thus, a protein that was expressed exclusively in men. However, several authors report that PSA is a protein that is expressed by multiple non-prostatic tissues not only in men but also in women. Some authors also report that in women, the expression of this protein is highly related to breast and colon cancer and therefore can act as a possible biomarker for early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of these cancers in women. In this review, we will focus on the characteristics of the PSA at a molecular level, its current clinical implications, the expression of this protein in non-prostatic tissues, and its relationship with cancer, especially in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

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    Johanna M Mattsson

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3 exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  13. Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) towards Protein Substrates and Effect of Peptides Stimulating PSA Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA. PMID:25237904

  14. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves. PMID:26911983

  15. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  16. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of PSA and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Castro, Boris Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The prostate cancer in Cuba is a problem of health (2672 diagnosed cases and 2769 deaths in 2007). Various diagnostic methods have been implemented for the detection and management of this disease, emphasizing among them (PSA) prostate-specific antigen serological determination. At this work was generated and characterized a panel of 11 antibodies (AcMs) monoclonal IgG1 detected with high affinity described major epitopes of the PSA, both in solution and attached to the test plate. From the panel obtained AcMs was the standardization of an essay type ELISA for the detection of serum total PSA (associated and free) equimolar, based on antibody monoclonal CB-PSA.4 in the coating and the CB-PSA.9 coupled with biotin as liner, with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Similarly, standardized system for detection in serum free PSA, based on the AcMs CB-PSA.4 (coating) and CB-PSA.2 coupled with biotin (liner), with a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, with the purpose of using PSA as standard in trials type ELISA, developed a simple method of inmunopurificación based on the AcM, CB-PSA.2, which was obtained the PSA with a purity exceeding 90%. Immunoassay Centre on the basis of the AcMs panel and the results of this study, developed and recorded two diagnostic systems for the detection of PSA in human serum. (author)

  17. Characteristics Studies of 125I- and total PSA antibody's Binding with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in Human Uterus Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mudaffar, S.; Al-Salihi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Two groups of uterus tumors (benign and malignant) postmenopausal patients were used to investigate the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Preliminary experiments were performed to follow the binding of '1 25 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA in uterus tissues homogenates of the two groups with their corresponding antigen and found to be (8.8,7.1%) for benign and malignant tumors, respectively. An Immuno Radio Metric Assay (IRMA) procedure was developed for measuring PSA in benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates. The optimum conditions of the binding of 125 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA were as follows: PSA concentration (150,200 μg protein),tracer antibody concentration (125,250 μg protein), p H (7.6,7.2), temp (15,25?C) and time (1.5 hrs) for postmenopausal benign and malignant uterus tumors tissue homogenates, respectively. The use of different concentrations of Na + and Mg 2+ ions were shown to cause an increase in the binding at concentration of (125,75 mΜ) of Na 1+ ions (75,225 mΜ) of Mg 2+ ions for benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates, respectively, while the use of different concentrations of urea and polyethylene glycol (PEG) Caused a decrease in the binding with the increase in the concentration of each of urea and PEG in the both cases

  18. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in the diagnostic algorithm of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Akre, Olof; Aly, Markus; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone leads to un-necessary biopsying and overdiagnosis. PSA density is easily accessible, but early evidence on its use for biopsy decisions was conflicting and use of PSA density is not commonly recommended in guidelines. We analyzed biopsy outcomes in 5291 men in the population-based STHLM3 study with PSA ≥ 3 ng/ml and ultrasound-guided prostate volume measurements by using percentages and regression models. PSA density was calculated as total PSA (ng/ml) divided by prostate volume (ml). Main endpoint was clinically significant cancer (csPCa) defined as Gleason Score ≥ 7. The median PSA-density was 0.10 ng/ml 2 (IQR 0.075-0.14). PSA-density was associated with the risk of finding csPCa both with and without adjusting for the additional clinical information age, family history, previous biopsies, total PSA and free/total PSA (OR 1.06; 95% CI:1.05-1.07 and OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08). Discrimination for csPCa was better when PSA density was added to a model with additional clinical information (AUC 0.75 vs. 0.73, P PSA-density. Omitting prostate biopsy for men with PSA-density ≤0.07 ng/ml 2 would save 19.7% of biopsy procedures, while missing 6.9% of csPCa. PSA-density cutoffs of 0.10 ng/ml 2 and 0.15 ng/ml 2 resulted in detection of 77% (729/947) and 49% (461/947) of Gleason Score ≥7 tumors. PSA-density might inform biopsy decisions, and spare some men from the morbidity associated with a prostate biopsy and diagnosis of low-grade prostate cancer.

  19. [Use of prostatic specific antigen in primary care (PSA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, J; Gironés-Montagud, A; Sánchez-Cano, E; Doménech-Pérez, C; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2017-04-01

    In the literature it is shown that the use of PSA is occasionally wrong, by requesting this marker in very young or very old men, and repeated measurements in short periods of time. The main objective of this study was to describe the use of PSA in daily practice by primary care physicians in our area, dealing with aspects such as the importance of patient age, the value in the screening for prostate cancer, or the subjective beliefs about its usefulness. A secondary objective was the comparison of use, and beliefs among doctors who claim to know PSA well, and those who do not. A descriptive and comparative study was conducted using questionnaires that were handed to primary care doctors in all health centres in our area. A descriptive analysis was performed and response rates among doctors who thought they had enough information about PSA, and those who did not, were compared using the Chi-squared test. A total of 103 questionnaires were received from the physicians, with 83.5% claiming to have sufficient knowledge about the PSA. The professionals in this latter group request PSA at an earlier age (P=.029), with a higher frequency (P=.011) and have more doubts about its usefulness (P=.009) than those with less knowledge. Almost half (49.5%) said they request less than 50 determinations per year, and 33% between 50 and 100. More than half (53.4%) of doctors would not request the first PSA on a patient until their 50s, and up to 49% request it up to 80 years. The true value of PSA has been established many times by 64.1% of requesters, and 29.1% believe it is unhelpful in the diagnosis of cancer. In our study, 64% of primary care physicians have considered the true value of the PSA several times, and 29% believe it to be of little use in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition, some data suggest it has limited use due to the fact that 50% made less than 50 PSA requests per years, and 28% of the professionals would never request it on a male without urinary

  20. The inverse relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Adel; Vincent, Andrew D; O'Callaghan, Michael; Martin, Sean; Sutherland, Peter; Hoy, Andrew; Butler, Lisa M; Wittert, Gary

    2018-06-25

    Obese men have lower serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) than comparably aged lean men, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on PSA and the potential contributing mechanisms. A cohort of 1195 men aged 35 years and over at recruitment, with demographic, anthropometric (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and serum hormone (serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2)), PSA and hematology assessments obtained over two waves was assessed. Men with a history of prostate cancer or missing PSA were excluded, leaving 970 men for the final analysis. Mixed-effects regressions and mediation analyses adjusting for hormonal and volumetric factors explore the potential mechanisms relating obesity to PSA. After adjusting for age, PSA levels were lower in men with greater WC (p=0.001). In a multivariable model including WC, age, E2/T and PlasV as predictors, no statistically significant associations were observed between with PSA and either WC (p=0.36) or PlasV (p=0.49), while strong associations were observed with both E2/T (pPSA (p=0.31), while when E2/T is a mediator; the ACME explained roughly 0.5 of the effect (pPSA levels in obese men, as compared to normal weight men, can be explained both by hormonal changes (elevated E2/T ratio) and haemodilution. Hormonal factors therefore represent a substantial but underappreciated mediating pathway.

  1. Pattern of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Failure Dictates the Probability of a Positive Bone Scan in Patients With an Increasing PSA After Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Zohar A.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Rabbani, Farhang; Eastham, James A.; Fearn, Paul; Scher, Howard I.; Kelly, Kevin W.; Chen, Hui-Ni; Schöder, Heiko; Hricak, Hedvig; Scardino, Peter T.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Physicians often order periodic bone scans (BS) to check for metastases in patients with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA; biochemical recurrence [BCR]) after radical prostatectomy (RP), but most scans are negative. We studied patient characteristics to build a predictive model for a positive scan. Patients and Methods From our prostate cancer database we identified all patients with detectable PSA after RP. We analyzed the following features at the time of each bone scan for association with a positive BS: preoperative PSA, time to BCR, pathologic findings of the RP, PSA before the BS (trigger PSA), PSA kinetics (PSA doubling time, PSA slope, and PSA velocity), and time from BCR to BS. The results were incorporated into a predictive model. Results There were 414 BS performed in 239 patients with BCR and no history of androgen deprivation therapy. Only 60 (14.5%) were positive for metastases. In univariate analysis, preoperative PSA (P = .04), seminal vesicle invasion (P = .02), PSA velocity (P < .001), and trigger PSA (P < .001) predicted a positive BS. In multivariate analysis, only PSA slope (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; P = .03), PSA velocity (OR, 0.93; P = .003), and trigger PSA (OR, 1.022; P < .001) predicted a positive BS. A nomogram for predicting the bone scan result was constructed with an overfit-corrected concordance index of 0.93. Conclusion Trigger PSA, PSA velocity, and slope were associated with a positive BS. A highly discriminating nomogram can be used to select patients according to their risk for a positive scan. Omitting scans in low-risk patients could reduce substantially the number of scans ordered. PMID:15774789

  2. Immunohistochemical staining of precursor forms of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Anil V; Marlow, Cameron; Demarzo, Angelo M; Mikolajczyk, Stephen D; Rittenhouse, Harry G; Veltri, Robert W; Chan, Theresa Y

    2006-10-01

    Precursors of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) have been previously shown to be more concentrated in prostate cancer tissue. This study characterizes the immunohistochemical staining (IHS) of proPSA forms in metastatic prostate cancer compared with prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP). A tissue microarray, consisting of 74 cases of metastatic prostate carcinoma and control tissues, was used. IHS, using monoclonal antibodies against proPSA with a truncated proleader peptide containing 2 amino acids ([-2]pPSA), native ([-5/-7]pPSA), PSA, and PAP, was analyzed. The monoclonal antibodies were specific for both benign and malignant prostatic glandular tissue. IHS with [-5/-7]pPSA showed the least number of cases with negative staining (3%), and the most number of cases with moderate or strong staining (76%). In the 60 cases where all 4 stains could be evaluated, none of them were negative for proPSA and positive for PSA or PAP, and all 7 cases that were negative for both PSA and PAP showed IHS to proPSA. [-5/-7]pPSA (native proPSA) may be a better marker than PSA and PAP in characterizing metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, with most of the cases showing positivity for the marker. Even cases that were negative for PSA and PAP, were reactive for proPSA. Such enhanced detection is particularly important in poorly differentiated carcinomas involving metastatic sites where prostate carcinoma is a consideration. A panel of markers, including proPSA, should be performed when metastatic prostate carcinoma is in the differential diagnosis.

  3. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Bounce After Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy Is an Independent Predictor of PSA Recurrence, Metastasis, and Survival in Prostate Adenocarcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesser, Paul B; Pei, Xin; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Kollmeier, Marisa; McBride, Sean M; Zelefsky, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival between PSA bounce (PSA-B) and non-bounce patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT). During 1990-2010, 1898 prostate adenocarcinoma patients were treated with DE-EBRT to ≥75 Gy with ≥5 years follow-up. Patients receiving neoadjuvant/concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (n=1035) or with fewer than 4 PSA values obtained 6 months or more after post-EBRT completion (n=87) were excluded. The evaluable 776 patients were treated (median, 81.0 Gy). Prostate-specific antigen bounce was defined as a ≥0.2-ng/mL increase above the interval PSA nadir, followed by a decrease to nadir or below. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as post-radiation therapy PSA nadir + 2 ng/mL. Median follow-up was 9.2 years (interquartile range, 6.9-11.3 years). One hundred twenty-three patients (15.9%) experienced PSA-B after DE-EBRT at a median of 24.6 months (interquartile range, 16.1-38.5 months). On multivariate analysis, younger age (P=.001), lower Gleason score (P=.0003), and higher radiation therapy dose (P=.0002) independently predicted PSA-B. Prostate-specific antigen bounce was independently associated with decreased risk for PSA relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.85; P=.008), distant metastatic disease (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.94; P=.04), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.96; P=.04) on multivariate Cox analysis. Because all 50 prostate cancer-specific deaths in patients without PSA-B were in the non-bounce cohort, competing-risks analysis was not applicable. A nonparametric competing-risks test demonstrated that patients with PSA-B had superior cancer-specific survival compared with patients without PSA-B (P=.004). Patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma who experience posttreatment PSA-B have

  4. Serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wheeler, Sarah; Mathew, Anu; Stengelin, Martin; Nikolenko, Galina; Glezer, Eli N; Brown, Marshall D; Zheng, Yingye; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wu, Hsiao-Li; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may constitute a new biomarker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 45 women with PCOS and 40 controls. Serum from these women was analyzed for androgenic steroids and for complexed PSA (cPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) with a novel fifth- generation assay with a sensitivity of ~10 fg/mL for cPSA and 140 fg/mL for fPSA. cPSA and fPSA levels were about three times higher in PCOS compared to controls. However, in PCOS, cPSA and fPSA did not differ according to waist-to-hip ratio, Ferriman-Gallwey score, or degree of hyperandrogenemia or oligo-ovulation. In PCOS and control women, serum cPSA and fPSA levels were highly correlated with each other, and with free and total testosterone levels, but not with other hormones. Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and race, cPSA was significantly associated with PCOS, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86, 22.0). The OR of PCOS for fPSA was 7.04 (95% CI: 1.65, 40.4). A multivariate model that included age, BMI, race and cPSA yielded an area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.89. Serum cPSA and fPSA are novel biomarkers for hyperandrogenism in PCOS and may have value for disease diagnosis.

  5. Clinical outcomes and nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) according to initial PSA levels in primary androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ueno, Satoru; Izumi, Kouji; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Mizokami, Atsushi; Hinotsu, Shiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical outcomes of metastatic prostate cancer patients and the relationship between nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and different types of primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). This study utilized data from the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer registry, which is a large, multicenter, population-based database. A total of 2982 patients treated with PADT were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated using combined androgen blockade (CAB) and non-CAB therapies. The relationships between nadir PSA levels and PADT type according to initial serum PSA levels were also investigated. Among the 2982 enrolled patients, 2101 (70.5 %) were treated with CAB. Although CAB-treated patients had worse clinical characteristics, their probability of PFS and OS was higher compared with those treated with a non-CAB therapy. These results were due to a survival benefit with CAB in patients with an initial PSA level of 500-1000 ng/mL. Nadir PSA levels were significantly lower in CAB patients than in non-CAB patients with comparable initial serum PSA levels. A small survival benefit for CAB in metastatic prostate cancer was demonstrated in a Japanese large-scale prospective cohort study. The clinical significance of nadir PSA levels following PADT was evident, but the predictive impact of PSA nadir on OS was different between CAB and non-CAB therapy.

  6. Mutations in the prostate specific antigen (PSA/KLK3) correlate with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishi; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Nalini J; Chakraborty, Baidyanath; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2017-09-11

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA/KLK3) is known to be the chief executor of the fragmentation of semenogelins, dissolution of semen coagulum, thereby releasing sperm for active motility. Recent research has found that semenogelins also play significant roles in sperm fertility by affecting hyaluronidase activity, capacitation and motility, thereby making PSA important for sperm fertility beyond simple semen liquefaction. PSA level in semen has been shown to correlate with sperm motility, suggesting that PSA level/activity can affect fertility. However, no study investigating the genetic variations in the KLK3/PSA gene in male fertility has been undertaken. We analyzed the complete coding region of the KLK3 gene in ethnically matched 875 infertile and 290 fertile men to find if genetic variations in KLK3 correlate with infertility. Interestingly, this study identified 28 substitutions, of which 8 were novel (not available in public databases). Statistical comparison of the genotype frequencies showed that five SNPs, rs266881 (OR = 2.92, P  C, was more freuqent in the control group, showing protective association. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the KLK3 gene correlate with infertility risk.

  7. Supporting informed decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing on the web: an online randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Joseph-Williams, N.; Edwards, A.; Newcombe, R.G.; Wright, P.; Kinnersley, P.; Griffiths, J.; Jones, M.; Williams, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Elwyn, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Men considering the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test for prostate cancer, an increasingly common male cancer, are encouraged to make informed decisions, as the test is limited in its accuracy and the natural history of the condition is poorly understood. The Web-based PSA decision

  8. Repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test before prostate biopsy: a 20% decrease in PSA values is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and particularly of high-grade cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Cosimo; Lombardo, Riccardo; Nacchia, Antonio; Tema, Giorgia; Tubaro, Andrea

    2018-07-01

    To analyse the impact of repeating a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level assessment on prostate biopsy decision in a cohort of men undergoing prostate biopsy. From 2015 onwards, we consecutively enrolled, at a single institution in Italy, men undergoing 12-core transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate needle biopsy. Indication for prostate biopsy was a PSA level of ≥4 ng/mL. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were collected. The PSA level was tested at enrolment (PSA 1 ) and 4 weeks later on the day before biopsy (PSA 2 ). Variations in PSA level were defined as: stable PSA 2 within a 10% variation, stable PSA 2 within a 20% variation, PSA 2 decreased by ≥10%, PSA 2 decreased by ≥20%, PSA 2 increased by ≥10%, PSA 2 increased by ≥20%, and PSA 2 PSA within 20% variation had a higher risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.80, P PSA2 decreased by ≥20% had a lower risk of prostate cancer (OR 0.37, P PSA2 increased by ≥10% had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR 1.93, P PSA returned to normal values (PSA levels significantly reduced the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Further multicentre studies should validate our present results. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; Szymanski, Konrad M; Black, Amanda; Nelson, David E

    2011-04-21

    Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM) or shared decision making (SDM) approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP) to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA screening decision-making. Our proposal to augment IDM

  10. 3D label-free prostate specific antigen (PSA) immunosensor based on graphene-gold composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Sun Kyung; Chang, Hankwon; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-01-15

    Highly sensitive and label-free detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical immunosensor capable of sensitive and label-free detection of PSA is reported. This unique immunosensor is equipped with a highly conductive graphene (GR)-based gold (Au) composite modified electrode. The GR-based Au composite is prepared using aerosol spray pyrolysis and the morphology of the composite is the shape of a crumpled GR ball decorated with Au nanoparticles. Unlike the previous research, this novel 3D immunosensor functions very well over a broad linear range of 0-10 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.59 ng/mL; furthermore, it exhibits a significantly increased electron transfer and high sensitivity toward PSA. The highest rate of current change with respect to the PSA concentration is 5 μA/(ng/mL). Satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility, and stability of the 3D immunosensor are also exhibited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA/hK3): a further player in the field of breast cancer diagnostics?

    OpenAIRE

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Gazzanelli, Giancarlo

    2001-01-01

    Since its identification, much information has been obtained about prostate-specific antigen (PSA, or human glandular kallikrein 3 [hK3]), a kallikrein-like serine protease that is the most valuable tumour marker for the screening, diagnosis and management of human prostate carcinoma. Recently, it has become widely accepted that PSA is also present in many nonprostatic sources, casting doubts about the specificity of its tissue expression. Here we summarize the findings on the biomolecular ex...

  12. A national multicenter phase 2 study of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pox virus vaccine with sequential androgen ablation therapy in patients with PSA progression: ECOG 9802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Robert S; Chen, Yu-Hui; Bubley, Glenn J; Stein, Mark N; Hahn, Noah M; Carducci, Michael A; Lattime, Edmund C; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Philip M; Butterfield, Lisa H; Wilding, George

    2015-09-01

    E9802 was a phase 2 multi-institution study conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of vaccinia and fowlpox prostate-specific antigen (PSA) vaccine (step 1) followed by combination with androgen ablation therapy (step 2) in patients with PSA progression without visible metastasis. To test the hypothesis that vaccine therapy in this early disease setting will be safe and have a biochemical effect that would support future studies of immunotherapy in patients with minimal disease burden. Patients who had PSA progression following local therapy were treated with PROSTVAC-V (vaccinia)/TRICOM on cycle 1 followed by PROSTVAC-F (fowlpox)/TRICOM for subsequent cycles in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (step 1). Androgen ablation was added on progression (step 2). Step 1 primary end points included progression at 6 mo and characterization of change in PSA velocity pretreatment to post-treatment. Step 2 end points included PSA response with combined vaccine and androgen ablation. In step 1, 25 of 40 eligible patients (63%) were progression free at 6 mo after registration (90% confidence interval [CI], 48-75). The median pretreatment PSA velocity was 0.13 log(PSA)/mo, in contrast to median postregistration velocity of 0.09 log(PSA)/mo (p=0.02), which is an increase in median PSA doubling time from 5.3 mo to 7.7 mo. No grade ≥4 treatment-related toxicity was observed. In the 27 patients eligible and treated for step 2, 20 patients achieved a complete response (CR) at 7 mo (CR rate: 74%; 90% CI, 57-87). Although supportive of larger studies in the cooperative group setting, this study is limited by the small number of patients and the absence of a control group as in a phase 3 study. A viral PSA vaccine can be administered safely in the multi-institutional cooperative group setting to patients with minimal disease volume alone and combined with androgen ablation, supporting the feasibility of future phase 3 studies in this

  13. Vaginal Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Is a Useful Biomarker of Semen Exposure Among HIV-Infected Ugandan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf-King, Sarah E; Muyindike, Winnie; Hobbs, Marcia M; Kusasira, Adrine; Fatch, Robin; Emenyonu, Nneka; Johnson, Mallory O; Hahn, Judith A

    2017-07-01

    The practical feasibility of using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker of semen exposure was examined among HIV-infected Ugandan women. Vaginal fluids were obtained with self-collected swabs and a qualitative rapid test (ABAcard ® p30) was used to detect PSA. Trained laboratory technicians processed samples on-site and positive PSA tests were compared to self-reported unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) in the last 48 h. A total of 77 women submitted 126 samples for PSA testing at up to three study visits. Of these samples, 31 % (n = 39/126) were PSA positive, and 64 % (n = 25/39) of the positive PSA samples were accompanied by self-report of no UVS at the study visit the PSA was collected. There were no reported difficulties with specimen collection, storage, or processing. These findings provide preliminary data on high levels of misreported UVS among HIV-infected Ugandan women using practically feasible methods for PSA collection and processing.

  14. Enzymatic Activity of Free-Prostate-Specific Antigen (f-PSA) Is Not Required for Some of its Physiological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Chakravarthi, Srikant; Zhou, Rita; Godoy, Alejandro; Mohler, James L.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Smith, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a well known biomarker for early diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Furthermore, PSA has been documented to have anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) involved in regulation of these processes, in particular the role of the serine-protease enzymatic activity of PSA. METHODS Enzymatic activity of PSA isolated directly from seminal plasma was inhibited specifically (>95%) by incubation with zinc2+. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were utilized to compare/contrast the physiological effects of enzymatically active versus inactive PSA. RESULTS Equimolar concentrations of enzymatically active PSA and PSA enzymatically inactivated by incubation with Zn2+ had similar physiological effects on HUVEC, including inhibiting the gene expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, like VEGF and bFGF, and up-regulation of expression of the anti-angiogenic growth factor IFN-γ; suppression of mRNA expression for markers of blood vessel development, like FAK, FLT, KDR, TWIST-1; P-38; inhibition of endothelial tube formation in the in vitro Matrigel Tube Formation Assay; and inhibition of endothelial cell invasion and migration properties. DISCUSSION Our data provides compelling evidence that the transcriptional regulatory and the anti-angiogenic activities of human PSA are independent of the innate enzymatic activity PMID:21446007

  15. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of PSA and its purification; Generación de anticuerpos monoclonales contra el antígeno específico de próstata (PSA) para la detección del PSA y su purificación

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo Castro, Boris Ernesto [Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología, CIGB, La Habana (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    The prostate cancer in Cuba is a problem of health (2672 diagnosed cases and 2769 deaths in 2007). Various diagnostic methods have been implemented for the detection and management of this disease, emphasizing among them (PSA) prostate-specific antigen serological determination. At this work was generated and characterized a panel of 11 antibodies (AcMs) monoclonal IgG1 detected with high affinity described major epitopes of the PSA, both in solution and attached to the test plate. From the panel obtained AcMs was the standardization of an essay type ELISA for the detection of serum total PSA (associated and free) equimolar, based on antibody monoclonal CB-PSA.4 in the coating and the CB-PSA.9 coupled with biotin as liner, with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Similarly, standardized system for detection in serum free PSA, based on the AcMs CB-PSA.4 (coating) and CB-PSA.2 coupled with biotin (liner), with a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, with the purpose of using PSA as standard in trials type ELISA, developed a simple method of inmunopurificación based on the AcM, CB-PSA.2, which was obtained the PSA with a purity exceeding 90%. Immunoassay Centre on the basis of the AcMs panel and the results of this study, developed and recorded two diagnostic systems for the detection of PSA in human serum. (author)

  16. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Petitdidier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA, from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA, combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  17. Low percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a strong predictor of later detection of prostate cancer among Japanese men with serum levels of total PSA of 4.0 ng/mL or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mitsuharu; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Ito, Akihiro; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Arai, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of the percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) on future prostate cancer risk. We examined serum total PSA (tPSA) and %fPSA annually in a prostate cancer-screening cohort between July 2001 and June 2011. Men with tPSA >4.0 ng/mL or tPSA of 2.0-4.0 ng/mL with %fPSA ≤12% were screened as positive and were recommended to undergo a biopsy. The study population consisted of 6368 men, aged 40-79 years, who had tPSA ≤4.0 ng/mL at initial screening and who subsequently underwent 1 or more screenings. We calculated the cumulative risk and hazard ratio of prostate cancer stratified by the initial %fPSA groups as quartiles of prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up of 36 months, 119 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The lowest quartile of %fPSA (22.2%). For the subset with an initial tPSA ≤1.0 ng/mL, all men diagnosed with cancer had an initial %fPSA ≤33.3% (median). For the subset with tPSA >1.0 ng/mL, men with %fPSA ≤23.0% (median) had significantly higher risk for cancer than those with %fPSA >23.0% (P men with prostate cancer in whom pathologic findings were available, 79 (69.3%) had a Gleason score ≥3 + 4 = 7. A low %fPSA is a strong predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer among men with tPSA levels ≤4.0 ng/mL. Measurement of %fPSA might enhance the detection of high-grade cancer that warrants aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Screening Trials and Revised PSA Screening Guidelines on Rates of Prostate Biopsy and Postbiopsy Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Boris; Van Houten, Holly K; Herrin, Jeph; Moreira, Daniel M; Kim, Simon P; Shah, Nilay D; Karnes, R Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and postbiopsy complications represent important risks of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Although landmark randomized trials and updated guidelines have challenged routine PSA screening, it is unclear whether these publications have affected rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications. To evaluate whether publication of the 2008 and 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations, the 2009 European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, or the 2013 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines was associated with changes in rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications, and to identify predictors of postbiopsy complications. This quasiexperimental study used administrative claims of 5279315 commercially insured US men aged ≥40 yr from 2005 to 2014, of whom 104584 underwent biopsy. Publications on PSA screening. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate the association of publications with rates of biopsy and 30-d complications. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of complications. From 2005 to 2014, biopsy rates fell 33% from 64.1 to 42.8 per 100000 person-months, with immediate reductions following the 2008 USPSTF recommendations (-10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.1 to -3.0; pprostate-specific antigen screening; however, the relative morbidity of biopsy continues to increase. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible factors influencing high serum Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA in Indonesian patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Rahardjo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH cases in Indonesia frequently associated with high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA. To explore possible factors that could increase serum PSA level, we performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study on 805 consecutive patients in Sumber Waras and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospitals from 1994 to 1997. Clinical manifestations were evaluated and prostate biopsies were performed if indicated. Complete histopathological data were only available in 82 BPH patients with no urinary retention from 1998-1999 and a thin section of paraffin blocks of BPH patients which still could be found from 1994-1999 was analyzed using flow cytometer to obtain the S-phase fraction as a parameter of proliferative activity, From 805 patients, 461 (57% presented with urinary retention and need to be catheteized. Catheteization significantly increased PSA level if compared to noncatheterized patients (16.3 vs. 6,8 ng/mL, p= 0,000. Another data of 82 uncatheteized patients from 1998-1999 has revealed that 79 patients (96.3% had chronic prostatitis and 19 (23.2% showed the presence of prostatic-intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN with an increase of PSA level (5.4 ng/mL. The S-phase fraction of BPH without PIN cases was significantly higher in cases with PSA > 4 ng/ml than patients with PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml (I3.1% vs. 8.9%, p=0,008. As conclusion, the high serum PSA level was mostly due to urethral catheteization and increased prostate volume. There was a tendency of increasing PSA in subclinical inflammation and PIN. Cases with high PSA also showed high proliferative activities which is suggestive of mitogenic activity. (Med J Indones 2001; 10:22-8Keywords: BPH, high PSA, PIN, proliferative activity, s-phase fraction

  20. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune...... to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with previous L. major infection had varying proliferative responses to PSA-2 derived from L. donovani promastigotes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by PSA-2 from L. major produced high amounts of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor...

  1. Age-Specific Cutoff Value for the Application of Percent Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Chinese Men with Serum PSA Levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; He, Dalin; Zhou, Liqun; Xu, Chuanliang; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Ma, Lulin; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Changjun; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhongquan; Fu, Qiang; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Junhua; Ye, Zhangqun; Ye, Dingwei; Xu, Danfeng; Hou, Jianquan; Xu, Kexin; Yuan, Jianlin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chunxiao; Pan, Tiejun; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The influence of age on the performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in East Asians is controversial. We tested the diagnostic performance of %fPSA in a multi-center biopsy cohort in China and identified the proper age-specific cutoff values to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Methods Consecutive patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided or transperineal prostate biopsy were enrolled from 22 Chinese medical centers from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2013. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA and %fPSA was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Age-specific cutoff values were calculated using ROC curve analysis. Results The median %fPSA was much lower in younger patients compared with older patients with a PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml. The AUC of %fPSA was higher than PSA only in older patients. In patients aged 50 to 59 years, %fPSA failed to improve the diagnosis compared with PSA in these two PSA ranges. Age-specific cutoff values were 24%, 27% and 32% for patients aged 60–69, 70–79 and ≥80 years, respectively, to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml to detect 90% of all PCa. Conclusions The effectiveness of %fPSA is correlated with age in the Chinese population. Age-specific cutoff values would help avoid unnecessary biopsies in the Chinese population. PMID:26091007

  2. Prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA); a relevant approach for the small population of the Cayman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Shravana Kumar; Blacke, Camille; Patil, Pallavi; Amblihalli, Vibha P; Nicholson, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into subgroups by baseline PSA levels as follows: 100 ng/mL and were correlated to the age and presence of cancer. Benign lesions had lower PSA levels compared to cancer which generally had higher values. Only three cases that had less than 4 ng/mg were turned out to be malignant. When PSA value was more than 100 ng/mL, all the cases were malignant. Between PSA values of 4-100 ng/mL, the probability of cancer diagnosis was 56.71% (76 cancers out of 134 in this range). Limitation of PSA testing has the risk of over diagnosis and the resultant negative biopsies owing to poor specificity. Whereas the cutoff limit for cancer diagnosis still remains 4 ng/mL from our study, most of the patients can be assured of benign lesion below this level and thus morbidity associated with the biopsy can be prevented. When the PSA value is greater than 100 ng, biopsy procedure was mandatory as there were 100% cancers above this level. On the background of vast literature linking PSA to prostate cancer and its difficulty in implementing in clinical practice, we studied literature of this conflicting and complex topic and tried to bring relevant protocols to the small population of Cayman Islands for the screening of prostate cancer. In this study, a total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the

  3. In-vitro radioimmunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the screening and management of prostate cancer in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; El Ahmadiyeh, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Immunoassays for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are used to detect early-stage prostate cancer, monitor disease progress, and evaluate therapeutic response. At least two forms of PSA, free PSA (F-PSA) and PSA complexed to alpha-1 anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT) are detected by commercial PSA assays. The fraction of F-PSA is shown to be smaller in patients with untreated prostate cancer than in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, combined measurements of both total and free PSA are used for a better discrimination between BPH and prostate cancer. Detection of PSA for screening of prostate cancer has been a subject of debate for many years. The reason of this debate is mainly because screening for prostate cancer is not cost-effective, as was shown by studies undertaken in Europe and United States. In Lebanon, no previous programs of screening for prostate cancer were done and so the incidence of this cancer is not known. Recently, the cancer registry in Lebanon found that lung and prostate are the highest cancers in the Lebanese men. The Lebanese association of urologists noted that 80% of men suffering from prostate cancer consult their urologists when the cancer is spread outside the prostate capsule. There is a socio-economic barrier behind this delay. We decided to undertake this study for the screening of prostate cancer in Lebanon, taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts and the experience of other countries. Volunteer men aged 45 and above, who were not visitors of a urology clinic, were selected randomly. A blood sample was withdrawn from each man, then a rectal examination was done and a questionnaire was filled. The blood serum separated was assayed for total PSA first and where abnormal or borderline, was assayed for free PSA. The percentage of free to total PSA was calculated. Men having borderline or abnormal results did undergo more investigations for the definitive diagnosis of their samples. IRMA

  4. Formulation of the bivalent prostate cancer vaccine with surgifoam elicits antigen-specific effector T cells in PSA-transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Dev

    2017-10-13

    We previously developed and characterized an adenoviral-based prostate cancer vaccine for simultaneous targeting of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). We also demonstrated that immunization of mice with the bivalent vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) inhibited the growth of established prostate tumors. However, there are multiple challenges hindering the success of immunological therapies in the clinic. One of the prime concerns has been to overcome the immunological tolerance and maintenance of long-term effector T cells. In this study, we further characterized the use of the bivalent vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) in a transgenic mouse model expressing human PSA in the mouse prostate. We demonstrated the expression of PSA analyzed at the mRNA level (by RT-PCR) and protein level (by immunohistochemistry) in the prostate lobes harvested from the PSA-transgenic (PSA-Tg) mice. We established that the administration of the bivalent vaccine in surgifoam to the PSA-Tg mice induces strong PSA-specific effector CD8 + T cells as measured by IFN-γ secretion and in vitro cytotoxic T-cell assay. Furthermore, the use of surgifoam with Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA vaccine allows multiple boosting vaccinations with a significant increase in antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. These observations suggest that the formulation of the bivalent prostate cancer vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) with surgifoam bypasses the neutralizing antibody response, thus allowing multiple boosting. This formulation is also helpful for inducing an antigen-specific immune response in the presence of self-antigen, and maintains long-term effector CD8 + T cells. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Proposal for the development of IRMA kits for prostate specific antigen, PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The following are the major objectives of this research proposal: (1) To establish a protocol for biotinylation of monoclonal antibody, mabs or polyclonal antibody against the antigen, PSA. This shall include the purifying procedure using size exclusion chromatography on HPLC for use in binding assays to determine its binding capacity with PSA. (2) To establish an immunoassay protocol for IRMAs, using the technique of immobilizing the capture mabs on solid phase (surfaces of polystyrene) and the radioiodine labeled streptavidin-biotinylated bridge system. This will include optimization of the assay design and a Quality Control Assessment with the inclusion of standards derived from the Agency and subsequent work to determine its sensitivity (Minimum Detection Limit) and working range (the phenomenon of Hooke's Effect). An in-house quality control would also be useful to determine the assay's suitability for screening the tumour marker from patient samples obtained from neighboring hospitals (such as the Science University of Malaysia Hospital and the National University Hospital) and private clinical pathology laboratory (such as the Pantai Medical Centre) which compare concurrently the results with existing commercial immunoassay kits (RIA/IRMA). These work and that described earlier in (1) shall be done entirely at MINT. (3) To perform an external coordinated external Quality Control Assurance Programme with other research institutes (such as the Department of Immunology, Medical faculty, Science University of Malaysia and government hospitals) in Malaysia on several batches of the IRMA kits (produced at MINT and proven to be suitable for screening PSA in human serum from in-house Quality Control data, as mentioned earlier in (2)). This coordinated work shall include analyzing and documenting all values obtained from a group of patient's sample in clinical conditions such as batch to batch variation, inter and intra-assay variations and mean values for negative

  6. [Prostate specific antigen--PSA and histopathological findings of endometrium in women with fibrocystic breast disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radowicki, Stanisław; Kunicki, Michał

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum free and total PSA and histopathological findings in women with fibrocystic mastopathy. 176 women with fibrocystic breast disease, aged 18 to 45 years.--Group I: comprised 114 patients with cysts 10 mm in diameter. The control group consisted of 46 healthy women aged 18 - 45 years who had no breast pathology Total PSA (PSA-T) and free PSA (PSA-Free) were measured by an ultra-sensitive fluoroimmunometric DELFIA assay (Prostatus PSA Free/Total Wallac, Turku, Finland). The detection limit for PSA was 0.01 ng/ml. Endometrial samples have been obtained with Pipelle probe between 22 and 24 days of the menstrual cycle. In the control group secretory endometrium was more frequently detected than in the mastopathy group (chi2 = 11,15, p = 0.01). Proliferatory (chi2 = 8.27, p = 0.004) and presecretory endometrium (chi2 = 4.61, p = 0.03) were more frequently detected in the mastopathy group than in controls. We did not find statistically significant relationship between the mean PSA concentrations between the groups in relation to histopathological findings. No relationships between free and total PSA measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and endometrial findings were detected in our study. Further research is required to evaluate the relationship between PSA and endometrial findings.

  7. Prostate Cancer Detection and Prognosis: From Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) to Exosomal Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Xavier; Foj, Laura

    2016-10-26

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used biomarker in the management of early prostate cancer (PCa), in spite of the problems related to false positive results and overdiagnosis. New biomarkers have been proposed in recent years with the aim of increasing specificity and distinguishing aggressive from non-aggressive PCa. The emerging role of the prostate health index and the 4Kscore is reviewed in this article. Both are blood-based tests related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, which provide the risk of suffering PCa and avoiding negative biopsies. Furthermore, the use of urine has emerged as a non-invasive way to identify new biomarkers in recent years, including the PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene. Available results about the PCA3 score showed its usefulness to decide the repetition of biopsy in patients with a previous negative result, although its relationship with the aggressiveness of the tumor is controversial. More recently, aberrant microRNA expression in PCa has been reported by different authors. Preliminary results suggest the utility of circulating and urinary microRNAs in the detection and prognosis of PCa. Although several of these new biomarkers have been recommended by different guidelines, large prospective and comparative studies are necessary to establish their value in PCa detection and prognosis.

  8. Percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful method in deciding to perform prostate biopsy with higher core numbers in patients with low PSA cut-off values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Ciftci, Seyfettin; Yavuz, Ufuk; Ustuner, Murat; Saribacak, Ali; Dillioglugil, Ozdal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive role of percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) cut-points in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with total PSA (tPSA) levels between 2.5 ng/mL and 10.0 ng/mL. In total, 1321 consecutive initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 12-core biopsies performed between 2005 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Benign pathologies, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical small acinary proliferations were categorized as noncancerous (benign), and prostate adenocarcinomas were categorized as cancerous (malignant). The patients were categorized according to: Catalona's published %fPSA categories ( 25%); digital rectal examination (DRE) results [benign (negative) or suspicious of malignancy (positive)]. There was a significant relationship between the %fPSA cut-points and detection of PCa in DRE-negative patients. The presence of a 10% cut-point increased the probability of PCa threefold. The %fPSA was significantly more related to PCa than the tPSA value in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses (p = 0.001). Based on our findings, a lower %fPSA, especially <10%, is an important parameter when deciding whether to perform a biopsy on patients with a tPSA between 2.5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA: results from the alpha omega trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg A Brouwer

    Full Text Available Alpha linolenic acid (ALA is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker for prostate cancer.The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and docosahexanoic acid (DHA on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration 4 ng/mL.Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815 and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807, a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL (P = 0·12. The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58.An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

  10. utility of prostate specific antigen (psa) in the indigenous african man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the standard PSA reference levels generated in non-African study subjects. Design: A ... the best use of PSA in the indigenous black African man but also his place in the new ... tendency as well as measures of dispersion. Inferential statistics assumed a 95% confidence interval and .... men: Results from a pilot study.

  11. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  12. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  13. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men in UK general practice: a 10-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Grace J; Harrison, Sean; Turner, Emma L; Walsh, Eleanor I; Oliver, Steven E; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Evans, Simon; Lane, J Athene; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Martin, Richard M; Metcalfe, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that around 6% of men undergo prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing each year in UK general practice (GP). This longitudinal study aims to determine the cumulative testing pattern of men over a 10-year period and whether this testing can be considered equivalent to screening for prostate cancer (PCa). Patient-level data on PSA tests, biopsies and PCa diagnoses were obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for the years 2002 to 2011. The cumulative risks of PSA testing and of being diagnosed with PCa were estimated for the 10-year study period. Associations of a man's age, region and index of multiple deprivation with the cumulative risk of PSA testing and PCa diagnosis were investigated. Rates of biopsy and diagnosis, following a high test result, were compared with those from the programme of PSA testing in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. The 10-year risk of exposure to at least one PSA test in men aged 45 to 69 years in UK GP was 39.2% (95% CI 39.0 to 39.4%). The age-specific risks ranged from 25.2% for men aged 45-49 years to 53.0% for men aged 65-69 years (p for trend PSA level ≥3, a test in UK GP was less likely to result in a biopsy (6%) and/or diagnosis of PCa (15%) compared with ProtecT study participants (85% and 34%, respectively). A high proportion of men aged 45-69 years undergo PSA tests in UK GP: 39% over a 10-year period. A high proportion of these tests appear to be for the investigation of lower urinary tract symptoms and not screening for PCa. ISRCTN20141297,NCT02044172. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Development of simple immunoradiometric assay kits for measurement of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, R.; Zarsav, P.; Pourabdi, M.; Moharamzadeh, M.; Mahdiani, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report summarizes our results obtained in the field of PSA IRMA kits development. In these experiments, we used Avidin-Biotin technology for coating of antibodies on beads/tubes and studied various parameters, such as investigation of different types of tubes, incubation time, volume of samples etc., as well as comparing two types of Mabs of PSA (free and total) for coating on the surface of bead/tube and obtaining optimized requirements to achieve reliable and simplified assays of PSA (free and total) in serum. (author)

  15. Seven-month prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is prognostic in patients with prostate cancer initially diagnosed with distant metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Norum, Jan

    2018-03-05

    Recent research suggests that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 0.2 ng/dl at 7 months is prognostic for better survival with androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer regardless of chemotherapy with docetaxel. These results were derived from a group of clinical trial participants. Therefore, we performed a confirmatory analysis in patients treated outside of trials. Furthermore, we limited inclusion to those who presented with metastases at the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer (synchronous metastases). A retrospective analysis of a comprehensive regional database was performed. The oncology care in this region (Nordland County, Northern Norway) was provided by one center. Patients who were diagnosed between January 01, 2004 and December 31, 2016 were included. Of 101 patients, 90 were alive at 7 months and had their PSA value measured. Their median age was 68.5 years. Only six patients (7%) achieved PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/dl at 7 months. The median value was 4.05 ng/dl. Median overall survival was shortest in patients with PSA > 4.0 ng/dl (22 months). For patients with PSA between 0.3 and 4.0 ng/dl, median survival was 54 months (p = 0.0001). No further increase was seen in the small group with lower PSA. Statistical significance was also found for a cutoff of ≤ 1.0 ng/dl (55 vs. 32 months). PSA at 7 months predicts overall survival. Given that only 7% of patients achieved PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/dl, confirmation of this particular cutoff requires additional studies in other populations.

  16. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2006-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  17. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2007-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  18. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Mediation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James

    2004-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  19. utility of prostate specific antigen (psa) in the indigenous african man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosed with Acute Prostatitis, Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) and Prostate. Cancer in ... Conclusions: The indigenous black African man has high levels of PSA even in benign ... to have other non-prostatic causes of bladder outlet.

  20. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, S.; Paulica, P.; Querze', R.; Viglietta, G.; Trenta, A.

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed

  1. The combination of ovarian volume and outline has better diagnostic accuracy than prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bili, Eleni; Bili, Authors Eleni; Dampala, Kaliopi; Iakovou, Ioannis; Tsolakidis, Dimitrios; Giannakou, Anastasia; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and ultrasound parameters, such as ovarian volume and outline, in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational, case-controlled study included 43 women with PCOS, and 40 controls. Between day 3 and 5 of the menstrual cycle, fasting serum samples were collected and transvaginal ultrasound was performed. The diagnostic performance of each parameter [total PSA (tPSA), total-to-free PSA ratio (tPSA:fPSA), ovarian volume, ovarian outline] was estimated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, along with area under the curve (AUC), threshold, sensitivity, specificity as well as positive (+) and negative (-) likelihood ratios (LRs). Multivariate logistical regression models, using ovarian volume and ovarian outline, were constructed. The tPSA and tPSA:fPSA ratio resulted in AUC of 0.74 and 0.70, respectively, with moderate specificity/sensitivity and insufficient LR+/- values. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the combination of ovarian volume and outline had a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 97.5% in the diagnosis of PCOS, with +LR and -LR values of 39.1 and 0.02, respectively. In women with PCOS, tPSA and tPSA:fPSA ratio have similar diagnostic performance. The use of a multivariate logistic regression model, incorporating ovarian volume and outline, offers very good diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing women with PCOS patients from controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  3. Comparative evaluation of PSA-Density, percent free PSA and total PSA

    OpenAIRE

    Ströbel, Greta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the prostate specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) (the quotient of PSA and prostate volume) compared with the percent free PSA (%fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in different total PSA (tPSA) ranges from 2 ng/mL to 20 ng/mL. Possible cut-off levels depending on the tPSA should be established. METHODS In total, 1809 men with no pretreatment of the prostate were enrolled between 1996 and 2004. Total and free PSA were measured with t...

  4. Detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in human saliva using an ultra-sensitive nanocomposite of graphene nanoplatelets with diblock-co-polymers and Au electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Dighe, K; Wang, Z; Srivastava, I; Daza, E; Schwartz-Dual, A S; Ghannam, J; Misra, S K; Pan, D

    2018-02-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and there are numerous data available for its invasive detection in the serum and whole blood. In this work, an electrochemical sensing method was devised to detect traces of PSA in human saliva using a hybrid nanocomposite of graphene nanoplatelets with diblock co-polymers and Au electrodes (GRP-PS 67 -b-PAA 27 -Au). The pure graphitic composition on filter paper provides significantly high electrical and thermal conductivity while PS 67 -b-PAA 27 makes an amphiphilic bridge between GRP units. The sensor utilizes the binding of an anti-PSA antibody with an antigen-PSA to act as a resistor in a circuit providing an impedance change that in turn allows for the detection and quantification of PSA in saliva samples. A miniaturized electrical impedance analyzer was interfaced with a sensor chip and the data were recorded in real-time using a Bluetooth-enabled module. This fully integrated and optimized sensing device exhibited a wide PSA range of detection from 0.1 pg mL -1 to 100 ng mL -1 (R 2 = 0.963) with a lower limit of detection of 40 fg mL -1 . The performance of the biosensor chip was validated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique with a regression coefficient as high as 0.940. The advantages of the newly developed saliva-PSA electrical biosensor over previously reported serum-PSA electrochemical biosensors include a faster response time (3-5 min) to achieve a stable electrical signal for PSA detection, high selectivity, improved sensitivity, no additional requirement of a redox electrolyte for electron exchange and excellent shelf life. The presented sensor is aimed for clinical commercialization to detect PSA in human saliva.

  5. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)–Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men and their second or third leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for PC has been in common practice for more than 20 years. Objectives A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the effectiveness of PSA-based population screening programs for PC to inform policy decisions in a publicly funded health care system. Data Sources A systematic review of bibliographic databases was performed for systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials (RCT) of PSA-based population screening programs for PC. Review Methods A broad search strategy was employed to identify studies reporting on key outcomes of PC mortality and all-cause mortality. Results The search identified 5 systematic reviews and 6 RCTs. None of the systematic reviews found a statistically significant reduction in relative risk (RR) of PC mortality or overall mortality with PSA-based screening. PC mortality reductions were found to vary by country, by screening program, and by age of men at study entry. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer found a statistically significant reduction in RR in PC mortality at 11-year follow-up (0.79; 95% CI, 0.67–0.92), although the absolute risk reduction was small (1.0/10,000 person-years). However, the primary treatment for PCs differed significantly between countries and between trial arms. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) found a statistically non-significant increase in RR for PC mortality with 13-year follow-up (1.09; 95% CI, 0.87–1.36). The degree of opportunistic screening in the control arm of the PLCO trial, however, was high. None of the RCTs found a reduction in all-cause mortality and all found a statistically significant increase in the detection of mainly low-risk, organ-confined PCs in the screening arm. Conclusions There was no

  6. Enhanced detection sensitivity of prostate-specific antigen via PSA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based on localized surface plasmon resonance: GNP-coated anti-PSA/LSPR as a novel approach for the identification of prostate anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, M H; Amani, H; Pourfatollah, A A; Avan, A; Ferns, G A; Pazoki-Toroudi, H

    2016-10-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to screen for prostate disease, although it has several limitations in its application as an organ-specific or cancer-specific marker. Furthermore, a highly specific/sensitive and/or label-free identification of PSA still remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate anomalies. We aimed to develop a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated anti-PSA antibody-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a novel approach to detect prostatic disease. A total of 25 nm colloidal gold particles were prepared followed by conjugation with anti-PSA pAb (GNPs-PSA pAb). LSPR was used to monitor the absorption changes of the aggregation of the particles. The size, shape and stability of the GNP-anti-PSA were evaluated by dynamic light scattering transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zetasizer. The GNPs-conjugated PSA-pAb was successfully synthesized and subsequently characterized using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and TEM to determine the size distribution, crystallinity and stability of the particles (for example, stability of GNP: 443 mV). To increase the stability of the particles, we pegylated GNPs using an N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N*-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxylsuccinimide (NHS) linker (for example, stability of GNP after pegylation: 272 mV). We found a significant increase in the absorbance and intensity of the particles with extinction peak at 545/2 nm, which was shifted by ~1 nm after conjugation. To illustrate the potential of the GNPs-PSA pAb to bind specifically to PSA, LSPR was used. We found that the extinction peak shifted 3 nm for a solution of 100 nM unlabeled antigen. In summary, we have established a novel approach for improving the efficacy/sensitivity of PSA in the assessment of prostate disease, supporting further investigation on the diagnostic value of GNP-conjugated anti-PSA/LSPR for the detection of prostate cancer.

  7. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carsten; Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of (~)50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective.

  8. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of ~50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective. PMID:27683457

  9. PSA Nadir of <0.5 ng/mL Following Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Prostate Adenocarcinoma is Associated With Freedom From Prostate-Specific Antigen Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Eric C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Because limited information exists regarding whether the rate or magnitude of PSA decline following brachytherapy predicts long-term clinical outcomes, we evaluated whether achieving a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (nPSA) <0.5 ng/mL following brachytherapy is associated with decreased PSA failure and/or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed our database of early-stage prostate adenocarcinoma patients who underwent brachytherapy, excluding those receiving androgen-deprivation therapy and those with <2 years follow-up. Median and mean pretreatment PSA were 6 ng/mL and 7.16 ng/mL, respectively. By clinical stage, 775 were low risk ({<=}T2a), 126 were intermediate risk (T2b), and 20 were high risk (>T2b). By Gleason score, 840 were low risk ({<=}6), 71 were intermediate risk (7), and 10 were high risk (>7). Patients were treated with brachytherapy only (I-125, n = 779, or Pd-103, n = 47), or brachytherapy + external-beam radiation therapy (n = 95). Median follow-up was 6.3 years. We noted whether nPSA <0.5 ng/mL was achieved and the time to achieve this nadir and tested for associations with pretreatment risk factors. We also determined whether this PSA endpoint was associated with decreased PSA failure or distant metastasis. Results: Absence of high-risk factors in clinical stage ({<=}T2b), Gleason score ({<=}7), and pretreatment PSA ({<=}20 ng/mL) was significantly associated with achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL had significantly higher long-term freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) than nonresponders (5-year FFBF: 95.2 {+-} 0.8% vs. 71.5 {+-} 6.7%; p < 0.0005). Among responders, those who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had higher FFBF than those requiring >5 years (5-year FFBF: 96.7 {+-} 0.7% vs. 80.8 {+-} 4.6%; p < 0.0005). On multivariate analysis, patients who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had significantly higher FFBF than other

  10. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei; Stumm, Lareissa; Zhang, Jiajia; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R

    2015-10-01

    Although men presenting with clinically localized prostate cancer (PrCA) often are treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy with curative intent, about 25-40% develop biochemically recurrent PrCA within 5 years of treatment, which has no known cure. Studies suggest that carotenoid and tocopherol intake may be associated with PrCA risk and progression. We examined plasma carotenoid and tocopherol levels in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with PSA-defined biochemical recurrence of PrCA. Data analyzed were from a 6-month diet, physical activity and stress-reduction intervention trial conducted in South Carolina among biochemically recurrent PrCA patients (n=39). Plasma carotenoids and tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was used to estimate least-square means comparing PSA levels of men with high versus low carotenoid/tocopherol levels, adjusting for covariates. After adjusting for baseline PSA level, plasma cis-lutein/zeaxanthin level at 3 months was related inversely to PSA level at 3 months (P=0.0008), while α-tocopherol (P=0.01), β-cryptoxanthin (P=0.01), and all-trans-lycopene (P=0.004) levels at 3 months were related inversely to PSA levels at 6-months. Percent increase in α-tocopherol and trans-β-carotene levels from baseline to month 3 were associated with lower PSA levels at 3 and 6 months. Percent increase in β-cryptoxanthin, cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and all-trans-lycopene were associated with lower PSA levels at 6 months only. Certain plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were related inversely to PSA levels at various timepoints, suggesting that greater intake of foods containing these micronutrients might be beneficial to men with PSA-defined PrCA recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Measurements of free and total PSA, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS), and CYFRA 21-1 in prostate cancer patients under intermittent androgen suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyer, G; Dürer, A; Theyer, U; Haberl, I; Ulsperger, E; Baumgartner, G; Hamilton, G

    1999-10-01

    The present study evaluated monthly measurements of free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and the tumor proliferation markers tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) in patients with advanced prostate cancer receiving intermittent androgen suppression therapy (IAS). Thirty-four men received alternating cycles of 8 month androgen suppression and treatment cessation (mean duration, 10.3 months) until PSA increased to >20 microg/l. Measurements of testosterone, percentage of free PSA, TPS, and CYFRA 21-1 were performed using ELISA and RIA assays. Periods of androgen suppression resulted in reversible reductions of testosterone (from 6 +/- 0.8 to IAS cycle. TPS showed a decrease of 50% after 3 months, and CYFRA 21-1 a 25% decrease after 7 months of androgen suppression treatment. During treatment cessation, TPS exceeded the normal cutoff value of 90 U/l late in tumor regrowth (9-11 months), whereas CYFRA 21-1 remained below the normal cutoff value of 3.3 ng/ml. PSA is the best and most sensitive marker of prostate cancer regression and regrowth during IAS cycles of the markers tested in this study. Free PSA constitutes approximately 15% of total PSA (range, 5-32%), and its percentage showed no significant change during IAS cycles. The TPS and CYFRA 21-1 proliferation marker changes in IAS seem to be related mainly to effects on normal androgen-dependent tissues. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Hirdes, Willem H.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Nijman, Rien M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To determine the impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) publication in 2009 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level testing by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in men aged 40 years. Materials and Methods Retrospective study with a Dutch insurance

  13. Importance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA as a predictive factor for concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and RADICAL prostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gianni de Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby highlighting the importance of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA level as a predictive factor of concordance. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 253 radical prostatectomy cases performed between 2006 and 2011. The patients were divided into 4 groups for the data analysis and dichotomized according to the preoperative PSA, <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL. A p-score <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The average patient age was 63.3±7.8 years. The median PSA level was 9.3±4.9 ng/mL. The overall concordance between the Gleason scores was 52%. Patients presented preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/mL in 153 of 235 cases (65% and ≥10 ng/mL in 82 of 235 cases (35%. The Gleason scores were identical in 86 of 153 cases (56% in the <10 ng/mL group and 36 of 82 (44% cases in the ≥10 ng/mL group (p = 0.017. The biopsy underestimated the Gleason score in 45 (30% patients in the <10 ng/mL group and 38 (46% patients in the ≥10 ng/mL (p = 0.243. Specifically, the patients with Gleason 3 + 3 scores according to the biopsies demonstrated global concordance in 56 of 110 cases (51%. In this group, the patients with preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/dL had higher concordance than those with preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/dL (61% x 23%, p = 0.023, which resulted in 77% upgrading after surgery in those patients with PSA levels ≥10 ng/dl. CONCLUSION: The Gleason scores of needle prostate biopsies and those of the surgical specimens were concordant in approximately half of the global sample. The preoperative PSA level was a strong predictor of discrepancy and might improve the identification of those patients who tended to be upgraded after surgery, particularly in patients with Gleason scores of 3 + 3 in the prostate biopsy and preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/mL.

  14. Evaluation of the radiotherapy and/or therapeutical associations in prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen (PSA); Avaliacao da radioterapia e/ou associacoes terapeuticas em cancer de prostata atraves do antigeno prostatico especifico (PSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Isabel Cristina Rossiter de Araujo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]|[FUNED - Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Imunoquimica; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [FUNED - Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Imunoquimica

    2002-07-01

    Novel statistics show that prostate cancer is the third mortality neoplasia type in man and reaches the first level after 75 years old. The disease appears without signal at initial stages of the prostate cancer, period at which it will be easily treated. The development of the prostate carcinoma in patients depends on the tumor histological degree, stage of the disease at the diagnostic time, tumoral mass, patient age and patient general health. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the tumor marker used to premature disease detection, stagement and patient monitoring after treatment. Distinct therapies or in association have been established, together with a premature diagnosis, to increase the patient survival, achieving the best health quality and disease heal. The applied gland dose and its profile are distinct between brachytherapy and teletherapy.The present paper describes several therapies applied to control the prostate tumors, standing radioactive implants (I{sup 125} ) and conventional radiotherapy. The goal of this paper is to show the different PSA levels resulting after radiation therapy, look upon tumor biology aspects, isodose profiles and serum PSA levels. (author)

  15. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  16. Men presenting with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values of over 100 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Mann; Rajcic, Branimir; Foreman, Darren; Moretti, Kim; O'Callaghan, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with prostate cancer presenting with a PSA level PSA level extracted from the South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (SA-PCCOC) database. Men included were diagnosed between January 1998 and August 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to diagnostic PSA level: 500 ng/mL. Outcomes measured include overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Clinical stage, Gleason score and the presence of bony metastasis was evaluated to determine if they were prognostic factors in patients with PSA over 100 at diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression were used to model overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality outcomes respectively. Of this cohort, 241 patients (4.2%) had a diagnostic PSA level >100 ng/mL. Patients with PSA >100 ng/mL have a significant reduction in five (29.1% vs 62.5% vs 87%) and ten-year (18.2% vs 36.7% vs 70.7%) overall survival when compared to men with diagnostic PSA 20-100 and PSA level at diagnosis. Overall survival was associated with PSA level, Gleason score and age. There was a linear increase in risk (overall survival) as PSA increased until 200 and no association thereafter. Models of overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality incorporating a risk stratification developed by Izumi et al. predicted overall survival but not prostate cancer-specific mortality. The use of this stratification did not improve model accuracy. Only a small number of men (4.2%) with prostate cancer present with PSA >100 ng/mL at diagnosis. Overall survival at five and ten years was significantly poorer in patients with PSA >100 ng/mL. In this cohort of men presenting with PSA >100 at diagnosis, PSA level was not associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality. Gleason score and metastases are significant prognostic factors in this group of men. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016

  17. Improved porous silicon (P-Si) microarray based PSA (prostate specific antigen) immunoassay by optimized surface density of the capture antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SangWook; Kim, Soyoun; Malm, Johan; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Enriching the surface density of immobilized capture antibodies enhances the detection signal of antibody sandwich microarrays. In this study, we improved the detection sensitivity of our previously developed P-Si (porous silicon) antibody microarray by optimizing concentrations of the capturing antibody. We investigated immunoassays using a P-Si microarray at three different capture antibody (PSA - prostate specific antigen) concentrations, analyzing the influence of the antibody density on the assay detection sensitivity. The LOD (limit of detection) for PSA was 2.5ngmL−1, 80pgmL−1, and 800fgmL−1 when arraying the PSA antibody, H117 at the concentration 15µgmL−1, 35µgmL−1 and 154µgmL−1, respectively. We further investigated PSA spiked into human female serum in the range of 800fgmL−1 to 500ngmL−1. The microarray showed a LOD of 800fgmL−1 and a dynamic range of 800 fgmL−1 to 80ngmL−1 in serum spiked samples. PMID:24016590

  18. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pphi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  19. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  20. Quality PSA for PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carska, K.; Rybar, J.

    2012-03-01

    The safety guideline defines with more precision Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic requirements of the quality of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for PSA application. Term of quality of PSA is explained in detail. Procedure for determining the quality of PSA is provided. The categorization of PSA study according the quality of PSA is suggested. A comprehensive list of PSA applications for nuclear facilities is provided. What technical features of a PSA should be satisfied to support the PSA applications of interest is stated. (authors)

  1. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeron Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50. Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1, and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9. In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007. In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p Conclusion High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF.

  2. Differential recognition of the multiple banded antigen isoforms across Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum species by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboklaish, Ali F; Ahmed, Shatha; McAllister, Douglas; Cassell, Gail; Zheng, Xiaotian T; Spiller, Owen B

    2016-08-01

    Two separate species of Ureaplasma have been identified that infect humans: Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Most notably, these bacteria lack a cell wall and are the leading infectious organism associated with infection-related induction of preterm birth. Fourteen separate representative prototype bacterial strains, called serovars, are largely differentiated by the sequence of repeating units in the C-terminus of the major surface protein: multiple-banded antigen (MBA). Monoclonal antibodies that recognise single or small groups of serovars have been previously reported, but these reagents remain sequestered in individual research laboratories. Here we characterise a panel of commercially available monoclonal antibodies raised against the MBA and describe the first monoclonal antibody that cross-reacts by immunoblot with all serovars of U. parvum and U. urealyticum species. We also describe a recombinant MBA expressed by Escherichia coli which facilitated further characterisation by immunoblot and demonstrate immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded antigens. Immunoblot reactivity was validated against well characterised previously published monoclonal antibodies and individual commercial antibodies were found to recognise all U. parvum strains, only serovars 3 and 14 or only serovars 1 and 6, or all strains belonging to U. parvum and U. urealyticum. MBA mass was highly variable between strains, consistent with variation in the number of C-terminal repeats between strains. Antibody characterisation will enable future investigations to correlate severity of pathogenicity to MBA isoform number or mass, in addition to development of antibody-based diagnostics that will detect infection by all Ureaplasma species or alternately be able to differentiate between U. parvum, U. urealyticum or mixed infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Bota, Maria; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Zaridze, David G; Perrin, Paul; Fitzpatrick, John; Burnett, Arthur L; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Literature searches were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer, and placebo-controlled randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) that reported data on PSA and/or prostate cancer cases were retained. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. Twenty estimates were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary relative risk (SRR) of prostate cancer for an increase of 5 nmol/L of testosterone of 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96, 1.02) without heterogeneity (I² = 0%). Based on 26 trials, the overall difference in PSA levels after onset of use of TRT was 0.10 ng/mL (-0.28, 0.48). Results were similar when conducting heterogeneity analyses by mode of administration, region, age at baseline, baseline testosterone, trial duration, type of patients and type of TRT. The SRR of prostate cancer as an adverse effect from 11 TRT trials was 0.87 (95% CI 0.30; 2.50). Results were consistent across studies. Prostate cancer appears to be unrelated to endogenous testosterone levels. TRT for symptomatic hypogonadism does not appear to increase PSA levels nor the risk of prostate cancer development. The current data are reassuring, although some caution is essential until multiple studies with longer follow-up are available. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The roles of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives in predicting prostate cancer in patients with PSA less than 20.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P; Zhao, J; Sun, G; Chen, N; Zhang, X; Gui, H; Yang, Y; Liu, J; Shu, K; Wang, Z; Zeng, H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nomograms for predicting prostate cancer and its zonal location using prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives. A total of 928 consecutive patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 20.0 ng/mL, who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal 12-core prostate biopsy at West China Hospital between 2011 and 2014, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly split into training cohort (70%, n = 650) and validation cohort (30%, n = 278). Predicting models and the associated nomograms were built using the training cohort, while the validations of the models were conducted using the validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed. Then, new nomograms were generated based on multivariate regression coefficients. The discrimination power and calibration of these nomograms were validated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the calibration curve. The potential clinical effects of these models were also tested using decision curve analysis. In total, 285 (30.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Among them, 131 (14.1%) and 269 (29.0%) had transition zone prostate cancer and peripheral zone prostate cancer. Each of zone-adjusted derivatives-based nomogram had an AUC more than 0.75. All nomograms had higher calibration and much better net benefit than the scenarios in predicting patients with or without different zones prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives have important roles in detecting prostate cancer and its zonal location for patients with PSA 2.5-20.0 ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nomogram using these parameters to predict outcomes of 12-core prostate biopsy. These instruments can help clinicians to increase the accuracy of prostate cancer screening and to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy. © 2017

  5. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) Significantly Improve Prostate Cancer Detection at Initial Biopsy in a Total PSA Range of 2–10 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K.; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2–10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2–10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA. PMID:23861782

  6. Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ferro

    Full Text Available Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77 was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76 and PCA3 (0.73 with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247. These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60, % fPSA (AUC = 0.62 and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63. At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  7. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy. Importanza del rapporto tra antigene prostatico specifico e volume prostatico nella selezione dei pazienti da sottoporre a biopsia ecoguidata della prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziano, S; Paulica, P; Querze' , R; Viglietta, G; Trenta, A [Ospedale Melpighi, Bologna (Italy). Serv. di Radiologia

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed. 20 refs.

  8. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  9. An endoglycosidase-assisted LC-MS/MS-based strategy for the analysis of site-specific core-fucosylation of low-concentrated glycoproteins in human serum using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robert; Leinenbach, Andreas; Karl, Johann; Swiatek-de Lange, Magdalena; Kobold, Uwe; Vogeser, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Recently, site-specific fucosylation of glycoproteins has attracted attention as it can be associated with several types of cancers including prostate cancer. However, individual glycoproteins, which might serve as potential cancer markers, often are very low-concentrated in complex serum matrices and distinct glycan structures are hard to detect by immunoassays. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based strategy for the simultaneous analysis of core-fucosylated and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum in the low ng/ml concentration range. Sample preparation comprised an immunoaffinity capture step to enrich total PSA from human serum using anti-PSA antibody coated magnetic beads followed by consecutive two-step on-bead partial deglycosylation with endoglycosidase F3 and tryptic digestion prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The method was shown to be linear from 0.5 to 60 ng/ml total PSA concentrations and allows the simultaneous quantification of core-fucosylated PSA down to 1 ng/ml and total PSA lower than 0.5 ng/ml. The imprecision of the method over two days ranged from 9.7-23.2% for core-fucosylated PSA and 10.3-18.3% for total PSA depending on the PSA level. The feasibility of the method in native sera was shown using three human specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first MS-based method for quantification of core-fucosylated PSA in the low ng/ml concentration range in human serum. This method could be used in large patient cohorts as core-fucosylated PSA may be a diagnostic biomarker for the differentiation of prostate cancer and other prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Furthermore, the described strategy could be used to monitor potential changes in site-specific core-fucosylation of other low-concentrated glycoproteins, which could serve as more specific markers ("marker refinement") in cancer research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PsaA, the adhesive pilin subunit that forms the pH 6 antigen on the surface of Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Sadhukhan, Annapurna; Nair, Manoj K. M.; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Xia, Di

    2012-01-01

    The pH 6 antigen Psa displayed on the surface of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague in humans, consists of polymers of a single protein subunit termed PsaA. Donor-strand complemented PsaA was purified and crystallized. Yersinia pestis has been responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history. Like all other bacterial infections, the pathogenesis of Y. pestis begins with the attachment of bacteria to the surface of host cells. At least five surface proteins from Y. pestis have been shown to interact with host cells. Psa, the pH 6 antigen, is one of them and is deployed on the surface of bacteria as thin flexible fibrils that are the result of the polymerization of a single PsaA pilin subunit. Here, the crystallization of recombinant donor-strand complemented PsaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 1.9 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.5 Å resolution from a bromide-derivatized crystal. These crystals displayed the symmetry of the orthorhombic space group P222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 54.6, c = 102.1 Å. Initial phases were derived from single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments, resulting in an electron-density map that showed a single molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignment was aided by residues binding to bromide ions of the heavy-atom derivative

  11. The clinical study of serum PSA and fPSA assayed by CLIA in diagnosing prostate disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiang; Qian Xiaoyu; Ji Hong; Yang Su; Ding Ying; Zhu Ruisen; Chen Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) and fPSA(free prostate specific antigen) in differentiating prostate disease. CLIA was used to quantitatively assay PSA, fPSA and fPSA/PSA in 30 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of prostate cancer patients and 76 cases of BPH patients. The result showed that if liminal value of PSA was set at 4 ng/mL, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 50.6% respectively. Meanwhile, if liminal value of fPSA/PSA set at 16% was added, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 85.3% respectively. It was concluded that the combining assay of PSA and fPSA could increase the diagnostic specificity of prostate cancer in a certain degree

  12. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  13. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients treated with prostate brachytherapy (PI) with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up. Methods and Materials: The records of 162 patients treated with PI for localized prostate cancer with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up were reviewed. A variety of pretreatment and posttreatment variables were examined. Patients were coded as having a PSA bounce if their PSA achieved a nadir, elevated at least 0.2 ng/mL greater than that nadir, and decreased to, or below, the initial nadir. Two definitions of biochemical failure (bF) or biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) were used: the classic American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition of three consecutive rises (bF3) and the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition (bFn+2). Associations between a PSA bounce and the various pre- and posttreatment factors were assessed with logistic regression analysis, and the association between a PSA bounce and bF was examined with the log-rank test. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for differences in the PSA doubling time (PSADT) and the time to a PSA rise between the PSA bounce patients and the bF patients. PSADT was calculated from the nadir to the time of the first PSA rise, because this point is known first in the clinical setting. Results: The 5-year overall bRFS rate was 87% for the bF3 definition and 96% for the bFn+2 definition. A PSA bounce was experienced by 75 patients (46.3%). Patients who experienced a PSA bounce were less likely to have a bF, regardless of the bRFS definition used (bF3: p = 0.0015; bFn+2: p = 0.0040). Among the pre- and posttreatment factors, only younger age predicted for a PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0018). The use of androgen deprivation had no effect on PSA bounce. No difference was found in the PSADT between patients who had a PSA bounce and those with bF. The median PSADT for those with a PSA bounce was 8.3 months vs. 10.3 months

  14. Lassen Veränderungen des Prostata-spezifischen Antigen- (PSA- Spiegels nach Prostatastanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das pathologische Ergebnis zu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmer BG

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Die diagnostische Biopsie der Prostata führt bekanntermaßen zum Anstieg des Serum-PSA-Spiegels. Diese prospektive Untersuchung sollte die Frage klären, ob die Änderungen des Serum-PSA-Spiegels nach Stanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das histologische Ergebnis zulassen und so als Entscheidungshilfe bei der Frage der Rebiopsie dienen können. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 79 konsekutive Patienten mit klinischem Verdacht auf das Vorliegen eines Prostatakarzinoms (PCA und einem Gesamt-PSA 50 ng/ml wurden in die Studie eingeschlossen. Ausschlußkriterien waren klinische Hinweise für eine Prostatitis und Prostatabiopsie innerhalb der letzten 3 Monate. Die Serum-PSA-Werte wurden mit einem ultrasensitiven Enzymimmunoassay bestimmt. Die Bestimmung des Gesamt-PSA und des freien PSA im Serum erfolgte unmittelbar vor und 60 Minuten nach der Biopsie. Die Spiegel des Gesamt-PSA und freien PSA, sowie die f/t-PSA-Ratio vor und nach Biopsie wurden in Korrelation zum histologischen Ergebnis gesetzt. Ergebnisse: 86 Biopsieserien wurden bei 79 Patienten durchgeführt. 38 Biopsieserien diagnostizierten ein PCA, 48 eine benigne Prostatahyperplasie (BPH. Die abschließende Histologie nach wiederholter Biopsie war PCA und BPH in je 43 Fällen. Insgesamt fand sich ein Anstieg des durchschnittlichen Gesamt-PSA von 18,39 ng/ml auf 107,8 ng/ml, des durchschnittlichen freien PSA von 3,43 ng/ml auf 33,7 ng/ml und der durchschnittlichen f/t PSA-Ratio von 18,1 % auf 52,0 %. Es fand sich keine Korrelation zwischen dem Anstieg dieser Parameter und der Anzahl der Biopsiezylinder (4–51. Bezüglich des histologischen Befundes ergaben sich statistisch signifikante Unterschiede für das Gesamt-PSA vor und die f/t PSA-Ratio vor und nach Stanzbiopsie. Schlußfolgerung: Die Analyse der PSA-Parameter nach Stanzbiopsie bietet keine zusätzliche Information über die konventionellen PSA-Parameter vor der Biopsie hinaus. Sie korrelieren vor allem nicht mit falsch

  15. The diagnostic value of PSA, cPSA and bone scintigraphy for early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhongguang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of prostate specific antigen (PSA), complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA) and bone scintigraphic imaging in diagnosis of early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer. Methods: 152 patients (74 with prostate cancer, 78 with benign prostate disease) and 90 controls were examined for the serum concentrations of PSA and cPSA. At the same time, the 74 patients with PCa were examined with bone scintigraphy. The cPSA/PSA ratio was calculated. Results: Serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio of patients with prostate cancer were significantly higher than those in benign prostate patients and controls. In addition, the serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio in prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastasis were remarkably higher than those in patients without skeletal metastasis, and the differences were significant (P 20 μg/L, cPSA>10 μg/L, cPSA/PSA>0.80, there is a high probability that skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer would be present and bone scintigraphy should be performed. (authors)

  16. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for High Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Huang-Tiel, Hui-Juan; Golka, Klaus; Selinski, Silvia; Geis, Berit Christine; Koswig, Stephan; Bathe, Katrin; Hallmann, Steffen; Gerullis, Holger

    2016-11-10

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index), Gleason score, D'Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA value after one/three/five year(s) follow-up (FU), time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis ( p = 0.009), PSA on date of first HDR-BT ( p = 0.033), and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year ( p = 0.025) have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  17. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetic as a prognostic factor in metastatic prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriansyah, Andika; Hamid, Agus Rizal Ardy Hariandy; Mochtar, Chaidir Arif; Umbas, Rainy

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) has a poor outcome with median survival of two to five years. The use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a gold standard in management of this stage.  Aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic value of PSA kinetics of patient treated with hormonal therapy related to survival from several published studies Method: Systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using literature searching in the electronic databases of MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were mPCa receiving ADT, a study analyzing Progression Free Survival (PFS), Overall Survival (OS), or Cancer Specific Survival (CSS) and prognostic factor of survival related to PSA kinetics (initial PSA, PSA nadir, and time to achieve nadir (TTN)). The exclusion criteria were metastatic castration resistant of prostate cancer (mCRPC) and non-metastatic disease. Generic inverse variance method was used to combine hazard ratio (HR) within the studies. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.2 and a p-value PSA and PFS. In addition, there was no association between initial PSA and CSS/ OS. We found association of reduced PFS (HR 2.22; 95% CI 1.82 to 2.70) and OS/ CSS (HR 3.31; 95% CI 2.01-5.43) of patient with high PSA nadir. Shorter TTN was correlated with poor result of survival either PFS (HR 2.41; 95% CI 1.19 - 4.86) or CSS/ OS (HR 1.80; 95%CI  1.42 - 2.30) Conclusion: Initial PSA before starting ADT do not associated with survival in mPCa.  There is association of PSA nadir and TTN with survival.

  18. Combination of prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density predicts biopsy outcome in prostate biopsy naïve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washino, Satoshi; Okochi, Tomohisa; Saito, Kimitoshi; Konishi, Tsuzumi; Hirai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    To assess the value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system, for prostate multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer, and classical parameters, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and PSA density, for predicting biopsy outcome in biopsy naïve patients who have suspected prostate cancer. Patients who underwent mpMRI at our hospital, and who had their first prostate biopsy between July 2010 and April 2014, were analysed retrospectively. The prostate biopsies were taken transperineally under transrectal ultrasonography guidance. In all, 14 cores were biopsied as a systematic biopsy in all patients. Two cognitive fusion-targeted biopsy cores were added for each lesion in patients who had suspicious or equivocal lesions on mpMRI. The PI-RADS scoring system version 2.0 (PI-RADS v2) was used to describe the MRI findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. In all, 288 patients were analysed. The median patient age, PSA level, prostate volume and PSA density were 69 years, 7.5 ng/mL, 28.7 mL, and 0.26 ng/mL/mL, respectively. The biopsy results were benign, clinically insignificant, and clinically significant prostate cancer in 129 (45%), 18 (6%) and 141 (49%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were independent predictors for prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. When PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were combined, a PI-RADS v2 score of ≥4 and PSA density ≥0.15 ng/mL/mL, or PI-RADS v2 score of 3 and PSA density of ≥0.30 ng/mL/mL, was associated with the highest clinically significant prostate cancer detection rates (76-97%) on the first biopsy. Of the patients in this group with negative biopsy results, 22% were subsequently diagnosed as prostate cancer. In contrast, a PI

  19. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  20. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  1. Antigenic characterization of an abnormal isoform of prion protein using a new diverse panel of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan-Lan; Umetani, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshio; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Shinagawa, Morikazu; Horiuchi, Motohiro

    2004-01-01

    We established a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against prion protein (PrP) by immunizing PrP gene-ablated mice with the pathogenic isoform of prion protein (PrP Sc ) or recombinant prion protein (rPrP). The mAbs could be divided into at least 10 groups by fine epitope analyses using mutant rPrPs and pepspot analysis. Seven linear epitopes, lying within residues 56-90, 119-127, 137-143, 143-149, 147-151, 163-169, and 219-229, were defined by seven groups of mAbs, although the remaining three groups of mAbs recognized discontinuous epitopes. We attempted to examine whether any of these epitopes are located on the accessible surface of PrP Sc . However, no mAbs reacted with protease-treated PrP Sc purified from scrapie-affected mice, even when PrP Sc was dispersed into a detergent-lipid protein complex, to reduce the size of PrP Sc aggregates. In contrast, denaturation of PrP Sc by guanidine hydrochloride efficiently exposed all of the epitopes. This suggests that any epitope recognized by this panel of mAbs is buried within the PrP Sc aggregates. Alternatively, if the corresponding region(s) are on the surface of PrP Sc , the region(s) may be folded into conformations to which the mAbs cannot bind. The reactivity of a panel of mAb also showed that the state of PrP Sc aggregation influenced the denaturation process, and the sensitivity to denaturation appeared to vary between epitopes. Our results demonstrate that this new panel of well-characterized mAbs will be valuable for studying the biochemistry and biophysics of PrP molecules as well as for the immuno-diagnosis of prion diseases

  2. Anticancer activities of emetine prodrugs that are proteolytically activated by the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and evaluation of in vivo toxicity of emetine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboye, Emmanuel S; Rosen, Marc D; Bakare, Oladapo; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2017-12-15

    Emetine is a small molecule protein synthesis inhibitor that is toxic to all cell types and therefore suitable for complete killing of all types of heterogeneous cancer cells within a tumor. It becomes significantly inactive (non-toxic) when derivatized at its N-2' secondary amine. This provides a strategy for targeting emetine to cancerous tumor without killing normal cells. In this report, PSA activatable peptide prodrugs of emetine were synthesized. To overcome steric hindrances and enhance protease specific cleavage, a 2-stage prodrug activation process was needed to release emetine in cancer cells. In this 2-stage process, emetine prodrug intermediates are coupled to PSA peptide substrate (Ac-His-Ser-Ser-Lys-Leu-Gln) to obtain the full prodrug. Both prodrug intermediates 10 (Ala-Pro-PABC-Emetine) and 14 (Ser-Leu-PABC-Emetine) were evaluated for kinetics of hydrolysis to emetine and potency [Where PABC = p-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl]. While both intermediates quantitatively liberate emetine when incubated under appropriate conditions, upon coupling of PSA substrate to give the full prodrugs, only prodrug 16, the prodrug obtained from 14 was hydrolyzable by PSA. Cytotoxicity studies in PSA producing LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 confirm the activation of the prodrug by PSA with an IC 50 of 75 nM and 59 nM respectively. The cytotoxicity of 16 is significantly reduced in cell lines that do not produce PSA. Further, in vivo toxicity studies are done on these prodrugs and other derivatives of emetine. The results show the significance of conformational modulation in obtaining safe emetine prodrugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the Normal Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Value in Iraqi Society and its Relation to Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out by radioimmunoassay and immuno radiographic analysis in the Iraqi Ministry of Health, within the research plan of Kurdistan institution for strategic study and scientific research. A total of 793 serum samples were collected in which 50 patient samples have biopsy with positive bacterial UTI. The other 743 samples were obtained from normal healthy volunteers all were over 45 years old. The samples were gathered randomly from three regions in Iraq namely, from north (Sulaymaniyah, Erbil and Dohuk), from the middle (Baghdad and Diyala) and from south (Basra, Missan and Najaf). The total PSA was measured and the results were subjected to statistical analysis based on statistical package social science (SPSS) method. The obtained data showed that the normal PSA values are function of the age of the donors. The results were grouped and clarified that PSA was less than 3.8 ng/ml for the age 45-55 years, while it was less than 4.8 ng/ml for the volunteers from 56-65 years old and the values lower than 5.9 ng/ml for group aged 66-75 years old. On the other hand, the obtained data illustrated that there were non-significant variations in PSA values as a function of the geographic regions. The PSA values for the 50 male positive bacterial UTI samples were within the same grouping previously stated for the normal healthy volunteers. Seven cases of the 743 samples showed abnormal high PSA values (i.e. greater than 9 ng/ml) which represent 0.93% of the healthy collected samples. It could be concluded that the PSA has non-significance relation to the bacterial UTI. In addition, the radioimmunoassay has a sensitivity of about 99.04% for the normal cases and specificity of 0.96% for prostate cancer.

  4. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  5. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  6. Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass and Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass for Predicting the Prostate Volume of Korean Men With Biopsy-Proven Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Tae Yong; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Moon, Du Geon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It has been reported that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) correlates with prostate volume. Recently, some studies have reported that PSA mass (PSA adjusted for plasma volume) is more accurate than PSA at predicting prostate volume. In this study, we analyzed the accuracy of PSA and the related parameters of PSA mass, free PSA (fPSA), and fPSA mass in predicting prostate volume. Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 658 patients who underwent prostate biopsy from 2006 t...

  7. Clinical performance of serum [-2]proPSA derivatives, %p2PSA and PHI, in the detection and management of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ya-Qiang; Sun, Tong; Zhong, Wei-De; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used as a serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa) screening or progression monitoring, which dramatically increased rate of early detection while significantly reduced PCa-specific mortality. However, a number of limitations of PSA have been noticed. Low specificity of PSA may lead to overtreatment in men who presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of < 10 ng/mL. As a type of free PSA (fPSA), [-2]proPSA is differentially expressed in peripheral ...

  8. PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil Chambardel, A

    1997-12-31

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF`s viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs.

  9. PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil Chambardel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF's viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs

  10. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  11. Clinical performance of serum [-2]proPSA derivatives, %p2PSA and PHI, in the detection and management of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Qiang; Sun, Tong; Zhong, Wei-De; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used as a serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa) screening or progression monitoring, which dramatically increased rate of early detection while significantly reduced PCa-specific mortality. However, a number of limitations of PSA have been noticed. Low specificity of PSA may lead to overtreatment in men who presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of PHI) and %p2PSA, which were defined as [(p2PSA/fPSA) × √ tPSA] and [(p2PSA/fPSA) × 100] respectively, have been suggested to be increased in PCa and can better distinguish PCa from benign prostatic diseases than tPSA or fPSA. We performed a systematic review of the available scientific evidences to evaluate the potentials of %p2PSA and PHI in clinical application. Mounting evidences suggested that both %p2PSA and PHI possess higher area under the ROC curve (AUC) and better specificity at a high sensitivity for PCa detection when compare with tPSA and %fPSA. It indicated that measurements of %p2PSA and PHI significantly improved the accuracy of PCa detection and diminished unnecessary biopsies. Furthermore, elevations of %p2PSA and PHI are related to more aggressive diseases. %p2PSA and PHI might be helpful in reducing overtreatment on indolent cases or assessing the progression of PCa in men who undergo active surveillance. Further studies are needed before being applied in routine clinical practice.

  12. SERIAL PERCENT-FREE PSA IN COMBINATION WITH PSA FOR POPULATION-BASED EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Gelfond, Jonathan; Goros, Martin; Herrera, Jesus; Strobl, Andreas; Thompson, Ian M.; Hernandez, Javier; Leach, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize the diagnostic properties of serial percent-free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in relation to PSA in a multi-ethnic, multi-racial cohort of healthy men. MATERIALS AND METHODS 6,982 percent-free PSA and PSA measures were obtained from participants in a 12 year+ Texas screening study comprising 1625 men who never underwent biopsy, 497 who underwent one or more biopsies negative for prostate cancer, and 61 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Area underneath the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC) for percent-free PSA, and the proportion of patients with fluctuating values across multiple visits were determined according to two thresholds (under 15% versus 25%) were evaluated. The proportion of cancer cases where percent-free PSA indicated a positive test before PSA > 4 ng/mL did and the number of negative biopsies that would have been spared by percent-free PSA testing negative were computed. RESULTS Percent-free PSA fluctuated around its threshold of PSA tested positive earlier than PSA in 71.4% (34.2%) of cancer cases, and among men with multiple negative biopsies and a PSA > 4 ng/mL, percent-free PSA would have tested negative in 31.6% (65.8%) instances. CONCLUSIONS Percent-free PSA should accompany PSA testing in order to potentially spare unnecessary biopsies or detect cancer earlier. When near the threshold, both tests should be repeated due to commonly observed fluctuation. PMID:26979652

  13. Time to second prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure is a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer death in prospective trials of therapy for localized disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zietman, A L; Dallow, K C; Shipley, W U; Heney, N M; McManus, P L

    1995-07-01

    Purpose In assessing the efficacy of the competing curative therapies for prostate cancer the most relevant endpoint is cancer specific death. Due to the long natural history of the disease and the use of salvage androgen suppression prospective trials need to mature for at least a decade to provide meaningful results. An endpoint that predicted for cancer death with high probability would allow more rapid completion of prospective studies, hopefully before the tested therapies become outdated. Materials and methods 202 patients entered into a single institution prospective randomized study for T3-4 prostate cancer between 1982 and 1992 were evaluated. All received radical irradiation to either a standard dose of 67.2Gy or a higher dose of 75.6Gy (the latter employing a proton beam boost). 76 men have received androgen suppression or orchiectomy for salvage following relapse (median follow-up 6.9 years). Of this group 35 experienced a second relapse heralded by a rise in the serum PSA. Second failure was scored on the date that the serum PSA rose to greater than 10% above the post-androgen suppression nadir. Kaplan-Meier analysis was made of survival from the time of second PSA failure and the cause of death established in all patients who subsequently died. Results The median duration of response to hormone therapy following first failure was 27.2 months. The actuarial survival from the time of second biochemical relapse was 93%, 66%, 35%, and 0% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years respectively (50% at 32 months). 16 patients have so far died after second failure all from causes related to their prostate cancer. Conclusion Second PSA failure appears to be a secure surrogate for impending prostate cancer death. Its use as an endpoint in prospective studies should allow earlier reporting by 2 - 3 years.

  14. Correlative study of SPECT bone scan, serum tPSA and fPSA/tPSA ratio and the pathological grade of prostate cancer with bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Haiqing; Duan Jun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the rules and characteristics of SPECT bone scan, serum TPSA, fPSA/tPSA ratio and the pathological grade of prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Methods: Nuclear medicine SPECT bone scan as the gold standard, retrospective analysis of the in vitro radioimmunoassay in 107 patients with prostate cancer serum PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels, serum fPSA/tPSA ratio and whole body bone imaging studies and pathological classification. Results: 107 patients with prostate cancer : 49 patients had bone metastases, accounting for 45.8% (49/107), in which groups of different pathological comparison between the incidence of bone metastasis significantly, the lower the degree of differentiation, the more the incidence of bone metastases high; with elevated levels of tPSA, the incidence of bone metastasis increased significantly; serum tPSA 4 - 40 ng/ml, the use of fPSA/tPSA ratio may improve the diagnostic specificity of prostate cancer. Conclusion: Patients with bone metastases of prostate cancer incidence and degree of differentiation of prostate cancer, serum PSA levels and fPSA/tPSA ratio of a certain relationship. The lower degree of differentiation,the higher the incidence of bone metastasis. (authors)

  15. [PSA interest and prostatitis: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, F; Amine Lakmichi, M

    2013-12-01

    Prostatitis is easily diagnosed but sometimes associated with PSA measurement. An increased PSA in an asymptomatic patient may be associated with antibiotic use to eliminate the inflammatory part and to confirm prostate biopsy. It seems interesting to confirm or infirm these attitudes with a systematic review of the literature We performed a literature review using the words [prostatitis], [acute prostatitis], [prostate specific antigen], [PSA], in the MEDLINE, Pubmed and AMBASE database searching for articles in French or English published in the past 20 years. PSA is not always increased during an acute prostatitis episode. An increased PSA in an asymptomatic man does not seem to be systematically correlated to prostate inflammation. Analyzing the studies, it seems inaccurate to measure PSA value during a febrile urinary infection episode in men. Systematic use of antibiotic to decrease PSA and not performing prostate biopsy is not relevant and may induce resistance to antibiotic and doesn't induce a reduction risk of having prostate biopsy. PSA is unnecessary in case of febrile urinary tract infection in men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The optimal timing to perform 18F/11C-choline PET/CT in patients with suspicion of relapse of prostate cancer: trigger PSA versus PSA velocity and PSA doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Rubello, Domenico; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-12-09

    In the present short communication we considered the main publications focused on trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA kinetics that systematically compared 18F to 11C-choline PET/CT in order to establish the optimal time to perform choline PET/CT in relation to the trigger values and velocity, as well as doubling time of PSA serum levels.

  17. Putting PSA to work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, R.; Gomez-Cobo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA has, during the last three years, been working intensively on PSA applications. The draft TECDOC prepared during these activities, ''PSA Applications'' is summarized in this paper. Actual events at nuclear facilities provide an important basis to compare PSAs with reality. PSA based operational event analysis therefore can be used to evaluate the importance of operational events from a risk perspective but also can contribute to validating and enhancing PSAs and to continuously check whether or not the PSA models are adequate, appropriate and complete. The work of the IAEA in this area is therefore summarized as well. In a companion paper, titled ''Towards a credible PSA fit for applications'', two specific aspects regarding the quality of the PSA to be used are discussed in detail, namely the Living PSA concept, which ensures that the PSA reflects actual design and operational features and Quality Assurance for PSA. (author)

  18. Comparative Study of Blood-Based Biomarkers, α2,3-Sialic Acid PSA and PHI, for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Llop, Esther; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, Rosa Núria; Saez, Marc; Comet, Josep; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2017-04-17

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa), although it is not specific and sensitive enough to allow the differential diagnosis of the more aggressive tumors. For that, new diagnostic methods are being developed, such as PCA-3, PSA isoforms that have resulted in the 4K score or the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and PSA glycoforms. In the present study, we have compared the PHI with our recently developed PSA glycoform assay, based on the determination of the α2,3-sialic acid percentage of serum PSA (% α2,3-SA), in a cohort of 79 patients, which include 50 PCa of different grades and 29 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients. The % α2,3-SA could distinguish high-risk PCa patients from the rest of patients better than the PHI (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.971 vs. 0.840), although the PHI correlated better with the Gleason score than the % α2,3-SA. The combination of both markers increased the AUC up to 0.985 resulting in 100% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity to differentiate high-risk PCa from the other low and intermediate-risk PCa and BPH patients. These results suggest that both serum markers complement each other and offer an improved diagnostic tool to identify high-risk PCa, which is an important requirement for guiding treatment decisions.

  19. PSA Review Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Anders; Nyman, Ralph; Knochenhauer, Michael

    2004-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) expresses requirements on the performance of PSAs as well as on PSA activities in general in the the regulatory document 'Regulations Concerning Safety in Certain Nuclear Facilities', SKlFS 1998:1. The follow-up of these activities is part of the inspection tasks of the SKI. In view or this, there is a need for documented guidelines on now to perform these inspections and reviews. The SKI PSA Review Handbook is intended to be a support in the SKI inspection and control of the PSA activities or the licensees. These PSA activities include both the organisation and working procedures of the licensee, the layout and contents of the PSA, and its areas of application. Using the regulation SKIFS 1998:1 as a starting point, the review handbook presents important aspects to be considered when judging whether a licensee fulfils the requirements on PSA activities, including the performance of PSA:s or PSA applications. The handbook shall also be a guidance for the review of PSA:s. However, the intention of the PSA Review Handbook is not to be a handbook for how a PSA is performed. The PSA Review Handbook is applicable to all types or initiating events and all operating conditions, and has been structured in a way, which stresses the integrated characteristics of PSA in the creation of the risk picture of a plant. The PSA Review Handbook has been based on the requirements for PSA of nuclear power plants, as this is the most extensive application. However, the relevant parts of it are also applicable when analysing other nuclear installations. The PSA Review Handbook is published as a research report as its contents are judged to be of general interest, and the SKI welcomes comments to the handbook. An update or the PSA Review Handbook may be required as experience with the use of the handbook is acquired and if general PSA requirements change

  20. Improving PSA quality of KSNP PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the RIR (Risk-informed Regulation), PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) plays a major role because it provides overall risk insights for the regulatory body and utility. Therefore, the scope, the level of details and the technical adequacy of PSA, i.e. the quality of PSA is to be ensured for the successful RIR. To improve the quality of Korean PSA, we evaluate the quality of the KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) internal full-power PSA model based on the 'ASME PRA Standard' and the 'NEI PRA Peer Review Process Guidance.' As a working group, PSA experts of the regulatory body and industry also participated in the evaluation process. It is finally judged that the overall quality of the KSNP PSA is between the ASME Standard Capability Category I and II. We also derive some items to be improved for upgrading the quality of the PSA up to the ASME Standard Capability Category II. In this paper, we show the result of quality evaluation, and the activities to improve the quality of the KSNP PSA model

  1. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  2. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  3. Radiometric assays for the measurement of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.

    1997-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen, a serine protease enzyme, of M.W. ∼ 26-33 kDa, is widely considered to be a very useful marker for prostate cancer. It satisfies nearly all the requirements of an ideal 'Tumour Marker' and has hence attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. PSA is present in multiple forms in serum, with an appreciable fraction bound to the protease inhibitor α-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and to a small extent to other proteins such as α-2-macroglobulin (AMG) leaving the rest in the free form. The total PSA levels have been reported to have 80% sensitivity and 60% specificity towards the detection of prostate cancer. The lack of specificity occurs mainly due to the high levels of t-PSA in benign prostatic hypertrophy(BPH) apart from the cancer. The concept of free PSA has been introduced in the recent past and the ratio of free/total PSA levels have been shown to be advantageous in the differential diagnosis of BPH from prostate cancer. The f/t ratio is considered to be particularly useful in the grey zones of decision making (t-PSA levels 4-20 ng/mL). The need for the development of assays for total and free PSA is felt due to: a. the high incidence of prostate cancers being detected currently; b. the high cost of tests (higher for free PSA assay, and the cost becomes an important parameter when a patient has to be regularly monitored after therapy) that is not affordable for many patients; c. the potential for research in the area of prostate cancer management where the PSA (total and free) assays will be of great help

  4. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum levels of free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolong; Chen Baixun; Chen Yue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of combined determination of serum levels of fPSA and IGF-1 in patients with prostatic cancer. Methods: Serum levels of fPSA (with chemiluminescence) and IGF-1 (with IRMA) were measured in 48 patients with prostatic cancer, 63 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and 38 controls. Results: Serum levels of fPSA and IGF-1 in the 111 patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The positive rate for prostatic cancer detection with fPSA, IGF-1 and fPSA combined with IGF-1 was 83.3%, 79.2% and 95.8% respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurement of fPSA and IGF-1 was most preferable for screening prostatic cancer

  5. Experiences of Uncertainty in Men With an Elevated PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Caitlin; Brasel, Alicia; Underwood, Willie; Orom, Heather

    2015-05-15

    A significant proportion of men, ages 50 to 70 years, have, and continue to receive prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen for prostate cancer (PCa). Approximately 70% of men with an elevated PSA level will not subsequently be diagnosed with PCa. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 men with an elevated PSA level who had not been diagnosed with PCa. Uncertainty was prominent in men's reactions to the PSA results, stemming from unanswered questions about the PSA test, PCa risk, and confusion about their management plan. Uncertainty was exacerbated or reduced depending on whether health care providers communicated in lay and empathetic ways, and provided opportunities for question asking. To manage uncertainty, men engaged in information and health care seeking, self-monitoring, and defensive cognition. Results inform strategies for meeting informational needs of men with an elevated PSA and confirm the primary importance of physician communication behavior for open information exchange and uncertainty reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Elevation of PSA after prostate radiotherapy: Rebound or biochemical recurrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Kanoui, A.; Chiche, R.; Lamallem, H.; Beley, S.; Thibault, F.; Sebe, P.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy are now considered to be curative techniques has led to major review of the modalities of follow-up after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The problem concerns both the diagnosis of recurrence, rapidly announced by elevation of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), usually at a subclinical stage, and the validity of criteria of biochemical recurrence to allow comparison of various study. Physicians involved in follow-up should be aware of the potential of bounce in PSA follow-up after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. The PSA bounce phenomenon was defined by a rise of PSA values (+ 0.1 -0.8 ng/ml) with a subsequent fall. Biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy (with or without hormonotherapy) was defined by Phoenix criteria by a rise of 2 ng/ml above an initial PSA nadir. This definition was more correlated to PSA bounce phenomenon. (authors)

  7. Murine polyomavirus virus-like particles carrying full-length human PSA protect BALB/c mice from outgrowth of a PSA expressing tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilda Eriksson

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs consist of capsid proteins from viruses and have been shown to be usable as carriers of protein and peptide antigens for immune therapy. In this study, we have produced and assayed murine polyomavirus (MPyV VLPs carrying the entire human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA (PSA-MPyVLPs for their potential use for immune therapy in a mouse model system. BALB/c mice immunized with PSA-MPyVLPs were only marginally protected against outgrowth of a PSA-expressing tumor. To improve protection, PSA-MPyVLPs were co-injected with adjuvant CpG, either alone or loaded onto murine dendritic cells (DCs. Immunization with PSA-MPyVLPs loaded onto DCs in the presence of CpG was shown to efficiently protect mice from tumor outgrowth. In addition, cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization were examined. PSA-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells were demonstrated, but no PSA-specific IgG antibodies. Vaccination with DCs loaded with PSA-MPyVLPs induced an eight-fold lower titre of anti-VLP antibodies than vaccination with PSA-MPyVLPs alone. In conclusion, immunization of BALB/c mice with PSA-MPyVLPs, loaded onto DCs and co-injected with CpG, induces an efficient PSA-specific tumor protective immune response, including both CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells with a low induction of anti-VLP antibodies.

  8. Murine Polyomavirus Virus-Like Particles Carrying Full-Length Human PSA Protect BALB/c Mice from Outgrowth of a PSA Expressing Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mathilda; Andreasson, Kalle; Weidmann, Joachim; Lundberg, Kajsa; Tegerstedt, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) consist of capsid proteins from viruses and have been shown to be usable as carriers of protein and peptide antigens for immune therapy. In this study, we have produced and assayed murine polyomavirus (MPyV) VLPs carrying the entire human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) (PSA-MPyVLPs) for their potential use for immune therapy in a mouse model system. BALB/c mice immunized with PSA-MPyVLPs were only marginally protected against outgrowth of a PSA-expressing tumor. To improve protection, PSA-MPyVLPs were co-injected with adjuvant CpG, either alone or loaded onto murine dendritic cells (DCs). Immunization with PSA-MPyVLPs loaded onto DCs in the presence of CpG was shown to efficiently protect mice from tumor outgrowth. In addition, cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization were examined. PSA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells were demonstrated, but no PSA-specific IgG antibodies. Vaccination with DCs loaded with PSA-MPyVLPs induced an eight-fold lower titre of anti-VLP antibodies than vaccination with PSA-MPyVLPs alone. In conclusion, immunization of BALB/c mice with PSA-MPyVLPs, loaded onto DCs and co-injected with CpG, induces an efficient PSA-specific tumor protective immune response, including both CD4+ and CD8+ cells with a low induction of anti-VLP antibodies. PMID:21858228

  9. The relationship between serum PSA, six sex hormones and the benign or malignant prostate diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yancun

    2008-01-01

    In order to study clinical significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free prostate specific antigen (PSA), f/tPSA and six sex hormones in prostate diseases, the serum levels of PSA, fPSA, f/tPSA, T, P, E 2 , PRL, LH and FSH in 72 cases of hyperplasia of prostate patients and 40 patients with prostate cancer were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum levels of T, E 2 , PRL, LH, FSH in the BPH Group were significantly lower than those of in Pca group, the serum level of P in Pca group were significantly lower than those in BPH group; the levels of fPSA and f/tPSA ratio in BPH Group were significantly higher than those in Pca group. The results suggest that benign and malignant prostate disease (BPH and Pca) was related with the hormone imbalance. The serum total PSA and fPSA can be regarded as important indicators in the diagnosis of BPH and Pea. The combined determination of PSA, fPSA and f/tPSA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of Pca. (authors)

  10. Prostate specific antigen and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a serine proteases, is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain. Secreted exclusively by epithelial cells of the prostate gland, PSA is found largely in seminal plasma. Only a small amount of PSA can be found in normal serum. Serum PSA levels are found to be, considerably increased in prostate cancer patients. A number of studies on PSA have made great achievement on its biochemistry, analytical method and clinical application. PSA as one of the most important tumor marker, is used to help diagnosis and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of prostate cancer

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (Pasa) bounce and other fluctuations: Which biochemical relapse definition is least prone to PSA false calls? An analysis of 2030 men treated for prostate cancer with external beam or brachytherapy with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the false call (FC) rate for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse according to nine different PSA relapse definitions after a PSA fluctuation (bounce) has occurred after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy, with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a prospective database of 2030 patients was conducted. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was scored according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), Vancouver, threshold + n, and nadir + n definitions for the complete data set and then compared against a truncated data set, with data subsequent to the height of the bounce deleted. The FC rate was calculated for each definition. Results: The bounce rate, with this very liberal definition of bounce, was 58% with EBRT and 84% with brachytherapy. The FC rate was lowest with nadir + 2 and + 3 definitions (2.2% and 1.6%, respectively) and greatest with low-threshold and ASTRO definitions (32% and 18%, respectively). The ASTRO definition was particularly susceptible to FC when androgen deprivation therapy was used with radiation (24%). Discussion: New definitions of biochemical non-evidence of disease that are more robust than the ASTRO definition have been identified. Those with the least FC rates are the nadir + 2 and nadir + 3 definitions, both of which are being considered to replace the ASTRO definition by the 2005 meeting of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-ASTRO consensus panel

  12. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC UTILITY OF SERUM PSA IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑群; 强水云; 李妙羡; 纪宗正

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer women. Methods Using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system, we measured the concentrations of these markers in the sera of 85 women with breast cancer and in 30 healthy women.Results Free PSA levels were significantly higher in women with breast cancer than healthy women (P <0. 05 ).The percentage of free PSA predominant subjects was 37. 6% in breast cancer patients and 3. 3% in healthy women.In women with breast cancer,total PSA positivity was 23.5% and free PSA positivity was 27. 1%. When compared to negatives,total PSA positive patients had a higher percentage of lymph node involvement tamours ( P >0. 05).However, patients with predominant free PSA had a higher percentage of early stage than patients with predominant PSA-ACT. Conclusion This study indicate clinical significance of preoperative measurement of serum total and free PSA in diagnosis and prognosis of women with breast cancer. The expression of KLKs is correlated with carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

  13. Serum PSA levels in the Indian population: Is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Karan, Shailesh Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important tumour, marker which is widely used to trigger trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. However, the PSA levels vary with race and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to have an Indian reference range. All adult male patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to assessment of serum total PSA, digital rectal examination and trans-abdominal ultrasound. If any one or more of these were found abnormal, then a TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy was done. Patients who were detected to have prostatic cancer were excluded from the final analysis. The data so obtained was grouped among the following three age groups: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years, and the age-specific PSA values, prostatic volume and PSA density were found. A total of 1772 patients were analysed. The mean serum total PSA was 1.76 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 2.566 ng/ml. Group-wise age distribution of the mean serum total PSA was 1.22, 1.97 and 2.08 ng/ml in 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years age groups. The mean total PSA and the age-specific PSA range tend to be lower in the Indians than the Western population.

  14. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.

  15. Clinical diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bashan; Zhang Zigang; Lai Fudi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum total prostatic specific antigen (tPSA), complex prostatic specific antigen (cPSA) and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders. Methods: Serum tPSA, cPSA (with CLIA) and IGF-I (with IRMA) levels were determined in 41 patients with prostatic carcinoma, 60 patients with benign prosta- tic hypertrophy (BPH) and 55 controls. Results: The serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with BPH and controls (P<0.01). Taking the cut-off values of 4ng/ml, 3.6ng/ml and 150 for tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I respectively, the combined determination of these three items would yield a sensitivity of 88.6%, specificity of 84.9%, positive predicative value of 83% and negative predicative value of 90.0% for diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Conclusion: Combined determination of tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I would yield better sensitive and accurate diagnostic rate in patients with prostatic cancer, especially in those with laboratory values within the 'grey zone'. (authors)

  16. Evaluating the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure after (125)I prostate brachytherapy: Can PSA kinetics distinguish PSA failures from PSA bounces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Palma, David; Moravan, Veronika; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Morris, W James

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent (125)I prostate brachytherapy (PB). The study included 1,006 consecutive low and "low tier" intermediate-risk patients treated with (125)I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL(-1)) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to ≤0.5 ng/mL(-1)without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the Phoenix Definition of Biochemical Failure After 125I Prostate Brachytherapy: Can PSA Kinetics Distinguish PSA Failures From PSA Bounces?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Anna; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy (PB). Methods and Materials: The study included 1,006 consecutive low and 'low tier' intermediate-risk patients treated with 125 I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL -1 ) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to ≤0.5 ng/mL -1 without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Results: Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. Conclusions: With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions.

  18. Time to PSA rise differentiates the PSA bounce after HDR and LDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Wojciech; Skowronek, Janusz

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce (PB) after high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) or low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) brachytherapy alone in prostate cancer patients. Ninety-four patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2cN0), age ranged 50-81 years, were treated with brachytherapy alone between 2008 and 2010. Patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, Gleason score ≤ 7. The LDR-BT total dose was 144-145 Gy, in HDR-BT - 3 fractions of 10.5 or 15 Gy. The initial PSA level (iPSA) was assessed before treatment, then PSA was rated every 3 months over the first 2 years, and every 6 months during the next 3 years. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Mean iPSA was 7.8 ng/ml. In 58 cases, PSA decreased gradually without PB or biochemical failure (BF). In 24% of patients, PB was observed. In 23 cases (24%), PB was observed using 0.2 ng/ml definition; in 10 cases (11%), BF was diagnosed using nadir + 2 ng/ml definition. The HDR-BT and LDR-BT techniques were not associated with higher level of PB (26 vs. 22%, p = 0.497). Time to the first PSA rise finished with PB was significantly shorter after HDR-BT then after LDR-BT (median, 10.5 vs. 18.0 months) during follow-up. Predictors for PB were observed only after HDR-BT. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and higher Gleason score decreased the risk of PB (HR = 0.11, p = 0.03; HR = 0.51, p = 0.01). The higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB (HR 3.46, p = 0.02; HR 1.04, p = 0.04). There was no predictors for PB after LDR-BT. HDR-BT and LDR-BT for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer had similar PB rate. The PB occurred earlier after HDR-BT than after LDR-BT. ADT and higher Gleason score decreased, and higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB after HDR-BT.

  19. Prostate health index (PHI) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) predictive models for prostate cancer in the Chinese population and the role of digital rectal examination-estimated prostate volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Peter K F; Roobol, Monique J; Teoh, Jeremy Y; Lee, Wai-Man; Yip, Siu-Ying; Hou, See-Ming; Bangma, Chris H; Ng, Chi-Fai

    2016-10-01

    To investigate PSA- and PHI (prostate health index)-based models for prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) and the feasibility of using DRE-estimated prostate volume (DRE-PV) in the models. This study included 569 Chinese men with PSA 4-10 ng/mL and non-suspicious DRE with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) 10-core prostate biopsies performed between April 2008 and July 2015. DRE-PV was estimated using 3 pre-defined classes: 25, 40, or 60 ml. The performance of PSA-based and PHI-based predictive models including age, DRE-PV, and TRUS prostate volume (TRUS-PV) was analyzed using logistic regression and area under the receiver operating curves (AUC), in both the whole cohort and the screening age group of 55-75. PCa and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was diagnosed in 10.9 % (62/569) and 2.8 % (16/569) men, respectively. The performance of DRE-PV-based models was similar to TRUS-PV-based models. In the age group 55-75, the AUCs for PCa of PSA alone, PSA with DRE-PV and age, PHI alone, PHI with DRE-PV and age, and PHI with TRUS-PV and age were 0.54, 0.71, 0.76, 0.78, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding AUCs for HGPCa were higher (0.60, 0.70, 0.85, 0.83, and 0.83). At 10 and 20 % risk threshold for PCa, 38.4 and 55.4 % biopsies could be avoided in the PHI-based model, respectively. PHI had better performance over PSA-based models and could reduce unnecessary biopsies. A DRE-assessed PV can replace TRUS-assessed PV in multivariate prediction models to facilitate clinical use.

  20. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  1. Time from first detectable PSA following radical prostatectomy to biochemical recurrence: A competing risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boo, Leonora; Pintilie, Melania; Yip, Paul; Baniel, Jack; Fleshner, Neil; Margel, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we estimated the time from first detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following radical prostatectomy (RP) to commonly used definitions of biochemical recurrence (BCR). We also identified the predictors of time to BCR. Methods: We identified subjects who underwent a RP and had an undetectable PSA after surgery followed by at least 1 detectable PSA between 2000 and 2011. The primary outcome was time to BCR (PSA ≥0.2 and successive PSA ≥0.2) and prediction of the rate of PSA rise. Outcomes were calculated using a competing risk analysis, with univariable and multivariable Fine and Grey models. We employed a mixed effect model to test clinical predictors that are associated with the rate of PSA rise. Results: The cohort included 376 patients. The median follow-up from surgery was 60.5 months (interquartile range [IQR] 40.8–91.5) and from detectable PSA was 18 months (IQR 11–32). Only 45.74% (n = 172) had PSA values ≥0.2 ng/mL, while 15.16% (n = 57) reached the PSA level of ≥0.4 ng/mL and rising. On multivariable analysis, the values of the first detectable PSA and pathologic Gleason grade 8 or higher were consistently independent predictors of time to BCR. In the mixed effect model rate, the PSA rise was associated with time from surgery to first detectable PSA, Gleason score, and prostate volume. The main limitation of this study is the large proportion of patients that received treatment without reaching BCR. It is plausible that shorter estimated median times would occur at a centre that does not use salvage therapy at such an early state. Conclusion: The time from first detectable PSA to BCR may be lengthy. Our analyses of the predictors of the rate of PSA rise can help determine a personalized approach for patients with a detectable PSA after surgery. PMID:25624961

  2. Seismic Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Gerben; Pellissetti, Manuel; Duncan-Whiteman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    For most external events, the calculation of the core damage frequency (CDF) in Level 1 PSA is sufficient to be able to show that the contribution of the event to the plant risk is negligible. However, it is not sufficient to compare the CDF due to the external event to the total plant CDF; instead the Level 1 PSA result for the event should be compared to the large early release frequency (LERF), or alternatively arguments should be given why the CDF from the external event will not contribute mostly to LERF. For seismic events in particular, it can often not be easily excluded that sequences leading to core damage would not also result in LERF. Since the confinement function is one of the most essential functions for Level 2 PSA, special care must be taken of the containment penetrations. For example systems with containment penetrations that are normally closed during operation or are designed to withstand more than the maximum containment pressure are normally screened out in the Level 2 PSA for the containment isolation function, however the possibility of LOCA in such systems due to an earthquake may nevertheless lead to containment bypass. Additionally, the functionality of passive features may be compromised in case of a beyond design earthquake. In the present paper, we present crucial ingredients of a methodology for a Level 2 seismic PSA. This methodology consists of the following steps: Extension of the seismic equipment list (SEL) to include Level 2 PSA relevant systems (e.g. containment isolation system, features for core melt stabilization, hydrogen mitigation systems), Determination of the systems within the existing SEL with increased demands in case of severe accidents, Determination of essential components for which a dedicated fragility analysis needs to be performed. (author)

  3. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  4. Tools for PSA reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, J. von

    1998-01-01

    It is desirable to have a uniform and competent procedure for the review of PSAs which are performed within the framework of the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants. Guidelines for the review process should therefore be evaluated within task A. 1 of project SR 2096. The basis for this work is the experience and knowledge within GRS derived from PSA-related work and from several review projects as well as the German PSA Guide with its appendices. Furthermore, the review processes in the USA, Switzerland and Sweden and the Guidelines for the International Peer Review Service (IPERS Guidelines) were utilized. As a result, recommendations are given for the review process, with individual recommendations concerning the organization of the review, task allocation between the reviewers, interface problems, assessment criteria, the scope and depth of the review as well as the supporting documents. An additional result are checklists for the technical elements of the PSA, which are listed to facilicate the review work. It is not the intention of this report to work out complete review guidelines. Its aims is rather more to give recommondations and support for the review in addition to what can be derived from the existing documents that should be used for the review. The recommendations reflect the view of GRS and go beyond the statements given in the German PSA Guide (Leitfaden Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse /PSUe97/) in some points. (orig.) [de

  5. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  6. Introduction to PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to show how the PSA can be used to determine the risk impact of the various deterministic processes for plant design or operational changes, and the evaluation of off normal events that occurred at the plant. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Identification of issues; Tasks/element identification; Modelling changes; Data changes. 6 figs

  7. Guideline level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofsen, P.M.; Van der Steen, J.

    1993-09-01

    For several applications of radioactive materials calculations must be executed to determine the radiation risk for the population. A guideline for the risk calculation method of two main sources: nuclear power plants, and other intended and unintended activities with radioactive materials, is given. The standards, recommendations and regulations in this report concern mainly the analysis of the radiological (external) consequences of nuclear power plant accidents, classified as level-3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis). Level-3 PSA falls within the scales 5-7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The standards, etc., focus on the risks for groups of people and the so-called maximum individual risk. In chapter two the standards and regulations are formulated for each part of level-3 PSA: the source term spectrum, atmospheric distribution and deposition, exposure to radiation doses and calculation of radiation doses, dose-response relationships, measures to reduce the effect of radiation doses, design basis accidents, and finally uncertainty analysis. In chapter four, modelled descriptions are given of the standards and regulations, which could or should be used in a calculation program in case of level-3 PSA. In chapter three the practical execution of a probabilistic consequences analysis, the collection of input data and the presentation of the results are dealt with. 2 figs., 14 tabs., 64 refs

  8. Babesiosis PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/26/2012.

  9. PSA in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, M.A.; Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Although the concept of acceptable risk has always been the foundation of the nuclear industry design, the use of formal PSA (or PRA-probabilistic risk assessment) in the U.S. nuclear power industry has followed an unusual path in arriving at its current level of notability. Prior to 1975, probabilistic evaluations were limited to a few specific applications such as the evaluation of man-made (i.e., airplane crashes) and natural (i.e., earthquakes) hazards. In 1975, the industry was introduced to comprehensive PSA by the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). However, the study languished in relative obscurity until the accident at Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) in 1979. This event significantly altered the industry's view of severe accidents in the U.S. and worldwide. Investigative committees of TMI-2 recommended that PSA techniques be more widely used to augment the traditional deterministic methods of determining nuclear plant safety. This initiated an unprecedented effort by nuclear regulators and licensees worldwide to significantly improve the state of knowledge of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. In the U.S., use of PSA began to increase as evidenced by its application in the anticipated transient without scram and station blackout rulemakings, generic issue prioritization and resolution, risk-based inspection guidelines, backfit policy, and technical specification improvements. However, broad application of probabilistic techniques to the industry as a whole was initiated in 1986 with the publication of Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plant; Policy Statement. This put PSA front and center in the U.S. regulatory arena by open-quotes establish[ing] goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation.close quotes Both qualitative safety goals and quantitative objectives were articulated in this policy statement

  10. PSA in operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nos, V.; Faig, J.; Plesa, P.; Delgado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The systematic approach to training is internationally accepted as the best method to achieve and maintain the qualification and competence of power plant personnel and to guarantee the quality of their training. Following the recommendations and guidelines of international organisations competent in the field, TECNATOM SA has developed projects based on the systematic approach to training for all Spanish nuclear power plants. One of the latest projects was the systematic approach to training developed for the operation personnel of ASCO Nuclear Power Plant. In this case, certain results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) which complement the systematic safety and reliability criteria of the systematic approach to training process have been incorporated in the traditional processes of work and task analysis and training plan design. This incorporation provides the training manager with additional criteria based not only on safety aspects obtained through the statistical treatment of considerations of skilled technical personnel (operators, operation chief supervisors, etc), but also on the independent criterion of the PSA. The inclusion of this approach basically affects all systematics in two of its stages: During the selection process of operating practices in SMR or SGI, the possible scenarios have been associated with all those situations where human actions which lead to an initiating event or human actions to mitigate an initiating event, may take place, as defined in the PSA. During the scenario development process, the instruments involved in the performance of human actions which originate or mitigate an event taking place have been identified. This pakes it possible to reconcile the scenario event sequence with the sequence considered in the PSA study, as the most likely to provoke a more serious accident. The incorporation of these PSA results contributes to the strengthening of safety aspects in training in an objective way, and confirms that

  11. Prediction of PSA bounce after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Kunimitsu; Nakashima, Jun; Sugawara, Akitomo

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to calculate the frequency and features of the development of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after prostate brachytherapy alone, to correlate the bounce with clinical and dosimetric factors and to identify factors that predict PSA bounce. PSA bounce was evaluated in 86 patients with T1-T2 prostate cancer who underwent radioactive seed implantation using iodine-125 (I-125) without hormonal therapy or external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from September 2004 to December 2007. A PSA bounce was defined as a rise of at least 0.4 ng/ml greater than a previous PSA level with a subsequent decline equal to, or less than, the initial nadir. Calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, the incidence of PSA bounce at a 2-year follow-up was 26%. Median time to the PSA bounce was 15 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, dose received by 90% of the prostate gland (D90), volume of gland receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100), and V150 were significantly associated with the PSA bounce, while pretreatment PSA level, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate volume, clinical T stage, and V200 were not. In multivariate analysis, age 67 years or less and D90 more than 180 Gy were identified as independent factors for predicting the PSA bounce (P<0.05). PSA bounce is not a rare phenomenon after prostate brachytherapy. It is more common in younger patients and patients receiving higher doses of radiation. (author)

  12. Serum prostate-specific antigen as a predictor of prostate volume in the community: the Krimpen study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, A.M.; Groeneveld, F.P.; Bosch, J.L.H.R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is considered a proxy for prostate volume (PV). This study investigates which range of PSA values has the best utility in the determination of PV (4. Low PSA ranges (0-2 and 2.1-4.0) discriminate better for a PV of 30 cc (eg, in men with a PSA range

  13. NPP Krsko Living PSA Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.

    2000-01-01

    NPP Krsko developed PSA model of internal and external initiators within the frame of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) project. Within this project PSA model was used to examine the existing plant design features. In order to continue with use of this PSA model upon the completion of IPE in various risk-informed applications in support of plant operation and evaluations of design changes, an appropriate living PSA concept needed to be defined. The Living PSA concept is in NPP Krsko considered as being a set of activities pursued in order to update existing PSA model in a manner that it appropriately represents the plant design, operation practice and history. Only a PSA model which is being updated in this manner can serve as a platform for plant-specific risk informed applications. The NPP Krsko living PSA concept is based on the following major ponts. First, the baseline PSA model is defined, which is to be maintained and updated and which is to be reference point for any risk-informed application. Second, issues having a potential for impact on baseline PSA model are identified and procedure and responsibilities for their permanent monitoring and evaluation are established. Third, manner is defined in which consequential changes to baseline PSA model are implemented and controlled, together with associated responsibilities. Finally, the process is defined by which the existing version of baseline PSA model is superseded by a new one. Each time a new version of baseline PSA model is released, it would be re-quantified and the results evaluated and interpreted. By documenting these re-quantifications and evaluations of results in a sequence, the track is being kept of changes in long-term averaged risk perspective, represented by long-term averaged frequencies of core damage and pre-defined release categories. These major topics of NPP Krsko living PSA concept are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  14. Evaluation of PSA-age volume score in predicting prostate cancer in Chinese populationArticle Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Guang-Liang; Yu, Yang; Tong, Shi-Jun; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Mao, Shan-Hua; Na, Rong; Ding, Qiang

    2018-02-06

    This study was performed to evaluate prostate-specific antigen-age volume (PSA-AV) scores in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) in a Chinese biopsy population. A total of 2355 men who underwent initial prostate biopsy from January 2006 to November 2015 in Huashan Hospital were recruited in the current study. The PSA-AV scores were calculated and assessed together with PSA and PSA density (PSAD) retrospectively. Among 2133 patients included in the analysis, 947 (44.4%) were diagnosed with PCa. The mean age, PSA, and positive rates of digital rectal examination result and transrectal ultrasound result were statistically higher in men diagnosed with PCa (all P PSA-AV were 0.864 and 0.851, respectively, in predicting PCa in the entire population, both performed better than PSA (AUC = 0.805; P PSA-AV was more obvious in subgroup with PSA ranging from 2.0 ng ml-1 to 20.0 ng ml-1. A PSA-AV score of 400 had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.7% and 40.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the PSA-AV score performed equally with PSAD and was better than PSA in predicting PCa. This indicated that PSA-AV score could be a useful tool for predicting PCa in Chinese population.

  15. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  16. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  17. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Brasso, Klaus; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients...... with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of three PSA...... determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-three patients...

  18. Analysis of urinary PSA glycosylation is not indicative of high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabés, Sílvia; Llop, Esther; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, Rosa N; Perry, Antoinette S; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    The levels of core fucosylation and α2,3-linked sialic acid in serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), using the lectins Pholiota squarrosa lectin (PhoSL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), can discriminate between Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and indolent prostate cancer (PCa) from aggressive PCa. In the present work we evaluated whether these glycosylation determinants could also be altered in urinary PSA obtained after digital rectal examination (DRE) and could also be useful for diagnosis determinations. For this purpose, α2,6-sialic acid and α1,6-fucose levels of urinary PSA from 53 patients, 18 biopsy-negative and 35 PCa patients of different aggressiveness degree, were analyzed by sandwich ELLA (Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay) using PhoSL and SNA. Changes in the levels of specific glycosylation determinants, that in serum PSA samples were indicative of PCa aggressiveness, were not found in PSA from DRE urine samples. Although urine is a simpler matrix for analyzing PSA glycosylation compared to serum, an immunopurification step was necessary to specifically detect the glycans on the PSA molecule. Those specific glycosylation determinants on urinary PSA were however not useful to improve PCa diagnosis. This could be probably due to the low proportion of PSA from the tumor in urine samples, which precludes the identification of aberrantly glycosylated PSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early diagnostic role of PSA combined miR-155 detection in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T; Wang, X-X; Fu, H; Tang, Y-C; Meng, B-Q; Chen, C-H

    2018-03-01

    As a kind of malignant tumor in the male genitourinary system, prostate cancer exhibits significantly increased occurrence. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression can be seen in the prostate cancer, prostatitis, and other diseases, therefore, lack of diagnostic specificity. The miR-155 expression is abnormally increased in the tumors. Therefore, this study aims to explore the clinical significance of PSA combined miR-155 detection in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 86 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. PSA and miR-155 gene expression in tumor tissue were detected by using Real-time PCR. The serum levels of PSA were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation of PSA and miR-155 expression with age, body mass index (BMI), tumor volume, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and other clinicopathological features were analyzed, respectively. Serum PSA expression and PSA gene in tumor tissue were significantly higher compared to that in adjacent tissues (pPSA gene and protein increased significantly with the clinical stage of TNM and decreased following the increase of grade (pPSA and miR-155 expressions were positively correlated with TNM stage, tumor volume, and LNM, and negatively correlated with grade (pPSA and miR-155 were closely related to the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Combined detection is helpful for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  20. Predictor of response to salvage radiotherapy in patients with PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. The usefulness of PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Kousaku; Azuma, Koji; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2005-01-01

    We assessed predictors of response to salvage radiotherapy (sRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after radical prostatectomy. A total of 21 patients receiving sRT for PSA recurrence without systemic progression after radical prostatectomy had medical records available for retrospective review. We defined sRT as external beam radiotherapy for patients with a continuous increase in PSA level≥0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy. Response was defined as achievement of a PSA nadir of ≤0.1 ng/ml. Various pre-treatment parameters were evaluated retrospectively. The median follow-up period after sRT was 38 months. Of the 21 patients, 15 were good responders (71%). The only predictive factor was PSA doubling time (PSADT). Age and PSA level at diagnosis, Gleason score and surgical margin status were not significant predictors of response. The median PSADT in responders was 6.2 months versus 1.9 months in non-responders (P=0.019). The patients with a PSADT of ≥5 months were all responders. PSADT appears to be a good predictor of response to sRT. sRT was especially effective when PSADT was ≥5 months. (author)

  1. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  2. Implementation guidelines for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Ovidiu; Samaddar, Sujit; Hibino, Kenta; )

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was devoted to development of guidelines for implementation of a seismic PSA. If successful, these guidelines can close an important gap. ASME/ANS PRA standards and the related IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA NS-G-2.13) describe capability requirements for seismic PSA in order to support risk-informed applications. However, practical guidance on how to meet these requirements is limited. Such guidelines could significantly contribute to improving risk-informed safety demonstration, safety management and decision making. Extensions of this effort to further PSA areas, particularly to PSA for other external hazards, can enhance risk-informed applications

  3. PSA kinetics following primary focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) in organ-confined prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Michael; Islam, Shahidul; Mbah, Alfred K; Halpern, Daniel M; Werneburg, Glenn T; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Chen, Connie; Habibian, David J; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Corcoran, Anthony T; Katz, Aaron E

    2018-02-01

    We aim to evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) trends in post-primary focal cryotherapy (PFC) patients. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of PFC patients from 2010 to 2015. Patients with at least one post-PFC PSA were included in the study. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was determined using the Phoenix criteria. PSA bounce was also assessed. We analyzed rates of change of PSA over time of post-PFC between BCR and no BCR groups. PSA-derived variables were analyzed as potential predictors of BCR. A total of 104 PFC patients were included in our analysis. Median (range) age and follow-up time were 66 (48-82) years and 19 (6.3-38.6) months, respectively. Four (3.8%) patients experienced PSA bounce. The median percent drop in first post-PFC PSA of 80.0% was not associated with BCR (p = 0.256) and may indicate elimination of the index lesion. The rate of increase of PSA in BCR patients was significantly higher compared to patients who did not recur (median PSA velocity (PSAV): 0.15 vs 0.04 ng/ml/month, p = 0.001). Similar to PSAV (HR 9.570, 95% CI 3.725-24.592, p PSA nadir ≥ 2 ng/ml [HR (hazard ratio) 1.251, 95% CI 1.100-1.422, p = 0.001] was independently associated with BCR. A significant drop in post-PFC PSA may indicate elimination of the index lesion. Patients who are likely to recur biochemically have a significantly higher PSAV compared to those who do not recur. Nadir PSA of less than 2 ng/ml may be considered the new normal PSA in focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) follow-up.

  4. PSA Update Procedures, an Ultimate Need for Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear facilities by their complex nature, change with time. These changes can be both physical (plant modification, etc.), operational (enhanced procedures, etc.) and organizational. In addition, there are also changes in our understanding of the plant, due to operational experience, data collection, technology enhancements, etc. Therefore, it is imperative that PSA model must be frequently up-dated or modified to reflect these changes. Over the last ten years. these has been a remarkable growth of the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The most rapidly growing area of the PSA Applications is their use to support operational decision-making. Many of these applications are characterized by the potential for not only improving the safety level but also for providing guidance on the optimal use of resources and reducing regulatory burden. To enable a wider use of the PSA model as a tool for safety activities it is essential to maintain the model in a controlled state. Moreover, to fulfill requirements for L iving PSA , the PSA model has to be constantly updated and/or monitored to reflect the current plant configuration. It should be noted that the PSA model should not only represent the plant design but should also represent the operational and emergency procedures. To keep the PSA model up-to-date several issues should be clearly defined including: - Responsibility should be divided among the PSA group, - Procedures for implementing changes should be established, and - QA requirements/program should be established to assure documentation and reporting. (author)

  5. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.......Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer....

  6. Clinical use and primary evaluation of tumor marker-free prostate specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Junyuan; Gao Xiuying; Kong Linghua; Su Ping; Guo Xinrong

    2002-01-01

    Free-prostate specific antigen (fPSA)/total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) ratio was evaluated in clinical utility. Serum tPSA and fPSA level were measured by electro-chemo-luminescence (ECL) immunoassay and fPSA/tPSA ratio was calculated. Samples were drawn from 38 patients with Pca, 68 patients with BPH and 43 health men. Results showed serum tPSA > 4.0 μg/L as only cut off for diagnosis Pca, sensitivity and specificity of fPSA/tPSA ratio were 84.2%, 75.0% respectively. But fPSA/tPSA ratio 20.0 μg/L; they were 93.6%, 89.9% when serum tPSA was 2-20 μg/L. fPSA/tPSA ratio may greatly raised accurate rate for diagnosis prostate cancer when tPSA level between 2-20 μg/L and no value to other patients

  7. Reduction in uptake of PSA tests following decision aids: systematic review of current aids and their evaluations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Edwards, A.; Brett, J.; Bradburn, M.; Watson, E.; Austoker, J.; Elwyn, G.

    2005-01-01

    A man's decision to have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test should be an informed one. We undertook a systematic review to identify and appraise PSA decision aids and evaluations. We searched 15 electronic databases and hand-searched key journals. We also contacted key authors and organisations.

  8. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  9. Development of PSA workstation KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) workstation KIRAP from 1992. This report describes the recent development activities of PSA workstation KIRAP. The first is to develop and improve the methodologies for PSA quantification, that are the incorporation of fault tree modularization technique, the improvement of cut set generation method, the development of rule-based recovery, the development of methodology to solve a fault tree which has the logical loops and to handle a fault tree which has several initiators. These methodologies are incorporated in the PSA quantification software KIRAP-CUT. The second is to convert PSA modeling softwares for Windows, which have been used on the DOS environment since 1987. The developed softwares are the fault tree editor KWTREE, the event tree editor CONPAS, and Data manager KWDBMAN for event data and common cause failure (CCF) data. With the development of PSA workstation, it makes PSA modeling and PSA quantification and automation easier and faster. (author). 8 refs.

  10. Development of PSA workstation KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) workstation KIRAP from 1992. This report describes the recent development activities of PSA workstation KIRAP. The first is to develop and improve the methodologies for PSA quantification, that are the incorporation of fault tree modularization technique, the improvement of cut set generation method, the development of rule-based recovery, the development of methodology to solve a fault tree which has the logical loops and to handle a fault tree which has several initiators. These methodologies are incorporated in the PSA quantification software KIRAP-CUT. The second is to convert PSA modeling softwares for Windows, which have been used on the DOS environment since 1987. The developed softwares are the fault tree editor KWTREE, the event tree editor CONPAS, and Data manager KWDBMAN for event data and common cause failure (CCF) data. With the development of PSA workstation, it makes PSA modeling and PSA quantification and automation easier and faster. (author). 8 refs

  11. Detection of prostate cancer with complexed PSA and complexed/total PSA ratio - is there any advantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Strittmatter, F; Stieber, P; Nagel, D; Füllhase, C; Walther, S; Stief, CG; Waidelich, R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the performance of total PSA (tPSA), the free/total PSA ratio (f/tPSA), complexed PSA (cPSA) and the complexed/total PSA ratio (c/tPSA) in prostate cancer detection. Methods Frozen sera of 442 patients have been analysed for tPSA, free PSA (fPSA) and cPSA. 131 patients had prostate cancer and 311 patients benign prostatic hyperplasia. Results Differences in the distribution of the biomarkers were seen as follows: tPSA, cPSA and c/tPSA were significantly higher i...

  12. Long-term longitudinal changes in baseline PSA distribution and estimated prevalence of prostate cancer in male Japanese participants of population-based PSA screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Ryo; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Rie; Fujizuka, Yuji; Arai, Seiji; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-26

    Japan has experienced a drastic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). To assess changes in the risk for PC, we investigated baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in first-time screened men, across a 25-year period. In total, 72,654 men, aged 50-79, underwent first-time PSA screening in Gunma prefecture between 1992 and 2016. Changes in the distribution of PSA levels were investigated, including the percentage of men with a PSA above cut-off values and linear regression analyses comparing log 10 PSA with age. The 'ultimate incidence' of PC and clinically significant PC (CSPC) were estimated using the PC risk calculator. Changes in the age-standardized incidence rate (AIR) during this period were analyzed. The calculated coefficients of linear regression for age versus log 10 PSA fluctuated during the 25-year period, but no trend was observed. In addition, the percentage of men with a PSA above cut-off values varied in each 5-year period, with no specific trend. The 'risk calculator (RC)-based AIR' of PC and CSPC were stable between 1992 and 2016. Therefore, the baseline risk for developing PC has remained unchanged in the past 25 years, in Japan. The drastic increase in the incidence of PC, beginning around 2000, may be primarily due to increased PSA screening in the country. © 2018 UICC.

  13. Prostate-specific antigen patterns in US and European populations : Comparison of six diverse cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Tilling, Kate; Athene Lane, J.; Martin, Richard M.; Albertsen, Peter C.; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Ballentine Carter, H.; Bosch, J. L H Ruud; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Jeffrey Metter, E.; Neal, David E.; Parker, Christopher C.; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there are differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis or changes in PSA levels between US and European populations of men with and without prostate cancer (PCa). Subjects and Methods: We analysed repeated measures of PSA from six clinically and

  14. Select transition zone prostate cancers may be radiocurable despite markedly elevated prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Kaplan, Irving

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, three men with transition zone prostate cancers were described (Stamey et al., J. Urol. 149: 510-515, 1993) who despite high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels remained PSA failure-free at 22 months postoperatively. This report illustrates that prolonged PSA failure free survival may be achieved when external beam radiation therapy is used to treat similar patients

  15. PSA bounce phenomenon after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masashi; Lederer, J.L.; Fukagai, Takashi; Yoshida, Hideki; Shimada, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    We described the temporarily increase phenomenon in prostate-specific antigen level (PSA bounce) after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) for localized prostate cancer. From December 1998 to May 2003, 500 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with TIPPB using iodine-125 or palladium-103. We examined 200 patients who have more than 2-year PSA follow-up. Median follow-up length was 1,069 days (range, 712-1,411 days). No patient received neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy. PSA determinations were performed every 3 months for the first 2 years after procedure, and every 6 months hereafter. PSA bounce was defined as an increase of 0.1 ng/ml or greater above the preceding PSA level after implant followed by a subsequent decrease below that level. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus panel criteria 1996 were used to define biochemical failure. PSA bounce was observed in 40% (80/200) of the cases receiving TIPPB. The median time to PSA bounce was 13 months from the day of implant. The median magnitude of the PSA bounce was 0.3 ng/ml from the pre-bounce level. Twelve cases demonstrated biochemical failure according to the ASTRO consensus guidelines of three consecutive rises in PSA. Ten of these subsequently showed a drop in PSA, consistent with biologic control of their disease. Two cases remain classified as apparent biochemical failures. A transient rise in the PSA following TIPPB, the so-called ''bounce'' is a common occurrence. The apparent PSA control of ten of twelve cases failing by the ASTRO criteria raises some concern. Further observation will be necessary to determine ways to discriminate these from true disease progression. (author)

  16. What do PSA changes after radiotherapy with or without prior androgen deprivation mean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, J.W.; Woodhead, D.; Lamb, D.S.; Duchesne, G.

    2003-01-01

    The TROG 96.01 randomised patients with Stage B2 and C prostate cancer to radiotherapy alone to 66 Gy (RT), 3 months maximal androgen deprivation (MAD) with goserelin and flutamide prior to and during RT, and 6 months MAD prior to and during RT. Minimum follow up time is now 3 years. Prior to preliminary analysis of one of the trial's main endpoints biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS), the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) time course for every patient was evaluated to assess the performance of the ASTRO definition of biochemical failure (BF). Following MAD and RT PSA levels immediately rise in the majority of cases (PSA 'rebound'). In over 50% of cases, PSA levels then plateau at <1 ng/ml for 2 - 3 years prior to clear evidence of failure. Premature diagnosis of BF is possible in some of these cases. Fluctuations in PSA level ('bouncing') are more frequent after MAD and RT. As a result there can be difficulty in interpreting the ASTRO definition of BF in cases where overall PSA trend is upwards shortly after completion of therapy. In patients experiencing BF, the rate of PSA rise often corresponds to the site of failure. PSA doubling times (DT) under 7 months are usually associated with development of bony metastases, while DTs greater than that are usually associated with local failure. Decline in PSA levels following RT alone is frequently not mono-exponential and patients with those patterns experience lower PSA nadir levels and are subject to lower risks of all forms of relapse. These patients also survive longer. In cases where PSA descent patterns are discernable after MAD and RT, opposite trends are seen. Caution is necessary in diagnosing BF after MAD plus RT. Variations in the natural history of prostate cancer are reflected by variations in the rate of PSA changes following therapy. The importance of monitoring this marker and evaluating its time course is emphasised. Prospective studies are needed

  17. PSA bounce after 125I-brachytherapy for prostate cancer as a favorable prognosticator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeler, Daniel S.; Schwab, Christoph; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Thoeni, Armin F.; Hochreiter, Werner; Prikler, Ladislav; Suter, Stefan; Stucki, Patrick; Schiefer, Johann; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Putora, Paul Martin

    2015-01-01

    Permanent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) with iodine 125 is an established curative treatment for localized prostate cancer. After treatment, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics may show a transient rise (PSA bounce). Our aim was to investigate the association of PSA bounce with biochemical control. Patients treated with BT in Switzerland were registered in a prospective database. Only patients with a follow-up of at least 2 years were included in our analysis. Clinical follow-up and PSA measurements were assessed after 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter. If PSA increased, additional follow-up visits were scheduled. Cases of PSA bounce were defined as a rise of at least 0.2 ng/ml above the initial PSA nadir with a subsequent decline to or below the initial nadir without treatment. Biochemical failure was defined as a rise to nadir + 2 ng/ml. Between March 2001 and November 2010, 713 patients with prostate cancer undergoing BT with at least 2 years of follow-up were registered. Median follow-up time was 41 months. Biochemical failure occurred in 28 patients (3.9 %). PSA bounce occurred in 173 (24.3 %) patients; only three (1.7 %) patients with PSA bounce developed biochemical failure, in contrast to 25 (4.6 %) patients without previous bounce (p < 0.05). The median time to bounce was 12 months, the median time to biochemical failure was 30 months. The median bounce increase was 0.78 ng/ml. Twenty-eight patients with bounce (16.5 %) had a transient PSA rise of + 2 ng/ml above the nadir. In most cases, an early increase in PSA after BT indicates PSA bounce and is associated with a lower risk of biochemical failure. (orig.) [de

  18. Prebiopsy biparametric MRI: differences of PI-RADS version 2 in patients with different PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M H; Lee, Y J; Jung, S E; Rha, S E; Byun, J Y

    2018-06-09

    To validate the diagnostic accuracy of Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa, Gleason score ≥7) on prebiopsy biparametric MRI (bpMRI) in patients with different prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. This retrospective study included 184 patients who underwent prebiopsy bpMRI followed by transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy between June 2015 and February 2017. Reader 1 performed a combination of systematic and targeted biopsy with cognitive fusion after reviewing bpMRI and reader 2 reviewed the bpMRIs retrospectively. PI-RADS categories 4 and 5 were considered positive, and the results of the biopsy were considered the reference standard. Diagnostic performance of PI-RADS of bpMRI was evaluated in two PSA groups with a PSA cut-off level of 10 ng/ml and compared to PSA and the PSA density using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. csPCa was diagnosed in 24 of 123 patients (19.5%) and 26 of 61 patients (42.6%) in the low and high PSA groups, respectively. A PI-RADS v2 category by either readers 1 or 2 had a significantly better performance to detect csPCa than PSA in both PSA groups. In the high PSA group, only one csPCa was missed by reader 2, but none by reader 1. In the low PSA group, readers 1 and 2 were unable to detect seven and five of the 24 csPCas, respectively. Prebiopsy bpMRI has good performance for detecting csPCa in the high PSA group but may miss small-volume csPCa in the low PSA group. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment strategy for metastatic prostate cancer with extremely high PSA level: reconsidering the value of vintage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Amiya, Yoshiyasu; Sasaki, Makoto; Shima, Takayuki; Komiya, Akira; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Akakura, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Nakatsu, Hiroomi

    2018-05-04

    The prognostic significance of initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level for metastatic prostate cancer remains uncertain. We investigated the differences in prognosis and response to hormonal therapies of metastatic prostate cancer patients according to initial PSA levels. We analyzed 184 patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer and divided them into three PSA level groups as follows: low (PSA progression-free survival (PFS) for first-line ADT and overall survival (OS) within each of the three groups. Furthermore, we analyzed response to antiandrogen withdrawal (AW) and alternative antiandrogen (AA) therapies after development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). No significant differences in OS were observed among the three groups (P = 0.654). Patients with high PSA levels had significantly short PFS for first-line ADT (P = 0.037). Conversely, patients in the high PSA level group had significantly longer PFS when treated with AW than those in the low PSA level group (P = 0.047). Furthermore, patients with high PSA levels had significantly longer PFS when provided with AA therapy (P = 0.049). PSA responders to AW and AA therapies had significantly longer survival after CRPC development than nonresponders (P = 0.011 and P PSA level predicted favorable response to vintage sequential ADT and AW. The current data suggest a novel aspect of extremely high PSA value as a favorable prognostic marker after development of CRPC.

  20. [Rates of total and free PSA prescriptions in France (2012-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Leboucher, Claire; Peyre-Lanquar, Gabrielle; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gabach, Pierre; Rébillard, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    In 2010, the French Haute Autorité de santé (National Health Authority) confirmed the limited value of prostate cancer (PCa) screening by total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay. This study was designed to determine the modalities of ordering total PSA or free PSA assays (in the absence of PCa) according to various parameters and the corresponding sums reimbursed. Men aged 40 years and older covered by the national health insurance general scheme (73% of the French population) between 2012 and 2014 were selected. Data were derived from the Système national d'information inter-régimes de l'assurance maladie (Sniiram) (National health insurance information system) database. In 2014, 27% of the 11.6 million men 40 years and older underwent at least one total PSA assay and 5.6% underwent at least one free PSA assay, with marked variations according to the presence or absence of treated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (53% and 15% vs 24% and 5%) and from one administrative department to another. The peak total PSA assay rate was observed between the ages of 65 and 74 years: 64% of men with LUTS, 46% without LUTS. Between 2012 and 2014, men in whom at least one PSA assay had been performed underwent a mean of 1.8 total PSA assays and 1.7 free PSA assays, with means of 2.3 and 2, respectively, in the presence of LUTS. General practice specialists ordered 91% of the PSA tests reimbursed in 2014 (92% for total PSA and 87% for free PSA) and urologists ordered 4% of reimbursed tests. The total sum reimbursed was €28.5 million, comprising €8.7 million for free PSA. An average of 10 laboratory tests was performed at the same time as the PSA assay in the absence of treated LUTS. Total PSA and free PSA assays are performed in a large number of men, although the value of these tests as first-line test before biopsy remains controversial. These PSA assays are associated with many other laboratory tests looking for possible abnormalities, especially in younger

  1. Determining if pretreatment PSA doubling time predicts PSA trajectories after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Daniel E.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Pan, Charlie C.; Williams, Scott G.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To determine if pretreatment PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) can predict post-radiation therapy (RT) PSA trajectories for localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-five prostate cancer patients treated with external beam RT without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified with an adequate number of PSA values. We utilized a linear mixed model (LMM) analysis to model longitudinal PSA data sets after definitive treatment. Post-treatment PSA trajectories were allowed to depend on the pre-RT PSA-DT, pre-RT PSA (iPSA), Gleason score (GS), and T-stage. Results: Pre-RT PSA-DT had a borderline impact on predicting the rate of PSA rise after nadir (p = 0.08). For a typical low risk patient (T1, GS ≤ 6, iPSA 10), the predicted PSA-DT post-nadir was 21% shorter for pre-RT PSA-DT 24 month (19 month vs. 24 month). Additional significant predictors of post-RT PSA rate of rise included GS (p < 0.0001), iPSA (p < 0.0001), and T-stage (p = 0.02). Conclusions: We observed a trend between rapidly rising pre-RT PSA and the post-RT post-nadir PSA rise. This effect appeared to be independent of iPSA, GS, or T-stage. The results presented suggest that pretreatment PSA-DT may help predict post-RT PSA trajectories

  2. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jessica J.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Loffredo, Marian; D’Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  3. Methodology - PSA Regulatory handbook. Comparisons to a modern PSA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Urban; Jung, Gunnar; Flodin, Yngve

    2003-03-01

    The regulatory handbook is applicable to all types of initiating events and all operating conditions. It should be noted that it does not make the traditional subdivision of PSA into internal and external events, level 1 and level 2 PSA, or power operation and shut-down. The reason for this is that this has given the regulatory handbook a more logical structure, and that this approach underlines the integrated character of PSA when it comes to creating the plan risk profile. The regulatory handbook has been structured following the requirements on a PSA for a nuclear power plant, as this is the most demanding application. However, it is applicable also to the analysis of other nuclear installations. The purpose of the comparative review presented in this report has been to, as part of a quality review establish the PSA Handbook, compare (parts of) the handbook and its criteria with a recent PSA analysis, and to identify major discrepancies. Considerable weight has also been allocated to a review of the plant model (Risk Spectrum event trees and fault trees). The results presented in the report are not based on a complete review of the PSA in question (or of the complete PSA Handbook). Following discussions between the SKI and SwedPower, and based on the experience of the SwedPower reviewers, the following issues were chosen to be the main parts of the project: 1) General comparison according to content and transparency - Levels of ambition in PSA Handbook, PSA method description and actual PSA report. 2) Detailed comparison of: Selected component failure data - Assumptions regarding room events - CCI frequencies, realism, identification, categorisation - Taking credit for non-safety classified systems - Event tree modelling - Presentation of results 3) Fault tree model, specifically - Time frame for crediting of battery capacity - Modelling of regulators - Modelling of dependencies for room events - general quality, like how the paper documentation and the logic

  4. Blackpool: More evidence on PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, M.

    1985-01-01

    PSA is spreading widely throughout the world, with 30 IAEA Member States having active programmes in this area. The main reason for its popularity is that it offers insights critical in the safety decision-making process available from no other method. It allows power plant designers, regulators, and operators to discriminate between issues important to safety and those which are trivial. Although it is beneficial to perform a PSA to utilize the potential products available from such a study, it is especially important to realize that the PSA process itself is a valuable experience. The main points such as potential users of PSA, safety evaluations, treatment of uncertainties as well as future trends are briefly discussed in this paper

  5. Development of a PSA information database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    The need to develop the PSA information database for performing a PSA has been growing rapidly. For example, performing a PSA requires a lot of data to analyze, to evaluate the risk, to trace the process of results and to verify the results. PSA information database is a system that stores all PSA related information into the database and file system with cross links to jump to the physical documents whenever they are needed. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing a PSA information database system, AIMS (Advanced Information Management System for PSA). The objective is to integrate and computerize all the distributed information of a PSA into a system and to enhance the accessibility to PSA information for all PSA related activities. This paper describes how we implemented such a database centered application in the view of two areas, database design and data (document) service

  6. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  7. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, H.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Excess cases of prostate cancer and estimated overdiagnosis associated with PSA testing in East Anglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Powles, J; Brown, C; Duffy, S W

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the extent of ‘overdiagnosis' of prostate cancer attributable to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the Cambridge area between 1996 and 2002. Overdiagnosis was defined conceptually as detection of prostate cancer through PSA testing that otherwise would not have been diagnosed within the patient's lifetime. Records of PSA tests in Addenbrookes Hospital were linked to prostate cancer registrations by NHS number. Differences in prostate cancer registration rates between those receiving and not receiving prediagnosis PSA tests were calculated. The proportion of men aged 40 years or over with a prediagnosis PSA test increased from 1.4 to 5.2% from 1996 to 2002. The rate of diagnosis of prostate cancer was 45% higher (rate ratios (RR)=1.45, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02–2.07) in men with a history of prediagnosis PSA testing. Assuming average lead times of 5 to 10 years, 40–64% of the PSA-detected cases were estimated to be overdiagnosed. In East Anglia, from 1996 to 2000, a 1.6% excess of cases was associated with PSA testing (around a quarter of the 5.3% excess incidence cases observed in East Anglia from 1996 to 2000). Further quantification of the overdiagnosis will result from continued surveillance and from linkage of incidence to testing in other hospitals. PMID:16832417

  9. [Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA in Japanese cases and comparison with other methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, M; Yamamoto, N; Shinoda, I; Kawada, Y; Akimoto, S; Shimazaki, J

    1995-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA which is the most frequently used prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay method in the world and a comparison with other methods were performed in Japanese cases in a cooperative research fashion. The minimum detectable level of the method was found to be 0.50 ng of PSA in one ml of serum and 1.9 ng/ml was regarded as the upper normal value in Japanese males. The distribution of serum PSA showed a significant difference between the benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) cases and patients with stage C or D prostate cancer. The sero-diagnosis prostate cancer at an early stage with the TANDEM PSA was difficult. The correlation to other methods of PSA detection was very high. Furthermore, the clinical use of the method in following-up the clinical course of prostate cancer patients was very useful. These findings suggested that the PSA detection using TANDEM PSA is applicable even in Japanese cases although the upper cut-off level is decreased.

  10. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  11. Prostate specific antigen - brief update on its clinical use | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate specific antigen - brief update on its clinical use. ... (45 years in those with a family history of prostate cancer and – possibly – African men); ... PSA doubling time (the period it takes for the PSA to double) correlates with the prognosis ...

  12. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Taewan

    2015-01-01

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  13. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  14. NRC regulatory uses of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The publication in 1975 of WASH-1400, with its new probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology, had the effect of presenting a pair of eyeglasses to a man with poor eyesight. Suddenly, it gave us a view of nuclear safety with a new clarity, and it allowed us to sort out the important safety issues from the unimportant. In the intervening years, PSA insights have permeated the fabric of nearly all our safety judgments. This acceptance can be seen from the following list of broad areas where the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff uses PSA insights and methodology: evaluating the safety significance of operating events and recommending safety improvements where warranted; requesting licensees to systematically look for design vulnerabilities in each operating reactor; evaluating the safety significance of design weaknesses or non-compliances when judging the time frame for necessary improvements; conducting sensitivity analyses to judge where safety improvements are most effective; assessing the relative safety benefits of design features for future reactors. In judging where PSA methodology can be improved to give better safety insights, it is believed that the following areas need more attention: better modeling of cognitive errors; more comprehensive modeling of accident sequences initiated from conditions other than full power; more comprehensive modeling of inter-system loss of coolant accident (ISLOCA) sequences. Although PSA is widely used in the staff's regulatory activities, the NRC deliberately chooses not to include probabilistic prescriptions in regulations or guidance documents. The staff finds the bottom line risk estimates to be one of the least reliable products of a PSA. The reason for this view is that PSA cannot adequately address cognitive errors nor assess the effects of a pervasive poor safety attitude

  15. Percent free prostate-specific antigen is effective to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20.0 ng ml−1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhou, Li-Qun; Cai, Xiao-Bing; Xie, Li-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ran; He, Da-Lin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Qiang; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Chang-Jun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bo; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Lu-Lin; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Xu, Dan-Feng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xu, Ke-Xin; Yuan, Jian-Lin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Percent free prostatic-specific antigen (%fPSA) has been introduced as a tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with a serum PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1, however, it remains controversial whether %fPSA is effective in PSA range of 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1 in both Chinese and Western population. In this study, the diagnostic performance of %fPSA and serum PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was analyzed in a multi-center biopsy cohort of 5915 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent prostate biopsy in 22 hospitals across China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The indication for biopsy was PSA>4.0 ng ml−1 or/and suspicious digital rectal examination. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed by three types of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with recalibration to the World Health Organization standards. The diagnostics accuracy of PSA, %fPSA and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined by the area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC). %fPSA was more effective than PSA in men aged ≥60 years old. The AUC was 0.584 and 0.635 in men aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1, respectively. The AUC of %fPSA was superior to that of PSA in predicting HGPCa in patients ≥60 years old in these two PSA range. Our results indicated that %fPSA is both statistically effective and clinical applicable to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1. PMID:25926603

  16. Percent free prostate-specific antigen is effective to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20.0 ng ml(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhou, Li-Qun; Cai, Xiao-Bing; Xie, Li-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ran; He, Da-Lin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Qiang; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Chang-Jun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bo; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Lu-Lin; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Xu, Dan-Feng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xu, Ke-Xin; Yuan, Jian-Lin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Percent free prostatic-specific antigen (%fPSA) has been introduced as a tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with a serum PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 , however, it remains controversial whether %fPSA is effective in PSA range of 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 in both Chinese and Western population. In this study, the diagnostic performance of %fPSA and serum PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was analyzed in a multi-center biopsy cohort of 5915 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent prostate biopsy in 22 hospitals across China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The indication for biopsy was PSA>4.0 ng ml-1 or/and suspicious digital rectal examination. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed by three types of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with recalibration to the World Health Organization standards. The diagnostics accuracy of PSA, %fPSA and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined by the area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC). %fPSA was more effective than PSA in men aged ≥60 years old. The AUC was 0.584 and 0.635 in men aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 and 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 , respectively. The AUC of %fPSA was superior to that of PSA in predicting HGPCa in patients ≥60 years old in these two PSA range. Our results indicated that %fPSA is both statistically effective and clinical applicable to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 and 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 .

  17. Standardized assessment to enhance the diagnostic value of prostate volume; Part II: Correlation with prostate-specific antigen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Huynen, A. L.; Giesen, R. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    Standardized estimations of prostate volumes are used for interpretation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. In 243 patients with clinically benign diagnosis, automated and reference prostate volumes and transition zone volumes are correlated to PSA levels. Besides, growth curves of PSA level

  18. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vukovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. Results PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7. Conclusions New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI, represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL.

  19. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa) and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, I; Djordjevic, D; Bojanic, N; Babic, U; Soldatovic, I

    2017-01-01

    To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA) and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI) in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC) in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA) and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7). New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI), represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  20. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R.; Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Fernandes, Maria H.; Costa-Rodrigues, João

    2016-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  1. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: jrodrigues@fmd.up.pt [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  2. FATORES DEMOGRÁFICOS ASSOCIADOS À REALIZAÇÃO DO ANTÍGENO PROSTÁTICO ESPECÍFICO (PSA EM MUNICÍPIO SUL BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA is considered the most important marker to detect, monitor and internship prostate cancer. This study aimed to characterize the men who were examined for measurement of PSA in 2009 in a basic health unit of Maringá-PR. Were collected information about age, race, PSA test result and place of residence. The independent variable was PSA values (normal or abnormal. Were used descriptive statistics of the variables through the frequencies and bivariate analysis by Fisher's Exact Test. Was reached that 53.5% of men who underwent PSA testing were younger than 60 years, where these, 1.2% had their PSA level abnormal or above 4.01 Ng-mL. Being over 70 years was statistically significant PSA changes. It is concluded that age is a triggering factor for benign and malignant prostatic abnormalities.

  3. Evaluation of postradiotherapy PSA patterns and correlation with 10-year disease free survival outcomes for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Chan, Heather M.; Fearn, Paul A.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pattern profiles observed after external beam radiotherapy with and without short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ST-ADT) and to report the association of established posttreatment PSA patterns with long-term disease-free survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,665 patients were treated with conformal external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Of 570 patients who had the requisite >10 consecutive PSA measurements for statistical analysis, 194 patients received a median of 3 months of ADT before radiotherapy and 376 were treated with radiotherapy alone. The median follow up was 103 months. Results: In the group treated with ST-ADT, three distinct postradiotherapy PSA patterns were identified: a stable trend (44%), an increasing trend followed by stabilization of the PSA (25%), and an increasing trend (31%). Among the subgroup that demonstrated a rising and subsequent stabilizing patterns, PSA levels had gradually risen to a median value of 0.9 ng/mL after therapy, stabilized, and remained durably suppressed. The only identified trends among patients treated with external beam radiotherapy without ST-ADT were declining PSA levels followed by stable PSA trends or declining patterns followed by rising levels. Patients whose PSA levels stabilized after an initial rise or those with slowly rising PSA profiles had a lower incidence of distant metastasis compared to those with accelerated rises after therapy. Conclusions: For those treated with external beam radiotherapy in conjunction with ST-ADT, a significant percentage who develop a rising PSA after treatment are expected to manifest subsequent stabilization at plateaued levels of approximately 1.0 ng/mL, which can remain durably suppressed. The likelihood of distant metastasis in these patients is low despite the PSA stabilization at levels 1.0 ng/mL or higher and comparable to outcomes observed for those

  4. Serum PSA Evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical failures as prognosticators for treatment outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Tri; Dave, Giatri; Parker, Robert; Kagan, A. Robert

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have proved to be sensitive markers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition, PSA levels are useful for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer progression after radiotherapy. Serum PSA evaluations during radiotherapy, however, have not been well documented. In this study, we investigate the prognostic value of PSA evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for prostatectomy failures. Methods: Forty-one patients with biochemical failures after prostatectomy treated with salvage radiotherapy consented to have their serum PSA levels evaluated at 30 Gy and 45 Gy of irradiation. All 41 patients had negative metastatic workup and pathologically uninvolved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of referral for salvage radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered with 10-25 MV photons, with doses of 59.4-66.6 Gy. No patients received hormonal ablation therapy before irradiation. Results: The mean follow-up for all patients was 30.9 months. At last follow-up, 28/41 patients (68.3%) were free from biochemical failure, with 20 of 41 patients (48.8%) expressing undetectable PSA levels. Serum PSA evaluations at 30 Gy did not significantly predict for either biochemical (p=0.0917) or clinical (p=0.106) disease-free outcome. However, serum PSA evaluations at 45 Gy significantly predicted for both biochemical (p=0.0043) and clinical (p=0.0244) disease-free outcomes, with PSA elevations at 45 Gy significantly associated with poor outcomes. On univariate analysis of prognosticators for biochemical failures, the following were significant: an elevation in serum PSA levels at 45 Gy, detectable serum PSA immediately after prostatectomy, Gleason score 7-10, and serum PSA level >1 ng/ml before salvage radiotherapy. Conclusion: Evaluation of serum PSA level at 45 Gy of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapses after prostatectomy may serve as a significant prognosticator for both biochemical and clinical disease-free outcomes

  5. Long-distance mountain biking does not disturb the measurement of total, free or complexed prostate-specific antigen in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Markus; Scharhag, Jürgen; Sand-Hill, Marga; Kindermann, Wilfried; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    Mechanical manipulation of the prostate is a generally accepted interfering factor for the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, only few studies have focused on common daily mechanical manipulations, such as bicycle riding. Furthermore, physical exercise is also supposed to modulate PSA serum concentration. Long-distance mountain biking is an excellent model to study the combined effect of mechanical prostate manipulation by bicycle riding and strenuous endurance exercise on total, free and complexed PSA (tPSA, fPSA, cPSA). We investigated tPSA, fPSA and cPSA in 42 healthy male cyclists (mean age 35+/-6 years) before and after a 120 km off-road mountain bike race. Blood sampling was done before, 15 min and 3 h after the race. Mean race time was 342+/-65 min. All athletes had normal serum levels of tPSA, fPSA or cPSA. None of these parameters was modified by the race. In healthy men the measurement of tPSA, fPSA and cPSA is not disturbed by preceding long distance mountain biking or endurance exercise. Based on the present data, there is no evidence for a recommendation to limit bicycle riding or physical activity before the measurement of tPSA, fPSA or cPSA.

  6. Cost implications of PSA screening differ by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Karthik; Liang, Stella; Cardamone, Michael; Joshu, Corinne E; Marmen, Kyle; Bhavsar, Nrupen; Nelson, William G; Ballentine Carter, H; Albert, Michael C; Platz, Elizabeth A; Pollack, Craig E

    2018-05-09

    Multiple guidelines seek to alter rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening. The costs borne by payers associated with PSA-based screening for men of different age groups-including the costs of screening and subsequent diagnosis, treatment, and adverse events-remain uncertain. We sought to develop a model of PSA costs that could be used by payers and health care systems to inform cost considerations under a range of different scenarios. We determined the prevalence of PSA screening among men aged 50 and higher using 2013-2014 data from a large, multispecialty group, obtained reimbursed costs associated with screening, diagnosis, and treatment from a commercial health plan, and identified transition probabilities for biopsy, diagnosis, treatment, and complications from the literature to generate a cost model. We estimated annual total costs for groups of men ages 50-54, 55-69, and 70+ years, and varied annual prostate cancer screening prevalence in each group from 5 to 50% and tested hypothetical examples of different test characteristics (e.g., true/false positive rate). Under the baseline screening patterns, costs of the PSA screening represented 10.1% of the total costs; costs of biopsies and associated complications were 23.3% of total costs; and, although only 0.3% of all screen eligible patients were treated, they accounted for 66.7% of total costs. For each 5-percentage point decrease in PSA screening among men aged 70 and older for a single calendar year, total costs associated with prostate cancer screening decreased by 13.8%. For each 5-percentage point decrease in PSA screening among men 50-54 and 55-69 years old, costs were 2.3% and 7.3% lower respectively. With constrained financial resources and with national pressure to decrease use of clinically unnecessary PSA-based prostate cancer screening, there is an opportunity for cost savings, especially by focusing on the downstream costs disproportionately associated with

  7. A comparative Study of Aptasensor Vs Immunosensor for Label-Free PSA Cancer Detection on GQDs-AuNRs Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Monika; Nirala, Narsingh R; Srivastava, S K; Prakash, Rajiv

    2018-01-31

    Label-free and sensitive detection of PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) is still a big challenge in the arena of prostate cancer diagnosis in males. We present a comparative study for label-free PSA aptasensor and PSA immunosensor for the PSA-specific monoclonal antibody, based on graphene quantum dots-gold nanorods (GQDs-AuNRs) modified screen-printed electrodes. GQDs-AuNRs composite has been synthesized and used as an electro-active material, which shows fast electron transfer and catalytic property. Aptamer or anti-PSA has immobilized onto the surface of modified screen printed electrodes. Three techniques are used simultaneously, viz. cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedence spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate the analytical performance of both PSA aptasensor and PSA immunosensor with its corresponding PSA antigen. Under optimum conditions, both sensors show comparable results with an almost same limit of detection (LOD) of 0.14 ng mL -1 . The results developed with aptasensor and anti-PSA is also checked through the detection of PSA in real samples with acceptable results. Our study suggests some advantages of aptasensor in terms of better stability, simplicity and cost effectiveness. Further our present work shows enormous potential of our developed sensors for real application using voltammetric and EIS techniques simultaneous to get reliable detection of the disease.

  8. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Frederik A; Pfister, David; Heidenreich, Axel; Vogg, Andreas; Drude, Natascha I; Vöö, Stefan; Mottaghy, Felix M; Behrendt, Florian F

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationship between the extent of disease determined by [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT and the important clinical measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and Gleason score. We retrospectively studied the first 155 patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) referred to our university hospital for [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 44%, 79% and 89% of patients with PSA levels of ≤1, 1-2 and ≥2 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with high PSA levels showed higher rates of local prostate tumours (p PSA and PSAdt were independent determinants of scan positivity and of extrapelvic lymph node metastases. PSAdt was the only independent marker of bone metastases (p = 0.001). Of 20 patients with a PSAdt PSA ≥2 ng/ml, 19 (95%) had a positive scan and 12 (60%) had M1a disease. Of 14 patients with PSA 6 months, only 5 (36%) had a positive scan and 1 (7%) had M1a disease. [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT will identify PCA lesions even in patients with very low PSA levels. Higher PSA levels and shorter PSAdt are independently associated with scan positivity and extrapelvic metastases, and can be used for patient selection for [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT.

  9. Improvement of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis by Detecting PSA Glycosylation-Specific Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esther; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Barrabés, Sílvia; Guerrero, Pedro Enrique; Ramírez, Manel; Saldova, Radka; Rudd, Pauline M; Aleixandre, Rosa N; Comet, Josep; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    New markers based on PSA isoforms have recently been developed to improve prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. However, novel approaches are still required to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive PCa to improve decision making for patients. PSA glycoforms have been shown to be differentially expressed in PCa. In particular, changes in the extent of core fucosylation and sialylation of PSA N-glycans in PCa patients compared to healthy controls or BPH patients have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine these specific glycan structures in serum PSA to analyze their potential value as markers for discriminating between BPH and PCa of different aggressiveness. In the present work, we have established two methodologies to analyze the core fucosylation and the sialic acid linkage of PSA N-glycans in serum samples from BPH (29) and PCa (44) patients with different degrees of aggressiveness. We detected a significant decrease in the core fucose and an increase in the α2,3-sialic acid percentage of PSA in high-risk PCa that differentiated BPH and low-risk PCa from high-risk PCa patients. In particular, a cut-off value of 0.86 of the PSA core fucose ratio, could distinguish high-risk PCa patients from BPH with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity, with an AUC of 0.94. In the case of the α2,3-sialic acid percentage of PSA, the cut-off value of 30% discriminated between high-risk PCa and the group of BPH, low-, and intermediate-risk PCa with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% and 95.5%, respectively, with an AUC of 0.97. The latter marker exhibited high performance in differentiating between aggressive and non-aggressive PCa and has the potential for translational application in the clinic.

  10. The role of PSA in safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: defence in depth principle (the role of the barriers, how does PSA represents the barriers?); the safety management and nuclear power plants; the probabilistic and deterministic approaches; the PSA applications and safety management

  11. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......RH agonists to evaluate the effect of normal and precocious puberty on PSA levels and to study the correlation between testosterone and PSA in boys....

  12. Development of a PSA information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang

    2007-01-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  13. PSA - a tool for the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, R.

    1992-01-01

    The PSA-model for BWR-type reactors of Finnish power company, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) was finished in year 1989. This basic PSA model included all safety systems, normal operating systems and auxiliary systems. Today TVO is working to enlarge the PSA to level 2 (environmental effects, for the fires, for the floodings and the outages). The TVO's experiences has been showed the PSA an useful tool for the developing the safety of BWR's (orig.)

  14. Development of a PSA information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  15. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  16. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  17. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  18. Methods and use of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to introduce possible methods and methodological issues for application of PSA for decision making at nuclear power plants based on risk and cost, to present a number of application examples, and to describe recommendations and regulatory guides for risk-informed applications. (orig.)

  19. Establishment of immunoradiometric assay for free prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lianxue

    2009-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of free prostate specific antigen (F-PSA) in serum was established. One monoclonal antibody against total PSA (T-PSA) was coated on the plastic tubes, the other against F-PSA was labeled with 125 I. The sensitivity of assay was 0.04 μg/L (n=20, +2s), the CVs were 2.9%-4.0% for the intra-assay and 3.5%-10.5% for the inter-assay and the average recovery was 102.7%. The correlative equation comparing with the FPSA-RIA (CIS BIO) is y=0.965 1 χ -0.001 1, and r=0.996 4. This F-PSA IRMA is a sensitive and precise method in detecting F-PSA and fit for the vitro assay. (authors)

  20. Elevated prostate specific antigen and reduced 10-year survival among a cohort of Danish men consecutively referred from primary care to an urological department during 2005-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Thore; Nielsen, Torben Kjær; Hansen, Steen Ingemann

    2017-01-01

    It remains unclear whether total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) or complex PSA (cPSA) has the best diagnostic performance. Additionally, the utility of percentage free PSA (%fPSA) is still debated. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic performances of tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA among patients...... diagnosed with PCa and 962 patients were found without PCa. Among the PCa patients, the median age, tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA levels were 70.8 years, 13.4 μg/L, 10.8 μg/L, and 12.6%. For patients without PCa the results were 67.5 years, 2.5 μg/L, 1.9 μg/L, and 24.9%. The sensitivity, specificity, PVpos, PVneg......, and efficiency of tPSA and cPSA were overlapping (p > .05). In the tPSA interval >4 μg/L - ≤20 μg/L, %fPSA excluded PCa with a PVneg of 72.4%; 38.5% of PCa patients had a tPSA concentration >20 μg/L at the time of referral and these patients had a reduced 10-year survival as compared to patients with tPSA...

  1. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer: analysis of the placebo arm of the SPCG-6 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, F B; Brasso, K; Berg, K D; Gerds, T A; Johansson, J-E; Angelsen, A; Tammela, T L J; Iversen, P

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of three PSA determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. Two hundred and sixty-three patients were included of which 116, 76 and 71 had a PSA at consent ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml, respectively. Median follow-up was 13.6 years. For patients with PSA at consent between 10.1 and 25 ng/ml, the 13-year risks of PCa mortality were associated with PSA kinetics: PSAdt ≤3 years: 62.0% versus PSAdt >3 years: 16.3% (Gray's test: P PSA kinetics were significantly associated with changes of 13-year risks of PCa mortality in patients with PSA at consent ≤10 or >25 ng/ml. We found that magnitude changes in 13-year risks of PCa mortality that can be indicated by PSA kinetics depend on PSA level in patients with localised PCa who were managed observationally. Our results question PSA kinetics as surrogate marker for PCa mortality in patients with low and high PSA values. NCT00672282. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Time from first detectable PSA following radical prostatectomy to biochemical recurrence: A competing risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. De Boo (Leonora); M. Pintilie (Melania); P. Yip (Paul); J. Baniel (Jack); N.E. Fleshner (Neil); D. Margel (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In this study, we estimated the time from first detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following radical prostatectomy (RP) to commonly used definitions of biochemical recurrence (BCR). We also identified the predictors of time to BCR. Methods: We identified subjects

  3. Diagnostic value of serum free PSA and the ratio of free to total PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Wu Jinchang; Gong Yiming; Li Huiping

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and F/T PSA ratio in differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer (PC), serum FPSA and TPSA levels were measured in 85 patients with PC, 97 BPH and 89 healthy volunteers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and the ratio of F/T PSA was calculated. The results showed that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were increased in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were significantly higher in healthy volunteers of 61-88 years old than that in 20-40 gear old (P 10.0 μg/L were 65.0%, 30.9% and 4.1%, respectively, while they were 5.9%, 20.0% and 74.1% in PC patients (P<0.01). When the TPSA value was between 4.0-10.0 μg/L and the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.10 and below, the probability of PC was larger(88.9%). But the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.25 and above, the probability of PC was smaller(6.20%). Serum FPSA and TPSA both increased with age in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were positively correlated with age. There were about 30.9% of BPH and 20.0% of PC patients with overlapping of TPSA level. Our conclusion is that the F/T PSA ratio can significantly enhance the specificity for PC diagnosis, especially when the TPSA is within the diagnostic gray zone. (authors)

  4. State of living PSA and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In October 1985 OECD-Principal Working Group (PWG 5) - Risk Assessment has initiated the Task Force 7 'Use of PSA in Nuclear Power Plant Management' to explore and report on the principles, characteristics, requirements and status of PSA oriented safety management. During this study, it became apparent that the utilisation of PSA techniques in nuclear plant safety management requires the development of supporting programmes to ensure that PSA models are being updated to reflect plant changes, and to direct their use towards the evaluation and determination of plant changes. These requirements also influence the software and hardware characteristics necessary to support the programme. This overall process is known as Living PSA. In this context OECD-PWG 5 has arranged international workshops on Living PSA application to support this development, to facilitate exchange of international experience and to summarise the state-of-the-art of L-PSA methodology. These activities were accompanied by following Task Groups of OECD-PWG 5 and the work results were published in state-of-the-art reports. According to the increasing development of Living PSA in the international field and its capacity to support plant safety management in a broad sense, OECD PWG 5 continues its work in setting up the Task Group 96-1 'State of Living PSA and Further Development' to clarify specific aspects of Living PSA. This report summarises the state of Living PSA in the international field based on the four Living PSA Workshops from 1988 to 1994 (Chapter 2) and the state of Reliability Data Collection based on the results of Task Group 12 'Reliability Data Collection and Analysis to Support PSA' and the two Data-Workshops from 1995 and 1998 (Chapter 3). The specific items of further development of Living PSA application as mentioned above are treated in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 gives a summary of the current state of Living PSA as well as outlook and recommendations of further development

  5. Applicability of living PSA in NPP modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently the utility Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has modernized the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear units and increased the net electric power by 18 per cent. Level 2 PSA was performed during the modernization project and the living level 1 PSA was used to support the design of the plant modifications. The plant specific living PSA model was a powerful tool when evaluating modernization alternatives. Successive support of safety management with the PSA model requires, that both the utility and the Regulatory Body understand capability and limitations of the model in details. TVO has prepared an internal procedure that presents in detail the practices and responsibilities concerning living PSA. The procedure is based on general guidelines and requirements on probabilistic safety analysis of nuclear power plants in Finland, released by the Regulatory Body. Living PSA requires that also the procedure for the use of living PSA is living. The recently published USNRC Regulatory Guides on PSA will be taken into account in the next version of the TVO PSA procedure. The PSA Peer Review Certification Process is one way to evaluate the quality of PSA in general, but also to detect the weaknesses of the PSA. However, the Certification Process cover only limited scope of PSA omitting e.g. all other external events except internal floods. This paper gives an overview on the scope of living PSA for Olkiluoto 1 and 2, and presents some examples on the real use of PSA concerning the modernization of the plant. Definition of quantitative dependability requirements for renovated systems is possible, but on the other hand, proving of these targets is in some cases extremely difficult, because of lacking dependability data. The problems are mainly concerned in systems with of programmable logic control. (au)

  6. PSA-alpha-2-macroglobulin complex is enzymatically active in the serum of patients with advanced prostate cancer and can degrade circulating peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Maya B; Brennen, William Nathaniel; Lopez, David; Anthony, Lizamma; Wang, Hao; Platz, Elizabeth; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2018-08-01

    Prostate cancer cells produce high levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the tumor microenvironment but is presumed to be enzymatically inactive in the blood due to complex formation with serum protease inhibitors α-1-antichymotrypsin and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M). PSA-A2M complexes cannot be measured by standard ELISA assays and are also rapidly cleared from the circulation. Thus the exact magnitude of PSA production by prostate cancer cells is not easily measured. The PSA complexed to A2M is unable to cleave proteins but maintains the ability to cleave small peptide substrates. Thus, in advanced prostate cancer, sufficient PSA-A2M may be in circulation to effect total A2M levels, levels of cytokines bound to A2M and hydrolyze small circulating peptide hormones. Total A2M levels in men with advanced prostate cancer and PSA levels above 1000 ng/mL were measured by ELISA and compared to controls. Additional ELISA assays were used to measure levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta which can bind to A2M. The ability of PSA-A2M complexes to hydrolyze protein and peptide substrates was analyzed ± PSA inhibitor. Enzymatic activity of PSA-A2M in serum of men with high PSA levels was also assayed. Serum A2M levels are inversely correlated with PSA levels in men with advanced prostate cancer. Il-6 Levels are significantly elevated in men with PSA >1000 ng/mL compared to controls with PSA PSA-A2M complex in serum of men with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL can hydrolyze small fluorescently labeled peptide substrates but not large proteins that are PSA substrates. PSA can hydrolyze small peptide hormones like PTHrP and osteocalcin. PSA complexed to A2M retains the ability to degrade PTHrP. In advanced prostate cancer with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL, sufficient PSA-A2M is present in circulation to produce enzymatic activity against circulating small peptide hormones. Sufficient PSA is produced in advanced prostate cancer to alter

  7. PSA doubling time of prostate carcinoma managed with watchful observation alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; DeBoer, Gerrit; Klotz, Lawrence; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard C.; Rakovitch, Eileen; Fleshner, Neil; Bunting, Peter; Kapusta, Linda; Hruby, George

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of untreated, favorable grade, prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective single-arm cohort study has been in progress to assess the feasibility of a watchful observation protocol with selective delayed intervention using clinical, histologic, or PSA progression as treatment indication in untreated, localized, favorable grade prostate adenocarcinoma (T1b-T2bN0 M0, Gleason Score ≤7, and PSA ≤15 ng/mL). Patients are conservatively managed with watchful observation alone, as long as they do not meet the arbitrarily defined disease progression criteria. Patients are followed regularly and undergo blood tests including PSA at each visit. PSA doubling time (Td) is estimated from a linear regression of ln(PSA) on time, assuming a simple exponential growth model. Results: As of March 2000, 134 patients have been on the study for a minimum of 12 months (median, 24; range, 12-52) and have a median frequency of PSA measurement of 7 times (range, 3-15). Median age is 70 years. Median PSA at enrollment is 6.3 (range, 0.5-14.6). The distribution of Td is as follows: 50 years, 27. The median Td is 5.1 years. In 44 patients (33%), Td is greater than 10 years. There was no correlation between Td and patient age, clinical T stage, Gleason score, or initial PSA level. Conclusion: Td of untreated prostate cancer varies widely. In our cohort, 33% have Td >10 years. Td may be a useful tool to guide treatment intervention for patients managed conservatively with watchful observation alone

  8. Correlation of Serum Androgens and Pituitary Hormone Levels with Serum PSA Less Than 2.5 NG/ML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sofikerim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, LH (Luteinizing Hormone and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations <2.5 ng/mL as a marker for prostate cancer.

  9. Evaluation of serum PSA after cyproterone compound treatment compared with oral contraceptive pill in hirsute polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    R. Taheripanah; M. Sepahvandi; A. Entezari; Z. Amiri; E. Neisani Samani

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive on the serum free prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD) compared with cyproterone compound. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 hirsute PCOD patients that referred to Imam Hossein hospital were enrolled. Baseline Ferriman–Gallway score (FG), body mass index (BMI), free PSA, 17-hydroxy progesterone (17-OHP), free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrestandione sulfate (DHEAS...

  10. PSA applications. Good practices and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewailly, J.; Magne, L.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, it is shown what the condensed documentation of the main strategic choices and technical assumptions related to a PSA could contain: how to select the internal and external initiating events, how the detail the plant configuration and the general organization of the plant and operating staff, how to highlight the assumptions related to physical models, etc. The proposals in this documentation are based on the R and D D's experience with PSA (construction of PSA models, use of PSA models for operation or maintenance, PSA tools). This document also presents different types of rules or recommendations related to PSA modelling for various applications involved in nuclear power plant operating. Finally, the paper stresses the main difficulties encountered (appropriate use of uncertainties, communication of PSA results to non-specialist users) and it also outlines some prospects for the future. (author)

  11. Methodology for seismic PSA of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    1999-09-01

    A general methodology is outlined for seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment). The main objectives of seismic PSA include: description of the course of an event; understanding the most probable failure sequences; gaining insight into the overall probability of reactor core damage; identification of the main seismic risk contributors; identification of the range of peak ground accelerations contributing significantly to the plant risk; and comparison of the seismic risk with risks from other events. The results of seismic PSA are typically compared with those of internal PSA and of PSA of other external events. If the results of internal and external PSA are available, sensitivity studies and cost benefit analyses are performed prior to any decision regarding corrective actions. If the seismic PSA involves analysis of the containment, useful information can be gained regarding potential seismic damage of the containment. (P.A.)

  12. PSA levels as a predictor of 68Ga PSMA PET/CT positivity in patients with prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydal, Cigdem; Urun, Yuksel; Suer, Evren; Nak, Demet; Ozkan, Elgin; Kucuk, Ozlem N

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this study is to evaluate predictive factors of 68Gallium (68Ga) Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) positivity. Relationships between serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, Gleason Score (GS) and positivity of 68Ga PSMA PET in patients who underwent 68Ga PSMA PET/CT for restaging for PCa were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred and four (median age: 67; range: 51-88) patients were included in this study. Of these patients, PSMA PET was positive in 75 (72%) patients. Mean serum PSA levels for PET negative and positive groups were 0.76±1.00 and 180.85±324.93 ng/ml (pPSA cut-off and 92% and 90%, respectively, for the 2 ng/ml PSA cut-off values. The positivity rates for patients with PSA levels PSA recurrence. Patients with higher GS and early PSA recurrence could benefit from 68Ga PSMA PET/CT.

  13. Early Prediction of Therapy Response to Abiraterone Acetate Using PSA Subforms in Patients with Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schlack

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic ability of early changes of total prostate specific antigen (tPSA, free PSA (fPSA, [−2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index (PHI following initiation of Abiraterone-therapy in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC. In 25 patients, PSA-subforms were analyzed before and at 8–12 weeks under therapy as prognosticators of progression-free-survival (PFS and overall survival (OS. Comparing patients with a PFS < vs. ≥12 months by using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon Tests, the relative-median-change of tPSA (−0.1% vs. −86.8%; p = 0.02, fPSA (12.1% vs. −55.3%; p = 0.03 and [−2]proPSA (8.1% vs. −59.3%; p = 0.05 differed significantly. For men with ≤ vs. >15 months of OS there was a non-significant trend for a difference in the relative-median-change of fPSA (17.0% vs. −46.3%; p = 0.06. In Kaplan–Meier analyses, declining fPSA and [−2]proPSA were associated with a longer median PFS (13 months, 95% confidence interval (CI: 9.6–16.4 vs. 10 months, 95% CI: 3.5–16.5; p = 0.11, respectively. Correspondingly, decreasing fPSA and [−2]proPSA values indicated an OS of 32 months (95% CI: not reached (NR compared to 21 months in men with rising values (95% CI: 7.7–34.3; p = 0.14, respectively. We concluded that the addition of fPSA- and [−2]proPSA-changes to tPSA-information might be further studied as potential markers of early Abiraterone response in mCRPC patients.

  14. Factors prompting PSA-testing of asymptomatic men in a country with no guidelines: a national survey of general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Ireland is estimated to have one of the highest prostate cancer incidences in Europe and has no national guidelines for prostate cancer screening. GPs have a pivotal role in influencing PSA testing, therefore, our aim was to describe GP testing practices and to identify factors influencing these. METHODS: A postal survey, including questions on clinical practice and experience, knowledge and demographics was distributed to all GPs (n = 3,683). The main outcomes were (i) PSA testing asymptomatic men and (ii) "inappropriate" PSA testing, defined as testing asymptomatic men aged < 50 or > 75 years. Factors associated with these outcomes were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,625 GPs responded (response rate corrected for eligibility = 53%). Most respondents (79%) would PSA test asymptomatic men. Of these, 34% and 51% would test asymptomatic men < 50 and > 75 years, respectively. In multivariate analyses, GPs were more likely to test asymptomatic men if they were >or= 50 years, in practice >or= 10 years, female or less knowledgeable about PSA efficacy. Male GPs who would have a PSA test themselves were > 8-times more likely to PSA test asymptomatic men than GPs who would not have a test. GPs who had an asymptomatic patient diagnosed with prostate cancer following PSA testing, were > 3-times more likely to test asymptomatic men. Practice-related factors positively associated with testing included: running \\'well man\\' clinics, performing occupational health checks and performing other tests routinely with PSA. Factors positively associated with \\'inappropriate\\' testing included; being male and willing to have a PSA test, having worked\\/trained in the UK and supporting annual PSA testing. 91% of respondents supported the development of national PSA testing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that widespread PSA testing

  15. Arraying prostate specific antigen PSA and Fab anti-PSA using light assisted molecular immobilization technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parracino, Antonietta; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Gennaro, Ane Kold Di

    2010-01-01

    Continuous 295nm excitation of bovine apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-bLA) results in an increase of tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield and in a progressive red-shift in tryptophan fluorescence emission. Furthermore, 295nm excitation in apo-bLA leads to disulphide bridges breakage, leading to free thio...

  16. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  17. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1997-06-01

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  18. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict......INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics...... and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed...

  19. PET/CT with (18)F-choline after radical prostatectomy in patients with PSA ≤2 ng/ml. Can PSA velocity and PSA doubling time help in patient selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Di Biagio, Daniele; Tavolozza, Mario; Calabria, Ferdinando; Schillaci, Orazio

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the performance of (18)F-fluorocholine ((18)F-FCH) PET/CT in relation to the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetic indexes, PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAve), in detecting recurrent prostate cancer (PC) in a selected population of patients treated with radical prostatectomy and with PSA ≤2 ng/ml. The study group comprised 79 patients (mean age 70 ± 7 years, range 58 - 77 years) who had been treated with radical surgery 30 to 90 months previously and with biochemical failure (defined as a measurable serum PSA level) who were evaluated with (18)F-FCH PET/CT. In order to establish the optimal threshold for PSAdt and PSAve, the diagnostic performance of PSA, PSAdt and PSAve were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. In the population examined, PSA (mean ± SD) was 1.37 ± 0.44 ng/ml (range 0.21 - 2 ng/ml) before PET/CT examination, PSAdt was 10.04 ± 16.67 months and PSAve was 2.75 ± 3.11 ng/ml per year. (18)F-FCH PET/CT was positive in 44 patients (55 %). PSAve and PSAdt were significantly different between patients with a positive and a negative (18)F-FCH PET/CT scan. Thresholds of 6 months for PSAdt and 1 ng/ml per year for PSAve were selected. For PSAdt ≤6 months the detection rate (DR) was 65 %, and for PSAve >1 ng/ml per year the DR was 67 %. PSA values were not significantly different between patients with a positive and a negative PET/CT scan. The results of our study suggest that (18)F-FCH PET/CT could be considered for the evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of PC and with low PSA levels. Fast PSA kinetics could be useful in the selection of these patients.

  20. Status of the PSA use in the Czech regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J.

    1994-01-01

    A review of previous probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) activities initiated by regulatory body and preparation of the preliminary PSA study and final PSA study (released in January 1994) for the nuclear power plant Dukovany with WWER-440 type 213 reactor is described. A brief information about the NPP Temelin (with WWER-1000) PSA Study, shutdown and PSA risk monitor current activities for the NPP Dukovany, next PSA activities in 1994 and about planned PSA activities in future is attached. (author). 21 refs

  1. THE DISCRIMINATIVE ABILITY OF PERCENT FREE PSA IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from all patients, and total PSA, free PSA and % free PSA were calculated in all specimens. Total PSA was measured using the Imx ... Un prélèvement de sang a été réalisé chez tous les patients avec un dosage du PSA total et de la fraction libre de PSA. Le PSA total a été mesuré par un kit ...

  2. Correlation of serum androgens and pituitary hormone levels with serum PSA less than 2.5 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikerim, Mustafa; Oruç, Ozgür; Eskicorapci, Sadettin; Guliyev, Fuat; Ozen, Haluk

    2007-07-27

    The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations 40 years of age visiting our urology outpatient clinics. PSA was correlated to age (r = 0.23, p = 0.019), but there none between serum testosterone and age. No significant correlation was noted between testosterone or free testosterone and serum PSA levels, and none between serum FSH or LH and PSA. In age specific reference groups (41-49; 50-59; 60-69 years), we found no significant correlation between PSA and hormone concentrations. In this population of eugonadal men with serum PSA values less than 2.5 ng/ml, serum androgens and pituitary hormones do not appear to correlate with serum PSA.

  3. Qualification of calculation aids for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, K.; Hennigs, W.; Kirstein, B.M.; Reinhardt, C.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) are part of the evaluation of a nuclear power plants safety. The German PSA guide stipulates that the used software must enable a PSA according to the state of the art. This software must be qualified to assure that its features, mathematic methods and its performance enable a PSA like this. In this research work specifications and requirements are developed, which allow the testing of software. A procedure was developed to qualify PSA software according to the PSA guide and the experiences of users of PSA. Setting up a procedure, a tool for a systematic and uniform examination was crated. Additionally the options, mathematic fundamentals and performance of PSA-programs were analyzed. According to this all programs that were analyzed are capable to sovle their original task, that is the calculation of the safety of high available system based on high available components. Against that the requirements of modern PSA, e.g. to handle less available functions, HRA and fire analyses, based on the use of modern software and the implementation of new developments in the field of PSA are not supported adequately by all programs. (orig.) [de

  4. Use of PSA in a regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper will briefly describe the use of PSA in the licensing process for the Sizewell 'B' PWR Power Station currently under construction in the U.K. There are two distinct phases in the licensing process - (i) A PSA has been performed to support the application to construct Sizewell 'B'. At that stage the PSA was used as a design tool (along with deterministic design requirements) for Sizewell 'B' and as such lead to a number of significant design changes in the early design process. (ii) A PSA is currently being performed to support the application to operate Sizewell 'B'. The PSA is required to support the claim that the design has included all reasonably practical measures to prevent and mitigate accidents. The comprehensive PSA being produced for the second phase of the licensing process will be described. The way the regulators/designer/analysts have interacted over the years has affected the scope, complexity, detail and bias of the comprehensive PSA. The paper will discuss these issues and highlight some of the more significant ones. The benefits and drawbacks of providing a PSA in a regulatory framework will be discussed. One of the conclusions of the paper is that the use of true ''best-estimates'' in the PSA is difficult to achieve in a regulatory framework where persistent bias to the conservative side is apparent in the designers, analysts and regulators judgements. The usefulness of the PSA is therefore, potentially, compromised by giving misleading outputs or diverting resources to unnecessary areas. (author)

  5. PSA predicts development of incident lower urinary tract symptoms: results from the REDUCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Devin N; Feng, Tom; Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Vidal, Adriana C; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Roehrborn, Claus; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2018-05-23

    The relationship between baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic men is unclear. We sought to determine if PSA predicts incident LUTS in these men. A post-hoc analysis of the 4-year REDUCE study was performed to assess for incident LUTS in 1534 men with mild to no LUTS at baseline. The primary aim was to determine whether PSA independently predicted incident LUTS after adjusting for the key clinical variables of age, prostate size, and baseline International prostate symptom score (IPSS). Incident LUTS was defined as the first report of medical treatment, surgery, or sustained clinically significant symptoms (two IPSS >14). Cox proportional hazards, cumulative incidence curves, and the log-rank test were used to test our hypothesis. A total of 1534 men with baseline IPSS PSA 2.5-4 ng/mL, 589 with PSA 4.1-6 ng/mL, and 610 with PSA 6-10 ng/mL. During the 4-year study, 196 men progressed to incident LUTS (50.5% medical treatment, 9% surgery, and 40.5% new symptoms). As a continuous variable, higher PSA was associated with increased incident LUTS on univariable (HR 1.09, p = 0.019) and multivariable (HR 1.08, p = 0.040) analysis. Likewise, baseline PSA 6-10 ng/mL was associated with increased incident LUTS vs. PSA 2.5-4 ng/mL in adjusted models (HR 1.68, p = 0.016). This association was also observed in men with PSA 4.1-6 ng/mL vs. PSA 2.5-4 ng/mL (HR 1.60, p = 0.032). Men with mild to no LUTS but increased baseline PSA are at increased risk of developing incident LUTS presumed due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  6. Preirradiation PSA predicts biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with postprostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Read, Paul W.; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Gillenwater, Jay Y.; Kelly, Maria D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and to determine prognostic factors for biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy without hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March, 1988 and December, 1993. Seven patients had undetectable PSA ( 2.7. Five-year actuarial biochemical disease-free survival values were 71, 48, and 0%, respectively, for the three groups. Biochemical disease-free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, clinical stage, Gleason's score, pathologic stage, surgical margins, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, total dose, or presence of clinically suspicious local disease. Based on digital rectal exam, there were no local failures. Conclusion: Biochemical disease-free survival after postprostatectomy radiation is predicted by the PSA at the time of irradiation. Clinical local control is excellent, but distant failure remains a significant problem in this population. The addition of concomitant systemic therapy should be investigated in patients with PSA >2.7

  7. Utility of free prostate specific antigen serum level and its related parameters in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi A Haroun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the role of free prostate specific antigen (f-PSA serum level and its related parameters in detecting prostate cancer. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2006 and March 2008. Trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy was performed for 107 patients who had total PSA (t-PSA level of either >4 ng/mL with or without palpable nodule or ≤4 ng/mL with palpable nodule on digital rectal examination. The perfor-mance measurements for f-PSA, percent free PSA (%f-PSA and free PSA density (f-PSAD were determined and compared with those for t-PSA and total PSA density (t-PSAD. Descriptive statistics for all variables of interest were calculated, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. Nine patients (8.4% had normal histology, 69 patients (64.4% had benign disease and 29 patients (27.1% had prostate cancer. The performance of f-PSA in PCa detection was better than other evaluated parameters. The largest area under the curve for patients in the gray area (t-PSA range 4.1-10 ng/mL was for f-PSA, with a value of 0.64 and a sensitivity and specificity of 44% and 87%, respectively. For %f-PSA, these values were 0.59, 63% and 62%, respectively. For patients with a t-PSA level of 10.1-20 ng/mL, they were 0.68, 67%, and 81%, respectively, for f-PSA, and 0.64, 67%, and 76%, respectively, for %f-PSA. In conclusion, f-PSA serum levels performed better than free to total PSA ratio and t-PSA for prostate cancer screening. It is of clinical value which could affect the biopsy decision avoiding unnecessary interventions.

  8. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Hogon; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2014-01-01

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets

  9. PSA testing for men at average risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K Armstrong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common – arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities – including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council – have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations. But disagreement continues. The contention is partly over what the new evidence means. It is also a result of different valuing and prioritisation of outcomes that are hard to compare: prostate cancer deaths prevented (a small and disputed number; prevention of metastatic disease (somewhat more common; and side-effects of treatment such as incontinence, impotence and bowel trouble (more common again. A sizeable proportion of men diagnosed through PSA testing (somewhere between 20% and 50% would never have had prostate cancer symptoms sufficient to prompt investigation; many of these men are older, with competing comorbidities. It is a complex picture. Below are four viewpoints from expert participants in the evolving debate, commissioned for this cancer screening themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice. We asked the authors to respond to the challenge of PSA testing of asymptomatic, normal-risk men. They raise important considerations: uncertainty, harms, the trustworthiness and interpretation of the evidence, cost (e.g. of using multiparametric

  10. Development of IRMA reagent and methodology for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, R.

    1997-01-01

    The PSA test is a solid phase two-site immunoassay. Rabbit anti PSA is coated or bound on surface of solid phase and monoclonal anti PSA labeled with 1-125. The PSA molecules present in the standard solution or serum are 'Sandwiched' between the two antibodies. After formation of coated antibody-antigen-labeled antibody complex, the unbound labeled antibody will removed by washing. The complex is measured by gamma counter. The concentration of analyte is proportional to the counts of test sample. In order to develop kits for IRMA PSA, it should be prepared three essential reagents Antibody coated solid phase, labeled antibody, standards and finally optimizing them to obtain an standard curve fit to measure specimen PSA in desired range of concentration. The type of solid phase and procedure(s) to coat or bind to antibody, is still main debatable subject in development and setting up RIA/IRMA kits. In our experiments, polystyrene beads, because of their easy to coat with antibody as well as easy to use, can be considered as a desired solid phase. Most antibodies are passively adsorbed to a plastic surface (e.g. Polystyrene, Propylene, and Polyvinyl chloride) from a diluted buffer. The antibody coated plastic surface, then acts as solid phase reagent. Poor efficiency and time required to reach equilibrium and also lack of reproducibility especially batch-to-batch variation between materials, are disadvantages in this simple coating procedure. Improvements can be made by coating second antibody on surface of beads, and reaction between second and primary antibodies. There is also possible to enhance more coating efficiency of beads by using Staphylococcus ureus-Protein A. Protein A is a major component of staphylococcus aureus cell wall which has an affinity for FC segment of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of some species, including human; rabbit; and mice. This property of Staphylococcal Protein A has made it a very useful tool in the purification of classes and subclasses

  11. Prostate cancer volume adds significantly to prostate-specific antigen in the prediction of early biochemical failure after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Propert, Kathleen J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A new clinical pretreatment quantity that closely approximates the true prostate cancer volume is defined. Methods and Materials: The cancer-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, prostate cancer volume (V Ca ), and the volume fraction of the gland involved with carcinoma (V Ca fx) were calculated for 227 prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy. 1. PSA density PSA/ultrasound prostate gland volume 2. Cancer-specific PSA = PSA - [PSA from benign epithelial tissue] 3. V Ca = Cancer-specific PSA/[PSA in serum per cm 3 of cancer] 4. V Ca fx = V Ca /ultrasound prostate gland volume A Cox multiple regression analysis was used to test whether any of these-clinical pretreatment parameters added significantly to PSA in predicting early postradiation PSA failure. Results: The prostate cancer volume (p = 0.039) and the volume fraction of the gland involved by carcinoma (p = 0.035) significantly added to the PSA in predicting postradiation PSA failure. Conversely, the PSA density and the cancer-specific PSA did not add significantly (p > 0.05) to PSA in predicting postradiation PSA failure. The 20-month actuarial PSA failure-free rates for patients with calculated tumor volumes of ≤0.5 cm 3 , 0.5-4.0 cm 3 , and >4.0 cm 3 were 92, 80, and 47%, respectively (p = 0.00004). Conclusion: The volume of prostate cancer (V Ca ) and the resulting volume fraction of cancer both added significantly to PSA in their ability to predict for early postradiation PSA failure. These new parameters may be used to select patients in prospective randomized trials that examine the efficacy of combining radiation and androgen ablative therapy in patients with clinically localized disease, who are at high risk for early postradiation PSA failure

  12. The influence of stress, depression, and anxiety on PSA screening rates in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Phil; Mohile, Supriya G; Dale, William

    2012-12-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer is controversial, with concerning rates of both overscreening and underscreening. The reasons for the observed rates of screening are unknown, and few studies have examined the relationship of psychological health to PSA screening rates. Understanding this relationship can help guide interventions to improve informed decision-making for screening. A nationally representative sample of men 57-85 years old without prostate cancer (N = 1169) from the National Social life, Health and Aging Project was analyzed. The independent relationship of validated psychological health scales measuring stress, anxiety, and depression to PSA testing rates was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. PSA screening rates were significantly lower for men with higher perceived stress [odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, P = 0.006], but not for higher depressive symptoms (OR = 0.89, P = 0.22) when accounting for stress. Anxiety influences PSA screening through an interaction with number of doctor visits (P = 0.02). Among the men who visited the doctor once those with higher anxiety were less likely to be screened (OR = 0.65, P = 0.04). Conversely, those who visited the doctor 10+ times with higher anxiety were more likely to be screened (OR = 1.71, P = 0.04). Perceived stress significantly lowers PSA screening likelihood, and it seems to partly mediate the negative relationship of depression with screening likelihood. Anxiety affects PSA screening rates differently for men with different numbers of doctor visits. Interventions to influence PSA screening rates should recognize the role of the patients' psychological state to improve their likelihood of making informed decisions and improve screening appropriateness.

  13. Clinical evaluation of free to total prostate specific antigen ratio in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Wei; Deng Shouzhen; Lin Xiangtong

    1999-01-01

    Free and total prostate specific antigen (F-PSA and T-PSA) in serum were measured with immunoradiometric assay and the F/T-PSA ratio was calculated in 175 patients with T-PSA levels in the range of 4-20 μg/L. Among them 141 patients were benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 23 were untreated prostate cancer (Pca untreated) and 11 were treated prostate cancer (Pca treated). The results showed that difference in F-PSA and F/T-PSA ratio for BPH group and Pca untreated group were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effectiveness of F/T-PSA ratio for Pca (89.9%) was higher than F-PSA (54.8%). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an improved diagnostic efficacy of F/T-PSA ratio compared with T-PSA for discrimination between BPH and Pca. If mean F/T-PSA ratio value + 1 SE (13.2%) was used in BPH group as discrimination limits of Pca patients, the diagnostic accuracy of BPH group and Pca untreated group were 90.8% and 82.6% respectively. Thereby F/T-PSA ratio may be useful for the differentiation between BPH and prostate cancer

  14. Development and perspectives of PSA in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade the GDA/PSA has carried out the pre-operational PSA task for the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. Since 1991 the work has been accomplished in the frames of the IAEA Technical Assistance Project CUB/9/008. The paper describes the stages of this study, (concluding with the Final Report of the pre-operational Level 1 PSA Rev. O), its assumptions, limitations and the main results and concluding remarks

  15. PSA, subjective probability and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarotti, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    PSA is the natural way to making decisions in face of uncertainty relative to potentially dangerous plants; subjective probability, subjective utility and Bayes statistics are the ideal tools for carrying out a PSA. This paper reports that in order to support this statement the various stages of the PSA procedure are examined in detail and step by step the superiority of Bayes techniques with respect to sampling theory machinery is proven

  16. Elevated Serum PSA is Associated With Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection and Increased Circulating Cytokine Levels in Men From Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jill D; Karamchandani, Jaideep M; Bonachea, Luis A; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Jenkins, Frank J

    2017-05-01

    Serum-prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for many years as a biomarker for prostate cancer. This usage is under scrutiny due to the fact that elevated PSA levels can be caused by other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and infections of or injury to the prostate. As a result, the identification of specific pathogens capable of increasing serum levels of PSA is important. A potential candidate responsible for elevated PSA is human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We have reported previously that HHV-8 is capable of infecting and establishing a latent infection in the prostate. In this current study we test the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with elevated PSA levels. Circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated PSA and controls are also compared. HHV-8 serostatus was determined among men with elevated serum PSA (≥4 ng/ml; n = 168, no prostate cancer on biopsy) and age-matched controls (PSA PSA and 85 controls). Men with an elevated serum PSA were significantly more likely to be HHV-8 seropositive (42.9%) than the age-matched cancer-free men (22.2%; OR 2.51; 95%CI 1.48-4.29, P = 00001). Comparison of circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated serum PSA and controls indicated that elevated serum PSA is associated with a pro-inflammatory response with a mixed Th1/Th2 response while HHV-8 infection was associated with significantly higher levels of IL12p70, IL-10, and IL-13 indicating a Th2 immune response. We found a significant association between HHV-8 infection and increased levels of serum PSA. In an age of patient-centered medicine, men with an elevated serum PSA should be considered for HHV-8 serology testing to determine if HHV-8 is responsible for the elevated PSA. Prostate 77: 617-624, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Potent and Selective Peptidyl Boronic Acid Inhibitors of the Serine Protease Prostate-Specific Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Aaron M.; Singh, Pratap; Isaacs, John T.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Prostate cancer cells produce high (microgram to milligram/milliliter) levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the extracellular fluid surrounding prostate cancers but is found at 1,000- to 10,000-fold lower concentrations in the circulation, where it is inactivated due to binding to abundant serum protease inhibitors. The exclusive presence of high levels of active PSA within prostate cancer sites makes PSA an attractive candidate for targeted imaging and therapeutics. A synthetic approach based on a peptide substrate identified first peptide aldehyde and then boronic acid inhibitors of PSA. The best of these had the sequence Cbz-Ser-Ser-Lys-Leu-(boro)Leu, with a Ki for PSA of 65 nM. The inhibitor had a 60-fold higher Ki for chymotrypsin. A validated model of PSA’s catalytic site confirmed the critical interactions between the inhibitor and residues within the PSA enzyme. PMID:18635003

  18. Predictive value of prostate specific antigen in a European HIV-positive cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Álvaro H; Ravn, Lene

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is common practice to use prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥4.0 ng/ml as a clinical indicator for men at risk of prostate cancer (PCa), however, this is unverified in HIV+ men. We aimed to describe kinetics and predictive value of PSA for PCa in HIV+ men. METHODS: A nested case...... control study of 21 men with PCa and 40 matched-controls within EuroSIDA was conducted. Prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were measured for the following markers: total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Conditional...... logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Mixed models were used to describe kinetics. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 ng/ml to predict PCa was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify optimal cutoffs in HIV+ men for total...

  19. Potential Application of Quantitative Prostate-specific Antigen Analysis in Forensic Examination of Seminal Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenping Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to use quantitative analysis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA in the seminal stain examination and to explore the practical value of this analysis in forensic science. For a comprehensive analysis, vaginal swabs from 48 rape cases were tested both by a PSA fluorescence analyzer (i-CHROMA Reader and by a conventional PSA strip test. To confirm the results of these PSA tests, seminal DNA was tested following differential extraction. Compared to the PSA strip test, the PSA rapid quantitative fluorescence analyzer provided the more accurate and sensitive results. More importantly, individualized schemes based on quantitative PSA results of samples can be developed to improve the quality and procedural efficiency in the forensic seminal inspection of samples prior to DNA analysis.

  20. Status and use of PSA in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knochenhauer, M.

    1996-05-01

    The performance and use of PSA:s in Sweden goes back about two decades. During all of this time, the field of PSA has been developing intensively, both internationally and within Sweden. The latest years have been characterised by an increased use of PSA models and results, and by major extensions of existing PSA models. The aim of this document is to describe PSA in Sweden with respect to development, scope and maturity, as well as to the contents of the analyses and the use of results. PSA activities will be described from the point of view of both the authorities and the utilities. The report gives an overview of the development within the area of PSA in Sweden both its history and current trends. The aim has been to include a reasonable amount of detail, both on the methods and results in PSA:s performed and on the numerous supporting research programs dealing with various aspects of PSA. 39 refs 39 refs

  1. Status and use of PSA in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M

    1996-05-01

    The performance and use of PSA:s in Sweden goes back about two decades. During all of this time, the field of PSA has been developing intensively, both internationally and within Sweden. The latest years have been characterised by an increased use of PSA models and results, and by major extensions of existing PSA models. The aim of this document is to describe PSA in Sweden with respect to development, scope and maturity, as well as to the contents of the analyses and the use of results. PSA activities will be described from the point of view of both the authorities and the utilities. The report gives an overview of the development within the area of PSA in Sweden both its history and current trends. The aim has been to include a reasonable amount of detail, both on the methods and results in PSA:s performed and on the numerous supporting research programs dealing with various aspects of PSA. 39 refs 39 refs.

  2. Model engineering in a modular PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlhuber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) for complex industrial systems, often PSA models in the form of fault and event trees are developed to model the risk of unwanted situations (hazards). While the recent decades, PSA models have gained high acceptance and have been developed massively. This lead to an increase in model sizes and complexity. Today, PSA models are often difficult to understand and maintain. This manuscript presents the concept of a modular PSA. A modular PSA tries to cope with the increased complexity by the techniques of modularization and instantiation. Modularization targets to treat a model by smaller pieces (the 'modules') to regain control over models. Instantiation aims to configure a generic model to different contexts. Both try to reduce model complexity. A modular PSA proposes new functionality to manage PSA models. Current model management is rather limited and not efficient. This manuscript shows new methods to manage the evolutions (versions) and deviations (variants) of PSA models in a modular PSA. The concepts of version and variant management are presented in this thesis. In this context, a model comparison and fusion of PSA models is precised. Model comparison provides important feedback to model engineers and model fusion kind of combines the work from different model engineers (concurrent model engineering). Apart from model management, methods to understand the content of PSA models are presented. The methods focus to highlight the dependencies between modules rather than their contents. Dependencies are automatically derived from a model structure. They express relations between model objects (for example a fault tree may have dependencies to basic events). To visualize those dependencies (for example in form of a model cartography) can constitute a crucial aid to model engineers for understanding complex interrelations in PSA models. Within the scope of this thesis, a software named 'Andromeda' has been

  3. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  4. The impact of hypoxemia on serum total and free prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Cengiz; Bozlu, Murat; Ozgur, Eylem Sercan; Tek, Mesut; Tunckiran, Ahmet; Muslu, Necati; Ilvan, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important biochemical marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, a relationship between PSA levels and hypoxic conditions has been described. However, no study has investigated the PSA levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypoxemia on serum total (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) levels in patients with COPD. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 95 male patients who hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and 80 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum tPSA and fPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were determined in all patients on the first day of hospitalization (exacerbation) and 7 days after the treatment (stable state). Statistical analysis included paired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between COPD and control groups with regard to the baseline characteristics, except for smoking status. The levels of serum tPSA and fPSA during exacerbation of COPD were significantly higher than the levels of the stable period (p 0.05). Hypoxemia during acute exacerbation of COPD can cause a rise in serum tPSA and fPSA levels, but f/tPSA ratio is not affected. Acute exacerbation of COPD may be added to list of the events in which PSA measurements must be interpreted with caution.

  5. The end of the road for prostate specific antigen testing? | Nna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many candidate biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer have been investigated, but prostate‑specific antigen (PSA) testing remains the frontline test for both mass screening and individual clinical testing. Although the PSA test is cost‑effective, analytically reliable, and flexibly high throughput, it has a very weak ...

  6. Clinical implications of free-to-total immunoreactive prostate-specific antigen ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, LFA; Duisterwinkel, FJ; Groenier, K; Visser-van Brummen, P; Marrink, J; Mensink, HJA

    Objective: A study was performed to evaluate the free-to-total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ratio for discriminating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer in the intermediate PSA range (2.0-10.0 mu g/l) in patients referred for prostate evaluation. In addition, the relationship of

  7. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Variation in general practice prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate cancer outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Brugen af prostata-specifikt antigen (PSA) er mangedoblet i dansk almen praksis siden introduktionen i 1990’erne. Dansk Urologisk Selskab anbefaler brug af testen ved relevante symptomer og arvelig disposition, men ikke til screening. Alligevel varierer brugen af PSA-tests i almen praksis. Dette...

  9. Biological variation of total prostate-specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söletormos, Georg; Semjonow, Axel; Sibley, Paul E C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine whether a single result for total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) can be used confidently to guide the need for prostate biopsy and by how much serial tPSA measurements must differ to be significant. tPSA measurements include both...... analytical and biological components of variation. The European Group on Tumor Markers conducted a literature survey to determine both the magnitude and impact of biological variation on single, the mean of replicate, and serial tPSA measurements. METHODS: The survey yielded 27 studies addressing the topic......, and estimates for the biological variation of tPSA could be derived from 12 of these studies. RESULTS: The mean biological variation was 20% in the concentration range 0.1-20 microg/L for men over 50 years. The biological variation means that the one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the dispersion...

  10. An Analytical Study of Prostate-Specific Antigen Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Ernesto P; Deliz, Giovanni; Rivera-Rodriguez, Jaileen; Laureano, Stephanie M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out a quantitative study of prostate-specific antigen dynamics for patients with prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and localized prostate cancer (LPC). The proposed PSA mathematical model was implemented using clinical data of 218 Japanese patients with histological proven BPH and 147 Japanese patients with LPC (stages T2a and T2b). For prostatic diseases (BPH and LPC) a nonlinear equation was obtained and solved in a close form to predict PSA progression with patients' age. The general solution describes PSA dynamics for patients with both diseases LPC and BPH. Particular solutions allow studying PSA dynamics for patients with BPH or LPC. Analytical solutions have been obtained and solved in a close form to develop nomograms for a better understanding of PSA dynamics in patients with BPH and LPC. This study may be useful to improve the diagnostic and prognosis of prostatic diseases.

  11. A Comparison of the Prognostic Value of Early PSA Test-Based Variables Following External Beam Radiotherapy, With or Without Preceding Androgen Deprivation: Analysis of Data From the TROG 96.01 Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, David S.; Denham, James W.; Joseph, David; Matthews, John; Atkinson, Chris; Spry, Nigel A.; Duchesne, Gillian; Ebert, Martin; Steigler, Allison; Delahunt, Brett; D'Este, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to compare the prognostic value of early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test-based variables for the 802 eligible patients treated in the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Patients in this trial had T2b, T2c, T3, and T4 N0 prostate cancer and were randomized to 0, 3, or 6 months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NADT) prior to and during radiation treatment at 66 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The early PSA test-based variables evaluated were the pretreatment initial PSA (iPSA) value, PSA values at 2 and 4 months into NADT, the PSA nadir (nPSA) value after radiation in all patients, and PSA response signatures in men receiving radiation. Comparisons of endpoints were made using Cox models of local progression-free survival, distant failure-free survival, biochemical failure-free survival, and prostate cancer-specific survival. Results: The nPSA value was a powerful predictor of all endpoints regardless of whether NADT was given before radiation. PSA response signatures also predicted all endpoints in men treated by radiation alone. iPSA and PSA results at 2 and 4 months into NADT predicted biochemical failure-free survival but not any of the clinical endpoints. nPSA values correlated with those of iPSA, Gleason grade, and T stage and were significantly higher in men receiving radiation alone than in those receiving NADT. Conclusions: The postradiation nPSA value is the strongest prognostic indicator of all early PSA-based variables. However, its use as a surrogate endpoint needs to take into account its dependence on pretreatment variables and treatment method.

  12. PSA and Prostate Health Index based prostate cancer screening in a hereditary migration complicated population: implications in precision diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizhanova, Mariyam; Iskakova, Elzira E; Kim, Valdemir; Wang, Xiao; Kogay, Roman; Turebayeva, Aiym; Sun, Qinglei; Zheng, Ting; Wu, Shenghui; Miao, Lixia; Xie, Yingqiu

    2017-01-01

    Precision diagnosis requires specific markers for differential ethnic populations. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level (threshold of 4ng/ml) has been widely used to screen prostate cancer and as reference of pro-biopsy but false diagnosis frequently occurs. Prostate health Index (PHI) is a new diagnosis marker which combines PSA, free PSA and p2PSA4. Overall the PCa screening database is lacking in Kazakhstani patients. We analyzed the PSA levels and Gleason scores of 222 biopsies collected in 2015 in Almaty area, Kazakhstan approved by institutional ethics board. We found using PSA of 4ng/ml as threshold, only 25.68% of patients have cancer with Gleason score ranged 6-8 and 65.77% of patients have no character of cancer. Moreover, there is no significant correlation between PSA and cancerous (P=0.266) or Gleason grade (P=0.3046) based on pathological biopsy. In addition, PHI is not correlated to prostate cancer (P=0.4301). Our data suggest that false-positive rate is much higher than the correct-positive diagnosis when using PSA as the first screening. Thus in this cohort study, most patients can not get benefit from the PSA screening for precision PCa diagnosis. As Kazakhstani family trees are unique and complicated because of history and migration, the high rate of over diagnosis might be due to the hyperexpression of PSA via heterosis in Eurasian men. Therefore we should be cautious when using pro-biopsy in precision diagnosis for Eurasian prostate cancer patients.

  13. The value of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density in the diagnosis ad treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guoying; Yu Mingqi; Feng Xinli

    2001-01-01

    To study the clinical value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), the PSA levels of pre-and post-treatment were measured in 28 cases with prostate cancer (Pca) and 80 patients with being Prostate hyperplasia (BPH). PASD was measured in 18 cases Pca and 50 cases BPH of them. The results suggest that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for Pca were 85.7%, 80.0% and 81.4%, respectively. The false positive rate was 20%. PSAD is superior to PSA in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia. The false positive rate was only 6%. But in the clinical application, the authors should combine PASD with other materials. The regular observation of post therapeutic PSA is of great value to the earlier discovery of local recurrence and metastasis as well as the judgement of curative effect and prognosis

  14. PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events, including the following: historical background, procedures for event evaluation using PSA, use of PSA for event rating, current activities

  15. Polymorphisms in the AR and PSA genes as markers of susceptibility and aggressiveness in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuasne, Hellen; Rodrigues, Iara Sant'Ana; Fuganti, Paulo Emílio

    2010-01-01

    The study of genes involved in androgen pathway can contribute to a better knowledge of prostate cancer. Our aim was to examine if polymorphisms in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) genes were involved in prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness. Genotypes were determined...... by PCR-RFLP (PSA) or using a 377 ABI DNA Sequencer (AR). PSA(G/G) genotype (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.06–2.99) and AR short CAG repeats (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.21–2.96) increased risk for prostate cancer and were related with tumor aggressiveness. About 38.3% of tumors showed microsatellite instability....... In conclusion, polymorphisms in these genes may be indicated as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer....

  16. PSA Level 2:Scope And Method Of PSA Level 2 For Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, Surip; Antariksawan, Anhar R.

    2001-01-01

    A study of scope and method of PSA Level 2 had been conducted. The background of the study is the need to gain the capability to well perform PSA Level 2 for nuclear facilities. This study is a literature survey. The scope of PSA Level 2 consists of generating plant damage states, accident progression analysis, and grouping source terms. Concerning accident progression analysis, several methods are used, among others event tree method, named accident progression event tree (APET) or containment event tree (CET), and fault tree method. The end result of PSA Level 2 is release end states which is grouped into release bins. The results will be used for PSA Level 3

  17. Impact of total PSA, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity on detection rates of 11C-Choline positron emission tomography in recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybalov, Maxim; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Leliveld, Anna M.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; de Jong, Igle J.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total PSA (tPSA) and PSA kinetics on the detection rates of (11)C-Choline PET in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: We included 185 patients with BCR after RP (PSA >0.2 ng/ml)

  18. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Porous Silicon Antibody Microarrays for Quantitative Analysis: Measurement of Free and Total PSA in Clinical Plasma Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Axel; Malm, Johan; Marko-Varga, György; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The antibody microarrays have become widespread, but their use for quantitative analyses in clinical samples has not yet been established. We investigated an immunoassay based on nanoporous silicon antibody microarrays for quantification of total prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in 80 clinical plasma samples, and provide quantitative data from a duplex microarray assay that simultaneously quantifies free and total PSA in plasma. To further develop the assay the porous silicon chips was placed into a standard 96-well microtiter plate for higher throughput analysis. The samples analyzed by this quantitative microarray were 80 plasma samples obtained from men undergoing clinical PSA testing (dynamic range: 0.14-44ng/ml, LOD: 0.14ng/ml). The second dataset, measuring free PSA (dynamic range: 0.40-74.9ng/ml, LOD: 0.47ng/ml) and total PSA (dynamic range: 0.87-295ng/ml, LOD: 0.76ng/ml), was also obtained from the clinical routine. The reference for the quantification was a commercially available assay, the ProStatus PSA Free/Total DELFIA. In an analysis of 80 plasma samples the microarray platform performs well across the range of total PSA levels. This assay might have the potential to substitute for the large-scale microtiter plate format in diagnostic applications. The duplex assay paves the way for a future quantitative multiplex assay, which analyses several prostate cancer biomarkers simultaneously. PMID:22921878

  20. Alterations in expressed prostate secretion-urine PSA N-glycosylation discriminate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gaozhen; Dong, Zhenyang; Sun, Chenxia; Wen, Fuping; Wang, Haifeng; Guo, Huaizu; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Xu, Chuanliang; Yang, Chenghua; Sun, Yinghao

    2017-09-29

    The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is widely used for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, its limited sensitivity has led to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of PCa. Glycosylation alteration is a common phenomenon in cancer development. Different PSA glycan subforms have been proposed as diagnostic markers to better differentiate PCa from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we purified PSA from expressed prostate secretions (EPS)-urine samples from 32 BPH and 30 PCa patients and provided detailed PSA glycan profiles in Chinese population. We found that most of the PSA glycans from EPS-urine were complex type biantennary glycans. We observed two major patterns in PSA glycan profiles. Overall there was no distinct separation of PSA glycan profiles between BPH and PCa patients. However, we detected a significant increase of glycan FA2 and FM5A2G2S1 in PCa when compared with BPH patients. Furthermore, we observed that the composition of FA2 glycan increased significantly in advanced PCa with Gleason score ≥8, which potentially could be translated to clinic as a marker for aggressive PCa.

  1. Real-time prostate-specific antigen detection with prostate-specific antigen imprinted capacitive biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertürk, Gizem [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Hedström, Martin [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); CapSenze HB, Medicon Village, SE-223 63 Lund (Sweden); Tümer, M. Aşkın [Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Mattiasson, Bo, E-mail: Bo.Mattiasson@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); CapSenze HB, Medicon Village, SE-223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-03

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer, the third most common cancer in men. Ultrasensitive detection of PSA is crucial to screen the prostate cancer in an early stage and to detect the recurrence of the disease after treatment. In this report, microcontact-PSA imprinted (PSA-MIP) capacitive biosensor chip was developed for real-time, highly sensitive and selective detection of PSA. PSA-MIP electrodes were prepared in the presence of methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker via UV polymerization. Immobilized Anti-PSA antibodies on electrodes (Anti-PSA) for capacitance measurements were also prepared to compare the detection performances of both methods. The electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and real-time PSA detection was performed with standard PSA solutions in the concentration range of 10 fg mL{sup −1}–100 ng mL{sup −1}. The detection limits were found as 8.0 × 10{sup −5} ng mL{sup −1} (16 × 10{sup −17} M) and 6.0 × 10{sup −4} ng mL{sup −1} (12 × 10{sup −16} M) for PSA-MIP and Anti-PSA electrodes, respectively. Selectivity studies were performed against HSA and IgG and selectivity coefficients were calculated. PSA detection was also carried out from diluted human serum samples and finally, reproducibility of the electrodes was tested. The results are promising and show that when the sensitivity of the capacitive system is combined with the selectivity and reproducibility of the microcontact-imprinting procedure, the resulting system might be used successfully for real-time detection of various analytes even in very low concentrations. - Highlights: • Microcontact imprinting method was used for preparing the sensor chip for capacitive biosensing. • High sensitivity was obtained. • Good selectivity was

  2. Real-time prostate-specific antigen detection with prostate-specific antigen imprinted capacitive biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertürk, Gizem; Hedström, Martin; Tümer, M. Aşkın; Denizli, Adil; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer, the third most common cancer in men. Ultrasensitive detection of PSA is crucial to screen the prostate cancer in an early stage and to detect the recurrence of the disease after treatment. In this report, microcontact-PSA imprinted (PSA-MIP) capacitive biosensor chip was developed for real-time, highly sensitive and selective detection of PSA. PSA-MIP electrodes were prepared in the presence of methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker via UV polymerization. Immobilized Anti-PSA antibodies on electrodes (Anti-PSA) for capacitance measurements were also prepared to compare the detection performances of both methods. The electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and real-time PSA detection was performed with standard PSA solutions in the concentration range of 10 fg mL"−"1–100 ng mL"−"1. The detection limits were found as 8.0 × 10"−"5 ng mL"−"1 (16 × 10"−"1"7 M) and 6.0 × 10"−"4 ng mL"−"1 (12 × 10"−"1"6 M) for PSA-MIP and Anti-PSA electrodes, respectively. Selectivity studies were performed against HSA and IgG and selectivity coefficients were calculated. PSA detection was also carried out from diluted human serum samples and finally, reproducibility of the electrodes was tested. The results are promising and show that when the sensitivity of the capacitive system is combined with the selectivity and reproducibility of the microcontact-imprinting procedure, the resulting system might be used successfully for real-time detection of various analytes even in very low concentrations. - Highlights: • Microcontact imprinting method was used for preparing the sensor chip for capacitive biosensing. • High sensitivity was obtained. • Good selectivity was demonstrated. • Stability of

  3. Evaluation of molecular species of prostate-specific antigen complexed with immunoglobulin M in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goč, Sanja; Janković, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at defining molecular species of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in immune complexes with immunoglobulin M (IgM). Having in mind the oligoreactivity of IgM and its preference for carbohydrate antigens, there is the possibility that it can selectively recognize known PSA glycoisoforms. PSA-IgM complexes and free PSA fractions were separated from the sera of subjects with prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by gel filtration and subjected to on-chip immunoaffinity and ion-exchange chromatography. PSA-immunoreactive species were detected using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The obtained spectra were analyzed for protein and glycan composition. The general pattern of the molecular species of PCa PSA and BPH PSA found in complexes with IgM was similar. It comprised major peaks at 17 kDa and minor peaks at 28 kDa, corresponding to the entire mature glycosylated PSA. The main difference was the presence of incompletely glycosylated 26.8 kDa species, having putative paucimannosidic structures, observed in PCa PSA-IgM, but not in BPH PSA-IgM. Characteristic PCa PSA-IgM glycoforms pose the question of the possible role of glycosylation as a framework for immune surveillance and may be of interest in light of recent data indicating mannose-containing glycans as cancer biomarker.

  4. Evaluation of Molecular Species of Prostate-Specific Antigen Complexed with Immunoglobulin M in Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Goč

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at defining molecular species of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in immune complexes with immunoglobulin M (IgM. Having in mind the oligoreactivity of IgM and its preference for carbohydrate antigens, there is the possibility that it can selectively recognize known PSA glycoisoforms. PSA-IgM complexes and free PSA fractions were separated from the sera of subjects with prostate cancer (PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by gel filtration and subjected to on-chip immunoaffinity and ion-exchange chromatography. PSA-immunoreactive species were detected using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The obtained spectra were analyzed for protein and glycan composition. The general pattern of the molecular species of PCa PSA and BPH PSA found in complexes with IgM was similar. It comprised major peaks at 17 kDa and minor peaks at 28 kDa, corresponding to the entire mature glycosylated PSA. The main difference was the presence of incompletely glycosylated 26.8 kDa species, having putative paucimannosidic structures, observed in PCa PSA-IgM, but not in BPH PSA-IgM. Characteristic PCa PSA-IgM glycoforms pose the question of the possible role of glycosylation as a framework for immune surveillance and may be of interest in light of recent data indicating mannose-containing glycans as cancer biomarker.

  5. The Serum Level of Prostate Specific Antigen in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level are increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 40 patients with PCOS, and 50 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study.The subjects were compared by means of serum PSA T SHBG DHEA-S levels. The correlations between PSA and T SHBG DHEA-S were evaluated.Serum PSA levels were found to be significantly higher in PCOS (PSA: 15.64±3.36 pg/mL, in PCOS; PSA: 3.56±0.44pg/mL, in control; P<0.01). Positive correlations between PSA and T (r=0.467, P<0.01) and between PSA and DHEA-S (r=, 0.205 P<0.05) were found. A negative correlation between PSA and SHBG was apparent (r=-0.260, P<0.05). Females with PCOS tended to have higher PSA than females without PCOS (P<0.01). PSA appears to be a promising marker of androgen excess in females suffering from PCOS. (authors)

  6. [PSA testing, biopsy and cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, P; Samson, S; Fagot-Campagna, A; Lukacs, B; Alla, F; Allemand, H; Paccaud, F; Thalabard, J-C; Vicaut, E; Vidaud, M; Millat, B

    2014-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is high in France. The aim of this study was to estimate their frequency and those of biopsy and newly diagnosed cancer (PCa) according to the presence or absence of treated benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study concerned men 40 years and older covered by the main French national health insurance scheme (73 % of all men of this age). Data were collected from the national health insurance information system (SNIIRAM). This database comprehensively records all of the outpatient prescriptions and healthcare services reimbursed. This information are linked to data collected during hospitalisations. The frequency of men without diagnosed PCa (10.9 millions) with at least one PSA test was very high in 2011 (men aged 40 years and older: 30 %, 70-74 years: 56 %, 85 years and older: 33 % and without HBP: 25 %, 41 % and 19 %). Men with treated BPH totalized 9 % of the study population, but 18 % of the men with at least one PSA test, 44 % of those with at least one prostate biopsy and 40 % of those with newly managed PCa. Over a 3-year period, excluding men with PCa, 88 % of men with BPH had at least one PSA test and 52 % had three or more PSA tests versus 52 % and 15 % for men without BPH. One year after PSA testing, men of 55-69 years with BPH more frequently underwent prostate biopsy than those without BPH (5.4 % vs 1.8 %) and presented PCa (1.9 % vs 0.9 %). PSA testing frequencies in France are very high even after exclusion of men with BPH, who can be a group with more frequent managed PCa. 4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Isotope and Patient Age Predict for PSA Spikes After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostancic, Chelsea; Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah; Galbreath, Robert; Lief, Jonathan; Gutman, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in low-risk patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 164 prostate cancer patients who were part of a prospective randomized trial comparing 103 Pd and 125 I for low-risk disease. Of the 164 patients, 61 (37.2%) received short-course androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. On average, 11.1 post-treatment PSA measurements were obtained per patient. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined as a PSA level of ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. A PSA spike was defined as an increase of ≥0.2 ng/mL, followed by a durable decline to prespike levels. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors for a PSA spike. Results: Of the 164 patients, 44 (26.9%) developed a PSA spike. Of the 46 hormone-naive 125 I patients and 57 hormone-naive 103 Pd patients, 21 (45.7%) and 8 (14.0%) developed a PSA spike. In the hormone-naive patients, the mean time between implantation and the spike was 22.6 months and 18.7 months for 125 I and 103 Pd, respectively. In patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, the incidence of spikes was comparable between isotopes ( 125 I 28.1% and 103 Pd 20.7%). The incidence of spikes was substantially different in patients 125 I and/or <65 years of age. Differences in isotope-related spikes are most pronounced in hormone-naive patients

  8. Correlation between MRS and serum PSA in the diagnosis of local recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafuri M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multifocality, multicentricity and extension beyond the prostate capsule are all characteristics of prostatic adenocarcinoma that may escape diagnosis by conventional CT scanning or MRI. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in prostatic carcinoma and its compatibility with prostatic specific antigen (PSA as the conventional method.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 139 patients with previous radical prostatectomy referring to Radiology department of Hazrate-e-Rasul Hospital during the first half of 2011 for the evaluation of local recurrence. Traditionally, local recurrence is defined as serum PSA concentration >0.2 ng/dl. We used 1.5-tesla Siemens Avanto MRI unit with endorectal coil and measured creatine, choline and citrate levels before calculating choline-creatine/citrate ratio. Correlation between MRS findings with PSA concentration was evaluated in regards to the multiple levels of the previously mentioned ratio.Results: Local recurrence was found in 107 (77% patients based on PSA levels. The mean values for serum PSA levels and creatine-choline/citrate ratio were significantly different in patients with and without local recurrence. Creatine-choline/citrate ratios greater than 50, 100 and 150 (as different cut-off points of recurrence were respectively seen in 104, 102 and 97 patients and agreement ratio between MRS and PSA in these levels were 94.1%, 94.4% and 85.1%, respectively. Correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.481.Conclusion: MRS is a valuable tool for evaluating recurrence inpatients with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy and it is in good agreement with serum PSA levels.

  9. Proteins Annexin A2 and PSA in Prostate Cancer Biopsies Do Not Predict Biochemical Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David S; Sondhauss, Sven; Dunne, Jonathan C; Woods, Lisa; Delahunt, Brett; Ferguson, Peter; Murray, Judith; Nacey, John N; Denham, James W; Jordan, T William

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported the use of mass spectrometry and western blotting to identify proteins from tumour regions of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies from 16 men who presented with apparently localized prostate cancer, and found that annexin A2 (ANXA2) appeared to be a better predictor of subsequent biochemical failure than prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In this follow-up study, ANXA2 and PSA were measured using western blotting of proteins extracted from biopsies from 37 men from a subsequent prostate cancer trial. No significant differences in ANXA2 and PSA levels were observed between men with and without biochemical failure. The statistical effect sizes were small, d=0.116 for ANXA2, and 0.266 for PSA. ANXA2 and PSA proteins measured from biopsy tumour regions are unlikely to be good biomarkers for prediction of the clinical outcome of prostate cancer presenting with apparently localized disease. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic value of combined tet of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Feng; Yang Qingling

    2006-01-01

    To assess the clinical value of serum complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA), insulinlike growth factor(IGF-1),transforming growth factor a (TGFα) in the diagnosis of pros- tate cancer (PCα), serum samples were obtained from 46 men with PCa, 64 men with untreated benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) and 73 men of a healthy control group. The levels of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα were determined by autoimmunochemistry luminescence method, IRMA and RIA method. Postoperative observation was conducted for the change of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFa in the serum from men with PCa obtained in one month, three months and six months after the operations. Results showed that the levels of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα in PCa serum were significantly higher than the BPH group and control group(P 0.05). The combined test of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα is meaningful for the prevision, diagnosis and therapy of PCa. (authors)

  11. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  12. Prostate-specific antigen testing accuracy in community practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams-Cameron Meg

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most data on prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing come from urologic cohorts comprised of volunteers for screening programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PSA testing for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. Methods PSA testing results were compared with a reference standard of prostate biopsy. Subjects were 2,620 men 40 years and older undergoing (PSA testing and biopsy from 1/1/95 through 12/31/98 in the Albuquerque, New Mexico metropolitan area. Diagnostic measures included the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Results Cancer was detected in 930 subjects (35%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.67 and the PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 33%. The likelihood ratio for a positive test (LR+ was 1.28 and 0.42 for a negative test (LR-. PSA testing was most sensitive (90% but least specific (27% in older men. Age-specific reference ranges improved specificity in older men (49% but decreased sensitivity (70%, with an LR+ of 1.38. Lowering the PSA cutpoint to 2 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 20%, and an LR+ of 1.19. Conclusions PSA testing had fair discriminating power for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. The PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml was sensitive but relatively non-specific and associated likelihood ratios only moderately revised probabilities for cancer. Using age-specific reference ranges and a PSA cutpoint below 4 ng/ml improved test specificity and sensitivity, respectively, but did not improve the overall accuracy of PSA testing.

  13. Relationship between PSA kinetics and [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine PET/CT detection rates of recurrence in patients with prostate cancer after total prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graute, Vera; Jansen, Nathalie; Uebleis, Christopher; Cumming, Paul; Klanke, Katharina; Tiling, Reinhold; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Hartenbach, Markus [Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Scherr, Michael Karl; Thieme, Sven [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to identify prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold levels, as well as PSA velocity, progression rate and doubling time in relation to the detectability and localization of recurrent lesions with [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine (FC) PET/CT in patients after radical prostatectomy. The study group comprised 82 consecutive patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy. PSA levels measured at the time of imaging were correlated with the FC PET/CT detection rates in the entire group with PSA velocity (in 48 patients), with PSA doubling time (in 47 patients) and with PSA progression (in 29 patients). FC PET/CT detected recurrent lesions in 51 of the 82 patients (62%). The median PSA value was significantly higher in PET-positive than in PET-negative patients (4.3 ng/ml vs. 1.0 ng/ml; p < 0.01). The optimal PSA threshold from ROC analysis for the detection of recurrent prostate cancer lesions was 1.74 ng/ml (AUC 0.818, 82% sensitivity, 74% specificity). Significant differences between PET-positive and PET-negative patients were found for median PSA velocity (6.4 vs. 1.1 ng/ml per year; p < 0.01) and PSA progression (5.0 vs. 0.3 ng/ml per year, p < 0.01) with corresponding optimal thresholds of 1.27 ng/ml per year and 1.28 ng/ml per year, respectively. The PSA doubling time suggested a threshold of 3.2 months, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.071). In a study cohort of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy there emerged clear PSA thresholds for the presence of FC PET/CT-detectable lesions. (orig.)

  14. Urinary prostate-specific antigen: predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Tomislav P; Tulic, Cane Dz; Lalic, Natasa V; Glisic, Biljana D; Ignjatovic, Svetlana D; Markovic, Biljana B; Hadzi-Djokic, Jovan B

    2013-04-01

    Urinary prostate-specific antigen (uPSA) can be used as additional parameter of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. From January 2001 to December 2011, uPSA was determined in 265 patients with benign prostate. Based on total prostate volume (TPV), the patients with benign prostate were divided in two groups: TPV specificity of 0.83 and sensitivity of 0.67. The level of uPSA reflects prostatic hormonal activity and correlates with TPV, PSA and age. UPSA level ≥ 150 ng/mL can be used as additional predictive parameter of BPH progression.

  15. [Use of [-2] pro PSA and phi index for early detection of prostate cancer: a prospective of 452 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlgatte, A; Vincendeau, S; Desfemmes, F; Ramirez, J; Benoist, N; Bensalah, K; Durand, X

    2012-05-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer (Pca) is a real challenge to reduce morbidity and mortality while avoiding over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is characterized by its imperfections justifying the evaluation of new serum or urinary specific markers allowing a better selection of patients at risk of developing aggressive Pca. To compare the value of -2pro PSA and phi index to total and free PSA. Serum sampled from 452 patients from two university centers were used to determine levels of PSA before performing biopsies. The patients were included in this study based on the PSA serum concentration between 1.6 ng/mL and 8 ng/mL according to the WHO international standard. All biopsies were performed according to a standardized protocol consisting of 12 cores or more. Sera were analyzed centrally in one of the two institutions with on a single analyzer. Sera from 243 prostate cancer and 208 negative biopsies patients have been taken into account. Sera were analyzed blinded for total PSA, free PSA and [-2] proPSA using Access(®) immunoassay method from Beckman Coulter. The Prostate Health Index (phi) was calculated using the formula phi=([-2] proPSA/fPSA)×sqrt (PSA). The median value of the phi index is significantly (P>0.0001) higher for patients with cancer (phi=65.8) compared to patients with negative biopsies (phi=40.6). At a given sensitivity, the phi index significantly increases the specificity of detection of prostate cancer compared to other markers. The phi index currently appears as the best predictor of prostate cancer for patients with a total PSA between 1.6 and 8 ng/mL according to the WHO standard. The improvement in specificity of the phi index over tPSA could reduce significantly the numbers of unnecessary biopsies. Whether this new biomarker could be an indicator of aggressive prostate cancer remains to be confirmed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased PSA expression on prostate cancer exosomes in in vitro condition and in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; Angelini, Daniela F; Iessi, Elisabetta; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Borsellino, Giovanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Pierella, Federico; Marzio, Vittorio; Sciarra, Alessandro; Battistini, Luca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing benign lesions, often leading to invasive and unnecessary surgical procedures. Microenvironmental acidity increases exosome release by cancer cells. In this study we evaluated whether acidity, a critical phenotype of malignancy, could influence exosome release and increase the PSA expression in nanovesicles released by PCa cells. To this aim, we exploited Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), an immunocapture-based ELISA, and nanoscale flow-cytometry. The results show that microenvironmental acidity induces an increased release of nanovesicles expressing both PSA and the exosome marker CD81. In order to verify whether the changes induced by the local selective pressure of extracellular acidity may correspond to a clinical pathway we used the same approach to evaluate the levels of PSA-expressing exosomes in the plasma of PCa patients and controls, including subjects with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The results show that only PCa patients have high levels of nanovesicles expressing both CD81 and PSA. This study shows that tumor acidity exerts a selective pressure leading to the release of extracellular vesicles that express both PSA and exosome markers. A comparable scenario was shown in the plasma of prostate cancer patients as compared to both BPH and healthy controls. These results suggest that microenvironmental acidity may represent a key factor which determines qualitatively and quantitatively the release of extracellular vesicles by malignant tumors, including prostate cancer. This condition leads to the spill-over of nanovesicles into the peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients, where the levels of tumor biomarkers expressed by

  17. Decision-making Processes among Prostate Cancer Survivors with Rising PSA Levels: Results from a Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Nelson, Christian J; Peters, Ellen; Slovin, Susan F; Hall, Simon J; Hall, Matt; Herrera, Phapichaya Chaoprang; Leventhal, Elaine A; Leventhal, Howard; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer survivors with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level have few treatment options, experience a heightened state of uncertainty about their disease trajectory that might include the possibility of cancer metastasis and death, and often experience elevated levels of distress as they have to deal with a disease they thought they had conquered. Guided by self-regulation theory, the present study examined the cognitive and affective processes involved in shared decision making between physicians and patients who experience a rising PSA after definitive treatment for prostate cancer. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 prostate cancer survivors who had been diagnosed with a rising PSA (i.e., biochemical failure) within the past 12 months. Survivors were asked about their experiences and affective responses after being diagnosed with a rising PSA and while weighing potential treatment options. In addition, patients were asked about their decision-making process for the initial prostate cancer treatment. Compared with the initial diagnosis, survivors with a rising PSA reported increased negative affect following their diagnosis, concern about the treatability of their disease, increased planning and health behavior change, heightened levels of worry preceding doctor appointments (especially prior to the discussion of PSA testing results), and a strong reliance on physicians' treatment recommendations. Prostate cancer survivors' decision-making processes for the treatment of a rising PSA are markedly different from those of the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer. Because patients experience heightened distress and rely more heavily on their physicians' recommendations with a rising PSA, interactions with the health care provider provide an excellent opportunity to address and assist patients with managing the uncertainty and distress inherent with rising PSA levels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. PSA as a tool for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.; Lederman, L.

    1986-01-01

    The question on ''How safe is safe enough'' is being responded presently by deterministic criteria. Probabilistic criteria in support to more rational and less emotional decisions in regulatory and licensing issues, rationalization of resource allocation and research prioritization, among others, have a potential which is only marginally being explored. This paper discussed PSA limitations and proposes three areas for the use of PSA in decision making, namely: preventing accidents, mitigating accidents, and defining regulatory requirements. Current activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in these areas are mentioned. PSA studies depict clearly the uncertainties and this is viewed as a positive aspect, which is unique to the use of probabilistic methods. (orig.)

  19. PSA as a tool for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehaus, F; Lederman, L

    1986-05-01

    The question on ''How safe is safe enough'' is being responded presently by deterministic criteria. Probabilistic criteria in support to more rational and less emotional decisions in regulatory and licensing issues, rationalization of resource allocation and research prioritization, among others, have a potential which is only marginally being explored. This paper discussed PSA limitations and proposes three areas for the use of PSA in decision making, namely: preventing accidents, mitigating accidents, and defining regulatory requirements. Current activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in these areas are mentioned. PSA studies depict clearly the uncertainties and this is viewed as a positive aspect, which is unique to the use of probabilistic methods.

  20. Effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on physiological function and PSA doubling time in prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Winding, Kamilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Physical activity after prostate cancer diagnosis has been shown to reduce the risk of disease progression. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on body composition, biomarkers levels, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time...... composition, insulin sensitivity, and biomarkers were measured at 0, 6, and 24 months of intervention. PSA doubling time (PSADT) was calculated based on monthly PSA measurements. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and 19 patients completed the study. PSADT increased in the training group from 28...

  1. Issues reporting PSA in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Paul H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Prostate; Lung; Colon; Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) project is a multi-center trial developed to investigate the effectiveness of DRE and PSA testing in the early detection and outcome of patients with prostate cancer. Accordingly, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) has been launched and is a randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy versus expectant management for ALCaP. PSA: Initially PSA was thought to be of little value for diagnosis because 20% of men undergoing radical prostatectomy have 'normal' PSA and patients with apparently only symptomatic BPH have 'elevated' levels as follows: 4-10 ng/ml (Tandem-R) - 20%, >10 ng/ml -3%. Yet, PSA has looked attractive as a diagnostic tool in many studies; for example, when PSA was used in a screening approach as the first test which then drove further evaluation (Catalona, Brawer). It was shown that the positive predictive value for PSA's between 4 and 10 is approximately 20% and > 10 approximately 55%. The value of serial PSA's (velocity) is unknown but is under intense study: one major issue is determination of what represents a significant rise (details to be presented). Studies have also revealed that a DRE and PSA are important for optimal results. About 18% of clinically detectable cancers are only DRE positive while about 25 - 30% are only PSA positive. When both a DRE and PSA are used together, very few clinically apparent cancers are missed (3-5%). Recent ROC curves suggest that 4 ng/ml is reasonable. Recently, PSA values for men without apparent cancer were stratified by age, and taking the 2SD, age specific reference values were generated as follows: age 40-49 (0-2.5 ng/ml), 50-59 (0-3.5), 60-69 (0-4.5), 70-70 (0-6.5). Finally, there is the issue about different PSA assays regarding the compatabilities/reliability of the upper limit of normal and serial values. Much of the confusion is because there is no international PSA standard and

  2. Pattern of decrease of prostate specific antigen after radical radiotherapy for the prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Kyoung; Park, Suk Won; Ha, Sung Whan

    1999-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tumor marker, which is widely used as a diagnostic index and predictor of both treatment and follow-up result in prostate cancer. A prospective analysis was carried out to obtain the period of PSA normalization and the half life of PSA and to analyze the factors influencing the period of PSA normalization. The PSA level was checked before and serially after radical radiotherapy. Twenty patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent radical external beam radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. Accrual period was from April 1993 to May 1998. Median follow-up period was 26 months. Radiotherapy was given to whole pelvis followed by a boost to prostate. Dose range for the whole pelvis was from 45 Gy to 50 Gy and boost dose to prostate, from 14 Gy to 20 Gy. The post-irradiation PSA normal value was under 3.0 ng/ml. The physical examination and serum PSA level evaluation were performed at 3 month interval in the first on year, and then at every 4 to 6 months. PSA value was normalized in nineteen patients (95%) within 12 months. The mean period of PSA normalization was 5.3 (±2.7) months. The half life of PSA ofd the nonfailing patients was 2.1 (±0.9) month. The nadir PSA level of the nonfailing patients was 0.8 (±0.5) ng/ml. The period of PSA normalization had the positive correlation with pretreatment PSA level (R 2 =0.468). The nadir PSA level had no definite positive correlation with the pretreatment PSA level (R 2 =0.175). The half life of serum PSA level also had no definite correlation with pretreatment PSA level (R 2 =0.029). The PSA level was mostly normalized within 8 months (85%). If it has not normalized within 12 months, we should consider the residual disease in prostate or distant metastasis. In 2 patients, the PSA level increased 6 months or 20 months before clinical disease was detected. So the serum PSA level can be used as early diagnostic indicator of treatment failure

  3. Probability of an Abnormal Screening PSA Result Based on Age, Race, and PSA Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espaldon, Roxanne; Kirby, Katharine A.; Fung, Kathy Z.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Powell, Adam A.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Walter, Louise C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the distribution of screening PSA values in older men and how different PSA thresholds affect the proportion of white, black, and Latino men who would have an abnormal screening result across advancing age groups. Methods We used linked national VA and Medicare data to determine the value of the first screening PSA test (ng/mL) of 327,284 men age 65+ who underwent PSA screening in the VA healthcare system in 2003. We calculated the proportion of men with an abnormal PSA result based on age, race, and common PSA thresholds. Results Among men age 65+, 8.4% had a PSA >4.0ng/mL. The percentage of men with a PSA >4.0ng/mL increased with age and was highest in black men (13.8%) versus white (8.0%) or Latino men (10.0%) (PPSA >4.0ng/mL ranged from 5.1% of Latino men age 65–69 to 27.4% of black men age 85+. Raising the PSA threshold from >4.0ng/mL to >10.0ng/mL, reclassified the greatest percentage of black men age 85+ (18.3% absolute change) and the lowest percentage of Latino men age 65–69 (4.8% absolute change) as being under the biopsy threshold (PPSA threshold together affect the pre-test probability of an abnormal screening PSA result. Based on screening PSA distributions, stopping screening among men whose PSA 10ng/ml has the greatest effect on reducing the number of older black men who will face biopsy decisions after screening. PMID:24439009

  4. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed....... Aims. Based on the increase in the amount of PSA conducted, we aimed to analyse how GPs in Denmark use the PSA test. Methods. A self-administrated questionnaire concerning symptomatic and asymptomatic patient cases was developed based on the national and international guidelines and the extensive...... literature review, and an in-depth interview conducted with a GP was performed. Results. None of the GPs would do a PSA measurement for an asymptomatic 76-year-old man. For asymptomatic 55- and 42-year-old men, respectively, 21.9% and 18.6% of GPs would measure PSA. Patient request and concern could...

  5. The role of serum prostate specific antigen assayed by TRFIA in diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yongmei; Zhang Jinshan; Li Min

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluate the diagnostic value of serum free prostate specific antigen (F-PSA), total-PSA(T-PSA) and free/total (F/T) PSA ratio in differentiation between benign and malignant prostatic diseases. Serum samples were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA), there were 86 patients whose T-PSA levels were limited within 2-20 ng/mL, from the results of prostate biopsies after operation, the patients were classified into two groups: the group with prostate hyperplasia (68 patients) and the group with prostate cancer (18 patients). The serum F-PSA and T-PSA of the two groups were analysed and compared, and the F/T PSA ratio was calculated. Results were: 1) the means of F-PSA and T-PSA were not significantly different between patients with prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and with prostate cancer (P>0.05), but the mean of F/T PSA ratio for prostate cancer was significantly lower than that for BPH (P<0.001); 2) sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for prostate cancer detection at a cutoff value of 0.18 for the F/T PSA ratio were 85%, 72.5% and 43.6%, respectively. Conclusion is the F/T PSA ratio may be used in differentiation prostate cancer from BPH, and when T-PSA level is within the range of 2-20 ng/mL, selecting 0.18 as the cutoff value has great clinical value

  6. Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Christos; Selkirk, Christina G Hutten; Saya, Sibel; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Vertosick, Emily; Dadaev, Tokhir; Brendler, Charles; Page, Elizabeth; Dias, Alexander; Evans, D Gareth; Rothwell, Jeanette; Maehle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Richardson, Kate; Eccles, Diana; Jensen, Thomas; Osther, Palle J; van Asperen, Christi J; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Hart, Rachel; Glover, Wayne; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Salinas, Monica; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J; Buys, Saundra S; Conner, Tom; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Ausems, Margreet Gem; Teixeira, Manuel R; Maia, Sofia; Izatt, Louise; Schmutzler, Rita; Rhiem, Kerstin; Foulkes, William D; Boshari, Talia; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia Tjm; Andrews, Lesley; Walker, Lisa; Snape, Katie; Henderson, Alex; Jobson, Irene; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Liljegren, Annelie; Harris, Marion; Adank, Muriel A; Kirk, Judy; Taylor, Amy; Susman, Rachel; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Pachter, Nicholas; Spigelman, Allan; Side, Lucy; Zgajnar, Janez; Mora, Josefina; Brewer, Carole; Gadea, Neus; Brady, Angela F; Gallagher, David; van Os, Theo; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Barwell, Julian; James, Paul A; Murphy, Declan; Friedman, Eitan; Nicolai, Nicola; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Obeid, Elias; Murthy, Vedang; Copakova, Lucia; McGrath, John; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Strom, Sara; Kast, Karin; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Chamberlain, Anthony; Pope, Jenny; Newlin, Anna C; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Castro, Elena; Dearnaley, David; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Falconer, Alison; Foster, Christopher S; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Lubinski, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; McKinley, Joanne; Shackleton, Kylie; Mitra, Anita V; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Tricker, Karen; Moss, Sue; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Helfand, Brian T; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml -l , PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

  7. Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Christos; Selkirk, Christina G Hutten; Saya, Sibel; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Vertosick, Emily; Dadaev, Tokhir; Brendler, Charles; Page, Elizabeth; Dias, Alexander; Evans, D Gareth; Rothwell, Jeanette; Maehle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Richardson, Kate; Eccles, Diana; Jensen, Thomas; Osther, Palle J; van Asperen, Christi J; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Hart, Rachel; Glover, Wayne; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Salinas, Monica; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J; Buys, Saundra S; Conner, Tom; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Ausems, Margreet GEM; Teixeira, Manuel R; Maia, Sofia; Izatt, Louise; Schmutzler, Rita; Rhiem, Kerstin; Foulkes, William D; Boshari, Talia; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia TJM; Andrews, Lesley; Walker, Lisa; Snape, Katie; Henderson, Alex; Jobson, Irene; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Liljegren, Annelie; Harris, Marion; Adank, Muriel A; Kirk, Judy; Taylor, Amy; Susman, Rachel; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Pachter, Nicholas; Spigelman, Allan; Side, Lucy; Zgajnar, Janez; Mora, Josefina; Brewer, Carole; Gadea, Neus; Brady, Angela F; Gallagher, David; van Os, Theo; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Barwell, Julian; James, Paul A; Murphy, Declan; Friedman, Eitan; Nicolai, Nicola; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Obeid, Elias; Murthy, Vedang; Copakova, Lucia; McGrath, John; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Strom, Sara; Kast, Karin; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Chamberlain, Anthony; Pope, Jenny; Newlin, Anna C; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Castro, Elena; Dearnaley, David; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Falconer, Alison; Foster, Christopher S; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Lubinski, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; McKinley, Joanne; Shackleton, Kylie; Mitra, Anita V; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Tricker, Karen; Moss, Sue; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Helfand, Brian T; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. Methods: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. Results: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml−l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. Conclusions: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone. PMID:29301143

  8. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.

  9. Methodology for fire PSA during design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollasko, Heiko; Blombach, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Fire PSA is an essential part of a full scope level 1 PSA. Cable fires play an important role in fire PSA. Usually, cable routing is therefore modeled in detail. During the design of new nuclear power plants the information on cable routing is not yet available. However, for the use of probabilistic safety insights during the design and for licensing purposes a fire PSA may be requested. Therefore a methodology has been developed which makes use of the strictly divisional separation of redundancies in the design of modern nuclear power plants: cable routing is not needed within one division but replaced by the conservative assumption that all equipment fails due to a fire in the concerned division; critical fire areas are defined where components belonging to different divisions may be affected by a fire. For the determination of fire frequencies a component based approach is proposed. The resulting core damage frequencies due to fire are conservative. (orig.)

  10. A preliminary investigation of PSA validation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, S D [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This document has been prepared to support the initial phase of the Atomic Energy Control Board`s program to review and evaluate Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies conducted by nuclear generating station designers and licensees. The document provides (1) a review of current and prospective applications of PSA technology in the Canadian nuclear power industry; (2) an assessment of existing practices and techniques for the review or risk and hazard identification studies in the international nuclear power sector and other technological sectors; and (3) proposed analytical framework in which to develop systematic techniques for the scrutiny and evaluation of a PSA model. These frameworks are based on consideration of the mathematical structure of a PSA model and are intended to facilitate the development of methods to evaluate a model relative to intended end-uses. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. A preliminary investigation of PSA validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    This document has been prepared to support the initial phase of the Atomic Energy Control Board's program to review and evaluate Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies conducted by nuclear generating station designers and licensees. The document provides (1) a review of current and prospective applications of PSA technology in the Canadian nuclear power industry; (2) an assessment of existing practices and techniques for the review or risk and hazard identification studies in the international nuclear power sector and other technological sectors; and (3) proposed analytical framework in which to develop systematic techniques for the scrutiny and evaluation of a PSA model. These frameworks are based on consideration of the mathematical structure of a PSA model and are intended to facilitate the development of methods to evaluate a model relative to intended end-uses. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  12. PDS4 Challenges in the PSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, J.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Montero, A.; Macfarlane, A.; Laantee, C.; Besse, S.; Vallat, C.; Marcos, J.; Arenas, J.; Osinde, J.; Arviset, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) stores products from all planetary ESA missions. Adopting PDS4 as the standard for new missions, while being compatible with existing PDS3 products, has driven a design with several difficulties to overcome.

  13. Proceedings of the 10th Korea-Japan joint workshop on PSA. For Asian PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon-Eon; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-12-01

    The tenth Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) was held in the Jeju island of Korea, on May 18-20, 2009 organized by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for presentation and discussions on experiences and technical achievements related to PSA, risk-informed and performance-based approach, and other relevant issues in both countries. Since the first Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on PSA started in 1992, the workshops have provided an important and timely opportunity for exchange and discussion of the relevant information to all PSA practitioners and users of risk information in the industry, research, academia and regulatory arena. This was the tenth anniversary of the Joint Workshop with the main theme of 'For Asian PSA Network' and participants included those from China, Taiwan and the United States of America besides Korea and Japan. Two keynote speeches were presented by the former chairmen of this workshop, Prof. Chang-Sun Kang of Seoul National University and Prof. emeritus Shunsuke Kondo of Tokyo University. We had two special lectures, 70 papers presented by experts at 10 technical sessions related PSA, the special session on the status of PSA in Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan and panel discussion on their cooperation in PSA. This report provides the summary of each session, and all the presentation materials presented in the 10th Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on PSA. (author)

  14. IAEA work with guides for PSA quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2004-09-01

    IAEA has a project on development of a TECDOC 'PSA Quality for Various Applications'. The project develops the guidance document in stages with intermediate meetings with exchange of ideas, thoughts and experience. Draft versions are being produced successively. The objective with the project is to use attributes to describe the quality of different elements of a PSA (Analysis of initiating events, accident progression, system, data, human reliability, etc) making the PSA suitable for application in various risk informed activities. Two of the meetings in this project took place in February 2004 and in July 2004. The February meeting discussed different aspects of PSA quality in relation to applications and a draft of the TECDOC was reviewed. The meeting made recommendations for preparation of a final document and set priorities for further work in the area. The July meeting elaborated the document further in a small working group and a new draft version was prepared. A final version is expected to be published during 2005. The project has come to the conclusion that it is a limited number of PSA element attributes that are specific for a certain application. Most of the attributes concern plant specificity, realism and level of detail in a general manner, how plant specific is the model, how realistic and how detailed? Many attributes have the characteristic that they are good to have, but not necessarily needed to do the job. This last statement is valid both for a baseline PSA and a PSA application. The IAEA project has identified a limited number of attributes that are necessary to describe characteristics needed for specific applications. The PSA scope needed for a specific application is not covered by the project/document, even though it is obvious that different applications will need different scope or approaches to handle scope limitations. The guidance on performing a PSA available today is old. It is a need to review these guides and update with regard

  15. Review of APR+ Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Mubayi, V.; Pratt, W.T.

    2012-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in reviewing the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the APR+ Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) prepared by the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) and KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO-E and C). The work described in this report involves a review of the APR+ Level 2 PSA submittal (Ref. 1). The PSA and, therefore, the review is limited to consideration of accidents initiated by internal events. As part of the review process, the review team also developed three sets of Requests for Additional Information (RAIs). These RAIs were provided to KHNP and KEPCO-E and C for their evaluation and response. This final detailed report documents the review findings for each technical element of the PSA and includes consideration of all of the RAIs made by the reviewers as well as the associated responses. This final report was preceded by an interim report (Ref. 2) that focused on identifying important issues regarding the PSA. In addition, a final meeting on the project was held at BNL on November 21-22, 2011, where BNL and KINS reviewers discussed their preliminary review findings with KHNP and KEPCO-E and C staffs. Additional information obtained during this final meeting was also used to inform the review findings of this final report. The review focused not only on the robustness of the APR+ design to withstand severe accidents, but also on the capability and acceptability of the Level 2 PSA in terms of level of detail and completeness. The Korean nuclear regulatory authorities will decide whether the PSA is acceptable and the BNL review team is providing its comments for KINS consideration. Section 2.0 provides the basis for the BNL review. Section 3.0 presents the review of each technical element of the PSA. Conclusions and a summary are presented in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 contains the references.

  16. State of the art of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in the FRG, and principles of a PSA-guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Contents of the articles: Survey of PSA performed during licensing procedures of an NPP; German Nuclear Standards' requirements on the reliability of safety systems; PSA-guideline for NPP: Principles and suggestions; Motivation and tasks of PSA; Aspects of the methodology of safety analyses; Structure of event tree and fault tree analyses; Extent of safety analyses; Performance and limits of PSA. (orig./HSCH)

  17. Development of multipurpose regulatory PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Sung, Key Yong; Kim, Hho Jung; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    Generally, risk information for nuclear facilities comes from the results of Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). PSA is a systematic tool to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities, since it is based on thorough and consistent application of probability models. In particular, the PSA has been widely utilized for risk-informed regulation (RIR), including various licensee-initiated risk-informed applications (RIA). In any regulatory decision, the main goal is to make a sound safety decision based on technically defensible information. Also, due to the increased public requests for giving a safety guarantee, the regulator should provide the visible means of safety. The use of PSA by the regulator can give the answer on this problem. Therefore, in order to study the applicability of risk information for regulatory safety management, it is a demanding task to prepare a well-established regulatory PSA model and tool. In 2002, KINS and KAERI together made a research cooperation to form a working group to develop the regulatory PSA model - so-called MPAS model. The MPAS stands for multipurpose probabilistic analysis of safety. For instance, a role of the MPAS model is to give some risk insights in the preparation of various regulatory programs. Another role of this model is to provide an independent risk information to the regulator during regulatory decision-making, not depending on the licensee's information

  18. Development of seismic PSA methodology at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, K.; Ebisawa, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Oikawa, T.; Kondo, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing a methodology for seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants, aiming at providing a set of procedures, computer codes and data suitable for performing seismic PSA in Japan. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of JAERI's methodology and to obtain better understanding on the controlling factors of the results of seismic PSAs, a seismic PSA for a BWR is in progress. In the course of this PSA, various improvements were made on the methodology. In the area of the hazard analysis, the application of the current method to the model plant site is being carried out. In the area of response analysis, the response factor method was modified to consider the non-linear response effect of the building. As for the capacity evaluation of components, since capacity data for PSA in Japan are very scarce, capacities of selected components used in Japan were evaluated. In the systems analysis, the improvement of the SECOM2 code was made to perform importance analysis and sensitivity analysis for the effect of correlation of responses and correlation of capacities. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seismic PSA research at JAERI with emphasis on the evaluation of component capacity and the methodology improvement of systems reliability analysis. (author)

  19. Correlation between PSA, bone scan and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Munoz, L.; Saavedra, P.; Aguilar, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer among Peruvian males. Although radionuclide bone scans (BS) are frequently recommended as part of the staging evaluation for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, most scans are negative for metastases. It has been suggested that a routine bone scan is unnecessary in recently diagnosed prostate cancer if serum PSA is under 10 ng/mL. We hypothesized that Gleason score plus prostate-specific antigen (PSA), could predict for a positive bone scan (better that PSA alone), and that a low - risk group of patients could be identified in whom BS might be omitted. All patients who had both pathologic review of their prostate cancer biopsies and radionuclide BS at our institution from 1/93 to 12/95 were studied. Gleason score, PSA, and bone scan (Soloway Index) were determined in 165 patients. Bivariate analysis using chi (x2) was performed. The mean age of the 165 patients was 71.3 years, 109/165 (66.1%) had a 7-9 Gleason score and only 9/165 (5.5%) were well differentiated prostrate cancer. 82/165 (49.7%) had negative BS. When classifying patients according to their histological grade, the PSA median values were 11.8 ng/mL, 74.8 ng/mL and 116.4 ng/mL in well, median and poorly differentiated prostate cancer respectively. Using a cut off point of 10 ng/mL of PSA, the probability of having a positive BS in Gleason 7, 8 and 9 tumors were 0.109, 0.121 and 0.133 respectively. By using a cut off point of 20 ng/mL of PSA the possibility to have a positive BS in Gleason 7, 8 and 9 tumours were 0.182, 0.206 and 0.224 respectively. Gleason score plus PSA were independent predictors for a positive radionuclide BS in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Considering that most of our patients have Gleason 7-9, the risk of bone metastases despite PSA levels between 10 - 20 ng/mL is not negligible. In our opinion, it is important to continue including bone scan in the staging assessment of prostate cancer. (author)

  20. Evaluation of prostate cancer prevalence in Iranian male population with increased PSA level, a one center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Lotfi, Fariborz; Tahvildar, Seyed Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Iranian male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) that underwent prostate biopsy. From March 2006 to April 2009, a total of 346 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA), demographic data, incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatitis were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL). Of the 346 biopsied cases, 193 cases (56%) had PCa, 80 cases (23%) had BPH, and 73 cases (21%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P < 0.01). The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. Incidence of PCa for group A and group B cases were 115 cases (51%), and 78 cases (65%), respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.40). TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team is highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. It seems that a PSA cutoff value of 4 ng/mL may be applied to the Iranian population. Although the chance of PCa is high in the PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL, the combination of some data, like age and prostate volume, can decrease the rate of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We recommend prostate biopsy when PSA and/or DRE is elevated in symptomatic patients with obstructive and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as dysuria, frequency, or nocturia. Due to the very high incidence of PCa in the patients with PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, TRUS-guided biopsy is indicated, whatever the findings on DRE and

  1. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  2. First postoperative PSA is associated with outcomes in patients with node positive prostate cancer: Results from the SEARCH database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle L; Howard, Lauren E; Aronson, William J; Terris, Martha K; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Amling, Christopher L; Freedland, Stephen J; Kane, Christopher J

    2018-05-01

    To analyze factors associated with metastases, prostate cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality in pN1 patients. We analyzed 3,642 radical prostatectomy patients within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database. Pathologic Gleason grade, number of lymph nodes (LN) removed, and first postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (PSA. Of 3,642 patients, 124 (3.4%) had pN1. There were 71 (60%) patients with 1 positive LN, 32 (27%) with 2 positive LNs, and 15 (13%) with ≥3. Among men with pN1, first postoperative PSA wasPSA ≥0.2 ng/ml (P = 0.005) were associated with metastases. First postoperative PSA ≥0.2ng/ml was associated with metastasis on multivariable analysis (P = 0.046). Log-rank analysis revealed a more favorable metastases-free survival in patients with a first postoperative PSAPSAPSA ≥0.2ng/ml were more likely to develop metastases. First postoperative PSA may be useful in identifying pN1 patients who harbor distant disease and aid in secondary treatment decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen variability: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John H; Loeb, Stacy; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Carter, H Ballentine

    2012-05-01

    Study Type--Prognostic (cohort). Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? And what does the study add? Previous studies have attempted to characterize the normal biological variability in PSA among men without prostate cancer. These reports suggest that PSA variability is unrelated to age, but there are conflicting data on its association with the baseline PSA level. There are limited published data regarding the effects of prostate volume on PSA variability. A prior study assessing whether prostate volume changes would confound the use of PSA velocity in clinical practice reported that prostate volume changes were not significantly related to PSA changes. This study did not directly address the effect of baseline prostate volume on serial PSA variability. The objective of the current study was to further examine the relationship between prostate volume and PSA variability. Our hypothesis was that larger baseline prostate volume would be associated with increased PSA variability in men without known prostate cancer and in those with suspected small-volume disease. The results of the study suggest that baseline PSA, not prostate volume, is the primary driver of PSA variability in these populations. • To clarify the relationship between serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) variability and prostate volume in both cancer-free participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and patients with low-risk prostate cancer from the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program (AS). • In all, 287 men from the BLSA and 131 patients from the AS were included in the analysis, all with at least two PSA measurements and concurrent prostate volume measurements. • PSA variability was calculated in ng/mL per year, and a linear mixed-effects model was used to determine the relative effects of prostate volume, baseline PSA and age on PSA change over time. • In a model with prostate volume, age and baseline PSA, there was no significant relationship

  4. PSA velocity does not aid the detection of prostate cancer in men with a prior negative biopsy: data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer Screening in Göteborg, Sweden and Rotterdam, Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J.; Cronin, Angel M.; O’Brien, M. Frank; Roobol, Monique J.; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T.; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H.; Lilja, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prostate specific antigen (PSA) velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid detection of prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether PSA velocity could predict the results of repeat biopsy in men with persistently elevated PSA after initial negative biopsy. Materials and Methods We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), and who had one or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether PSA velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of PSA alone. Results There were a total of 2579 repeat biopsies, of which 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, and 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score ≥7). Although PSA velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk (p<0.001), it had very low predictive accuracy (area-under-the-curve [AUC] of 0.55). There was some evidence that PSA velocity improved AUC compared to PSA for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high PSA velocity – from 1.7 % to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng / ml / year - is of questionable clinical relevance. Conclusions Men with a prior negative biopsy have a lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies, with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support the use of PSA velocity to aid decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. PMID:20643434

  5. Impact of PSA density of transition zone as a potential parameter in reducing the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with psa levels between 2.6 and 10.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hugo A Socrates; Iared, Wagner; Santos, José Eduardo Mourão; Solha, Raphael Sandes; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Ajzen, Sergio Aron

    2018-04-10

    To assess the accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) adjusted for the transition zone volume (PSATZ) in predicting prostate cancer by comparing the ability of several PSA parameters in predicting prostate cancer in men with intermediate PSA levels of 2.6 - 10.0 ng/mL and its ability to reduce unnecessary biopsies. This study included 656 patients referred for prostate biopsy who had a serum PSA of 2.6 - 10.0 ng/mL. Total prostate and transition zone volumes were measured by transrectal ultrasound using the prolate ellipsoid method. The clinical values of PSA, free-to-total (F/T) ratio, PSA density (PSAD) and PSATZ for the detection of prostate cancer were calculated and statistical comparisons between biopsy-positive (cancer) and biopsy-negative (benign) were conducted. Cancer was detected in 172 patients (26.2%). Mean PSA, PSATZ, PSAD and F/T ratio were 7.5 ng/mL, 0.68 ng/mL/cc. 0.25 ng/mL/cc and 0.14 in patients with prostate cancer and 6.29 ng/mL, 0.30 ng/mL/cc, 0.16 ng/mL/cc and 0.22 in patients with benign biopsies, respectively. ROC curves analysis demonstrated that PSATZ had a higher area under curve (0,838) than F/T ratio (0,806) (PPSA. Compared to other PSA related parameters, it was better in differentiating between prostate cancer and benign prostatic enlargement. Also, PSATZ could reduce a significant number of unnecessary biopsies. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  6. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, J A; Allen, M A; Keane, T; Duffy, J J

    1987-05-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM/sup R/) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable.

  7. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, J.A.; Allen, M.A.; Keane, T.; Duffy, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM R ) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable. (author)

  8. Evaluation of total PSA assay on vitros ECi and correlation with Kryptor-PSA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinat, B; Wacquet, M; Toubert, M E; Rain, J D; Schlageter, M H

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of multiparametric immuno-analysers for PSA assays are available. As different immuno-assays may vary in their analytical quality and their accuracy for the follow-up of patients, expertise is necessary for each new assay. The PSA assay on the Vitros-ECi analyser has been evaluated and compared with the PSA assay from the Kryptor analyser. Variation coefficients were 0.91 to 1.98% for within-run assays, and 4.2% to 5.4% for interassay (PSA levels = 0.8 microgram/L to 33.6 micrograms/L). Dilution tests showed 93 to 136% recovery until 70 micrograms/L PSA. Functional sensitivity was estimated at 0.03 microgram/L. Equimolarity of the test was confirmed. Correlation of PSA levels measured with Vitros-ECi and Kryptor analysers displayed a correlation coefficient r2 of 0.9716. The half-lives and doubling times of PSA were similar using both methods. Vitros-ECi PSA assay meets the major criteria for the management of prostate cancer patients.

  9. Purification of PSA from human semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: 1. Human seminal plasma collected from many volunteers are pooled and passed through a column of phenyl sepharose equilibrated with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate. Elution is carried out with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate initially, to remove the bulk non-adsorbing proteins. Gradient elution of the absorbed proteins with 0.01 M Tris-HCl, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.0 buffer gives a sharp peak containing PSA. At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 2. The absorbed protein peak containing PSA is then lyophilised, redissolved in Tris-HCl buffer and chromatographed in a Superdex-75 or Sephadex-75 column. The absorbed proteins elute out as multiple peaks and PSA is eluted as a sharp peak.At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 3. Step 2 is repeated for better purity. 4. The PSA peak is lyophilised, dissolved in Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and further purified on an ion exchange column (either anion or cation exchange columns such as DEAE Sephadex or CM-Sephadex or Mono Q). Gradient elution using Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer with 0.25 M NaCl resulted in a sharp pure PSA peak (homogenous, sharp single band on SDS-PAGE). This procedure is based on that reported by Wang et al., Oncology, 39,1,1982

  10. Perspectives of Living PSA in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Kastelan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power plant Krsko has completed the Level 1/Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) for internal initiating events and is in the process of completing the same for the external initiators. The analysis completed up to now has provided a valuable insight into a plant risk profile. In NPP Krsko there is a plan to use the PSA model as a permanent tool for the risk based applications and incorporate it into a decision making process. In order to achieve this there is a need to permanently maintain the PSA model in a manner that it reflects both the plan configuration/design at a time point and the operational experience up to the time point. All the activities aimed toward keeping the PSA model up-to-dated in this sense are usually referred to as a Living PSA (LPSA) program. NPP Krsko is in the process of defining and proceduralizing a LPSA program that would be plant specific and based on known world practices. Further, in order to be suitable for risk based applications the PSA model must be flexible in a sense that modifications to the base case model may be done easily and requantifications performed quickly as to evaluate various conditions imposed by real or hypothetical situations. NPP Krsko PSA model has been based on licensing type software. The requirements specified above dictate the transfer of the overall model to an application oriented software of newer generation with larger capabilities. The transfer becomes a part of a mentioned ongoing effort aimed at establishing LPSA model and concept. The paper present this effort and the perspectives of LPSA concept and risk based applications in NPP Krsko. (author)

  11. Comparison of clinical and survival characteristics between prostate cancer patients of PSA-based screening and clinical diagnosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libo; Wang, Jinguo; Guo, Baofeng; Zhang, Haixia; Wang, Kaichen; Wang, Ding; Dai, Chang; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Xuejian

    2018-01-02

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based mass screening remains the most controversial topic in prostate cancer. PSA-based mass screening has not been widely used in China yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the PSA-based screening in China. The cohort consisted of 1,012 prostate cancer patients. Data were retrospectively collected and clinical characteristics of the cohorts were investigated. Survival was analyzed for prostatic carcinoma of both PSA screened and clinically diagnosed patients according to clinical characteristics and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk classification. Cox Proportional Hazards Model analysis was done for risk predictor identification. The median age was 71 years old. Five-year overall and prostate-cancer-specific survival in prostatic adenocarcinoma patients were 77.52% and 79.65%; 10-year survivals were 62.57% and 68.60%, respectively. Survival was significantly poorer in patients with metastases and non-curative management. T staging and Gleason score by NCCN classification effectively stratified prostatic adenocarcinoma patients into different risk groups. T staging was a significant predictor of survival by COX Proportional Hazard Model. PSA screened patients had a significantly higher percentage diagnosed in early stage. PSA screened prostatic adenocarcinoma patients had a better prognosis in both overall and prostate cancer-specific survivals. This Chinese cohort had a lower overall and prostate cancer survival rate than it is reported in western countries. The incidence of early-stage prostate cancer found in PSA-based mass screening was high and there were significant differences in both overall and prostate cancer-specific survival between the PSA-screened and clinically diagnosed patients.

  12. Vergleichende Einschätzung der diagnostischen Aussagekraft der Kenngrößen freies PSA, Alpha1-Antichymotrypsin-PSA und komplexiertes PSA in der Diagnostik des Prostatakarzinoms

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart E; Deger S; Jung K; Lein M; Loening SA; Schnorr D

    2001-01-01

    Ziel der Studie war die vergleichende Einschätzung der diagnostischen Aussagekraft von Gesamt-PSA (tPSA), freiem PSA (fPSA), alpha1-Antichymotrypsin-PSA (ACT-PSA) und komplexiertem PSA (cPSA) sowie der entsprechenden Quotienten zur Differenzierung zwischen einem Prostatakarzinom (PCa) und einer Benignen Prostatahyperplasie (BPH). Die Bestimmung erfolgte bei insgesamt 324 Männern (PCa: n = 144; BPH: n = 89; Kontrollen: n = 91). Die tPSA- und cPSA-Konzentrationen wurden mit dem Bayer Immuno 1 S...

  13. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Young [Traditional Food Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives, Fisheries Economic Institute, Seoul 138-827 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong-Hyun, E-mail: dhahn@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: > Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. > Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  14. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jin-Gyu; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: → Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. → Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  15. Prostate-specific antigen and long-term prediction of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2012-01-01

    It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population.......It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population....

  16. Serum prostate-specific antigen in monitoring the response of carcinoma of the prostate to radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fijuth, J; Chauvet, B; Vincent, P; Felix-Faure, C; Reboul, F [Clinique Saint-Catherine, Avignon (France)

    1992-04-01

    In order to assess value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the monitoring of patients with localized prostatic carcinoma undergoing radical radiation therapy, 146 previously untreated patients were studied. To the prostate 60-70 Gy were administered over 8-9 weeks. Median follow-up was 28 every 3 months during 1st year and every 6 months after. Pre-treatment PSA values exceeded 10 ng/ml in 62%. Initial PSA values were correlated with tumor size and Gleason score. PSA levels decreased 6 months after completion of radiation therapy, compared to initial value in 88.3%. It had fallen to 10 ng/ml or less in 59% with initial abnormal PSA levels. Patients whose initial PSA exceeded 50 ng/ml attained levels of 10 ng/ml or less in only 19%. Only 3/55 with both initial and 6-month PSA values of about 10 ng/ml developed metastases. Of 91 patients with initial PSA values over 10 ng/ml 54 had a 6-month PSA level of 10 ng/ml or less, and only 4/54 relapsed. By contrast, 13/37 patients with a 6-month PSA level persistently above 10 ng/ml relapsed. The 3-year relapse-free survival is 85.1% for 6-month PSA level of about 10 ng/ml, and 50.2% for patients with persistently elevated PSA values. The pattern of decline of PSA level was also analyzed: 11/22 patients with initial PSA>10 ng/ml and relative difference between an initial and a 6-month PSA value of less than 50%, developed metastases. By contrast, when relative difference was greater than 50%, only 6/69 belonging to this group had local recurrence or developed metastases. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate was significantly superior in latter group.

  17. Prostate specific antigen levels during and after external beam radiotherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate: Predictor of therapeutic efficancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigus, P.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van

    1992-01-01

    For 105 patients with locoregional carcinoma of the prostate, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated before, during and after external beam radiotherapy. The median follow-up is 17 months. In 51 patients (48.5%) initial PSA levels exceeded the maximum normal value of 20 ng/ml. Nine patients kept non-declining high levels just after radiotherapy. Only one of these is free of disease. Assuming PSA levels decrease exponentially during radiotherapy, a mean half-life of 62 days (median 54, SD 26 days) was calculated. Three out of five patients with a PSA half-life of more than 88 days relapsed as compared to a 8% (3/37) relapse rate in patients with a 'normal' half-life. Prolonged PSA half-life suggests residual disease. PSA levels are expected to further decrease after radiation. Six months after irradiation persistent high PSA levels were found in 14/51 (27.5%) patients. Only four of them had no evidence of manifest disease. Important negative prognostic factors for disease control in our series were non-declining high levels of PSA, a PSA serum half-life exceeding 88 days and persistence of elevated PSA values longer than six months after treatment. In our opinion, PSA is a valuable marker in the follow-up of prostate cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  18. Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikropoulos, Christos; Selkirk, Christina G Hutten; Saya, Sibel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA...... and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA...... elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV...

  19. Can PSA Reflex Algorithm be a valid alternative to other PSA-based prostate cancer screening strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, G; Troiano, G; Rosadini, D; Nante, N

    2017-01-01

    The available laboratory tests for the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer, are represented by the total PSA, the free PSA, and the free/total PSA ratio. In Italy most of doctors tend to request both total and free PSA for their patients even in cases where the total PSA doesn't justify the further request of free PSA, with a consequent growth of the costs for the National Health System. The aim of our study was to predict the saving in Euro (due to reagents) and reduction in free PSA tests, applying the "PSA Reflex" algorithm. We calculated the number of total PSA and free PSA exams performed in 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto and, simulating the application of the "PSA Reflex" algorithm in the same year, we calculated the decrease in the number of free PSA requests and we tried to predict the Euro savings in reagents, obtained from this reduction. In 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto 25,955 total PSA tests have been performed: 3,631 (14%) resulted greater than 10 ng / ml; 7,686 (29.6%) between 2 and 10 ng / ml; 14,638 (56.4%) lower than 2 ng / ml. The performed free PSA tests were 16904. Simulating the use of "PSA Reflex" algorithm, the free PSA tests would be performed only in cases with total PSA values between 2 and 10 ng / mL with a saving of 54.5% of free PSA exams and of 8,971 euros, only for reagents. Our study showed that the "PSA Reflex" algorithm is a valid alternative leading to a reduction of the costs. The estimated intralaboratory savings, due to the reagents, seem to be modest, however, they are followed by the additional savings due to the other diagnostic processes for prostate cancers.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen bounce following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA bounce after brachytherapy has been well-documented. This phenomenon has also been identified in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. While the parameters that predict PSA bounce have been extensively studied in prostate brachytherapy patients, this study is the first to analyze the clinical and pathologic predictors of PSA bounce in prostate SBRT patients. Materials and Methods: Our institution has maintained a prospective database of patients undergoing SBRT for prostate cancer since 2006. Our study population includes patients between May 2006 and November 2011 who have at least 18 months of follow-up. All patients were treated using the CyberKnife treatment system. The prescription dose was 3500-3625cGy in 5 fractions.Results: 120 patients were included in our study. Median PSA follow-up was 24 months (range 18-78 months. 34 (28% patients had a PSA bounce. The median time to PSA bounce was 9 months, and the median bounce size was 0.50ng/mL. On univariate analysis, only younger age (p = .011 was shown to be associated with an increased incidence of PSA bounce. Other patient factors, including race, prostate size, prior treatment by hormones, and family history of prostate cancer, did not predict PSA bounces. None of the tumor characteristics studied, including Gleason score, pre-treatment PSA, T-stage, or risk classification by NCCN guidelines, was associated with increased incidence of PSA bounces. Younger age was the only statistically significant predictor of PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (OR = 0.937, p = 0.009.Conclusion: PSA bounce, which has been reported after prostate brachytherapy, is also seen in a significant percentage of patients after CyberKnife SBRT. Close observation rather than biopsy can be considered for these patients. Younger age was the only factor that predicted PSA bounce.

  1. Psychological impact of serial prostate-specific antigen tests in Japanese men waiting for prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Nukui, Akinori; Kamai, Takao

    2017-02-01

    It is common to repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements for men with intermediate PSA elevation before prostate biopsy. In this scenario, men with persistently elevated PSA values may have considerable psychological distress. We attempted to determine whether elevated PSA values have psychological effects on these men in association with the timing of measurement, PSA kinetics, and biopsy results. In order to investigate the initial and late effects of PSA tests on psychological distress during serial measurements, two groups of men with screen-positive results (PSA ≥3 ng/ml) were studied-205 men whose first questionnaires regarding anxiety and depression were taken at initial screening (group A), and 103 men whose questionnaires were taken at repeated measurement for prior PSA elevation (group B). The level of distress was generally low. There were no significant differences in distress between the two groups, suggesting a constant psychological effect by elevated PSA values over a long period of time. The distress of men in group A increased significantly as PSA levels rose and decreased when they fell to normal range. On the other hand, the distress of men in group B did not change regardless of PSA kinetics, indicating that their psychological condition seemed susceptible to subtle PSA change only in the initial phase of measurements. Unexpectedly, men with benign results showed insignificant but higher distress after prostate biopsy. Although a small fraction of men have psychological distress caused by changes in PSA levels, the benefits, risks (psychological and physical), and limitations of PSA tests must be adequately explained to the patients before entering the screening program.

  2. A new model consists of intravesical prostatic protrusion, prostate volume and serum prostatic-specific antigen in the evaluation of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ding; Yu, Yongjiang; Zhu, Yunkai; Huang, Tao; Chen, Yaqing; Qi, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is largely used to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa) in last decades. However, its specificity is low in patients with a PSA level ranging from 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml. This study aims to define the correlation between intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and PSA and to establish a new model to predict PCa. A total of 339 patients order than 45 years examined between October 2010 and June 2012 were enrolled. Eligible patients were recommended for transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies after measuring total prostate volume (TPV), tranzisional zone volume (TZV) and IPP. The levels of total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) were analyzed by using Hybritech calibrated Access tPSA and fPSA assays. A new mathematical model, named IPP removed PCa predicting score (IRPPS), consists of tPSA, TZV and IPP was established. The predictive accuracy of IRPPS, PSA density (PSAD), %PSA and tPSA were compared using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Eighty-six patients had PSA levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml. Twenty of them were diagnosed as PCa. Using ROC curves, the areas under the curve for IRPPS, PSAD and %PSA and tPSA were 0.786, 0.768 and 0.664 and 0.585, respectively. We suggested IPP grade had a significant relationship with serum tPSA levels. The predictive accuracy of IRPPS was higher than the other 3 indictors.

  3. The Prostate Health Index in predicting initial prostate biopsy outcomes in Asian men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 4-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C F; Chiu, Peter K F; Lam, N Y; Lam, H C; Lee, Kim W M; Hou, Simon S M

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the role of the Prostate Health Index (phi) in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4-10 ng/mL receiving their first prostatic biopsy in an Asian population. This was a retrospective study of archived serum samples from patients enlisted in our tissue bank. Patients over 50 years old, with PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL, a negative digital rectal examination, and received their first prostatic biopsy between April 2008 and April 2013, were recruited. The serum sample collected before biopsy was retrieved for the measurement of various PSA derivatives and the phi value was calculated for each patient. The performance of these parameters in predicting the prostatic biopsy results was assessed. Two hundred and thirty consecutive patients, with 21 (9.13 %) diagnosed with PCa, were recruited for this study. Statistically significant differences between PCa patients and non-PCa patients were found for total PSA, PSA density, [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), free-to-total PSA ratio (%fPSA), p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and phi. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for total PSA, PSA density, %fPSA, %p2PSA, and phi were 0.547, 0.634, 0.654, 0.768, and 0.781, respectively. The phi was the best predictor of the prostatic biopsies results. At a sensitivity of 90 %, the use of the phi could have avoided unnecessary biopsies in 104 (45.2 %) patients. Use of the phi could improve the accuracy of PCa detection in patients with an elevated PSA level and thus avoid unnecessary prostatic biopsies.

  4. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Hector J.; Coppieters, Natacha [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Park, Thomas I.H. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dieriks, Birger V.; Faull, Richard L.M. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dragunow, Mike [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Curtis, Maurice A., E-mail: m.curtis@auckland.ac.nz [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. - Highlights: • Insulin modulates PSA-NCAM turnover through upregulation of p-FAK. • P-FAK modulates αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clustering. • αv-integrin acts as a carrier for PSA-NCAM endocytosis. • Cell migration is promoted by cell surface PSA. • Insulin promotes PSA-dependent migration in vitro.

  5. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, Hector J.; Coppieters, Natacha; Park, Thomas I.H.; Dieriks, Birger V.; Faull, Richard L.M.; Dragunow, Mike; Curtis, Maurice A.

    2017-01-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. - Highlights: • Insulin modulates PSA-NCAM turnover through upregulation of p-FAK. • P-FAK modulates αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clustering. • αv-integrin acts as a carrier for PSA-NCAM endocytosis. • Cell migration is promoted by cell surface PSA. • Insulin promotes PSA-dependent migration in vitro.

  6. A Microfluidic Love-Wave Biosensing Device for PSA Detection Based on an Aptamer Beacon Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Shuangming; Cao, Kang; Wang, Pengjuan; Su, Yan; Zhu, Xinhua; Wan, Ying

    2015-06-11

    A label-free and selective aptamer beacon-based Love-wave biosensing device was developed for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. The device consists of the following parts: LiTaO3 substrate with SiO2 film as wave guide layer, two set of inter-digital transducers (IDT), gold film for immobilization of the biorecongniton layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. DNA aptamer, or "artificial antibody", was used as the specific biorecognition probe for PSA capture. Some nucleotides were added to the 3'-end of the aptamer to form a duplex with the 3'-end, turning the aptamer into an aptamer-beacon. Taking advantage of the selective target-induced assembly changes arising from the "aptamer beacon", highly selective and specific detection of PSA was achieved. Furthermore, PDMS microfluidic channels were designed and fabricated to realize automated quantitative sample injection. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the established device showed good performance for PSA detection between 10 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 10 ng/mL. The proposed sensor might be a promising alternative for point of care diagnostics.

  7. A methodology for PSA model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    This document reports Phase 2 of work undertaken by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in support of the Atomic Energy Control Board's Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) review. A methodology is presented for the systematic review and evaluation of a PSA model. These methods are intended to support consideration of the following question: To within the scope and depth of modeling resolution of a PSA study, is the resultant model a complete and accurate representation of the subject plant? This question was identified as a key PSA validation issue in SAIC's Phase 1 project. The validation methods are based on a model transformation process devised to enhance the transparency of the modeling assumptions. Through conversion to a 'success-oriented' framework, a closer correspondence to plant design and operational specifications is achieved. This can both enhance the scrutability of the model by plant personnel, and provide an alternative perspective on the model that may assist in the identification of deficiencies. The model transformation process is defined and applied to fault trees documented in the Darlington Probabilistic Safety Evaluation. A tentative real-time process is outlined for implementation and documentation of a PSA review based on the proposed methods. (author). 11 refs., 9 tabs., 30 refs

  8. Specific binding of antigen-antibody in physiological environments: Measurement, force characteristics and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lu; Xie, Shusen; Petti, Lucia; Wang, Shaomin; Wang, Fuyan

    2018-05-01

    The specific recognition of the antigen by the antibody is the crucial step in immunoassays. Measurement and analysis of the specific recognition, including the ways in which it is influenced by external factors are of paramount significance for the quality of the immunoassays. Using prostate-specific antigen (PSA)/anti-PSA antibody and α-fetoprotein (AFP) /anti-AFP antibody as examples, we have proposed a novel solution for measuring the binding forces between the antigens and their corresponding antibodies in different physiological environments by combining laminar flow control technology and optical tweezers technology. On the basis of the experimental results, the different binding forces of PSA/anti-PSA antibody and AFP/anti-AFP antibody in the same phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) environments are analysed by comparing the affinity constant of the two antibodies and the number of antigenic determinants of the two antigens. In different electrolyte environments, the changes of the binding force of antigens-antibodies are explained by the polyelectrolyte effect and hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, in different pH environments, the changes of binding forces of antigens-antibodies are attributed to the role of the denaturation of protein. The study aims to recognise the antigen-antibody immune mechanism, thus ensuring further understanding of the biological functions of tumour markers, and it promises to be very useful for the clinical diagnosis of early-stage cancer.

  9. Correlation between bone scan findings and serum PSA level in prostate cancer patients in Bangladesh: both newly diagnosed and hormonally treated cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmeen, S.; Nasreen, F.; Kabir, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The objective of the current study was to determine whether pre- treatment serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels can identify a group with low probability of osseous metastases and safely eliminate the need for bone scan as a routine part of the staging evaluation in Bangladeshi patients with newly diagnosed prostate carcinoma. Also, to find out a cut off value for serum PSA level for predicting positive bone scan in newly diagnosed Bangladeshi prostate cancer patients and to assess the role of PSA level in hormonally treated cases. Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bone. Bone scintigraphy is one of the best methods in detecting bone metastases, assessing the progression of the disease and response to therapy. For more than 30 yrs it has been known that bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiographic, clinical evaluation or chemical markers such as alkaline phosphatase or acid phosphatase in detection of early osseous metastatic prostate cancer. The introduction of PSA has dramatically changed the management of prostate cancer. Serum PSA level has proven to be a useful serum marker for detection of metastatic prostate cancer and it provides the best overall correlation. It also has considerable impact on bone scanning. Of special significance is the fact that patients who have a low PSA level in previously untreated carcinoma of prostate are extremely unlikely to have positive findings on a bone scan for metastases. The picture is different in patients who has received and responded to hormonal therapy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be extremely useful in patients whose PSA level begins to rise after surgical procedure. Patients, who were on anti- androgen therapy, even though they had visible metastatic disease on bone scans, had normal level of PSA Patients and methods: A total of 390 cases were studied. Some (n=242) were newly diagnosed without having any specific treatment other than surgery. Others (n=148) were old cases

  10. An Evaluation of Usefulness of Prostate Specific Antigen and Digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) in the diagnosis of cancer of the prostate (CaP) amongst unscreened patients. Patients, Materials ans Methods: A prospective study168 unscreened men who were referred for evaluation for CaP. They all had a ...

  11. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen are the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/02/0195-0207. Keywords. Kallikrein; prostate cancer biomarker; proteinase activity; seminal plasma; tumour proliferation and metastasis; therapeutic target. Abstract. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were each isolated from human seminal fluid and ...

  12. Reappraisal of the application of total and free PSA estimation for diagnosis of prostate cancer in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, L.S.; Liu, R.S.; Yang, C.S.; Chen, G.K.; Liao, S.Q.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has become one of the most cost effective tools for detecting early prostate cancer. In general, a diagnosis of prostate cancer is uncommon at serum levels of total PSA (TPSA) at or below 4 ng/mL and is common at levels above 10 ng/mL. The diagnostic gray zone is between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, where the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer is most difficult. For such patients ratio of free-to-total PSA (F/TPSA) can be useful in differentiating prostate cancer from benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). However, screen for prostate cancer with PSA remains controversial. Thirty-five percent of the patients with clinically localized prostate cancer present with serum PSA levels below 4 ng/mL. What is the optimal 'reflex' total PSA at which we should implement use of the F/T PSA? The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of F/TPSA in patients with TPSA less than 4 ng/mL. Methods: A total of 101 high-risk patients of prostate cancer underwent transrectal ultrasonography and biopsy or transurethral resection of prostate were studied. Sixty-eight patients were proved to have BPH only and 33 patients were proved to have prostate cancer. TPSA and F/TPSA were determined using a immunoradiometric assay (PSA-RIACT, FPSA-RIACT, CIS). The appropriate cut-off value of F/TPSA in diagnosis of prostate cancer determined by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.19. Results: The TPSA value of the subjects ranged from 0 to 15 ng/mL. Seventeen cases (26%) of prostate cancer were disclosed in 65 patients with TPSA > 4 ng/mL. Thirty-six patients had TPSA 0.19 were proved to have prostate cancer. Conclusion: Thirty-nine per cent of high-risk patients with TPSA < 4.0 ng/mL and F/T PSA < 0.19 was found to have prostate cancer. F/T PSA should be determined in Chinese patients with TPSA < 10 ng/mL instead of the algorithm of combined use of F/T PSA and TPSA between 4-10 ng/mL

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  14. Design review of SPWR with PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tetsukuni; Muramatsu, Ken; Iwamura, Takamichi; Tone, Tatsuzo; Kasahara, Takeo; Mizuno, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) of the SPWR (System-Integrated PWR), which is being developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) as a medium sized innovative passive safe reactor, to assist in the design improvement of the SPWR by reviewing the design and identifying the design weaknesses. This PSA was performed in four steps: (1) identification of initiating events by the failure mode effect analysis and other methods, (2) delineation of accident sequences for three selected initiating events using accident progression flow charts and event trees, (3) quantification of event trees based on the review of past PSAs for LWRs, and (4) sensitivity analysis and interpretation of results. Qualitative and quantitative results of PSA provided very useful information for decision makings of design improvement and recommendations for further consideration in the process of detailed design

  15. Impedimetric PSA aptasensor based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with titanium oxide nanoparticles and silk fibroin nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvidi, Ali; Banaei, Maryam; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Molahosseini, Hosein; Jahanbani, Shahriar

    2017-12-14

    This article describes an impedimetric aptasensor for the prostate specific antigen (PSA), a widely accepted prostate cancer biomarker. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 ) and silk fibroin nanofiber (SF) composite. The aptasensor was obtained by immobilizing a PSA-binding aptamer on the AuNP-modified with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. The single fabrication steps were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The assay has two linear response ranges (from 2.5 fg.mL -1 to 25 pg.mL -1 , and from 25 pg.mL -1 to 25 ng.mL -1 ) and a 0.8 fg.mL -1 detection limit. After optimization of experimental conditions, the sensor is highly selective for PSA over bovine serum albumin and lysozyme. It was successfully applied to the detection of PSA in spiked serum samples. Graphical abstract Schematic of the fabrication of an aptasensor for the prostate specific antigen (PSA). It is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and titanium oxide-silk fibroin. The immobilization process of aptamer and interaction with PSA were followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique.

  16. A Preliminary Fire PSA on PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Han, Sanghoon; Lee, KwiLim

    2017-01-01

    A Prototype Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (PGSFR) is under design with defense in depth concept with active, passive, and inherent safety features to acquire a design approval for PGSFR from Korean regulatory authority by around 2017. A preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR is done in 2016 and a final fire PSA of PGSFR will be done in 2017. The characteristics of the preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR are described in this paper. Since PGSFR is very safe reactor, it is not bad approach to use a conservative assumption in the preliminary PSA. In addition, several drawings including cable routing are not yet issued, a conservative calculation for CDF is performed. As shown in Table 2, the CDF caused by the fire in the control room takes 89% portion of total CDF. Thus, a detailed fire modeling for control room is necessary for the final fire PSA on PGSFR. Also, the increased ignition frequency due to sodium leak would be derived by considering the sodium piping complexity in the final fire PSA on PGSFR. The 4th column of Table 2 is derived the 3rd column by multiplying the factor (592/1177). The 5th column is the ignition frequency caused by the sodium leak. The 6th column is derived by summing the 4th column and the 5th column. The 7th column is the CDF portion of each fire area. The control room (fire area F-A404A) is the most important area since the control room fire takes 89% portion of total CDF.

  17. Assessment of Atorvastatin Effectiveness on Serum PSA Level in Hypercholesterolemic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Khosropanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previous large retrospective studies demonstrated that treatment with Statins reduces both the incidence of prostate cancer by 50% and serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA level up to 40%. However the main problem in those studies was the absence of control groups of men with hypercholesterolemia without Statin treatment. We performed a small prospective controlled clinical trial to assess the influence of the treatment with Atorvastatin on serum PSA in men with hypercholesterolemia referred to our educational and treatment center from October 2007 to March 2008. In this study, among the newly diagnosed males with hypercholesterolemia (LDL > 130 mg/dl, 40 patients with LDL more than 190 mg/dl were selected as a case group and were treated with Atorvastatin (20 mg/day. Among the same population and in the same period, another 40 patients with LDL between 130 and 190 mg/dl were selected as first control group and were treated only with low fat diet. Another 40 patients with normal serum cholesterol and without any treatment were selected as second control group. The lipid profile and serum PSA level of patients of all groups were tested at the first and third months after the therapy. After completion of data, the mean serum lipids and PSA level were measured in both visits and compared with each other by paired t-test. Also the mean PSA change in two visits between three groups was compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. There was not any significant difference in mean baseline PSA between hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic patients (P=0.547. In case group, mean PSA and LDL was reduced by 14.1% (P=0.0001 and 30% (P=0.0001 respectively by second visit. In first control group, mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.337, whereas mean LDL in this group was reduced by 9.6% (P= 0.0001. Similarly in the second control group mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.309 by second visit. In addition, mean change of PSA in case group

  18. Seminal plasma PSA in spinal cord injured men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Sønksen, J; Sommer, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration....

  19. Regulatory requirements on PSA level 2: Review, aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husarcek, J.

    2003-01-01

    The general requirements concerning utility obligations, probabilistic safety criteria (CDF should not exceed 1.0E-4/reactor year and LERF should not exceed 1.0E-5/reactor year), documentation and results, living PSA requirements and major steps in level 2 PSA are presented. PSA developments in Slovakia, collection and assembly of information, plant damage states, containment performance and failure modes, severe accident progression analyses, containment failure modes and source terms as a part of performed level 2 PSA are discussed. The PSA applications in design and operation evaluation, support to plant upgrade and modifications are also described. At the end, the following conclusion is made: more extensive PSA application needs to foster the exchange of experience and communication between PSA specialists, non-PSA engineers, designers, and the regulatory body staff responsible for safety assessment, inspection and enforcement

  20. Use of PSA to support accident management at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: Overview of PSA level 2; Introduction: Framework; Accident Progression Phenomena in the Confinement/containment; Severe Accident Sequences; Examples; Results and Insights. Accident Management: Concepts; Process; Use of PSA to support Accident; Management

  1. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background. Social differences in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality might be related to testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Although routine PSA screening is not recommended in Denmark, testing without clinical indication increased during the past decade. We evaluated...... associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...

  2. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the detection of bone metastasis in recurrent prostate cancer and a PSA level <2 ng/ml

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Nielsen, Julie B; Dettmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    /computed tomography ((68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is a novel and promising method for imaging in prostate cancer. The present study reports two cases of patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, with evidence of bone metastases on (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT images and low prostate specific antigen PSA levels (.../ml) and PSA doubling time >6 months. The bone metastases were verified by supplementary imaging with (18)F-sodium fluoride PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging as well as biochemical responses to androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT is promising for the restaging of patients...... with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, including patients with low PSA levels and low PSA kinetics....

  3. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10 9 PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases

  4. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Heitzinger, Clemens; Vacic, Aleksandar; Reed, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Age and total and free prostate-specific antigen levels for predicting prostate volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Soner; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Keles, Ibrahim; Demirci, Hakan; Turkoglu, Ali Riza; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Karalar, Mustafa; Demirbas, Murat

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the predictive values of free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), total PSA (tPSA) and age on the prostate volume. The data of 2148 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had transrectal ultrasonography guided 10 core biopsies owing to the findings obtained on digital rectal examination and presence of high PSA levels (PSA = 2.5-10 ng/dl), and proven to have BPH histopathologically were included in the study. Age, tPSA, fPSA and the prostate volumes (PV) of the patients were noted. One thousand patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The PV of the patients were significantly correlated with age, tPSA and fPSA (p < 0.001 and r = 0.307, p < 0.001 and r = 0.382, p < 0.001 and r = 0.296, respectively). On linear regression model, fPSA was found as a stronger predictive for PV (AUC = 0.75, p < 0.001) when compared to age (AUC = 0.64, p < 0.001), and tPSA (AUC = 0.69, p = 0.013). Although tPSA is an important prognostic factor for predicting PV, the predictive value of fPSA is higher. PV can easily be predicted by using age, and serum tPSA and fPSA levels.

  7. Prostate health index significantly reduced unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA 2-10 ng/mL and PSA >10 ng/mL: Results from a Multicenter Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Rong; Ye, Dingwei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Helfand, Brian T; Brendler, Charles B; Conran, Carly A; Packiam, Vignesh; Gong, Jian; Wu, Yishuo; Zheng, Siqun L; Mo, Zengnan; Ding, Qiang; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Jianfeng

    2017-08-01

    The performance of prostate health index (phi) in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes has been well established for patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2 and 10 ng/mL. However, the performance of phi remains unknown in patients with PSA >10 ng/mL, the vast majority in Chinese biopsy patients. We aimed to assess the ability of phi to predict prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade disease (Gleason Score ≥7) on biopsy in a Chinese population. This is a prospective, observational, multi-center study of consecutive patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Shanghai, China from August 2013 to December 2014. In the cohort of 1538 patients, the detection rate of PCa was 40.2%. phi had a significantly better predictive performance for PCa than total PSA (tPSA). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.90 and 0.79 for phi and tPSA, respectively, P 10 ng/mL (N = 838, 54.5%). The detection rates of PCa were 35.9% and 57.7% in patients with tPSA 10.1-20 and 20.1-50 ng/mL, respectively. The AUCs of phi (0.79 and 0.89, for these two groups, respectively) were also significantly higher than tPSA (0.57 and 0.63, respectively), both P 10 ng/mL). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Proliferation marker pKi-67 occurs in different isoforms with various cellular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Finniss, Susan; Bögler, Oliver; Duchrow, Michael

    2004-04-15

    The Ki-67 antigen, pKi-67, is a commonly used proliferation marker in research and pathology. It has been recognized that the protein exists in two different splice variants that differ in one exon. In the current work, we present three new splice variants of human pKi-67 consisting of two naturally occurring isoforms and one atypical version. Additionally, data is presented indicating that alternative splicing of the pKi-67 N-terminus is common in tumor cell lines. Analyzing 93 tissues mainly consisting of brain tumor specimens, we found evidence that long and short isoform can be expressed independently of each other. Induction of mitosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that short pKi-67 appears earlier in the cell cycle than the long isoform and reaches its expression maximum when transcription of the latter sets in. Finally, transfection of mammalian culture cells with exon 7 (specific for the long pKi-67 isoform and not present in the short isoform) in a tetracycline regulated expression system decreased the rate of cell proliferation without affecting the cell cycle. In summary, we present evidence that the pKi-67 N-terminus is differentially spliced resulting in at least five different isoforms with different functions. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The use of PSA in the French regulatory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennesiez, H.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation gives a description of fundamental documents (since 1977-1978) through which have been set up in France probabilistic objectives, and PSAs, including shutdown states, performed for 900-1300 MWe PWR-type nuclear power plants. PSA developments and use, including fire PSA, level 2 and PSA for the future French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) are also discussed

  10. PSA methodology development and application in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo Sato; Toshiaki Tobioka; Kiyoharu Abe

    1987-01-01

    The outlines of Japanese activities on development and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodologies are described. First the activities on methodology development are described for system reliability analysis, operational data analysis, core melt accident analysis, environmental consequence analysis and seismic risk analysis. Then the methodoligy application examples by the regulatory side and the industry side are described. (author)

  11. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 30 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  12. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 60 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  13. French 900 MWe PWR PSA preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Brisbois, J.

    1988-10-01

    A PSA is performed by the Safety Assessment Department of CEA for a 900 MWe standardized plant. The paper presents the objectives, the scope of the study and the relative preliminary results. Some general insights are drawn, especially the benefit related to the implementation of emergency procedures

  14. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill PSA (:24)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 24 second PSA from Dr. Regina Benjamin, U.S. Surgeon General, encourages people to get help if they are feeling sad, angry, depressed, or stressed as a result of the Gulf oil spill. It was recorded so that localities can add their own "For more information" at the end, as appropriate.

  15. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).

  16. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.

  17. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.

  18. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Diaz, C.

    2017-09-01

    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  19. Secundaire analyses organisatiebeleid psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Hoe het organisatiebeleid rond psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA) eruit ziet anno 2014 en welke samenhang er is met ander beleid en uitkomstmaten, zijn de centrale vragen in dit onderzoek. De resultaten van deze verdiepende analyses kunnen ten goede komen aan de lopende campagne ‘Check je

  20. STD Awareness PSA - College 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  1. STD Awareness PSA - College 1 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  2. STD Awareness PSA - Male Announcer 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Target - Men who have sex with other men.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  3. Stop C. difficile Infections PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.

  4. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  5. Impedance-Based Miniaturized Biosensor for Ultrasensitive and Fast Prostate-Specific Antigen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Chornokur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the successful fabrication of an impedance-based miniaturized biosensor and its application for ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA detection in standard and real human plasma solution, spiked with different PSA concentrations. The sensor was fabricated using photolithographic techniques, while monoclonal antibodies specific to human PSA were used as primary capture antibodies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was employed as a detection technique. The sensor exhibited a detection limit of 1 pg/ml for PSA with minimal nonspecific binding (NSB. This detection limit is an order of magnitude lower than commercial PSA ELISA assays available on the market. The sensor can be easily modified into an array for the detection of other biomolecules of interest, enabling accurate, ultrasensitive, and inexpensive point-of-care sensing technologies.

  6. Imaging yield from 133 consecutive patients with prostate cancer and low trigger PSA from a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagare, A.B.; Keraliya, A.; Somarouthu, B.; Tirumani, S.H.; Ramaiya, N.H.; Kantoff, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the yield of imaging in patients with relapsed prostate cancer (PC) with a low trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Materials and methods: This institutional review board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study included all 133 patients (mean age 68 years; range 45–88; median 69 months since original diagnosis; interquartile range [IQR]: 32–139) with hormone-sensitive PC (HSPC, n=28) or castration-resistant PC (CRPC, n=105) and trigger PSA 0.05 for all). Fifty-seven of the 133 (43%) patients had findings seen only at CT, of which 37 had new extra-osseous findings. Only 2/133 (2%) had findings at bone scintigraphy not seen at CT, both in areas not covered on CT. Conclusion: Imaging frequently demonstrated new metastatic and non-metastatic findings in patients with a low trigger PSA. CT is valuable in these patients because extra-osseous findings not visible at bone scintigraphy are frequently seen. - Highlights: • New and existing metastases common in prostate cancer with low trigger PSA. • Previous reports of threshold PSA levels may not apply in follow-up setting. • No difference in metastatic pattern between hormone sensitive and resistant disease. • CT showed extra-osseous findings not seen on bone scan in 44% patients. • Bone scan rarely showed findings not visible on concurrent CT.

  7. External Events PSA for the Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareith, Attila; Karsa, Zoltan; Siklossy, Tamas; Vida, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Initially, probabilistic safety assessment of external events was limited to the analysis of earthquakes for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The level 1 seismic PSA was completed in 2002 showing a significant contribution of seismic failures to core damage risk. Although other external events of natural origin had previously been screened out from detailed plant PSA mostly on the basis of event frequencies, a review of recent experience on extreme weather phenomena made during the periodic safety review of the plant led to the initiation of PSA for external events other than earthquakes in 2009. In the meantime, the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant confirmed further the importance of such an analysis. The external event PSA for the Paks plant followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk quantification and interpretation of results. As a result of event selection and screening the following weather related external hazards were subject to detailed analysis: extreme wind, extreme rainfall (precipitation), extreme snow, extremely high and extremely low temperatures, lightning, frost and ice formation. The analysis proved to be a significant challenge due to scarcity of data, lack of knowledge, as well as limitations of existing PSA methodologies. This paper presents an overview of the external events PSA performed for the Paks NPP. Important methodological aspects are summarised. Key analysis findings and unresolved issues that need further elaboration are highlighted. Development of external events PSA for the Paks NPP was completed by the end of 2012. The analysis followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk

  8. The expression of prostate-specific antigen in invasive breast carcinoma and its relationship with routine clinicopathologic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers of women. Parameters such as lymph node status, tumor grade, and the status of hormone receptors are among the main prognostic determinants of this cancer. Immunohistochemical detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is widely used to identify metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. However, its immunoreactivity has been found in some non-prostatic tissues. This study was conducted to assess PSA expression in invasive breast carcinoma and its relationship with routine clinicopathologic parameters. Materials and Methods: 100 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinoma tissue specimens from the pathology archive of Alzahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran were studied for the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2/neu, and PSA by immunohistochemistry. Stained sections were classified according to the intensity of staining and the percentage of cells showing PSA staining. The relationship between PSA expression and other markers, age, lymph node status, tumor subtype, and tumor grade was then studied. Results: No association was found between PSA expression on one hand and PR, Her2/neu, age, lymph node status, tumor grade, and tumor subtype on the other. PSA score was reversely correlated with ER expression (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Despite the reverse relationship between PSA expression and the immunoreactivity of ER, PSA expression was not correlated with other prognostic factors. Therefore, the detection of PSA by immunohistochemistry does not seem to be a significant prognostic parameter in patients with invasive breast carcinoma.

  9. Increasing Fractional Doses Increases the Probability of Benign PSA Bounce in Patients Undergoing Definitive HDR Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Carlin R.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Peter Y.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Limbacher, Amy; Krauss, Daniel J., E-mail: Daniel.krauss@beaumont.edu

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements. Four different fraction sizes were used: 950 cGy × 4 fractions, 1200 cGy × 2 fractions, 1350 cGy × 2 fractions, 1900 cGy × 1 fraction. Four definitions of PSA bounce were applied: ≥0.2, ≥0.5, ≥1.0, and ≥2.0 ng/mL above the prior nadir with a subsequent return to the nadir. Results: The median follow-up period was 3.7 years. The actuarial 3-year rate of PSA bounce for the entire cohort was 41.3%, 28.4%, 17.4%, and 6.8% for nadir +0.2, +0.5, +1.0, and +2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The 3-year rate of PSA bounce >0.2 ng/mL was 42.2%, 32.1%, 41.0%, and 59.1% for the 950-, 1200-, 1350-, and 1900-cGy/fraction levels, respectively (P=.002). The hazard ratio for bounce >0.2 ng/mL for patients receiving a single fraction of 1900 cGy compared with those receiving treatment in multiple fractions was 1.786 (P=.024). For patients treated with a single 1900-cGy fraction, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year rates of PSA bounce exceeding the Phoenix biochemical failure definition (nadir +2 ng/mL) were 4.5%, 18.7%, and 18.7%, respectively, higher than the rates for all other administered dose levels (P=.025). Conclusions: The incidence of PSA bounce increases with single-fraction HDR treatment. Knowledge of posttreatment PSA kinetics may aid in decision making regarding management of potential biochemical failures.

  10. Increasing Fractional Doses Increases the Probability of Benign PSA Bounce in Patients Undergoing Definitive HDR Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Carlin R.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Peter Y.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Limbacher, Amy; Krauss, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements. Four different fraction sizes were used: 950 cGy × 4 fractions, 1200 cGy × 2 fractions, 1350 cGy × 2 fractions, 1900 cGy × 1 fraction. Four definitions of PSA bounce were applied: ≥0.2, ≥0.5, ≥1.0, and ≥2.0 ng/mL above the prior nadir with a subsequent return to the nadir. Results: The median follow-up period was 3.7 years. The actuarial 3-year rate of PSA bounce for the entire cohort was 41.3%, 28.4%, 17.4%, and 6.8% for nadir +0.2, +0.5, +1.0, and +2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The 3-year rate of PSA bounce >0.2 ng/mL was 42.2%, 32.1%, 41.0%, and 59.1% for the 950-, 1200-, 1350-, and 1900-cGy/fraction levels, respectively (P=.002). The hazard ratio for bounce >0.2 ng/mL for patients receiving a single fraction of 1900 cGy compared with those receiving treatment in multiple fractions was 1.786 (P=.024). For patients treated with a single 1900-cGy fraction, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year rates of PSA bounce exceeding the Phoenix biochemical failure definition (nadir +2 ng/mL) were 4.5%, 18.7%, and 18.7%, respectively, higher than the rates for all other administered dose levels (P=.025). Conclusions: The incidence of PSA bounce increases with single-fraction HDR treatment. Knowledge of posttreatment PSA kinetics may aid in decision making regarding management of potential biochemical failures.

  11. Performance indicators at Embalse NPP: PSA and safety system indicators based on PSA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornero, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Several indicators have been implemented at Embalse NPP. The objective was selecting some representative parameters to evaluate the performance of both the plant and the personnel activities, important for safety. A first set of indicators was defined in accordance with plant technical staff criteria. A complementary set of them was addressed later based on WANO guidance. This report presents the set of indicators used at Embalse NPP, centering the description to related to safety systems performance indicators (SSPI). Some considerations are done about the calculation methods, the need for aligning and updating their values following Embalse Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) development, and some pros and cons of using the PSA model for getting systems indicators. Owing to the fact that PSA ownership by utilities is also a subject of the meeting, some characteristics of the organization of the PSA Project are described at the beginning of the report. At Embalse NPP a Level 1 PSA has been developed under the responsibility of its own plant and with an important contribution from the IAEA. PSA was developed at the site, conducting this to a study strongly interactive with the station staff. (author)

  12. Management and organisational factors in PSA; Organisations- und Management-Faktoren in der PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfanz, H.P. [TUEV Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The constraints of PSA are increasingly considered with increasing application of PSA for the safety management of nuclear power plants (see US-NRC, 'Risk Informed Regulation', NRC-1). There is a vivid international discourse about the applicability of the variables of plant management and organisation in PSAs, which has lead to a great variety of research activities into this matter (see PSAM 4). This paper here summarizes the current state of progress of research work and discusses the applicability of results. The studies for comparative assessment of methodology and results were performed by the TUeV Nord under the roof of the BMU/BfS-sponsored project SR 2260, ''Further development of probabilistic methods for nuclear power plant safety assessment. (orig./CB) [German] Mit zunehmender Anwendung der PSA (Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse) im Sicherheitsmanagement von KKW (vergl. US-NRC, Einfuehrung des Konzepts 'Risk Informed Regulation' NRC-1) gewinnt die Beachtung der Grenzen der PSA zusaetzliche Bedeutung. International ist eine intensive Diskussion ueber die Moeglichkeiten einer Einbindung der Einflussgroesse von Organisation und Management in der PSA zu verzeichnen und wird belegt durch vielfaeltige Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten (vergl. PSAM 4). Dieser Beitrag setzt sich in erster Linie mit diesem Entwicklungsstand auseinander und diskutiert seinen Anwendungsstand fuer die PSA. Die hierzu vom TUeV Nord durchgefuehrten Arbeiten basieren auf dem BMU/BfS-Vorhaben SR 2260, 'Weiterentwicklung probabilistischer Methoden zur Sicherheitsbeurteilung von KKW'. (orig.)

  13. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 ( P 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 ( P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 ( P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  14. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Niraj H.; Kamrava, Mitchell; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Steinberg, Michael; Demanes, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces after high-dose-rate (HDR) monotherapy and determine relationships between certain clinical factors and PSA bounce. Methods and Materials: Longitudinal PSA data and various clinical parameters were examined in 157 consecutive patients treated with HDR monotherapy between 1996 and 2005. We used the following definition for PSA bounce: rise in PSA ≥threshold, after which it returns to the prior level or lower. Prostate-specific antigen failure was defined per the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/mL). Results: A PSA bounce was noted in 67 patients (43%). The number of bounces per patient was 1 in 45 cases (67%), 2 in 19 (28%), 3 in 2 (3%), 4 in 0, and 5 in 1 (1%). The median time to maximum PSA bounce was 1.3 years, its median magnitude was 0.7, and its median duration was 0.75 years. Three patients (2%) were noted to have PSA failure. None of the 3 patients who experienced biochemical failure exhibited PSA bounce. In the fully adjusted model for predicting each bounce, patients aged <55 years had a statistically significant higher likelihood of experiencing a bounce (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.38-3.57, P=.001). There was also a statistically significant higher probability of experiencing a bounce for every unit decrease in Gleason score (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.04, P=.045). Conclusions: A PSA bounce occurs in a significant percentage of patients treated with HDR monotherapy, with magnitudes varying from <1 in 28% of cases to ≥1 in 15%. The median duration of bounce is <1 year. More bounces were identified in patients with lower Gleason score and age <55 years. Further investigation using a model to correlate magnitude and frequency of bounces with clinical variables are under way

  15. The source of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen in clinically localized prostate cancer--T, N, or M?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Kavadi, Vivek S.; Pollack, Alan; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von; Sands, M. Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important marker for prostate cancer and has been shown to be secreted from the primary tumor and from metastases. However, the relative contribution of the primary and micrometastatic disease to the serum level of PSA in patients with clinically localized disease has not been delineated. This study addresses the source of pretreatment serum PSA in patients with clinically localized disease. Methods and Materials: The fall in serum PSA level following radical prostatectomy (280 patients; 105 T1, 165 T2, 10 T3) or definitive radiotherapy (427 patients; 122 T1, 147 T2, 158 T3/T4) was analyzed with the assumption that any fall in PSA following local treatment reflects the fraction of PSA produced in the prostate and its primary tumor. Results: Serum PSA level became undetectable in 277 of the 280 (99%) patients within 6 months of radical prostatectomy. The three patients who did not achieve undetectable levels had postsurgical values ≤ 0.9 ng/ml. Following definitive radiotherapy, nadir serum PSA values were between ≤ 0.3 and 20.3 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 1.9 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively. Nadir PSA was undetectable in 52 patients (12%). Four patients' PSA did not fall, but rose from the start, and each developed metastatic disease within 9 months, and in each metastases appeared to contribute to pretreatment serum PSA. In the remaining patients, the maximal factor by which PSA fell to its nadir was higher the higher the pretreatment PSA level. We present arguments that this is most consistent with the hypothesis that virtually all detectable pretreatment serum PSA derives from the primary tumor. Confirmatory evidence that little of the pretreatment serum PSA came from metastases was obtained by extrapolating the rising PSA profile in 97 patients back to pretreatment time. Back-extrapolated PSA contributed a mean of 7% and a median of 5% to the pretreatment serum value. Because such back-extrapolated values

  16. Prostataspecifikt antigen, sure fosfataser og rektaleksploration i diagnostik af cancer prostatae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristorp Andersen, Betina; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Brasso, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Eleven hundred and seven patients referred for urological evaluation including measurement of serumprostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement are reviewed. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 105 patients. PSA was found to be superior to prostatic acid phosphatase in the discrimination between...... prostate cancer and benign prostatic conditions. In 105 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, scintigraphic evidence of osseous metastases was found in thirty-seven. No patients with a serum PSA value less than three times the upper normal limit of the assay had a positive bone scan. Isotope bone...

  17. Cadmium may impair prostate function as measured by Prostate Specific Antigen in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, Alessandro; Mocevic, Emina; Jönsson, Bo A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between cadmium in blood and the concentration of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) in semen, including the modifying effects of zinc or the CAG polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR). Blood and semen samples were collected from 504 partners of pregnant women.......0009). Inverse trends between cadmium and PSA were found when semen zinc concentrations were below the median value for men from Ukraine and Greenland. These outcomes suggest that cadmium may impair prostate function, as measured by PSA in semen, while high zinc levels and a low number of CAG repeats protects...

  18. Effect of Heamolysis on Prostate-Specific Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Hasan S.; Köse, Osman; Özdemir, Fatma; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We have investigated the effect of haemolysis on free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in daily clinical practice. Materials and Methods. Thirty-nine consecutive men were enrolled in this study. With an 18 gauge (G) needle 4 cc of blood samples were drawn from the right arm and 2 cc of it was expelled gently in a Vacutainer for regular PSA assay and the remaining was emptied into a second tube for complete haemolysis. Simultaneously 2 cc of more blood were taken with a 26 G ...

  19. An approach to develop a PSA workstation in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. W.; Han, S. H.; Park, C. K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes three kinds of efforts for the development of PSA workstation in KAERI; Development of a PSA tool, KIRAP, Reliability Database Development, Living PSA tool development. Korea has 9 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation and 9 NPPs under design or construction. For the NPPs recently constructed or designed, the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been performed by the Government requirements. For these PSAs, the MSDOS version of KIRAP has been used. For the consistent data management and the easiness of information handling needed in PSA, APSA workstation, KIRAP-Win is under development under Windows environment. For the reliability database on component failure rate, human error rate, and common cause failure rate, data used in international PSA or reliability data handbook are collected and processed to use in Korean new plants' PSAs. Finally, an effort for the development of a living PSA tool in KAERI based on dynamic PSA concept is described

  20. A Joint Report on PSA for New and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report addresses the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to new and advanced nuclear reactors. As far as advanced reactors are concerned, the objectives were to characterize the ability of current PSA technology to address key questions regarding the development, acceptance and licensing of advanced reactor designs, to characterize the potential value of advanced PSA methods and tools for application to advanced reactors, and to develop recommendations for any needed developments regarding PSA for these reactors. As far as the design and commissioning of new nuclear power plants is concerned, the objectives were to identify and characterize current practices regarding the role of PSA, to identify key technical issues regarding PSA, lessons learned and issues requiring further work; to develop recommendations regarding the use of PSA, and to identify future international cooperative work on the identified issues. In order to reach these objectives, questionnaires had been sent to participating countries and organisations

  1. A PSA study for the SMART basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, H. C.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, D. J.

    2002-03-01

    SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is under development that is an advanced integral type small and medium category nuclear power reactor with the rated thermal power of 330 MW. A Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) for the SMART basic design has been performed to evaluate the safety and optimize the design. Currently, the basic design is done and the detailed design is not available for the SMART, we made several assumptions about the system design before performing the PSA. The scope of the PSA was limited to the Level-1 internal full power PSA. The level-2 and 3 PSA, the external PSA, and the low power/shutdown PSA will be performed in the final design stage

  2. Prostatic specific antigen. From its early days until becoming a prostate cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellavedova, T

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been since the mid 80's the most commonly used biomarker for measuring current and future risk of prostate cancer, for its early detection and to measure response to treatments and detecting recurrence in all stages of the disease. PSA's early development came along with progress in the field of immunology, which allowed detection and study of antigens from different tissues and fluids when injecting them into rabbits to promote immune response. Rubin Flocks in 1960 was the first to investigate and discover prostate-specific antigens in benign and malignant tissue. Some years later, Hara, a Japanese forensic investigator, found 'gamma seminoprotein', that he used to detect human semen in rape cases. However, his work published in Japanese did not reach the Englishspeaking scientific community. In 1970 Ablin discovered both in prostatic fluid and tissue what he called "prostate-specific antigen", but he didn't characterize or describe it. Investigators Li and Beling, and Sensabaugh, approached the current PSA, but they were limited by available technology at that time. Dr T Ming Chu led a research team on prostate cancer in New York, USA and published their results in 1979. He finally received the patent for the discovery of "human purified prostate antigen" in 1984. Due to this work, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in USA, approved the use of PSA for monitoring recurrence after treatment. It was later known that PSA was not prostate-specific since it was produced in other tissues and fluids, but it was recognized that it was human species-specific. Works by Papsidero and Stamey showed new indications and utilities for PSA, but it was Catalona who first used it as a marker for prostate cancer in 1991. Thanks to these advances FDA authorized in 1994 the clinical use of PSA for early detection of prostate cancer.

  3. Prostate-specific antigen bounce after high-dose rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Naotaka; Kakinoki, Hiroaki; Tsutsui, Akio; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Iguchi, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Toru; Uehara, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer patients was evaluated. Sixty-one patients treated with HDR-brachytherapy followed by EBRT had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 24 months) in our institute. A PSA bounce was defined as a rise of at least 0.1 ng/ml greater than a previous PSA level, with a subsequent decline equal to, or less than, the initial nadir. A PSA bounce was noted in 16 (26.2%) of 61 patients (one patient had a PSA bounce twice). Median time to develop a PSA bounce was 18 months, but 23.5% developed a PSA bounce after 24 months. Median duration of PSA bounce was 6 months and 11.8% had increased PSA within a period of 12 months. Median bounce height was 0.2 ng/ml (range, 0.1 to 3.39 ng/ml). A bounce height of gerater than 2 ng/ml was seen in 11.8%. Clinical characteristics (age, prostate volume, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy, risk classification, stage, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score) do not predict whether or not there will be a PSA bounce. In patients treated with HDR-brachytherapy followed by EBRT, the incidence and characteristics of PSA bounce were similar to those in patients treated with low-dose rate brachytherapy. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of PSA bounce following HDR-brachytherapy with EBRT. (author)

  4. First off-time treatment prostate-specific antigen kinetics predicts survival in intermittent androgen deprivation for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Olivier, Fabien; Prapotnich, Dominique; Dancausa, José; Fhima, Mehdi; David, Stéphane; Secin, Fernando P; Ingels, Alexandre; Barret, Eric; Galiano, Marc; Rozet, François; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time is relying on an exponential kinetic pattern. This pattern has never been validated in the setting of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD). Objective is to analyze the prognostic significance for PCa of recurrent patterns in PSA kinetics in patients undergoing IAD. A retrospective study was conducted on 377 patients treated with IAD. On-treatment period (ONTP) consisted of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist injections combined with oral androgen receptor antagonist. Off-treatment period (OFTP) began when PSA was lower than 4 ng/ml. ONTP resumed when PSA was higher than 20 ng/ml. PSA values of each OFTP were fitted with three basic patterns: exponential (PSA(t) = λ.e(αt)), linear (PSA(t) = a.t), and power law (PSA(t) = a.t(c)). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression model analyzed predictive factors for oncologic outcomes. Only 45% of the analyzed OFTPs were exponential. Linear and power law PSA kinetics represented 7.5% and 7.7%, respectively. Remaining fraction of analyzed OFTPs (40%) exhibited complex kinetics. Exponential PSA kinetics during the first OFTP was significantly associated with worse oncologic outcome. The estimated 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 46% for exponential versus 80% for nonexponential PSA kinetics patterns. The corresponding 10-year probability of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) was 69% and 31% for the two patterns, respectively. Limitations include retrospective design and mixed indications for IAD. PSA kinetic fitted with exponential pattern in approximately half of the OFTPs. First OFTP exponential PSA kinetic was associated with a shorter time to CRPC and worse CSS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early detection of prostate cancer in Syria using T.PSA and F.PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adel, M.; Abu Daher, D.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the current study is performing an initial prostate cancer screening test using PSA and F PSA tumour markers. A total of 3000 men in 40-75 years of age were participated in this study. Demographic and clinical data for subjects were collected by the programme staff. Total PSA and free PSA assays were determined using the ImunoTech total and free PSA assay kits, based on IRMA technique (kindly provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency). Criteria for participating in this study included : 1) men of age 50-75 (men of age as low as 40 were included in case of positive family history). 2) No previous history of prostate cancer. The following parameters were followed to refer the suspicious cases to a specialized hospital specific tests: 1)PSA>3 ng/ml . 2)High PSA value according to the participant age group. 3) Low F/TPSA ratio. In the hospital the following tests were performed:1) Complete clinical exam including DRE.2)TRUS in some cases.3) Biopsy for highly suspicious cases. 4)The low suspicious cases were retested in six months. Out of 338 cases referred to a specialized hospital, 264 cases were shown prostatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),while 36 cases proved to be prostatic cancer. However, the contact was lost in 36 cases because of changing the phone number or travelling outside the country . The detection rate of prostate cancer among all participating cases in this study was 1.2%, while this ratio was 10.7% among the referred cases. F/TPSA ratio has shown a good ability to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (author)

  6. Experience from the comparison of two PSA-studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2001-03-01

    Two probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) made for nearly identical reactors units (Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3) have been compared. Two different analysis teams made the PSAs, and the analyses became quite different. The goal of the study is to identify, clarify and explain differences between PSA-studies. The purpose is to understand limitations and uncertainties in PSA, to explain reasons for differences between PSA-studies, and to give recommendations for comparison of PSA-studies and for improving the PSA-methodology. The reviews have been made by reading PSA-documentation, using the computer model and interviewing persons involved in the projects. The method and findings have been discussed within the project group. Both the PSA-project and various parts in the PSA-model have been reviewed. A major finding was that the two projects had different purpose and thus had different resources, scope and even methods in their study. The study shows that comparison of PSA results from different plants is normally not meaningful. It takes a very deep knowledge of the PSA studies to make a comparison of the results and usually one has to ensure that the compared studies have the same scope and are based on the same analysis methods. Harmonisation of the PSA-methodology is recommended in the presentation of results, presentation of methods, scope main limitation and assumption, and definitions for end states, initiating events and common cause failures. This would facilitate the comparison of the studies. Methods for validation of PSA for different application areas should be developed. The developed PSA review standards can be applied for a general validation of a study. The most important way to evaluate the real feasibility of PSA can take place only with practical applications. The PSA-documentation and models can be developed to facilitate the communication between PSA-experts and users. In any application consultation with the PSA-expert is however needed. Many

  7. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuefeng; Liu Yibing; Jia Juanjuan; Xu Wenge; Li Ziying; Chen Yongli; Han Shiquan

    2008-01-01

    The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum total prostate-specific antigen (T-PSA) was developed. The reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide was introduced into this chemiluminescence system. The detection limit is established as 0.12 μg/L (n=10, mean of zero standard + 2SD) and the analytical recovery of PSA is 83.8%-118.7%. The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs vary from 4.4%-5.0% and 6.2%-11.7%, respectively. The experimental correlation coefficient of dilution is found to be 0.999. Compared with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits, the correlative equation is y=1.07x+0.68, and correlation coefficient r=0.97. The standard range for the method is 1.5-80 μg/L, and it presents good linearity. (authors)

  8. Towards a PSA harmonization French-Belgian comparison of the level 1 PSA for two similar PWR types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.; Corenwinder, F.; Lanore, J.M.; Gryffroy, D.; Gelder, P. de; Hulsmans, M.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the cooperation between French and Belgian regulatory authorities, a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) comparison exercise has been carried out for several years. This comparison deals with two PSA level 1 studies for internal events, performed for both power and shutdown states: the French PSA of the 900 MWe-series PWR, and the Belgian PSA of the Tihange 1 PWR, which both concern PWRs with a similar Framatome design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the PSA comparison methodology and to present, in a qualitative way, an overview of the insights obtained up to now. It also shows that such an 'a posteriori' benchmark exercise turns out to be a step towards PSA harmonization, and gives more confidence in the results of plant specific PSA when used for applications like precursor analysis or evaluations of importance to safety. (authors)

  9. Crossreactive autoantibodies directed against cutaneous and joint antigens are present in psoriatic arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Dolcino

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by erosions and new bone formation. Diagnosis of PsA is mainly clinical and there are no biomarkers available. Moreover in PsA autoantibodies have not been described so far. Indeed an autoimmune origin has been suggested but never proven. Aim of the study was to investigate the possible presence of autoantibodies typically associated with PsA.We used pooled IgG immunoglobulins derived from 30 patients with PsA to screen a random peptide library in order to identify disease relevant autoantigen peptides.Among the selected peptides, one was recognised by nearly all the patients' sera. The identified peptide (PsA peptide: TNRRGRGSPGAL shows sequence similarities with skin autoantigens, such as fibrillin 3, a constituent of actin microfibrils, desmocollin 3, a constituent of the desmosomes and keratin 78, a component of epithelial cytoskeleton. Interestingly the PsA peptide shares homology with the nebulin-related anchoring protein (N-RAP, a protein localized in the enthesis (point of insertion of a tendon or ligament to the bone, which represents the first affected site during early PsA. Antibodies affinity purified against the PsA peptide recognize fibrillin, desmocollin, keratin and N-RAP. Moreover antibodies directed against the PsA peptide are detectable in 85% of PsA patients. Such antibodies are not present in healthy donors and are present in 13/100 patients with seroposive rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In seronegative RA these antibodies are detectable only in 3/100 patients.Our results indicate that PsA is characterized by the presence of serum autoantibodies crossreacting with an epitope shared by skin and joint antigens.

  10. Association of serum prostate-specific antigen levels with the results of the prostate needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaziroudsari, Hamid; Mirzaei, Arezoo; Maleki, Nasrollah

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels with outcomes of prostate needle biopsy in men 50 or more years old. We measured serum PSA levels in 1472 healthy men 50 or more years old. Men who had serum PSA values 4.0ng/mL or higher underwent digital rectal examination. If there were either an elevated PSA level (≥4ng/mL) or abnormal digital rectal examination, a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed. The mean serum total PSA level was 13.73±11.44ng/mL, and the mean serum free PSA level was 4.99±0.97ng/mL. Of the 260 men who had serum total PSA levels of≥4ng/mL, 139 underwent biopsy. Of these 139 men, 45 (32.4%) had prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia with or without prostatitis was diagnosed in 94 patients (67.6%). There was no significant correlation between age and histologic results of prostate needle biopsy (P-value=0.469). The serum free PSA showed no significant correlation with histologic results of prostate needle biopsy, whereas the serum total PSA level had a significant correlation in patients with adenocarcinoma compared with other diagnosis. The overall frequency of detection of prostate adenocarcinoma was 32.4%. This study revealed that no level of PSA was associated with a 100% positive predictive value and negative biopsy can occur virtually at any PSA level. There is a need to create awareness among the general population and health professionals for an early diagnosis of this common form of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  12. Advanced prostatic carcinomas with low serum levels of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Snežana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA represent a significant diagnostic and monitoring parameter of prostatic carcinoma (PC. The aim of the study was to establish correlation of serum PSA level in addition to grade, histological type, and clinical stage of PC in patients with normal or intermediary PSA serum level. In 37 untreated PC patients with preoperative serum PSA levels ranging between 0.1 and 9.6 ng/ml, paraffin-embedded tissue and serum samples were immunohistological studied and immunoassay for PSA was done. The most representative was poorly differentiated PC with D stage In serum samples from PC patients 27 (73.7% normal (≤ 4.0 ng/ml, and 10 (27.3% intermediate (4.1-10 ng/ml PSA levels were found Immunohistochemistry, in 36 PC (97.3% had demonstrated the expression of PSA. Our study results had shown low serum PSA levels in some patients with advanced poorly differentiated PC.

  13. Can Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics before Prostate Biopsy Predict the Malignant Potential of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Yoo, Dae Seon; Park, Jinsung; Cho, Seok; Kang, Seok Ho; Lee, Sang Hyub; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Tchun Yong; Park, Sung Yul

    2015-11-01

    To predict the malignant potential of prostate cancer (PCa) according to prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV), PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA ratio (%fPSA), and digital rectal examination (DRE). From January 2009 to December 2012, 548 adult male patients were diagnosed with PCa by prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 155 adult male patients with an initial PSA level≤10 ng/mL and whose PSA levels had been checked more than two times at least 6 months before they had been diagnosed with PCa, with test intervals of more than 3 months. Patients with a urinary tract infection, and patients who had previously undergone cystoscopy or surgery of the prostate were excluded. We separated patients into two groups according to Gleason sum [Gleason sum≤7 (n=134) or Gleason sum≥8 (n=21)] and the presence of extracapsular invasion [organ confined (n=129) or extracapsular invasion (n=26)]. Differences between the groups were compared. The group with a Gleason sum≥8 or extracapsular invasion of PCa showed high PSAV and significantly lower %fPSA. There were no significant differences in PSAD and the presence of an abnormality on DRE between two groups. In PCa patients treated with other therapies besides prostatectomy, a high PSA velocity and a low %fPSA may predict high grade PCa with a Gleason sum≥8 or the presence of extracapsular invasion.

  14. Diagnostic value of prostate-specific antigen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Mardanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. Its presentation is that of irregular menstruation associated with ovulation defects. Because of adverse outcomes such as metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, its diagnosis and treatment is very important. Therefore, the diagnostic value of prostatespecific antigen (PSA in women with polycystic ovary syndrome was evaluated. Methods: A total of 32 women with PCOS and 32 aged matched healthy females were recruited in this case-control study. The subjects were compared by means of metabolic measures and serum PSA level. The correlations between these markers were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity values and cut off levels of PSA were established for diagnosis of PCOS. Results: Mean PSA, Ferriman Gallwey score (FGS, luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio (LH/FSH, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, 17α hydroxyprogesterone (17α HP levels were significantly higher in PCOS (P<0.001, respectively. PSA levels greater than 0.07 ng/ml yielded a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82%, and was helpful as a diagnostic tool for women with PCOS. Circulating androgens and hirsutism were associated with higher levels of PSA in PCOS women. Conclusions: Our results showed direct correlation between PSA, hirsutism and hyperandrogemsm state. Therefore, it seems logical to use PSA level for detection of hyperandrogemsm state in women.

  15. Management and organisational factors in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The constraints of PSA are increasingly considered with increasing application of PSA for the safety management of nuclear power plants (see US-NRC, 'Risk Informed Regulation', NRC-1). There is a vivid international discourse about the applicability of the variables of plant management and organisation in PSAs, which has lead to a great variety of research activities into this matter (see PSAM 4). This paper here summarizes the current state of progress of research work and discusses the applicability of results. The studies for comparative assessment of methodology and results were performed by the TUeV Nord under the roof of the BMU/BfS-sponsored project SR 2260, ''Further development of probabilistic methods for nuclear power plant safety assessment. (orig./CB) [de

  16. BORIS/CTCFL mRNA isoform expression and epigenetic regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Petra A.; Zhang, Wa; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer germline (CG) genes are normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers; their immunogenicity has led to the widespread development of cancer vaccines targeting these antigens. BORIS/CTCFL is an autosomal CG antigen and promising cancer vaccine target. BORIS is the only known paralog of CTCF, a gene intimately involved in genomic imprinting, chromatin insulation, and nuclear regulation. We have previously shown that BORIS is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and that its expression coincides with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation. Recently, 23 different BORIS mRNA variants have been described, and have been functionally grouped into six BORIS isoform families (sf1–sf6). In the present study, we have characterized the expression of BORIS isoform families in normal ovary (NO) and EOC, the latter of which were selected to include two groups with widely varying global DNA methylation status. We find selective expression of BORIS isoform families in NO, which becomes altered in EOC, primarily by the activation of BORIS sf1 in EOC. When comparing EOC samples based on methylation status, we find that BORIS sf1 and sf2 isoform families are selectively activated in globally hypomethylated tumors. In contrast, CTCF is downregulated in EOC, and the ratio of BORIS sf1, sf2, and sf6 isoform families as a function of CTCF is elevated in hypomethylated tumors. Finally, the expression of all BORIS isoform families was induced to varying extents by epigenetic modulatory drugs in EOC cell lines, particularly when DNMT and HDAC inhibitors were used in combination. PMID:23390377

  17. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  18. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  19. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  20. Prioritization of design changes based on PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, B.; Mavko, B.

    1996-01-01

    Effective use of Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSA) in the day to day plant operation is subject of intensive discussions among plant operators and regulators. There are several possible applications in which the PSA can be used, among those also to use the PSA approach for the quantification of influence of different proposed design changes to nuclear safety - influence on public safety - health. NPP Krsko is one of those plants that successfully completed its PSA project, with Level 1 and Level 2 analyses and effective know-how transfer. It also faces a number of regulatory and internally generated requirements for different design changes, mainly due to the fact that the plant is committed to continuous augmentation of nuclear safety. It is considered that the available tools and knowledge should be used and therefore applicable methodology should be developed for effective prioritization of proposed design changes by performing cost-benefit analyses for all major modifications - focusing on their influence on nuclear safety. Based on the above a new method for prioritization of design changes is proposed. The method uses Level 1 results (in the sense of plant damage states and their frequencies) directly as an input for further processing - first decision step to decide whether the proposed modification has or has no influence on nuclear safety. In Level 2 analyses the combination of probabilistic and deterministic approach was adopted. In fact the results of the deterministic analyses of severe accidents are treated in probabilistic manner due to large uncertainty of results. Finally to be able to perform plant specific cost benefit analyses so called partial Level 3 was defined. The proposed methods was preliminary tested and it gave favorable results. (author)

  1. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  2. Stop C. difficile Infections PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This 60 second PSA is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  3. PSA application on the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Michihiko; Nakano, Takafumi; Morimoto, Kazuyuki; Nojiri, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) has been carrying out to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety. As a part of the PSR, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodology has been applied to evaluate the relative importance of safety functions that prevent the progress of events causing to postulated accidents. Based on the results of the safety reassessments of the TRP that was carried out in 1999, event trees were developed to model sequences of postulated accidents. Event trees were quantified by using the results of fault tree analysis and human reliability analysis. In the quantification, the reliability data generally used in PSA of nuclear power plants were mainly used. Operating experiences of the TRP were also utilized to evaluated both component/system reliability and human reliability. The relative importance of safety functions was evaluated by using two major importance measures, Fussell-Vesely and Risk Achievement Worth both generally used in PSA of nuclear power plants. Through these evaluations, some useful insights into the safety of the TRP have been obtained. The results of the relative importance measures would be utilized to qualify TRP component/equipment important to the safety. (author)

  4. The organizational factor in PSA framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcasiu, Mita, E-mail: mmfarcasiu@yahoo.com; Nitoi, Mirela

    2015-11-15

    The goals of the Man–Machine–Organization system analysis are to develop the suitable studies and techniques to identify, prevent and predict the cause of system unavailability. A descriptive concept of man–machine–organization system was developed. MMOS is defined in probability theory in the attempt to find ways for its qualitative and quantitative quantification in a PSA framework. The need for this study was demonstrated by analysis of variance of the complex system unavailability in relation to human error probability (HEP) and organizational error probability (OMP). The PSA model proposed in this paper assesses the organizational factor in MMOS by observing its influence on the human factor and equipment. Thus the influence of organizational factors is evaluated not only on component but also on the human performance. The study highlights the need to improve the understanding of the influence of organizational factors on the safe operation of nuclear installations. Using MMOS concept in PSA could identify any serious deficiencies of human and equipment performance which can sometime be corrected by improvement of the organizational factor.

  5. The organizational factor in PSA framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, Mita; Nitoi, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the Man–Machine–Organization system analysis are to develop the suitable studies and techniques to identify, prevent and predict the cause of system unavailability. A descriptive concept of man–machine–organization system was developed. MMOS is defined in probability theory in the attempt to find ways for its qualitative and quantitative quantification in a PSA framework. The need for this study was demonstrated by analysis of variance of the complex system unavailability in relation to human error probability (HEP) and organizational error probability (OMP). The PSA model proposed in this paper assesses the organizational factor in MMOS by observing its influence on the human factor and equipment. Thus the influence of organizational factors is evaluated not only on component but also on the human performance. The study highlights the need to improve the understanding of the influence of organizational factors on the safe operation of nuclear installations. Using MMOS concept in PSA could identify any serious deficiencies of human and equipment performance which can sometime be corrected by improvement of the organizational factor.

  6. PSA bounces after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and external beam radiation: Impact on definitions of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, Anthony L.; Christodouleas, John P.; Shipley, William U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounces after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and their impact on definitions of biochemical failure. Methods and Materials: Characteristics of bounce were calculated for all patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation at our institution between 1992 and 1998 (preexclusion analysis). Calculations were repeated for the subgroup that satisfied additional inclusion/exclusion criteria (postexclusion analysis). The percentage of bounces scoring as false positives according to the ASTRO definition of biochemical failure was compared with those for three alternative definitions (Vancouver, Nadir-plus-two, and Nadir-plus-three) using McNemar's tests. Results: Thirty-nine percent (preexclusion cohort) and 56% (postexclusion cohort) of patients demonstrated a PSA bounce. Twenty percent (preexclusion analysis) and 25% (postexclusion analysis) of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition scored the smallest percentage of bounces as failure, but the difference between this definition and the ASTRO definition reached statistical significance in neither preexclusion nor postexclusion analyses (p ≥ 0.070). Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant deprivation experienced a PSA bounce. A large percentage of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition is less vulnerable to this bias

  7. Clinical impact of body mass index on prostate biopsy in patients with intermediate PSA levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Chin, Kensei; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kamijima, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    From April 2005 to September 2007, 480 patients underwent transrectal prostate biopsy at our institution. The clinical data including age, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and body mass index (BMI) were obtained, and the cancer detection rates and pathological findings were evaluated in 305 cases with a PSA concentration of 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml. Prostate volume was calculated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The 305 patients were categorized according to their BMI into three groups (normal, less than 22 kg/m 2 ; overweight, 22-25 kg/m 2 ; and obese, more than 25 kg/m 2 ). Cancer detection rates and histopathologic findings were compared between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed. Prostate cancer was detected in 127 patients. No significant differences in BMI were observed between biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative cases (p=0.965), and the detection rates of prostate cancer observed in the three groups were not significantly different. There was a significant association between BMI and the findings of high Gleason score (more than 4+3) (p=0.048). BMI was not a contributory factor of prostate cancer detection for cases with intermediate PSA levels; however, patients with high BMI may have high-grade malignancy features. (author)

  8. Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Teruyoshi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Hirokawa, Naoki; Sato, Chikahiro; Sato, Eisuke; Tomizawa, Shigeatsu

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

  9. Development of PSA audit guideline and regulatory PSA model for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Namchul; Lee, Chang-Ju; Kim, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    SMART is under development for dual purposes of power generation and seawater desalination in Korea. It is an integral reactor type with a thermal power output of 330 MW and employs advanced design features such as a passive system for the removal of residual heat and also the setting of all the components of the primary system inside the reactor pressure vessel. It is essential to develop new probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) validation guidance for SMART. For the purpose of regulatory verification to the risk level of SMART, the insights and key issues on the PSA are identified with referring some worldwide safety guides as well as its design characteristics. Regulatory PSA model under the development for the design confirmation and its preliminary result are also described. (authors)

  10. Impact of Body Mass Index, Age, Prostate Volume, and Genetic Polymorphisms on Prostate-specific Antigen Levels in a Control Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cox, David G; Roupret, Morgan; Koutlidis, Nicolas; Bigot, Pierre; Valeri, Antoine; Ondet, Valerie; Gaffory, Cécile; Fournier, Georges; Azzouzi, Abdel-Rahmene; Cormier, Luc; Cussenot, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is still the cornerstone of prostate cancer (PCa) screening and diagnosis in both research and current clinical practice. Inaccuracy of PSA is partly due to the influence of a number of genetic, clinical, and biological factors modifying PSA blood levels. In the present study, we detailed the respective influence of each factor among age, body mass index (BMI), prostate volume, and five single-nucleotide polymorphisms-rs10788160 (10q26), rs10993994 (10q11), rs11067228 (12q24), rs17632542 (19q13.33), and rs2928679 (8p21)-on PSA values in a cohort of 1374 men without PCa. Our results show that genetic factors, when risk variants are combined, influence PSA levels with an effect size similar to that of BMI. Taken together, the respective correlations of clinical parameters and genetic parameters would make it possible to correct and adjust PSA values more effectively in each individual. These results establish the basis to understand and implement a more personalised approach for the interpretation of PSA blood levels in the context of PCa screening and diagnosis. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values in an individual may vary according to genetic predisposition. The effect size of this variation can be significant, comparable with those resulting from clinical characteristics. Personalised PSA testing should take this into account. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokudome S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinkan Tokudome,1 Ryosuke Ando,2 Yoshiro Koda,3 1Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Nephro-urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 3Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Abstract: The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (~30%. There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1 adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2 improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3 fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1 examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers

  12. Is Serum Prostate-specific Antigen a Diagnostic Marker for Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Alireza; Taran, Ludmila; Shoar, Saeed; Omranipour, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Prostrate-specific antigen (PSA) is a marker of prostate gland malignancy which has been considered in cases with breast cancer in recent years. The goal of this study was to determine total and free PSA levels in cases with malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety women with histological proved malignant breast masses and 90 with benign breast masses were enrolled. Total and free PSA levels along with histological grade and conditions of vascular and perinural invasion, status of hormonal tumor receptors, immune-histo-chemistry markers recorded for all cases. Total and free PSA levels were assessed after treatment in cases with malignant masses. Total and free PSA levels were significantly higher in cases with malignant masses. The best cut off point for total PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.31 and the best cut off point for free PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.19. After treatment, mean free PSA level was significantly lower than free PSA before treatment (0.23 vs 0.3, pbenign and malignant breast masses.

  13. Prostate-specific antigen increase during dutasteride to indicate the need for prostate biopsy: influence of prostatic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandro; Maggi, Martina; Fasulo, Andrea; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Cattarino, Susanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of an increase in total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels despite dutasteride treatment as a predictor of prostate cancer (PC) at biopsy. We focused our attention on the rate of the first PSA increase and on the influence of prostatic inflammation. From 2011 to 2016, 365 men with a previous negative prostate biopsy and persistent elevated PSA levels received dutasteride treatment. The population was followed for a range of 12-48 months. One hundred twelve cases with a confirmed PSA increase >0.5 ng/ml over the nadir value during the follow-up were included in Group A and underwent a new prostate biopsy. In Group A, the PSA increase was associated with PC at the re-biopsy in 66% of cases. The percentage of PSA reduction after 6 months of treatment was not a significant indicator of the risk for PC. The distribution of inflammatory infiltrates significantly (pprostate biopsies. The relative risk for PC at biopsy significantly increased according to PSA level during dutasteride. Treatment with dutasteride can help to analyze PSA kinetic. A persistent prostatic inflammation is a factor able to reduce the performance of PSA kinetic during dutasteride treatment.

  14. PSA-operations synergism for the advanced test reactor shutdown operations PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for shutdown operations, cask handling, and canal draining is a successful example of the importance of good PSA-operations synergism for achieving a realistic and accepted assessment of the risks and for achieving desired risk reduction and safety improvement in a best and cost-effective manner. The implementation of the agreed-upon upgrades and improvements resulted in the reductions of the estimated mean frequency for core or canal irradiated fuel uncovery events, a total reduction in risk by a factor of nearly 1000 to a very low and acceptable risk level for potentially severe events

  15. Workshop on PSA for New and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This workshop was organized by the NEA Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK). The key objective of the workshop was to share the current state-of-the art on the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) applied for new reactors and advanced reactors. Fifty experts from 13 countries and one international organization (IAEA) participated in the present workshop, and 35 technical papers were presented. The main topics of interest, discussed during the workshop, included the followings: regulatory aspects, risk-informed methods, technical aspects of the PSA for new and advanced reactors, hazards of PSA (internal and external), severe accident/source term/Level 2 PSA, and consequence analysis/Level 3 PSA. Among the technical aspects of the PSA, the assessment of the reliability of passive safety systems appears to be a recurrent issue

  16. Lessons learned form IRSN review of Flamanville 3 Level PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, G.; Corenwinder, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the construction and licensing of Flamanville 3 NPP the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)plays an important role for the EPR Project assessment. The PSA was used for early design verification of EPR Reactor, several design improvement being defined based on these PSA insights and following the discussions with the French and German safety authorities. IRSN, as the French Safety Authority (ASN) technical support organization, performs the review of the PSA developed by the plant operator (EDF). The paper presents the main issues regarding the using of 'design PSA', identified by IRSN following the review of the internal events Level 1 PSA transmitted by EDF in the frame of the anticipated instruction of the application for operating license of the Flamanville 3 reactor. (authors)

  17. PSA and androgen-related gene (AR, CYP17, and CYP19) polymorphisms and the risk of adenocarcinoma at prostate biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos; de Jesus, Carlos Márcio Nóbrega; Trindade Filho, José Carlos Souza

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of polymorphisms in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen-related genes (AR, CYP17, and CYP19) on prostate cancer (PCa) risk in selected high-risk patients who underwent prostate biopsy. Blood samples and prostate tissues were obtained......=0.0110) genotypes. Genetic instability at the AR locus leading to somatic mosaicism was detected in one PCa patient by comparing the length of AR CAG repeats in matched peripheral blood and prostate biopsy cores. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PSA genotype should be a clinically relevant biomarker...

  18. PSA time to nadir as a prognostic factor of first-line docetaxel treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer: evidence from patients in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-Jie; Pei, Xin-Qi; Tian, Ge; Wu, Da-Peng; Fan, Jin-Hai; Jiang, Yu-Mei; He, Da-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Docetaxel-based chemotherapy remains the first-line treatment for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in China; however, the prognostic factors associated with effects in these patients are still controversial. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the data from 71 eligible Chinese patients who received docetaxel chemotherapy from 2009 to 2016 in our hospital and experienced a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥50% during the treatment and investigated the potential role of time to nadir (TTN) of PSA. TTN was defined as the time from start of chemotherapy to the nadir of PSA level during the treatment. Multivariable Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to predict overall survival (OS). In these patients, the median of TTN was 17 weeks. Patients with TTN ≥17 weeks had a longer response time to chemotherapy compared to TTN PSA progression in patients with TTN ≥17 weeks was 11.44 weeks compared to 5.63 weeks when TTN was PSA level at the diagnosis of cancer (HR: 4.337, 95% CI: 1.616-11.645, P = 0.004), duration of initial androgen deprivation therapy (HR: 2.982, 95% CI: 1.104-8.045, P = 0.031), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR: 3.963, 95% CI: 1.380-11.384, P = 0.011), and total PSA response (Class 1 [PSA remains an important prognostic marker in predicting therapeutic outcome in Chinese population who receive chemotherapy for mCRPC and have >50% PSA remission.

  19. Equivalent biochemical failure-free survival after external beam radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy in patients with a pretreatment prostate specific antigen of > 4-20 ng/ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Whittington, Richard; Kaplan, Irving; Beard, Clair; Jiroutek, Michael; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Wein, Alan; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Biochemical failure-free survival stratified by the pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy Gleason score (bGl) is determined for prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A Cox regression multivariable analysis evaluating the variables of PSA, bGl, and clinical stage was used to evaluate the end point of time to PSA failure in 867 and 757 consecutive prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy, respectively. PSA failure-free survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons were made using the log rank test. Results: The pretreatment PSA, bGl, and clinical stage (T3,4 vs. T1,T2) were found to be independent predictors of time to post-treatment PSA failure for both surgically and radiation managed patients using Cox regression multivariable analysis. Patients with a pretreatment PSA of > 4 ng/ml and ≤ 20 ng/ml could be classified into risk groups for time to post-therapy PSA failure: low = PSA > 4-10 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 4; intermediate = PSA > 4-10 and bGl 5-7; or PSA > 10-20 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 7; high = PSA > 4-20 ng/ml and bGl ≥ 8. Two-year PSA failure-free survival for surgically managed and radiation-managed patients, respectively, were 98% vs. 92% (p = 0.45), 77% vs. 81% (p = 0.86), and 51% vs. 53% (p = 0.48) for patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for post-therapy PSA failure. Conclusions: There was no statistical difference in the 2-year PSA failure-free survival for potentially curable patients managed definitively with surgery or radiation therapy when a retrospective comparison stratifying for the pretreatment PSA and bGl was performed

  20. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen and obesity in prostate cancer screening: analysis of a large cohort in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuaki; Seike, Kensaku; Maeda, Shinichi; Shinohara, Yuka; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sugimoto, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in obese men might decrease the sensitivity of prostate cancer screening, leading to delayed diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis. We examined whether the effect of obesity is important in prostate cancer screening of Japanese men, who have a low prevalence of obesity. We analyzed 19,294 male subjects from a large cohort of Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) employees (aged > 50 years, serum PSA level ≤ 4.0 ng/mL) who underwent physical examinations from August 2006 to December 2009. The relationship between PSA level and obesity-related factors was analyzed by simple and multiple regression analysis. The relationships between six body mass index (BMI) categories, and PSA level and PSA mass (PSA concentration × plasma volume) were analyzed. PSA level decreased significantly with increasing BMI, but the coefficient of determination was very low. Mean PSA values decreased from 1.02 to 0.85 ng/mL as BMI increased from underweight (BMI 35). However, PSA mass peaked in the overweight category and was slightly reduced with increasing BMI. On multiple regression analysis, PSA level was influenced by age, diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein as well as BMI. We found an inverse but weak relationship between PSA level and BMI. Obesity seems to have very limited influence on prostate cancer screening in this population. Nonetheless, when considering indications for prostatic biopsy in obese men, we should be aware that the hemodilution effect might reduce PSA levels. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Low Power Shutdown PSA for CANDU Type Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Myung Su [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    KHNP also have concentrated on full power PSA. Some recently constructed OPR1000 type plants and APR1400 type plants have performed the low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA. The purpose of LPSD PSA is to identify the main contributors on the accident sequences of core damage and to find the measure of safety improvement. After the Fukushima accident, Korean regulatory agency required the shutdown severe accident management guidelines (SSAMG) development for safety enhancement. For the reliability of SSAMG, KHNP should develop the LPSD PSA. Especially, the LPSD PSA for CANDU type plant had developed for the first time in Korea. This paper illustrates how the LPSD PSA for CANDU type developed and the core damage frequency (CDF) is different with that of full power PSA. KHNP performed LPSD PSA to develop the SSAMG after the Fukushima accidents. The results show that risk at the specific operation mode during outage is higher than that of full power operation. Also, the results indicated that recovery failure of class 4 power at the POS 5A, 5B contribute dominantly to the total CDF from importances analysis. LPSD PSA results such as CDF with initiating events and POSs, risk results with plant damage state, and containment failure probability and frequency with POSs can be used by inputs for developing the SSAMG.

  2. PSA data base, comparison of the German and French approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuser, A.; Tirira, J.

    2001-01-01

    The results of probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) of nuclear power plants strongly depend on the reliability data used. This report describes coarsely the general process to generate reliability data for components and resumes the differences between the German and French approaches. As has been shown in former studies which compared international PSA data, PSA data are closely related to the model definitions of the PSA. Therefore single PSA data cannot be compared directly without regard e.g. to the corresponding fault trees. These findings are confirmed by this study. The comparison of German and French methods shows a lot of differences concerning various details of the data generation process. Some differences between single reliability data should be eliminated when taking into account the complete fault tree analysis. But there are some other differences which have a direct impact on the obtained results of a PSA. In view of the all differences between both approaches concerning the definition of data and the data collection process, it is not possible to compare directly German and French PSA data. However, the database differences give no indication on the influence on the PSA results. Therefore, it is a need to perform a common IPSN/GRS assessment on how the different databases impact the PSA results. (orig.)

  3. Use of PSA for improving the safety of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Chambon, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    Two French PWR Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies were conducted for the standardized PWR series of 900 and 1300 MWe. Both PSA 900 and PSA 1300 are level 1 PSAs, that means their objective is the evaluation of core meltdown frequency. These studies have some specific features, in particular the treatment of shutdown conditions, the treatment of long term post-accidental situations, and a wide use of French experience feedback. The PSAs are used for safety improvements of the French PWRs. Following the PSA results, several modifications to plants concerning the dominant sequences were decided. (R.P.). 2 refs., 4 figs

  4. Institute of nuclear power operations perspectives on PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, W.E.; Miller, W.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The investment to develop a PSA is very substantial, and therefore, there is motivation to recover this investment through further use of the techniques used to develop it. It is not surprising that nuclear power plant staff are beginning to use PSA to make operational decisions. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations is interested in those factors that impact the conduct of plant operations and therefore is actively monitoring the increased usage of PSA techniques. The purpose of this paper is to provide some thoughts and perspectives on the use of PSA as a factor in operational decision making, including decision making in activities performed by engineering, maintenance and operation personnel. (author)

  5. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  6. A population-based study on the association between educational length, prostate-specific antigen testing and use of prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Bratt, Ola; Örtegren, Joakim; Aly, Markus; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether educational length affects prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and the time to prostate biopsy for men with raised PSA values. Using register data on all men in Stockholm County in 2013 (n = 1,052,841), the limited-duration point prevalence of PSA testing and time between test and prostate biopsy or repeat testing were analysed. Patterns of follow-up were assessed using Kaplan-Meier product limit estimators and Cox proportional hazard models. Educational length was categorized as short (≤ 9 years), intermediate (10-12 years) or long (≥ 13 years). PSA testing increased with educational length in all age groups. Among men aged 50-69 years, 61% with long and 54% with short education had had a PSA test within the preceding 10 years (p prostate biopsy within 12 months. After adjusting for PSA level and age, educational length was still associated with the chance of having a prostate biopsy in men with PSA 4-10 ng/ml (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.31), but not in men with higher PSA values. PSA testing increased with educational length. Men with long education were more likely to have a prostate biopsy after an increased PSA value below 10 ng/ml than men with short education. These differences may contribute to the worse prostate cancer outcomes observed among men with lower socioeconomic status.

  7. The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Chris H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH PSA guidelines. Methods Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values. Results Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346 of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346 follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346 used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%. In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service. Conclusion A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance.

  8. Association between systemic inflammation and serum prostate-specific antigen in a healthy Korean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jonghyun; Lee, Hyunyoung; Yang, Wonjae

    2017-01-01

    Objective Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in healthy men with systemic inflammation. We aimed to investigate the association between systemic inflammation markers and serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. Material and methods A cohort of 20,151 healthy native Korean men without prostate disease between the ages of 40 and 65 years who underwent medical checkups were studied from January 2007 to December 2013. Serum total PSA and serum C-reactive protein concentrations, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts were determined. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were calculated. We checked the correlation between systemic inflammation markers and PSA. Results Data obtained from 18,800 healthy men were analyzed. The mean age of the study subjects was 50.72±7.62 years and the mean NLR was 1.764±0.804. Correlation analysis after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) revealed that neutrophil count (coefficient = 0.028, p value <0.001), and NLR (coefficient = 0.027, p value <0.001) correlated with PSA. Multivariate analysis using the full model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.043 respectively). Multivariate analysis using a stepwise model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.040, respectively) and BMI was negatively correlated with PSA (p<0.001). Conclusion Systemic inflammation markers are useful with a serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. NLR in particular is significantly associated with serum PSA. PMID:28861299

  9. Prostate-specific antigen and hormone receptor expression in male and female breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate carcinoma is among the most common solid tumors to secondarily involve the male breast. Prostate specific antigen (PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP are expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissue, and immunohistochemical staining for these markers is often used to confirm the prostatic origin of metastatic carcinoma. PSA expression has been reported in male and female breast carcinoma and in gynecomastia, raising concerns about the utility of PSA for differentiating prostate carcinoma metastasis to the male breast from primary breast carcinoma. This study examined the frequency of PSA, PSAP, and hormone receptor expression in male breast carcinoma (MBC, female breast carcinoma (FBC, and gynecomastia. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PSAP, AR, ER, and PR was performed on tissue microarrays representing six cases of gynecomastia, thirty MBC, and fifty-six FBC. Results PSA was positive in two of fifty-six FBC (3.7%, focally positive in one of thirty MBC (3.3%, and negative in the five examined cases of gynecomastia. PSAP expression was absent in MBC, FBC, and gynecomastia. Hormone receptor expression was similar in males and females (AR 74.1% in MBC vs. 67.9% in FBC, p = 0.62; ER 85.2% vs. 68.5%, p = 0.18; and PR 51.9% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.82. Conclusions PSA and PSAP are useful markers to distinguish primary breast carcinoma from prostate carcinoma metastatic to the male breast. Although PSA expression appeared to correlate with hormone receptor expression, the incidence of PSA expression in our population was too low to draw significant conclusions about an association between PSA expression and hormone receptor status in breast lesions.

  10. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.

  11. Development of kits for total PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of kits for Total PSA assay has shown promising results. All essential components of the assay were prepared with reproducibility and used to optimize the assay. By choosing two steps method, we could avoid the hook effect and obtain satisfactory Q.C. parameters of the standard curve i.e. blank = 0.8%, maximum binding = 65%. If reference material for calibration of the standard is agree upon, the validation could then be carried out with total confidence. Our final goal is to reduce the step of incubation to just one step with no interference from hook effect

  12. Prostate-specific antigen density values among patients with symptomatic prostatic enlargement in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, Emeka I; Nnabugwu, Ikenna I; Ozoemena, Francis O; Ugwumba, Fred O; Aderibigbe, Adesina S O; Ohayi, Samuel R; Echetabu, Kevin N

    2016-06-29

    This study aims to estimate the prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) cutoff level for detecting prostate cancer (CAP) in Nigerian men with "grey zone PSA" (4-10 ng/ml) and normal digital rectal examination findings. We addressed this research question: Is the international PSAD cutoff of 0.15 ideal for detecting CAP in our symptomatic patients with "grey zone PSA?" To estimate the prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) cutoff level for detecting CAP in Nigerian men with "grey zone PSA" (4-10 ng/ml) and normal digital rectal examination findings. Prospective. A tertiary medical center in Enugu, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty-four men with either benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or CAP were recruited. Patients with PSA above 4 ng/ml or abnormal digital rectal examination or hypoechoic lesion in the prostate were biopsied. PSAD and histology report of BPH or CAP. Ninety-seven patients had CAP while 157 had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Seventy-two patients had their serum PSA value within the range of 4.0 and 10 ng/ml. PSAD cutoff level to detect CAP was 0.04 (sensitivity 95.88 %; specificity 28.7 %). The PSAD cutoff level generated for Nigerian men in this study is 0.04 which is relatively different from international consensus. This PSAD cutoff level has a positive correlation with histology and could detect patients with CAP who have "grey zone PSA."

  13. The performance characteristics of prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Jeremy Yc; Yuen, Steffi Kk; Tsu, James Hl; Wong, Charles Kw; Ho, Brian Sh; Ng, Ada Tl; Ma, Wai-Kit; Ho, Kwan-Lun; Yiu, Ming-Kwong

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the performance characteristics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA density (PSAD) in Chinese men. All Chinese men who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PB) from year 2000 to 2013 were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for both PSA and PSAD were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at different cut-off levels were calculated. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. For the ROC, the area under curve was 0.770 for PSA (P specificity of 14.1%, PPV of 29.5%, and NPV of 86.9%; PSAD of 0.12 ng ml-1 cc-1 had sensitivity of 94.5%, specificity of 26.6%, PPV of 32.8%, and NPV of 92.7%. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, PSA cut-off at 4.5 ng ml-1 (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05-2.45, P= 0.029) and PSAD cut-off at 0.12 ng ml-1 cc-1 (OR 6.22, 95% CI 4.20-9.22, Pprostate cancer detection on TRUS-PB. In conclusion, the performances of PSA and PSAD at different cut-off levels in Chinese men were very different from those in Caucasians. PSA of 4.5 ng ml-1 and PSAD of 0.12 ng ml-1 cc-1 had near 95% sensitivity and were significant predictors of prostate cancer detection in Chinese men.

  14. The role of serial free/total prostate-specific antigen ratios in a watchful observation protocol for men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, V; Choo, R; De Boer, G; Klotz, L; Danjoux, C; Morton, G; Szumacher, E; Fleshner, N; Bunting, P

    2002-05-01

    To examine the change in the free/total prostate specific antigen ratio (f/tPSA) with time and to assess the potential value of serial measurements of f/tPSA as a determinant of disease progression in untreated, low-to-intermediate grade prostate cancer (T1b-T2b N0M0, Gleason score < or = 7 and PSA < or = 15 ng/mL). In a prospective single-arm cohort study from November 1995, patients were conservatively managed with watchful observation alone unless they met arbitrarily defined criteria (clinical, histological and biochemical) of disease progression. Patients were followed regularly and underwent blood tests including PSA and f/tPSA. The initial and mean f/tPSA and the rate of change of f/tPSA with time were evaluated against the rate constant for the PSA doubling time (PSATd). Correlation analyses were used to evaluate any association between baseline clinical variables and either the rate of change of f/tPSA or initial f/tPSA. As of December 2000, 161 of a total of 206 accrued patients had three or more f/tPSA measurements and formed the basis of the study (median age 70 years; median follow-up 2.7 years). The median initial f/tPSA was 0.16; there was a significant negative correlation between this value and the initial total PSA. The mean f/tPSA and rate of change of f/tPSA with time were significantly negatively correlated with the rate constant for PSATd. Also, the rate of change of f/tPSA correlated negatively with clinical T stage, but not with other baseline variables, including initial PSA, age and Gleason score. The f/tPSA in men with untreated, clinically localized prostate cancer varied widely. The negative correlation between the rate of change of f/tPSA with time and rate constant for PSATd suggests that both might provide valuable information to allow clinicians to develop a strategy for optimizing the timing of therapeutic intervention for those patients choosing watchful observation alone.

  15. Measurement of weekly prostate specific antigen levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy for nonprostatic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Quadri, S. Farhat; Sen, Saunak; Vaida, Florin; Ignacio, Lani; Weichselbaum, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To study the response of nonmalignant prostatic tissue to ionizing irradiation in terms of the resultant changes in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods and Materials: Weekly serum PSA values were determined during radiotherapy (RT) in nine patients ('treatment group') without clinical evidence of prostate cancer (PC), and who received pelvic RT for other indications. Slopes for the rate of change in PSA was determined using model: log PSA = β0 + β1 * week + β2 * week 2 + error. These results are compared with 17 normal volunteers ('control group') who were not exposed to ionizing irradiation. An attempt is made to compare any similarities and differences in subsets of 64 T1-T4N0M0 PC patients who received pelvic RT. Results: An elevation in the serum PSA levels were noted in eight of nine patients in the 'treatment group' with a median time of 4.2 weeks to reach the maximum serum PSA values. After an initial increase, PSA values declined. In some patients, manifold increase in PSA was noted, for example, from 1.8 to 13.5 ng/ml and 3.3 to 9.8 ng/ml in two patients. The PSA increase ranged from 50-650%. The median slope was 0.601 week -1 (range 0.192-3.045 week -1 ). No such increases were seen in the 'control group' (median slope = 0.03 week -1 ; range, 0.18-0.13 week -1 ). When differences between the mean increase/decrease for each week compared to pretreatment values were analyzed, the irradiated group had statistically significant elevations in the PSA for weeks 3 (p = 0.034), 4 (p = 0.035), and 5 (p 0.024). A similar trend of increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy was noted in prostate cancer patients whose initial PSA values were ≤ 20 ng/ml: whereas positive slopes (i.e., increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy course) was seen in 7.1% of those with > 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values, such trends were seen in 52.7% of those with ≤ 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values. Conclusions: (a) Incidental exposure of noncancerous

  16. Measurement of weekly prostate specific antigen levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy for nonprostatic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Quadri, S Farhat; Sen, Saunak; Vaida, Florin; Ignacio, Lani; Weichselbaum, R R

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: To study the response of nonmalignant prostatic tissue to ionizing irradiation in terms of the resultant changes in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods and Materials: Weekly serum PSA values were determined during radiotherapy (RT) in nine patients ('treatment group') without clinical evidence of prostate cancer (PC), and who received pelvic RT for other indications. Slopes for the rate of change in PSA was determined using model: log PSA = {beta}0 + {beta}1{sup *}week + {beta}2{sup *}week{sup 2} + error. These results are compared with 17 normal volunteers ('control group') who were not exposed to ionizing irradiation. An attempt is made to compare any similarities and differences in subsets of 64 T1-T4N0M0 PC patients who received pelvic RT. Results: An elevation in the serum PSA levels were noted in eight of nine patients in the 'treatment group' with a median time of 4.2 weeks to reach the maximum serum PSA values. After an initial increase, PSA values declined. In some patients, manifold increase in PSA was noted, for example, from 1.8 to 13.5 ng/ml and 3.3 to 9.8 ng/ml in two patients. The PSA increase ranged from 50-650%. The median slope was 0.601 week{sup -1} (range 0.192-3.045 week{sup -1}). No such increases were seen in the 'control group' (median slope = 0.03 week{sup -1}; range, 0.18-0.13 week{sup -1}). When differences between the mean increase/decrease for each week compared to pretreatment values were analyzed, the irradiated group had statistically significant elevations in the PSA for weeks 3 (p = 0.034), 4 (p = 0.035), and 5 (p 0.024). A similar trend of increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy was noted in prostate cancer patients whose initial PSA values were {<=} 20 ng/ml: whereas positive slopes (i.e., increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy course) was seen in 7.1% of those with > 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values, such trends were seen in 52.7% of those with {<=} 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values

  17. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  18. Tissue concentrations of prostate-specific antigen in prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, T G; Pretlow, T P; Yang, B; Kaetzel, C S; Delmoro, C M; Kamis, S M; Bodner, D R; Kursh, E; Resnick, M I; Bradley, E L

    1991-11-11

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as measured in peripheral blood, is currently the most widely used marker for the assessment of tumor burden in the longitudinal study of patients with carcinoma of the prostate (PCA). Studies from other laboratories have led to the conclusion that a given volume of PCA causes a much higher level of PSA in the peripheral circulation of patients than a similar volume of prostate without carcinoma. We have evaluated PSA in the resected tissues immunohistochemically and in extracts of PCA and of prostates resected because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical results were less quantitative than but consistent with the results of the ELISA of tissue extracts. Immunohistochemically, there was considerable heterogeneity in the expression of PSA by both PCA and BPH both within and among prostatic tissues from different patients. While the levels of expression of PSA in these tissues overlap broadly, PSA is expressed at a lower level in PCA than in BPH when PSA is expressed as a function of wet weight of tissue (p = 0.0095), wet weight of tissue/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001), protein extracted from the tissue (p = 0.0039), or protein extracted/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001).

  19. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3, 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4, and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P=0.008 and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.

  20. Prostate specific antigen enhances the innate defence of prostatic epithelium against Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, Claire L; Ali, Ased; Gross, Naomi; Pal, Deepali; Williamson, Stuart; Heer, Rakesh; Robson, Craig N; Pickard, Robert S; Hall, Judith

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether the increase in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) typically seen during male urinary tract infection (UTI) is incidental or reflects an innate defence mechanism of the prostate. The protective roles of the whey-acid-motif-4-disulphide core (WFDC) proteins, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and WFDC2, in the prostate were also examined. UTI recurrence was assessed retrospectively in men following initial UTI by patient interview. PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression were assessed using biopsy samples. LNCaP and DU145 in vitro prostate cell models were utilized to assess the effects of an Escherichia coli challenge on PSA and WFDC gene expression, and bacterial invasion of the prostate epithelium. The effects of PSA on WFDC antimicrobial properties were studied using recombinant peptides and time-kill assays. Men presenting with PSA >4 ng/ml at initial UTI were less likely to have recurrent (r) UTI than those with PSA prostatic epithelium, and the PSA and SLPI proteins co-localized in vivo. Challenging LNCaP (PSA-positive) cells with E. coli increased PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression (P prostate innate defences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (ptesting with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions.