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Sample records for antigen processing influences

  1. A Role For Mitochondria In Antigen Processing And Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Lc; Cervantes-Silva, Mp; Ontiveros-Dotor, E; López-Villegas, Eo; Sánchez-García, Fj

    2014-09-23

    Immune synapse formation is critical for T lymphocyte activation, and mitochondria have a role in this process, by localizing close to the immune synapse, regulating intracellular calcium concentration, and providing locally required ATP. The interaction between antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes is a two-way signaling process. However, the role of mitochondria in antigen presenting cells during this process remains unknown. For APCs to be able to activate T lymphocytes, they must first engage in an antigen-uptake, -processing, and -presentation process. Here we show that HEL-loaded B lymphocytes, as a type of APCs, undergo a small but significant mitochondrial depolarization by 1-2 h following antigen exposure thus suggesting an increase in their metabolic demands. Inhibition of ATP synthase (oligomycin) or mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) (Ruthenium red) had no effect on antigen uptake. Therefore, antigen processing and antigen presentation were further analyzed. Oligomycin treatment reduced the amount of specific MHC-peptide complexes but not total MHC II on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes which correlated with a decrease in antigen presentation. However, oligomycin also reduced antigen presentation by B lymphocytes that endogenously express HEL and by B lymphocytes loaded with the HEL48-62 peptide, although to a lesser extent. ATP synthase inhibition and MCU inhibition had a clear inhibitory effect on antigen processing (DQ-OVA). Taking together these results suggest that ATP synthase and MCU are relevant for antigen processing and presentation. Finally, APCs mitochondria were found to re-organize towards the APC-T immune synapse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

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    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  3. Influence of Different Processings on Egg White's Antigenicity%不同加工处理方式对蛋清致敏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂君; 杨哪; 金征宇; 徐学明

    2011-01-01

    为开发低致敏性蛋清制品,用不同的蛋白水解酶和非蛋白氧化酶及常规加热法处理蛋清.结合酶联免疫技术评价测定,发现在适宜条件下用菠萝蛋白酶处理,蛋清致敏性降低约79.63%,葡萄糖氧化酶(GOD)处理能使蛋清致敏性降低25.92%,高温加热处理(121℃,10 min)可使样品致敏性降低约20.4%.%In order to have low antigentic egg white product, different enzymes like proteolytic enzymes and non-proteolytic oxidase as well as normal heating applications were utilized to treat egg white. Results of enzyme-liked-immunosorbent assay indicated that egg white treated with bromelain reduced 79. 63% of its antigenicity, glucose oxidase and pasteurization (121 ℃, 10 min) caused its antigenicity reduced 25. 92% and 20. 4% respectively.

  4. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, C.; Parcej, D.; Ejsing, C. S.;

    2011-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in adaptive immunity by translocating proteasomal degradation products from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen for subsequent loading onto major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules. For functional...... and structural analysis of this ATP-binding cassette complex, we established the overexpression of TAP in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Screening of optimal solubilization and purification conditions allowed the isolation of the heterodimeric transport complex, yielding 30 mg of TAP/liter of culture....... Detailed analysis of TAP function in the membrane, solubilized, purified, and reconstituted states revealed a direct influence of the native lipid environment on activity. TAP-associated phospholipids, essential for function, were profiled by liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry...

  5. Features of glycoproteins distribution in the pancreatic structures of newborn rats after prenatal antigenic influence

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    Grinivetska N.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abnormalities of digestion and absorption are the most common syndromes associated with the digestive system diseases in children. Pancreatic enzyme failure leads to violation of different metabolic processes, especially in neonates. Exocrine pancreas is sensitive to a variety of factors, including virus. It emphasizes the importance of investigation of pancreatic secretory activity in children who was born from mothers exposed to viral infection during pregnancy. Objective. The purpose is to determine the features of glycoproteins distribution in the pancreatic structures of newborn rats after prenatal antigenic influence. Methods. Animals were divided into four groups: the 1st – intact, the 2nd – intrafetal injection of the antigen, the 3rd – animals administered with antigen into the amniotic fluid, and the 4th group – control (intrafetal injection of a normal salt solution. As antigen we used Vaxigrip vaccine. Results. It was revealed that on the14th day after birth antigen-exposed animals were characterized by the increase of glycoproteins (++ in a connective tissue capsule of pancreas and decreased content of glycoproteins in the cytoplasm of acinar cells and ducts comparing with the intact group (++/+. Taken together this data evidence the reduction of the synthetic activity of acinar cells after intrafetal administration of the antigen. This may cause a predisposition for the development of dyspepsia and food allergy. Further work is planned to investigate the dynamics of glycosaminoglycans redistribution in different parts of pancreas after prenatal antigenic administrations. Citation: Grinivetska NV. [Features of glycoproteins distribution in the pancreatic structures of newborn rats after prenatal antigenic influence]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:30-4. Ukrainian.

  6. Monitoring of an antigen manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatti, Vanessa; Budman, Hector; Legge, Raymond; Tamer, Melih

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical methods was employed as a tool for monitoring the manufacturing process of pertactin (PRN), one of the virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis utilized in whopping cough vaccines. Fluorophores such as amino acids and co-enzymes were detected throughout the process. The fluorescence data collected at different stages of the fermentation and purification process were treated employing principal component analysis (PCA). Through PCA, it was feasible to identify sources of variability in PRN production. Then, partial least square (PLS) was employed to correlate the fluorescence spectra obtained from pure PRN samples and the final protein content measured by a Kjeldahl test from these samples. In view that a statistically significant correlation was found between fluorescence and PRN levels, this approach could be further used as a method to predict the final protein content.

  7. Proteome sampling by the HLA class I antigen processing pathway.

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    Ilka Hoof

    Full Text Available The peptide repertoire that is presented by the set of HLA class I molecules of an individual is formed by the different players of the antigen processing pathway and the stringent binding environment of the HLA class I molecules. Peptide elution studies have shown that only a subset of the human proteome is sampled by the antigen processing machinery and represented on the cell surface. In our study, we quantified the role of each factor relevant in shaping the HLA class I peptide repertoire by combining peptide elution data, in silico predictions of antigen processing and presentation, and data on gene expression and protein abundance. Our results indicate that gene expression level, protein abundance, and rate of potential binding peptides per protein have a clear impact on sampling probability. Furthermore, once a protein is available for the antigen processing machinery in sufficient amounts, C-terminal processing efficiency and binding affinity to the HLA class I molecule determine the identity of the presented peptides. Having studied the impact of each of these factors separately, we subsequently combined all factors in a logistic regression model in order to quantify their relative impact. This model demonstrated the superiority of protein abundance over gene expression level in predicting sampling probability. Being able to discriminate between sampled and non-sampled proteins to a significant degree, our approach can potentially be used to predict the sampling probability of self proteins and of pathogen-derived proteins, which is of importance for the identification of autoimmune antigens and vaccination targets.

  8. Facts on the fragmentation of antigens in presenting cells, on the association of antigen fragments with MHC molecules in cell-free systems, and speculation on the cell biology of antigen processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, O; Mouritsen, S; Petersen, B L;

    1988-01-01

    The processing of a protein antigen is a multi-step event taking place in antigen-presenting cells. Processing is a prerequisite for the recognition of most antigens by T lymphocytes. The antigen is ingested by endocytosis, transported to an acid cellular compartment and subjected to proteolytic ...

  9. Antigen Processing by Autoreactive B Cells Promotes Determinant Spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang D.Dai; George Carayanniotis; Eli Sercarz

    2005-01-01

    Acute primary immune responses tend to focus on few immunodominant determinants using a very limited number of T cell clones for expansion, whereas chronic inflammatory responses generally recruit a large number of different T cell clones to attack a broader range of determinants of the invading pathogens or the inflamed tissues.In T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disease, a transition from the acute to the chronic phase contributes to pathogenesis, and the broadening process is called determinant spreading. The cellular components catalyzing the spreading reaction are not identified. It has been suggested that autoreactive B cells may play a central role in diversifying autoreactive T cell responses, possibly through affecting antigen processing and presentation. The clonal identity and diversity of the B cells and antibodies seem critical in regulating T cell activity and subsequent tissue damage or repair. Here, we use two autoimmune animal models, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT)and type 1 diabetes (T1D), to discuss how autoreactive B cells or antibodies alter the processing and presentation of autoantigens to regulate specific T cell response.

  10. Influence of various desinfectants on the radioimmuno-assay for Australia antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At normal room temperature dilution series were produced out of pooled serum, serum previously treated with UV irradiation and beta propiolacton, and serum of patients with hepatitis type B and various desinfectants. After differing incubation times the Australia antigen titre was measured in the radioimmunoassay. Electronmicroscopic examinations should detect possible morphologic changes of the Dane particles. The counts/min. measured for Australia antigen after an incubation with aldehyde-containing preparations, are below the limit value with serum treated previously with UV light and beta propiolacton; in negative Australia-antigen-positive serum the counts/min. are close to the limit value. The antigenity is clearly reduced. The comparison with an insulin containing serum showed that also the radioimmunoassay was influenced by the aldehyde. A direct influence of the aldehydes on the protein seems to be possible. From this results that the radioimmunoassay for Australia antigen cannot be used as the exclusive method for measuring the efficacy of desinfectants compared to Dane particles. The morphologic changes of the Dane particles observed in the electronic microscope confirm the supposition that the desinfectants influence the hepatitis viruses. (orig./MG)

  11. Toward a network model of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing

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    Laurence C Eisenlohr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard model of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII-restricted antigen processing depicts a straightforward, linear pathway: Internalized antigens are converted into peptides that load in a chaperone dependent manner onto nascent MHCII in the late endosome, the complexes subsequently trafficking to the cell surface for recognition by CD4+ T cells (TCD4+. Several variations on this theme, both moderate and radical, have come to light but these alternatives have remained peripheral, the conventional pathway generally presumed to be the primary driver of TCD4+ responses. Here we continue to press for the conceptual repositioning of these alternatives toward the center while proposing that MHCII processing be thought of less in terms of discrete pathways and more in terms of a network whose major and minor conduits are variable depending upon many factors, including the epitope, the nature of the antigen, the source of the antigen, and the identity of the antigen-presenting cell.

  12. Regulation of protein synthesis and autophagy in activated dendritic cells: implications for antigen processing and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules originate from the degradation of both self and non-self proteins. T cells can therefore recognize at the surface of surveyed cells, the self-peptidome produced by the cell itself (mostly inducing tolerance) or immunogenic peptides derived from exogenous origins. The initiation of adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs), through the antigenic priming of naïve T cells, is associated to microbial pattern recognition receptors engagement. Activation of DCs by microbial product or inflammatory cytokines initiates multiple processes that maximize DC capacity to present exogenous antigens and stimulate T cells by affecting major metabolic and membrane traffic pathways. These include the modulation of protein synthesis, the regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules transport, as well as the regulation of autophagy, that, all together promote exogenous antigen presentation while limiting the display of self-antigens by MHC molecules.

  13. Dietary influences over proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the locust midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Zudaire, E. (Enrique); Simpson, S J; Illa, I.; Montuenga, L M

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of variations in dietary protein (P) and digestible carbohydrate (C), the quantity of food eaten, and insect age during the fifth instar on the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the epithelial cells of the midgut (with special reference to the midgut caeca) in the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. Densitometric analysis of PCNA-immunostained cells was used as an indirect measure of the levels of expression of PCNA, and a P...

  14. Quantitating protein synthesis, degradation, and endogenous antigen processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princiotta, Michael F; Finzi, Diana; Qian, Shu-Bing; Gibbs, James; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Buttgereit, Frank; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2003-03-01

    Using L929 cells, we quantitated the macroeconomics of protein synthesis and degradation and the microeconomics of producing MHC class I associated peptides from viral translation products. To maintain a content of 2.6 x 10(9) proteins, each cell's 6 x 10(6) ribosomes produce 4 x 10(6) proteins min(-1). Each of the cell's 8 x 10(5) proteasomes degrades 2.5 substrates min(-1), creating one MHC class I-peptide complex for each 500-3000 viral translation products degraded. The efficiency of complex formation is similar in dendritic cells and macrophages, which play a critical role in activating T cells in vivo. Proteasomes create antigenic peptides at different efficiencies from two distinct substrate pools: rapidly degraded newly synthesized proteins that clearly represent defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and a less rapidly degraded pool in which DRiPs may also predominate. PMID:12648452

  15. Identification of major factors influencing ELISpot-based monitoring of cellular responses to antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Steven G Smith

    Full Text Available A number of different interferon-gamma ELISpot protocols are in use in laboratories studying antigen-specific immune responses. It is therefore unclear how results from different assays compare, and what factors most significantly influence assay outcome. One such difference is that some laboratories use a short in vitro stimulation period of cells before they are transferred to the ELISpot plate; this is commonly done in the case of frozen cells, in order to enhance assay sensitivity. Other differences that may be significant include antibody coating of plates, the use of media with or without serum, the serum source and the number of cells added to the wells. The aim of this paper was to identify which components of the different ELISpot protocols influenced assay sensitivity and inter-laboratory variation. Four laboratories provided protocols for quantifying numbers of interferon-gamma spot forming cells in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived antigens. The differences in the protocols were compared directly. We found that several sources of variation in assay protocols can be eliminated, for example by avoiding serum supplementation and using AIM-V serum free medium. In addition, the number of cells added to ELISpot wells should also be standardised. Importantly, delays in peripheral blood mononuclear cell processing before stimulation had a marked effect on the number of detectable spot forming cells; processing delay thus should be minimised as well as standardised. Finally, a pre-stimulation culture period improved the sensitivity of the assay, however this effect may be both antigen and donor dependent. In conclusion, small differences in ELISpot protocols in routine use can affect the results obtained and care should be given to conditions selected for use in a given study. A pre-stimulation step may improve the sensitivity of the assay, particularly when cells have been previously

  16. TH1 and TH2 responses are influenced by HLA antigens in healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh; Fazel Shokri

    2012-01-01

    The immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is influenced by several factors, of which HLA antigens and balanced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of HLA antigens on cytokine secretion by HBsAg-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant HBsAg. PBMCs were isolated from 48 Iranian neonates vaccinated with a recombinant HBV vaccine. The cells were stim...

  17. Human Leukocyte Antigens Influence the Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Bagheri-Jamebozorgi, Masoome; Nemati, Maryam; Golsaz-Shirazi, Forough; Shokri, Fazel

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma has remained a serious public health problem throughout the world. The WHO strategy for effective control of HBV infection and its complications is mass vaccination of neonates and children within the framework of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Vaccination with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) induces protective antibody response (anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L) in 90-99% of vaccinees. The lack of response to HBsAg has been attributed to a variety of immunological mechanisms, including defect in antigen presentation, defect in HBsAg-specific T and/or B cell repertoires, T-cell suppression, increase in the regulatory T cell count, lack of necessary help of T-cells for production of anti-HBs by B cells, defect in Th1 and/or Th2 cytokine production and selective killing of HBsAg-specific B-cells by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The HLA complex plays an important role in many of these immunological processes. A variety of HLA class I, II, and III alleles and antigens have been reported to be associated with antibody response to HBsAg vaccination in different ethnic populations. Moreover, some HLA haplotypes were also associated with responsiveness to HBsAg. In this review the association of the HLA specificities with antibody response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccine is discussed. PMID:26546891

  18. Assembly and Immunological Processing of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Composed of Antigens and Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    While biomaterials provide a platform to control the delivery of vaccines, the recently discovered intrinsic inflammatory characteristics of many polymeric carriers can also complicate rational design because the carrier itself can alter the response to other vaccine components. To address this challenge, we recently developed immune-polyelectrolyte multilayer (iPEMs) capsules electrostatically assembled entirely from peptide antigen and molecular adjuvants. Here, we use iPEMs built from SIINFEKL model antigen and polyIC, a stimulatory toll-like receptor agonist, to investigate the impact of pH on iPEM assembly, the processing and interactions of each iPEM component with primary immune cells, and the role of these interactions during antigen-specific T cell responses in coculture and mice. We discovered that iPEM assembly is pH dependent with respect to both the antigen and adjuvant component. Controlling the pH also allows tuning of the relative loading of SIINFEKL and polyIC in iPEM capsules. During in vitro studies with primary dendritic cells (DCs), iPEM capsules ensure that greater than 95% of cells containing at least one signal (i.e., antigen, adjuvant) also contained the other signal. This codelivery leads to DC maturation and SIINFEKL presentation via the MHC-I antigen presentation pathway, resulting in antigen-specific T cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. In mice, iPEM capsules potently expand antigen-specific T cells compared with equivalent admixed formulations. Of note, these enhancements become more pronounced with successive booster injections, suggesting that iPEMs functionally improve memory recall response. Together our results reveal some of the features that can be tuned to modulate the properties of iPEM capsules, and how these modular vaccine structures can be used to enhance interactions with immune cells in vitro and in mice. PMID:27380137

  19. Toxocara canis glycans influence antigen recognition by mouse IgG1 and IgM antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Ewa; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sugar moieties of Toxocara canis glycoprotein antigens on their recognition by infected mouse antibodies was investigated in this study. Native TES and recombinant Toxocara mucins generated in Pichia pastoris yeast as well as their deglycosylated forms were used in ELISA. TES and recombinant mucins were equally recognized by T. canis infected mouse IgG1 antibodies. IgM immunoglobulins predominantly recognized TES antigens. Among mucins recognition of Tc-MUC-4 was the most significant. Deglycosylation of antigens resulted in significant loss of IgM and IgG1 reactivity to TES, mucins, Tc-MUC-3 and Tc-MUC-4. The presence of sugar moieties had no influence on IgE binding to native or recombinant T. canis antigens. Our results suggest that glycans are involved in epitope formation what should be taken into consideration in production of recombinant helminth antigens for diagnostic purposes. PMID:26751891

  20. Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Wee, Edmund; Burgevin, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly. We show here that CTL immunodominance in regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group-associated ......Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly. We show here that CTL immunodominance in regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group...

  1. Cancer associated aberrant protein o-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Petersen, Cecilie; Lavrsen, Kirstine;

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing...

  2. Human Leukocyte Antigens Influence the Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its sequelae such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma has remained a serious public health problem throughout the world. The WHO strategy for effective control of HBV infection and its complications is mass vaccination of neonates and children within the framework of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Vaccination with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg induces protective antibody response (anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L in 90-99% of vaccinees.The lack of  response to  HBsAg has  been attributed  to a variety of  immunological mechanisms, including defect in antigen presentation, defect in HBsAg-specific T and/or B cell repertoires, T-cell suppression, increase in the regulatory T cell count, lack of necessary help of T-cells for production of anti-HBs by B cells, defect in Th1 and/or Th2 cytokine production  and  selective  killing  of  HBsAg-specific  B-cells  by  human  leukocyte  antigen (HLA-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The HLA complex plays an important role in many of these immunological processes.A variety of HLA class I, II, and III alleles and antigens have been reported to beassociated with antibody response to HBsAg vaccination in different ethnic populations. Moreover, some HLA haplotypes were also associated with responsiveness to HBsAg.In this review the association of the HLA specificities with antibody response to hepatitis B (HB vaccine is discussed.

  3. Three-day dendritic cells for vaccine development: Antigen uptake, processing and presentation

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    Schendel Dolores J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DC are capable of priming naïve T cells and therefore represent an attractive adjuvant for vaccine development in anti-tumor immunotherapy. Numerous protocols have been described to date using different maturation cocktails and time periods for the induction of mature DC (mDC in vitro. For clinical application, the use of mDC that can be generated in only three days saves on the costs of cytokines needed for large scale vaccine cell production and provides a method to produce cells within a standard work-week schedule in a GMP facility. Methods In this study, we addressed the properties of antigen uptake, processing and presentation by monocyte-derived DC prepared in three days (3d mDC compared with conventional DC prepared in seven days (7d mDC, which represent the most common form of DC used for vaccines to date. Results Although they showed a reduced capacity for spontaneous antigen uptake, 3d mDC displayed higher capacity for stimulation of T cells after loading with an extended synthetic peptide that requires processing for MHC binding, indicating they were more efficient at antigen processing than 7d DC. We found, however, that 3d DC were less efficient at expressing protein after introduction of in vitro transcribed (ivtRNA by electroporation, based on published procedures. This deficit was overcome by altering electroporation parameters, which led to improved protein expression and capacity for T cell stimulation using low amounts of ivtRNA. Conclusions This new procedure allows 3d mDC to replace 7d mDC for use in DC-based vaccines that utilize long peptides, proteins or ivtRNA as sources of specific antigen.

  4. Thermal processing effects on peanut allergen Ara h 2 allergenicity in mice and its antigenic epitope structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenju; Zhu, Qingqing; Zhang, Tong; Cai, Qin; Chen, Qin

    2016-12-01

    Ara h 2 was purified from peanuts that were thermally treated by various processes, including boiling, glycation, frying and roasting. The allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice and the influence of thermal processing on the structural characteristics, and binding capacity of three core antigenic epitopes were studied. The results demonstrated that boiling, glycation and frying induced the down-regulation of the allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice, the collapse of its tertiary/secondary structure, and a reduction in the core epitope binding capacity; roasting showed a comparable allergenicity and the weakest inhibitory effect on core epitope binding capacity. These results indicate that thermal processing causes alteration of the protein structure and core epitopes of Ara h 2, and may affect its allergenicity. PMID:27374581

  5. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

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    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  6. Association of antigen processing machinery and HLA class I defects with clinicopathological outcome in cervical carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Akash M.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Kenter, Gemma G; Ferrone, Soldano; Fleuren, Gert- Jan

    2007-01-01

    HLA class I loss is a significant mechanism of immune evasion by cervical carcinoma, interfering with the development of immunotherapies and cancer vaccines. We report the systematic investigation of HLA class I and antigen processing machinery component expression and association with clinical outcome. A tissue microarray containing carcinoma lesions from 109 cervical carcinoma patients was stained for HLA class I heavy chains, β2-microglobulin, LMP2, LMP7, LMP10, TAP1, TAP2, ERAP1, tapasin,...

  7. Cancer associated aberrant protein O-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing, and presentation on MHC class I and II molecules. The effect of GalNAc O-glycosylation was monitored with a model system based on ovalbumin (OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides (+/- glycosylation loaded onto dendritic cells co-cultured with IL-2 secreting OVA peptide-specific T cell hybridomas. To evaluate the in vivo response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-γ release, and antibody induction. GalNAc-glycosylation promoted presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class II molecules and the MUC1 antigen elicited specific Ab production and T cell proliferation in both Balb/c and HLA-A2 transgenic mice. In contrast, GalNAc-glycosylation inhibited the presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class I and abolished MUC1 specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. GalNAc glycosylation of MUC1 antigen therefore facilitates uptake, MHC class II presentation, and antibody response but might block the antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells.

  8. Influence Processes for Information Technology Acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2006-01-01

    alternative influence processes, the central and peripheral routes, in motivating IT acceptance. These processes were respectively operationalized using the argument quality and source credibility constructs, and linked to perceived usefulness and attitude, the core perceptual drivers of IT acceptance. We...

  9. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Babych YeM; Yelyseyeva IV; Zhdamarova LA; Belozersky VI; Bobireva IV

    2013-01-01

    It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg), control ones are fed to saline. In a week ...

  10. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  11. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  12. Differences in the Antigens of Helicobacter pylori Strains Influence on the Innate Immune Response in the In Vitro Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Skvarc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Helicobacter pylori importantly determines the pathogenesis of infection as well as the success of antibiotic eradication of the bacteria. Strains of H. pylori were gathered from 14 patients who failed to eradicate H. pylori infection with antibiotics—therapy resistant strains (TRS—or from patients who were able to eradicate H. pylori infection—therapy susceptible strains (TSS. The THP-1 cells were stimulated with H. pylori antigens. Cathepsin X expression on THP-1 cells and concentration of cytokines in the supernatant of THP-1 cells were measured with a flow cytometer. TSS H. pylori antigens increased the proportion of cathepsin X positive cells compared to TRS H. pylori antigens. TSS H. pylori antigens induced higher secretion of IL-12 and IL-6 compared to TRS H. pylori antigens (P<0.001; 0.02. Polymyxin B, a lipid A inhibitor, lowered the secretion of IL-12 and IL-6 in TRS and TSS. We demonstrated a H. pylori strain-dependent cathepsin X and cytokine expression that can be associated with H. pylori resistance to eradication due to lack of effective immune response. Differences in lipid A of H. pylori might have an influence on the insufficient immune response, especially on phagocytosis.

  13. Structural Basis for Antigenic Peptide Recognition and Processing by Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Aminopeptidase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpakali, Anastasia; Giastas, Petros; Mathioudakis, Nikolas; Mavridis, Irene M; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2015-10-23

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidases process antigenic peptide precursors to generate epitopes for presentation by MHC class I molecules and help shape the antigenic peptide repertoire and cytotoxic T-cell responses. To perform this function, ER aminopeptidases have to recognize and process a vast variety of peptide sequences. To understand how these enzymes recognize substrates, we determined crystal structures of ER aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) in complex with a substrate analogue and a peptidic product to 2.5 and 2.7 Å, respectively, and compared them to the apo-form structure determined to 3.0 Å. The peptides were found within the internal cavity of the enzyme with no direct access to the outside solvent. The substrate analogue extends away from the catalytic center toward the distal end of the internal cavity, making interactions with several shallow pockets along the path. A similar configuration was evident for the peptidic product, although decreasing electron density toward its C terminus indicated progressive disorder. Enzymatic analysis confirmed that visualized interactions can either positively or negatively impact in vitro trimming rates. Opportunistic side-chain interactions and lack of deep specificity pockets support a limited-selectivity model for antigenic peptide processing by ERAP2. In contrast to proposed models for the homologous ERAP1, no specific recognition of the peptide C terminus by ERAP2 was evident, consistent with functional differences in length selection and self-activation between these two enzymes. Our results suggest that ERAP2 selects substrates by sequestering them in its internal cavity and allowing opportunistic interactions to determine trimming rates, thus combining substrate permissiveness with sequence bias. PMID:26381406

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF THE "DIAPLYTE" ANTIGEN OF DREYER ON TUBERCULOSIS OF THE GUINEA PIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J J; Straub, E L

    1925-01-31

    We have prepared "diaplyte" antigen according to Dreyer's procedure and have studied its therapeutic and prophylactic value in experimental tuberculosis of guinea pigs. In our hands it has failed to yield beneficial effects. The animals treated with the antigen tended in general to develop lesions more quickly and to die earlier than the controls.

  15. TH1 and TH2 responses are influenced by HLA antigens in healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is influenced by several factors, of which HLA antigens and balanced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of HLA antigens on cytokine secretion by HBsAg-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant HBsAg. PBMCs were isolated from 48 Iranian neonates vaccinated with a recombinant HBV vaccine. The cells were stimulated in vitro with rHBsAg and the concentration of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ were quantitated in culture supernatant by sandwich ELISA. HLA typing was performed by microlymphocytotoxicity method. Significant diminished secretion of both Th1 (IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines was observed in HBsAg-stimulated PBMC from vaccinees expressing the HLA-DR7 compared to DR7 negative vaccinees. Similarly, lower production of these cytokines was also observed in vaccinees with DR7-DR53-DQ2, B7-DR7-DR53-DQ2 and A2-DR7-DR53-DQ2 haplotypes (p<0.05, p <0.005. While HBsAg-stimulated PBMC of DR13+ subjects produced lower levels of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10, those of HLA-B8+ or HLA-A9+ subjects produced higher levels of Th2-type cytokines. Cytokine secretion in response to PHA mitogen was not associated with a given HLA antigen or haplotype and was similarly represented in all groups of subjects irrespective of their HLA complex. These results indicate that HLA antigens may differentially influence cytokine secretion by HBsAg-specific T-cells of healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant HB vaccine. This phenomenon may have an important implication for control of the immune response to HBsAg vaccine.

  16. Antigen changes of monoclonal antibody MSH27 in process of post-testicular maturation (in mice)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄大中; 韩之明; 宋祥芬; 齐跃敏; 段崇文; 刘辉; 陈大元

    1999-01-01

    An anti-mouse spermatozoon monoclonal antibody, MSH27, as well as its purified antigen, can block sperm-egg membrane fusion. As a candidate protein for sperm-egg membrane fusion, the sperm antigen was investigated in the process of post-testicular maturation (PTM). The molecule was produced in testes and located on the plasma membrane of the postacrosomal area of the spermatozoon. However, the epitope recognized by the MSH27 (MSH27Ep) was not exposed until the occurrence of the acrosome reaction. In the process of fertilization, spermatozoa must complete the acrosome reaction before penetrating across the zona pellucidas (ZPs) to approach the plasma membrane of eggs. The effects of the acrosome reaction and penetration of the ZP on the exposure of the MSH27Ep were also studied. It was shown that the percentage of the spermatozoa with the MSH27Ep exposed increased followed with their mature status in PTM. In fact, it bad a linear correlativity with the rate of the acrosome reaction. After spermatozoa had

  17. A common SNP in ER aminopeptidase 2 induces a specificity switch that leads to altered antigen processing

    OpenAIRE

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Birtley, James; Seregin, Sergey; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Giastas, Petros; Petrakis, Olivia; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Amalfitano, Andrea; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Mavridis, Irene M.; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    ER aminopeptidases 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) cooperate to trim antigenic peptide precursors for loading onto MHC class I molecules and help regulate the adaptive immune response. Common coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 and ERAP2 have been linked with predisposition to human diseases ranging from viral and bacterial infections to autoimmunity and cancer. It has been hypothesized that altered antigen processing by these enzymes is a causal link to disease etiology but the ...

  18. Influence of culture medium on the production of eif antigen from Leishmania chagasi in recombinant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rossana Ferreira Vaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein expression has become an important tool in the study of the structure, function and identification of new proteins, especially those with therapeutic functions. Escherichia coli has been the predominant prokaryote used in genetic engineering studies due to the abundance of information about its metabolism. Despite significant advances in molecular biology and immunology of infections, there are as yet no prophylactic drugs capable of preventing visceral leishmaniasis. It is therefore important to identify specific antigens in order to develop vaccines and diagnostic kits against this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of culture medium on the production of eIF antigen from Leishmania chagasi in recombinant Escherichia coli. An induction procedure using IPTG was carried out in a series of trials, to observe the influence of culture medium (2xTY, TB under expression of the recombinant eIF protein. Results showed that recombinant protein expression was associated to growth and that the highest eIF antigen expression was obtained in the 2xTY medium.

  19. ANTIGEN PROCESSING BY ENDOSOMAL PROTEASES DETERMINES WHICH SITES OF SPERM-WHALE MYOGLOBIN ARE EVENTUALLY RECOGNIZED BY T-CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANNOORT, JM; BOON, J; VANDERDRIFT, ACM; WAGENAAR, JPA; BOOTS, AMH; BOOG, CJP; Boots, Annemieke

    1991-01-01

    This study reports an identification of the major processing products of an exogenous protein antigen, viz. sperm-whale myoglobin, as obtained after cell-free processing with partially purified macrophage endosomes. It is demonstrated that such a system yields fragments that are indistinguishable by

  20. A new role for complement C3: regulation of antigen processing through an inhibitory activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Villiers, Christian; Cretin, François,; Lefebvre, Nicole; Marche, Patrice; Villiers, Marie-Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    International audience Increasing evidence underlines the involvement of complement component C3 in the establishment of acquired immunity which appears to play a complex role and to act at different levels. As antigen proteolysis by antigen presenting cells is a key event in the control of antigen presentation efficiency, and consequently in the quality of the immune response, we investigated whether C3 could modulate this step. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C3 can inter...

  1. Antigen Processing of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Carrier Protein CRM197 Differs Depending on the Serotype of the Attached Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Ethan G.; Canaday, David H.; Harding, Clifford V.; Schreiber, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The pneumococcal (Pn) conjugate vaccine includes seven different polysaccharides (PS) conjugated to CRM197. Utilizing antigen-processing cells and a CRM197-specific mouse T-cell hybridoma, we found that the serotype of conjugated PnPS dramatically affected antigen processing of CRM197. Unconjugated CRM197 and serotype conjugates 14 and 18C were processed more efficiently.

  2. Human Leukocyte Antigens Influence the Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh; Masoome Bagheri-Jamebozorgi; Maryam Nemati; Forough Golsaz-Shirazi; Fazel Shokri

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma has remained a serious public health problem throughout the world. The WHO strategy for effective control of HBV infection and its complications is mass vaccination of neonates and children within the framework of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Vaccination with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) induces protective antibody response (anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L) in 90-99% of vaccinees.The lack ...

  3. Speaker sex influences processing of grammatical gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Vitevitch

    Full Text Available Spoken words carry linguistic and indexical information to listeners. Abstractionist models of spoken word recognition suggest that indexical information is stripped away in a process called normalization to allow processing of the linguistic message to proceed. In contrast, exemplar models of the lexicon suggest that indexical information is retained in memory, and influences the process of spoken word recognition. In the present study native Spanish listeners heard Spanish words that varied in grammatical gender (masculine, ending in -o, or feminine, ending in -a produced by either a male or a female speaker. When asked to indicate the grammatical gender of the words, listeners were faster and more accurate when the sex of the speaker "matched" the grammatical gender than when the sex of the speaker and the grammatical gender "mismatched." No such interference was observed when listeners heard the same stimuli, but identified whether the speaker was male or female. This finding suggests that indexical information, in this case the sex of the speaker, influences not just processes associated with word recognition, but also higher-level processes associated with grammatical processing. This result also raises questions regarding the widespread assumption about the cognitive independence and automatic nature of grammatical processes.

  4. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate MHC and antigen processing molecules in human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Suárez-Alvarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and NTera2 (NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1 and tapasin (TPN components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and beta2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs. Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell

  5. Irradiated mice lose the capacity to 'process' fed antigen for systemic tolerance of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Intestinal antigen processing' is a function of the gastro-intestinal tract whereby shortly after an animal has been fed an immunogenic protein antigen, such as ovabumin (OVA), a tolerogenic form of the protein is generated and can be detected in the circulation. The effect of damage to the intestinal epithelium on the processing of OVA has been examined in lethally irradiated mice. Irradiated animals were fed 25 mg OVA and their serum collected 1 h later. When this serum was transferred intraperitoneally into naive recipient mice, this did not induce the typical suppression of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity. Results were similar when the serum donors were at 2 days after irradiation, with crypt hypoplasia, and at 5 days after irradiation when there was reactive crypt hyperplasia. However reconstitution of donors with normal spleen cells immediately after irradiation restored their capacity to generate a tolerogenic form of the antigen. Immunoreactive OVA was detected by ELISA in both tolerizing and non-tolerizing sera, and the immunological properties of these sera were not related to serum levels of OVA after feeding. The results suggest that lymphoid cells may be involved in the phenomenon of antigen processing. (author)

  6. Formaldehyde treatment of proteins can constrain presentation to T cells by limiting antigen processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Tommaso, A; De Magistris, M T; Bugnoli, M.; Marsili, I; Rappuoli, R; Abrignani, S.

    1994-01-01

    Proteins to be used as vaccines are frequently treated with formaldehyde, although little is known about the effects of this treatment on protein antigenicity. To investigate the effect of formaldehyde treatment on antigen recognition by T cells, we compared the in vitro T-cell response to proteins that have been formaldehyde treated with the response to untreated proteins. We found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals vaccinated with three formaldehyde-treated proteins (p...

  7. Post-Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Antigen Processing Machinery (APM) Components and HLA-I in Cervical Cancers from Uighur Women

    OpenAIRE

    HASIM, AYSHAMGUL; Abudula, Mangnishahan; Aimiduo, Reshalaiti; Ma, Jun-Qi; JIAO, Zhen; Akula, Gulzareye; Wang, Ting; ABUDULA, ABULIZI

    2012-01-01

    Normal function of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) and antigen processing machinery (APM) proteins is required for T cell-mediated anti-tumor or antiviral immunity, whereas the tumor survival indicates a failure of the host in immune surveillance associated with the dysfunction in antigen presentation, mainly due to the deregulation in HLA-I and APM expression or function. The posttranscriptional regulation of HLA-I and APM expression may associate with epigenetic modifications in can...

  8. Cutting Edge: Coding Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1 Can Affect Antigenic Peptide Generation In Vitro by Influencing Basic Enzymatic Properties of the Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Kamal, Ram P.; Seregin, Sergey S.; Goto, Yoshikuni; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Hattori, Akira; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Amalfitano, Andrea; Ian A York; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    ER aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) customizes antigenic peptide precursors for MHC class I presentation and edits the antigenic peptide repertoire. Coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 were recently linked with predisposition to autoimmune disease, suggesting a link between pathogenesis of autoimmunity and ERAP1-mediated Ag processing. To investigate this possibility, we analyzed the effect that disease-linked SNPs have on Ag processing by ERAP1 in vitro. Michaelis–Menten analysis ...

  9. Factors that Influence the Immunological Adjuvant Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum PC1 on Specific Immune Responses in Mice to Orally Administered Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Esvaran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influences of the dosage of the adjuvant, the nature of the antigen and the host genetics on the capacity of L. fermentum PC1 (PC1 to function as an oral adjuvant. BALB/c and DBA/1 mice were vaccinated with either ovalbumin (OVA or Salmonella Typhimurium on days 0 and 14, Mice were also dosed with the PC1 (108 CFU or 1011 CFU per dose per mouse with the antigens (days 0 and 14 and alone (days −1 and 13. The higher PC1 dose elicited a greater specific serum IgG2a response than IgG1 for both antigens and mice strains, indicating a Th1-biased humoral immune response. The Th1 bias was also observed at the cellular level with greater specific IFN-γ levels than IL-4 and IL-10 with both antigen types and mouse strains. With the particulate antigen, the lower dose of PC1 elicited a Th1 bias at the cellular level, but a balanced Th1/Th2 response at the systemic humoral level. With the soluble antigen, a strong Th1-biased response occurred at the cellular level while the systemic humoral response was Th2-biased. In conclusion, PC1 at the higher dose was an excellent Th1 adjuvant, which was unaffected by the nature of the antigen or the host’s genetic background.

  10. Factors that Influence the Immunological Adjuvant Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum PC1 on Specific Immune Responses in Mice to Orally Administered Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esvaran, Meera; Conway, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influences of the dosage of the adjuvant, the nature of the antigen and the host genetics on the capacity of L. fermentum PC1 (PC1) to function as an oral adjuvant. BALB/c and DBA/1 mice were vaccinated with either ovalbumin (OVA) or Salmonella Typhimurium on days 0 and 14, Mice were also dosed with the PC1 (108 CFU or 1011 CFU per dose per mouse) with the antigens (days 0 and 14) and alone (days −1 and 13). The higher PC1 dose elicited a greater specific serum IgG2a response than IgG1 for both antigens and mice strains, indicating a Th1-biased humoral immune response. The Th1 bias was also observed at the cellular level with greater specific IFN-γ levels than IL-4 and IL-10 with both antigen types and mouse strains. With the particulate antigen, the lower dose of PC1 elicited a Th1 bias at the cellular level, but a balanced Th1/Th2 response at the systemic humoral level. With the soluble antigen, a strong Th1-biased response occurred at the cellular level while the systemic humoral response was Th2-biased. In conclusion, PC1 at the higher dose was an excellent Th1 adjuvant, which was unaffected by the nature of the antigen or the host’s genetic background. PMID:27447674

  11. Differences in genetic variation in antigen-processing machinery components and association with cervical carcinoma risk in two Indonesian populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Akash M.; Spaans, Vivian M.; Mahendra, Nyoman Bayu; Osse, Elisabeth M.; Vet, Jessica N. I.; Purwoto, Gatot; Surya, I G D; Cornian, Santoso; Peters, Alexander A.; Fleuren, Gert J.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation of antigen-processing machinery (APM) components has been shown to be associated with cervical carcinoma risk and outcome in a genetically homogeneous Dutch population. However, the role of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetically heterogeneous populations with different distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes remains unclear. Eleven non-synonymous, coding SNPs in the TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, LMP7 and ERAP1 genes were genotyped in cervical ca...

  12. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. PMID:23887150

  13. Discovering naturally processed antigenic determinants that confer protective T cell immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Spencer, Charles T; Conant, Stephanie B;

    2013-01-01

    CD8+ T cells (TCD8) confer protective immunity against many infectious diseases, suggesting that microbial TCD8 determinants are promising vaccine targets. Nevertheless, current T cell antigen identification approaches do not discern which epitopes drive protective immunity during active infectio...

  14. NLRC5 elicits antitumor immunity by enhancing processing and presentation of tumor antigens to CD8+ T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Galaxia M.; Bobbala, Diwakar; Serrano, Daniel; Mayhue, Marian; Champagne, Audrey; Saucier, Caroline; Steimle, Viktor; Kufer, Thomas A.; Menendez, Alfredo; Ramanathan, Sheela; Ilangumaran, Subburaj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancers can escape immunesurveillance by diminishing the expression of MHC class-I molecules (MHC-I) and components of the antigen-processing machinery (APM). Developing new approaches to reverse these defects could boost the efforts to restore antitumor immunity. Recent studies have shown that the expression of MHC-I and antigen-processing molecules is transcriptionally regulated by NOD-like receptor CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5). To investigate whether NLRC5 could be used to improve tumor immunogenicity, we established stable lines of B16-F10 melanoma cells expressing NLRC5 (B16-5), the T cell co-stimulatory molecule CD80 (B16-CD80) or both (B16-5/80). Cells harboring NLRC5 constitutively expressed MHC-I and LMP2, LMP7 and TAP1 genes of the APM. The B16-5 cells efficiently presented the melanoma antigenic peptide gp10025–33 to Pmel-1 TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells and induced their proliferation. In the presence of CD80, B16-5 cells stimulated Pmel-1 cells even without the addition of gp100 peptide, indicating that NLRC5 facilitated the processing and presentation of endogenous tumor antigen. Upon subcutaneous implantation, B16-5 cells showed markedly reduced tumor growth in C57BL/6 hosts but not in immunodeficient hosts, indicating that the NLRC5-expressing tumor cells elicited antitumor immunity. Following intravenous injection, B16-5 and B16-5/80 cells formed fewer lung tumor foci compared to control cells. In mice depleted of CD8+ T cells, B16-5 cells formed large subcutaneous and lung tumors. Finally, immunization with irradiated B16-5 cells conferred protection against challenge by parental B16 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that NLRC5 could be exploited to restore tumor immunogenicity and to stimulate protective antitumor immunity. PMID:27471621

  15. NLRC5 elicits antitumor immunity by enhancing processing and presentation of tumor antigens to CD8(+) T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Galaxia M; Bobbala, Diwakar; Serrano, Daniel; Mayhue, Marian; Champagne, Audrey; Saucier, Caroline; Steimle, Viktor; Kufer, Thomas A; Menendez, Alfredo; Ramanathan, Sheela; Ilangumaran, Subburaj

    2016-06-01

    Cancers can escape immunesurveillance by diminishing the expression of MHC class-I molecules (MHC-I) and components of the antigen-processing machinery (APM). Developing new approaches to reverse these defects could boost the efforts to restore antitumor immunity. Recent studies have shown that the expression of MHC-I and antigen-processing molecules is transcriptionally regulated by NOD-like receptor CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5). To investigate whether NLRC5 could be used to improve tumor immunogenicity, we established stable lines of B16-F10 melanoma cells expressing NLRC5 (B16-5), the T cell co-stimulatory molecule CD80 (B16-CD80) or both (B16-5/80). Cells harboring NLRC5 constitutively expressed MHC-I and LMP2, LMP7 and TAP1 genes of the APM. The B16-5 cells efficiently presented the melanoma antigenic peptide gp10025-33 to Pmel-1 TCR transgenic CD8(+) T cells and induced their proliferation. In the presence of CD80, B16-5 cells stimulated Pmel-1 cells even without the addition of gp100 peptide, indicating that NLRC5 facilitated the processing and presentation of endogenous tumor antigen. Upon subcutaneous implantation, B16-5 cells showed markedly reduced tumor growth in C57BL/6 hosts but not in immunodeficient hosts, indicating that the NLRC5-expressing tumor cells elicited antitumor immunity. Following intravenous injection, B16-5 and B16-5/80 cells formed fewer lung tumor foci compared to control cells. In mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, B16-5 cells formed large subcutaneous and lung tumors. Finally, immunization with irradiated B16-5 cells conferred protection against challenge by parental B16 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that NLRC5 could be exploited to restore tumor immunogenicity and to stimulate protective antitumor immunity. PMID:27471621

  16. Structural Basis For Antigenic Peptide Precursor Processing by the Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase ERAP1

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tina T.; Chang, Shih-Chung; Evnouchidou, Irini; Ian A York; Zikos, Christos; Rock, Kenneth L.; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Stratikos, Efstratios; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    ERAP1 trims antigen precursors to fit into MHC class I proteins. To perform this function, ERAP1 has unique substrate preferences, trimming long peptides while sparing shorter ones. To identify the structural basis for ERAP1's unusual properties, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of human ERAP1 bound to bestatin. The structure reveals an open conformation with a large interior compartment. An extended groove originating from the enzyme's catalytic center can accommodate long peptides ...

  17. Structural Basis For Antigenic Peptide Precursor Processing by the Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase ERAP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Nguyen; S Chang; I Evnouchidou; I York; C Zikos; K Rock; A Goldberg; E Stratikos; L Stern

    2011-12-31

    ERAP1 trims antigen precursors to fit into MHC class I proteins. To fulfill this function, ERAP1 has unique substrate preferences, trimming long peptides but sparing shorter ones. To identify the structural basis for ERAP1's unusual properties, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of human ERAP1 bound to bestatin. The structure reveals an open conformation with a large interior compartment. An extended groove originating from the enzyme's catalytic center can accommodate long peptides and has features that explain ERAP1's broad specificity for antigenic peptide precursors. Structural and biochemical analyses suggest a mechanism for ERAP1's length-dependent trimming activity, whereby binding of long rather than short substrates induces a conformational change with reorientation of a key catalytic residue toward the active site. ERAP1's unique structural elements suggest how a generic aminopeptidase structure has been adapted for the specialized function of trimming antigenic precursors.

  18. Influence of a precepitator on bioremedial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nježić Zvonko B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural environment represents a dynamic bioreactor with numerous chemical, biochemical and microbiological processes through which harmful materials are destroyed, so that living organisms and human beings are not endanger. Controlled anthropogenic actions can assist the natural ecosystem to become an efficient bioremedial unit and to reduce the level of effluents produced in the biotechnological transformations during massive food production. In this study, a monitoring system for the chemical oxygen demand (COD and the heavy metal levels in water was established, followed by construction and building of a precipitator in order to prevent discharging of sludge. The results contribute to the hypothesis of existence of in situ bioremedial processes in the observed ecosystem. The significant influence of the precipitator on the decrease of pollution was demonstrated: a decrease of both the COD value and the heavy metal levels downstream from the precipitator for about 15%. Therefore it can be concluded that the precipitator significantly contributes to the ecosystem by the reduction of pollutant level.

  19. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Penney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED. Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18–24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3% (p=0.791 (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = −11% to +21% but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%. Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity.

  20. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Carla; Porter, Robert; O'Brien, Mary; Daley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18-24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3%) (p = 0.791) (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = -11% to +21%) but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%). Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity. PMID:27579047

  1. Characterization of antigen processing and presentation by peptide-linked MHC class I molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Neeraj

    2005-01-01

    MHC-Klasse-I-Moleküle präsentieren gewöhnlich Peptide, die aus zytosolischen Antigenproteinen durch proteasomalen Verdau generiert und anschließend vom TAP-Peptidtransporter ins endoplasmatische Retikulum transportiert werden. Es können jedoch auch endozytierte Antigene für die MHC-Klasse-I-vermittelten Antigenpräsentation prozessiert werden, wobei dieser alternative Weg entweder in einer Proteasom/TAP-abhängigen oder unabhängigen Weise abläuft. Während diese so genannte „Kreuzpräsentation“ f...

  2. Replisome mechanics: lagging strand events that influence speed and processivity

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu, Roxana E.; Yao, Nina; Indiani, Chiara; Yurieva, Olga; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2014-01-01

    The antiparallel structure of DNA requires lagging strand synthesis to proceed in the opposite direction of the replication fork. This imposes unique events that occur only on the lagging strand, such as primase binding to DnaB helicase, RNA synthesis, and SS B antigen (SSB) displacement during Okazaki fragment extension. Single-molecule and ensemble techniques are combined to examine the effect of lagging strand events on the Escherichia coli replisome rate and processivity. We find that pri...

  3. Density distribution of receptors for peannut lectin in the structure of wall rats’ pharynx in the postnatal period after antenatal antigen influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It was determined that in animals with antenatal antigen influence density peanut lectin receptors on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells mucus layer of the pharynx′ nasal part on the first day of life less in comparison intact animals group. Starting from the third day of life, the intensity of deposition benzydyn mark in epithelial cells cytoplasm of the upper and lower walls of the pharynx’ nasal part, and the secret of goblet cells in experimental animals is higher than in intact rats. Content carbohydrate residues β-D-galactose in the intercellular substance of submucous connective tissue of the pharynx above in experimental animals compared with intact during all periods of observation. Antenatal antigen influence leads to an increase in PNA+-lymphocytes in the mucous layer of the pharynx.

  4. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  5. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  6. Manufacturing process influences properties of probiotic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeskowiak, Lukasz; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo; Gueimonde Fernández, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Production and manufacturing methods and the food carrier may influence the properties of probiotic strains, and have an impact on the outcome of clinical intervention studies. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the properties of a specific probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, may differ depending on the product and source of the strain. In total, fifteen different L. rhamnosus isolates, among them fourteen labelled as L. rhamnosus GG, were isolated from specific p...

  7. Influence Business Process On The Quality Of Accounting Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Meiryani; Muhammad Syaifullah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of business process to the quality of the accounting information system. This study aims to examine the influence of business process on the quality of the information system of accounting information system. The study was theoritical research which considered the roles of business process on quality of accounting information system which use secondary data collection. The results showed that the business process have a signifi...

  8. The influence of social media on business processes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    2013-01-01

    Business process reengineering (BPR) has been discussed over 20 years. Nowadays, social media is widely used by companies in doing business. It plays the role to influence business processes. This thesis aims to answer the question: “How does social media change the major business processes?” The prior research in the disciplines of BPR and social media is reviewed first. Based on the literature, a framework used to illustrate the influence of social media on business processes and degrees is...

  9. Understanding the Impact of ErbB Activating Events and Signal Transduction on Antigen Processing and Presentation: MHC Expression as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Anna E.; Sasaki, Maiko; Cooper, Lee A.; Kissick, Haydn T.; Pollack, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in molecular pathology have changed the landscape of oncology. The ability to interrogate tissue samples for oncogene amplification, driver mutations, and other molecular alterations provides clinicians with an enormous level of detail about their patient’s cancer. In some cases, this information informs treatment decisions, especially those related to targeted anti-cancer therapies. However, in terms of immune-based therapies, it is less clear how to use such information. Likewise, despite studies demonstrating the pivotal role of neoantigens in predicting responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade, it is not known if the expression of neoantigens impacts the response to targeted therapies despite a growing recognition of their diverse effects on immunity. To realize the promise of ‘personalized medicine’, it will be important to develop a more integrated understanding of the relationships between oncogenic events and processes governing anti-tumor immunity. One area of investigation to explore such relationships centers on defining how ErbB/HER activation and signal transduction influences antigen processing and presentation. PMID:27729860

  10. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  11. Nonclassical antigen-processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-04-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  12. Complement receptor type two (CR2,CR21): a target for influencing the humoral immune response and antigen-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, W M

    1999-01-01

    Cellular receptors for complement C3 fragments deposited on antigens are important bricks in the wall defending against microbial pathogens. The part of complement receptor type 2 (CR2; CD21) deals with enhancing humoral immune responses and with long-term trapping of C3d-coated antigen by follicular dendritic cells. CR2 is also pivotal for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Here, the current understanding, how CR2 interacts with its ligands C3d, EBV, and CD23 is summarized. The potential to target CR2 for clinical therapy or immunization purposes are discussed. PMID:10741859

  13. Probing proteasome activity and function : cancer diagnostics and mechanism of antigen processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers, Celia Rosita

    2010-01-01

    In cells, proteins are continuously synthesized and degraded to control protein levels and thereby regulate a wide variety of biochemical processes. The proteasome is the main cellular degradation machinery, responsible for the degradation of key proteins involved in the regulation of a wide range o

  14. Influence of Process and Machine tool on tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This note gives a summary of how the process and the machine tool can influence the geometrical tolerances. The note concerns cutting processes and machine tools but many of the considerations can be transferred directly to other types of manufacturing process and machines....

  15. Inhibitors of glycoprotein processing alter T-cell proliferative responses to antigen and to interleukin 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, K A; Pierce, J D; Elbein, A D

    1988-01-01

    Most of the cell-surface molecules involved in T-cell immune responses are N-linked glycoproteins. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of glycoprotein processing on specific T-cell functions, with the dual aims of examining the functional role of carbohydrate and of testing the usefulness of such compounds as immunomodulators. Treatment of a cloned murine helper T-cell line with these inhibitors differentially affects the proliferative response of the cell, depending upon the natur...

  16. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.

  17. Differential localization of processed fragments of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen and further processing of its N-terminal 47 kDa fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Mitamura, Toshihide; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J; Horii, Toshihiro

    2002-12-01

    The serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a blood stage malaria vaccine candidate. It has been shown that 120 kDa SERA was proteolytically processed into N-terminal 47 kDa fragment (P47), central 56 kDa fragment (P56) that was further converted to 50 kDa (P50), and C-terminal 18 kDa fragment (P18). Here, we have examined the processing of SERA and the localization of its processed fragments by using mouse antibodies directed against recombinant proteins corresponding to different domains of SERA. Western blot analysis showed that all the processing events occurred inside parasitized erythrocytes at the stage just prior to the schizont rupture, that P47 was further processed into two 25 kDa fragments and that the two fragments, which were linked to P18 through disulfide bonds, were associated with the merozoite. In contrast, P50 was completely shed into culture medium and absent from the merozoite. This observation was further supported by the results of indirect immunofluorescence assay. These results could account for the findings that antibodies against P47 were inhibitory to the parasite growth in vitro but those against P50 were not. Finally, we demonstrated that the further processing of P47 is allelic type-dependent. The results of the present study would help in vaccine designing based on SERA. PMID:12421632

  18. Influence of process water quality on hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-02-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that has been shown to be environmentally and energetically advantageous for the conversion of wet feedstocks. Supplemental moisture, usually in the form of pure water, is added during carbonization to achieve feedstock submersion. To improve process sustainability, it is important to consider alternative supplemental moisture sources. Liquid waste streams may be ideal alternative liquid source candidates. Experiments were conducted to systematically evaluate how changes in pH, ionic strength, and organic carbon content of the initial process water influences cellulose carbonization. Results from the experiments conducted evaluating the influence of process water quality on carbonization indicate that changes in initial water quality do influence time-dependent carbonization product composition and yields. These results also suggest that using municipal and industrial wastewaters, with the exception of streams with high CaCl2 concentrations, may impart little influence on final carbonization products/yields.

  19. Clinical and virological factors influencing the performance of a NS1 antigen-capture assay and potential use as a marker of dengue disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detection of dengue NS1 antigen in acute infection has been proposed for early diagnosis of dengue disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and virological factors influencing the performance of the Platelia NS1 Ag kit (BioRad and to assess the potential use of NS1 antigen and dengue viral loads as markers of dengue disease severity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood specimens were collected from patients hospitalized at the Kampong Cham hospital during the 2006 and 2007 dengue epidemics in Cambodia. Dengue infection was confirmed in 243/339 symptomatic patients and in 17 asymptomatic individuals out of 214 household members tested. Overall sensitivity and specificity of Platelia NS1 Ag kit were 57.5% and 100% respectively. NS1 Ag assay combined with IgM antibody capture ELISA significantly increased the sensitivity for dengue diagnosis. NS1 Ag positivity rate was found significantly higher in DF than in DHF/DSS, in primary than in secondary infections, in patients with a high viremia (>5 log/mL and in patients infected with DENV-1. In asymptomatic individuals, the NS1 Ag capture sensitivity tends to be lower than that in symptomatic patients. Milder disease severity was observed independently in patients with RNA copy number >5 log10 cDNA equivalents/mL or in high level of NS1 antigen ratio or in DENV-1 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall sensitivity of NS1 Ag detection kit varied widely across the various forms of dengue infection or disease. Sensitivity was highest in patients sampled during the first 3 days after onset of fever, in patients with primary infection, DENV-1 infection, with high level of viremia and in DF rather than DHF/DSS. In asymptomatic patients, RT-PCR assay has proved to be more sensitive than NS1 antigen detection. The NS1 antigen level correlated significantly with viremia and a low NS1 antigen ratio was associated with more severe disease.

  20. Influence Business Process On The Quality Of Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiryani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of business process to the quality of the accounting information system. This study aims to examine the influence of business process on the quality of the information system of accounting information system. The study was theoritical research which considered the roles of business process on quality of accounting information system which use secondary data collection. The results showed that the business process have a significant effect on the quality of accounting information systems.

  1. Ocular allergy modulation to hi-dose antigen sensitization is a Treg-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Schlereth, Simona; Khandelwal, Payal; Saban, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    A reproducible method to inhibit allergic immune responses is accomplished with hi-dose Ag sensitization, via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. However, the role of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in this process is unknown, as is whether such modulation extends to ocular allergy. We therefore determined herein whether hi-dose sensitization modulates ocular allergy, and whether CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg are involved. C57BL/6 mice were IP sensitized via low-dose (100 µg) versus hi-dose (1000 µg) ovalbumin (OVA), in aluminum hydroxide (1 mg) and pertussis-toxin (300 ng). Other mice received anti-CD25 Ab (PC61) to ablate Treg during sensitization. In another experiment, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were adoptively transferred into low-dose sensitized mice. Once daily OVA challenges were administered. Clinical signs, IgE, T cell cytokines, and eosinophils were assessed. Data revealed that hi-dose, but not low-dose, sensitization led to allergy modulation, indicated by decreased clinical signs, serum IgE levels, Th2 recall responses, and eosinophil recruitment. T cells from hi-dose sensitized mice showed a robust increase in TGF-b production, and Treg from these mice were able to efficiently suppress effector T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, in vivo Treg ablation in hi-dose sensitized mice revoked allergy modulation. Lastly, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were able to adoptively transfer allergy modulation to their low-dose sensitized counterparts. Collectively, these findings indicate that modulation to hi-dose sensitization, which is extended to ocular allergy, occurs in a Treg-dependent manner. In addition, our data suggest that hi-dose sensitization may henceforth facilitate the further examination of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg in allergic disease.

  2. Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines mediates chemokine endocytosis through a macropinocytosis-like process in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Zhao

    Full Text Available The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC shows high affinity binding to multiple inflammatory CC and CXC chemokines and is expressed by erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial DARC facilitates chemokine transcytosis to promote neutrophil recruitment. However, the mechanism of chemokine endocytosis by DARC remains unclear.We investigated the role of several endocytic pathways in DARC-mediated ligand internalization. Here we report that, although DARC co-localizes with caveolin-1 in endothelial cells, caveolin-1 is dispensable for DARC-mediated (125I-CXCL1 endocytosis as knockdown of caveolin-1 failed to inhibit ligand internalization. (125I-CXCL1 endocytosis by DARC was also independent of clathrin and flotillin-1 but required cholesterol and was, in part, inhibited by silencing Dynamin II expression.(125I-CXCL1 endocytosis was inhibited by amiloride, cytochalasin D, and the PKC inhibitor Gö6976 whereas Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF enhanced ligand internalization through DARC. The majority of DARC-ligand interactions occurred on the endothelial surface, with DARC identified along plasma membrane extensions with the appearance of ruffles, supporting the concept that DARC provides a high affinity scaffolding function for surface retention of chemokines on endothelial cells.These results show DARC-mediated chemokine endocytosis occurs through a macropinocytosis-like process in endothelial cells and caveolin-1 is dispensable for CXCL1 internalization.

  3. Cultivation of Inducible Escherichi a Coli RB791 Hepatitis B Core Antigen Producer: Screening and Modelling of Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Grīgs, O; Ruģele, K

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) expressed in Escherichia coli, exhibits similar morphology and antigenicity to the native core particles of Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Also core particle has become one of the most frequently studied systems, as a carrier for various foreign epitopes. This aspect leads to great interest of HBcAg as a component for discovery of new type HBV vaccine, as therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Also core particles are examined as vectors for gene engineering. ...

  4. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Mnerie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.

  5. Association of defective HLA-Ⅰ expression with antigen processing machinery and their association with clinicopathological characteristics in Kazak patients with esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayshamgul Hasim; MA Hong; Ilyar Sheyhidin; ZHANG Li-wei; Abulizi Abudula

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been confirmed that defective expression of human leukocyte antigen class Ⅰ (HLA-Ⅰ) molecules can contribute to the immune evasion of cancer cells in some types of cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of HLA class Ⅰ antigen and the antigen-processing machinery (APM) components in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and their role in high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and to analyze their association with histopathological characteristics in the Kazak ethnic group.Methods A total of 50 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ESCC lesions were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, China. The expression levels of HLA-Ⅰ antigen and APM components were determined by immunohistochemistry; the HPV DNA were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results A high frequency of down-regulation or loss of expression of HLA and APM components were found in esophageal cancer in Kazak people. HLA-Ⅰ, TAP1, CNX, LMP7, Erp57, Tapasin and ERAP1 were down-regulated in 68%,44%, 48%, 40%, 52%, 32% and 20% of ESCC lesions then, respectively. The loss of expression of HLA-Ⅰ antigen was significantly correlated with part of the APM components and positively correlated with high risk HPV16 infection. TAP1,CNX, LMP7, Erp57 and Tapasin loss were significantly associated with tumor grading, lymph node metastasis and depth of invasion (P<0.05).Conclusion Our results suggest that APM component defects are a mechanism underlying HLA-Ⅰ antigen down-regulation in ESCC lesions, and indicate that the loss expression of HLA-Ⅰ and APM components will become an important marker of ESCC and analysis of HLA-Ⅰ and APM component expression can provide useful prognostic information for patients with ESCC from the Kazak ethnic group.

  6. Differential presentation of endogenous and exogenous hepatitis B surface antigens influences priming of CD8(+) T cells in an epitope-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Petra; Reiser, Michael; Stifter, Katja; Krieger, Jana; Schirmbeck, Reinhold

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about whether presentation of endogenous and exogenous hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens on APCs targeted by vaccination and/or virus-harboring hepatocytes influences de novo priming of CD8(+) T cells. We showed that surface antigen-expressing transfectants exclusively display a K(b) /S190 epitope, whereas cells pulsed with recombinant surface particles (rSPs) exclusively present a K(b) /S208 epitope to CD8(+) T cells. The differential presentation of these epitopes largely reflects the selective, but not exclusive, priming of K(b) /S190- and K(b) /S208-specific T cells in C57BL/6 mice by endogenous/DNA- or exogenous/protein-based vaccines, respectively. Silencing the K(b) /S190 epitope (K(b) /S190V194F ) in antigen-expressing vectors rescued the presentation of the K(b) /S208 epitope in stable transfectants and significantly enhanced priming of K(b) /S208-specific T cells in C57BL/6 mice. A K(b) /S190-mediated immunodominance operating in surface antigen-expressing cells, but not in rSP-pulsed cells, led to an efficient suppression in the presentation of the K(b) /S208 epitope and a consequent decrease in the priming of K(b) /S208-specific T cells. This K(b) /S190-mediated immunodominance also operated in 1.4HBV-S(mut) transgenic (tg) hepatocytes selectively expressing endogenous surface antigens and allowed priming of K(b) /S208- but not K(b) /S190-specific T cells in 1.4HBV-S(mut) tg mice. However, IFN-γ(+) K(b) /S208-specific T cells could not inhibit HBV replication in the liver of 1.4HBV-S(mut) tg mice. These results have practical implications for the design of T-cell-stimulating therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24723392

  7. Operator's Influence on the Safety of the Controlled Process

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nagy; Karol Rastocny

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of risks related to controlled process and related hazards identification is an important activity during the development of the safety related control system (SRCS). The mistake of the operational staff during the execution of the safety relevant operations related to controlled process can be the cause of hazard. Influence of the operator on controlled process safety depends on operation mode of the SRCS and on technical safety of the SRCS. This contribution deals with the issue...

  8. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: Pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not - or only partly - affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e. facial expressions of pain. Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing.

  9. Differences in genetic variation in antigen-processing machinery components and association with cervical carcinoma risk in two Indonesian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akash M; Spaans, Vivian M; Mahendra, Nyoman Bayu; Osse, Elisabeth M; Vet, Jessica N I; Purwoto, Gatot; Surya, I G D; Cornian, Santoso; Peters, Alexander A; Fleuren, Gert J; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation of antigen-processing machinery (APM) components has been shown to be associated with cervical carcinoma risk and outcome in a genetically homogeneous Dutch population. However, the role of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetically heterogeneous populations with different distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes remains unclear. Eleven non-synonymous, coding SNPs in the TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, LMP7 and ERAP1 genes were genotyped in cervical carcinoma patients and healthy controls from two distinct Indonesian populations (Balinese and Javanese). Individual genotype and allele distributions were investigated using single-marker analysis, and combined SNP effects were assessed by haplotype construction and haplotype interaction analysis. Allele distribution patterns in Bali and Java differed in relation to cervical carcinoma risk, with four ERAP1 SNPs and one TAP2 SNP in the Javanese population showing significant association with cervical carcinoma risk, while in the Balinese population, only one TAP2 SNP showed this association. Multimarker analysis demonstrated that in the Javanese patients, one specific haplotype, consisting of the ERAP1-575 locus on chromosome 5 and the TAP2-379 and TAP2-651 loci on chromosome 6, was significantly associated with cervical carcinoma risk (global P = 0.008); no significant haplotype associations were found in the Balinese population. These data indicate not only that genetic variation in APM component genes is associated with cervical carcinoma risk in Indonesia but also that the patterns of association differ depending on background genetic composition and possibly on differences in HPV type distribution. PMID:25796583

  10. Peer influence processes for youth delinquency and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andrew D; Crea, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the multiple factors that account for peer influence processes of adolescent delinquency and depression using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Random-effects longitudinal negative binomial models were used to predict depression and delinquency, controlling for social connection variables to account for selection bias. Findings suggest peer depression and delinquency are both predictive of youth delinquency, while peer influences of depression are much more modest. Youth who are more connected to parents and communities and who are more popular within their networks are more susceptible to peer influence, while self-regulating youth are less susceptible. We find support for theories of popularity-socialization as well as weak-ties in explaining social network factors that amplify or constrain peer influence. We argue that practitioners working with youth should consider network-informed interventions to improve program efficacy and avoid iatrogenic effects. PMID:26066630

  11. Friendship and Delinquency: Selection and Influence Processes in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…

  12. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. PMID:26378365

  13. Construction of a triple modified p53 containing DNA vaccine to enhance processing and presentation of the p53 antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Geke A. P.; Meijer, Coby; Dam, Wendy A.; Roossink, Frank; Mulder, Nanno H.

    2009-01-01

    More effective and less toxic treatments are urgently needed in the treatment of patients with cancer. The turnout suppressor protein p53 is a tumour-associated antigen that could serve that purpose when applied in an immunologic approval to cancer. It is mutated in similar to 50% of the tumours res

  14. The T210M Substitution in the HLA-a*02:01 gp100 Epitope Strongly Affects Overall Proteasomal Cleavage Site Usage and Antigen Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Keller, Christin; Liepe, Juliane; Henklein, Petra; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele

    2015-12-18

    MHC class I-restricted epitopes, which carry a tumor-specific mutation resulting in improved MHC binding affinity, are preferred T cell receptor targets in innovative adoptive T cell therapies. However, T cell therapy requires efficient generation of the selected epitope. How such mutations may affect proteasome-mediated antigen processing has so far not been studied. Therefore, we analyzed by in vitro experiments the effect on antigen processing and recognition of a T210M exchange, which previously had been introduced into the melanoma gp100209-217 tumor epitope to improve the HLA-A*02:01 binding and its immunogenicity. A quantitative analysis of the main steps of antigen processing shows that the T210M exchange affects proteasomal cleavage site usage within the mutgp100201-230 polypeptide, leading to the generation of an unique set of cleavage products. The T210M substitution qualitatively affects the proteasome-catalyzed generation of spliced and non-spliced peptides predicted to bind HLA-A or -B complexes. The T210M substitution also induces an enhanced production of the mutgp100209-217 epitope and its N-terminally extended peptides. The T210M exchange revealed no effect on ERAP1-mediated N-terminal trimming of the precursor peptides. However, mutant N-terminally extended peptides exhibited significantly increased HLA-A*02:01 binding affinity and elicited CD8(+) T cell stimulation in vitro similar to the wtgp100209-217 epitope. Thus, our experiments demonstrate that amino acid exchanges within an epitope can result in the generation of an altered peptide pool with new antigenic peptides and in a wider CD8(+) T cell response also towards N-terminally extended versions of the minimal epitope. PMID:26507656

  15. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.;

    2012-01-01

    Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...... studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many...

  16. Influence of Hard Tool Coatings on Process of Stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajec, Bostjan; Podgornik, Bojan; Bay, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    materials and possible hard coatings as alternative tool materials. For this purpose the blanking/punching process was first analyzed by a numerical model and based on the results four different tool materials and three hard coatings were included in the investigation and tested in a model test rig as well......Blanking/punching is a process which enables mass production of very demanding products, such as lamellas for electrical engines, generators and similar devices. Tool wear in the blanking/punching process has large influence on the product surface quality as well as on tool life. Improvement...... of tool life can be achieved by proper selection of tool materials and possible coatings. In mass production the tools are usually made of WC, which however, results in expensive tools and long time of delivery. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of different tool...

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of VHS virus in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); The influence of primary antibody, fixative, and antigen unmasking on method sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the primary antibody, the fixative, and the antigen unmasking technique on the method sensitivity of immunohistochemistry as a method for the identification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus in paraffin-embedded specimens of naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus...... mykiss) was examined. Fish (200-300 g) were collected during an outbreak of VHS. Parallel specimens from liver, spleen, kidney, and brain were fixed by immersion in 10% phosphate-buffered formalin, periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde (PLP), Bouin's fluid, or absolute ethanol. Virus cultivation was also......-specific antibodies. VHS virus was identified in situ in specimens with high virus titers (10(7-8) TCID50/ml) regardless of the fixative and without the need of an unmasking procedure. A pronounced masking effect was observed for the cross-linking formalin and PLP fixatives. Regardless of the primary antibodies used...

  18. Process Factors Influence on Cavity Pressure Behavior in Microinjection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C. A.; Dimov, S. S.; Scholz, S.;

    2011-01-01

    about the filling behavior of different polymer melts. In this paper, a pressure sensor mounted inside a tool cavity was employed to analyse maximum cavity pressure, pressure increase rate during filling and pressure work. The influence of four mu IM parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature......Process monitoring of microinjection moulding (mu IM) is of crucial importance when analysing the effect of different parameter settings on the process and then in assessing its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide valuable information about the process dynamics and also......, injection speed, and packing pressure on these three pressure-related process parameters was investigated. A design of experiment study was conducted by moulding a test part, a microfluidic component, in three different polymer materials, PP, ABS, and PC. The results show a similar process behavior for all...

  19. Diversity of natural self-derived ligands presented by different HLA class I molecules in transporter antigen processing-deficient cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lorente

    Full Text Available The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP translocates the cytosol-derived proteolytic peptides to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen where they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules. Non-functional TAP complexes and viral or tumoral blocking of these transporters leads to reduced HLA class I surface expression and a drastic change in the available peptide repertoire. Using mass spectrometry to analyze complex human leukocyte antigen HLA-bound peptide pools isolated from large numbers of TAP-deficient cells, we identified 334 TAP-independent ligands naturally presented by four different HLA-A, -B, and -C class I molecules with very different TAP dependency from the same cell line. The repertoire of TAP-independent peptides examined favored increased peptide lengths and a lack of strict binding motifs for all four HLA class I molecules studied. The TAP-independent peptidome arose from 182 parental proteins, the majority of which yielded one HLA ligand. In contrast, TAP-independent antigen processing of very few cellular proteins generated multiple HLA ligands. Comparison between TAP-independent peptidome and proteome of several subcellular locations suggests that the secretory vesicle-like organelles could be a relevant source of parental proteins for TAP-independent HLA ligands. Finally, a predominant endoproteolytic peptidase specificity for Arg/Lys or Leu/Phe residues in the P(1 position of the scissile bond was found for the TAP-independent ligands. These data draw a new and intricate picture of TAP-independent pathways.

  20. Post-transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of antigen processing machinery (APM components and HLA-I in cervical cancers from Uighur women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayshamgul Hasim

    Full Text Available Normal function of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I and antigen processing machinery (APM proteins is required for T cell-mediated anti-tumor or antiviral immunity, whereas the tumor survival indicates a failure of the host in immune surveillance associated with the dysfunction in antigen presentation, mainly due to the deregulation in HLA-I and APM expression or function. The posttranscriptional regulation of HLA-I and APM expression may associate with epigenetic modifications in cancer development which was not described so far. Here we showed that the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC in Uighur women was accompanied with the partial or total loss of protein expression of HLA-I, ß2-m and APM components, including the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1/2, low molecular mass protein (LMP2, LMP7, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1(ERAP1, chaperone molecules include calreticulin (CLR, calnexin (CNX and ERp57, and this was proved again by analysis of transcription of the same genes in addition to three genes HLA-A, B and C coding for HLA-I. By bisulfite sequencing approach, we identified target CpG islands methylated at the gene promoter region of TAP1, TAP2, LMP7, tapasin and ERp57 in cervical carcinoma cells. Further analysis of CpG site specific methylation of these genes in cases of CSCC and CIN demonstrated an inverse correlation of altered CpG island methylation of TAP1, LMP7, and ERp57 with changes in protein expression. Moreover, promoter methylation of these genes was significantly higher in cases positive for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16 than negative ones. Our results suggested that epigenetic modifications are responsible for the aberrant expression of certain HLA-I and APM genes, and may help to understand unrevealed mechanisms of tumor escape from immune surveillance in cervical carcinogenesis.

  1. Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Antigen-Antibody Capture Processes Using the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We successfully label-free and real-time detect the capture processes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG)/goat anti-human IgG and mouse IgG/goat anti-mouse IgG antigen-antibody pairs with different concentrations using the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method, and obtain the interaction kinetics curves and the interaction times. The experimental results prove that the OIRD method is a promising technique for label-free and real-time detection of the biomolecular interaction processes and achieving the quantitative information of interaction kinetics. (general)

  2. Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Antigen-Antibody Capture Processes Using the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Ping; Dai, Jun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jing-Yi; Lü, Hui-Bin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Jin, Kui-Juan; Zhou, Yue-Liang; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2012-07-01

    We successfully label-free and real-time detect the capture processes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG)/goat anti-human IgG and mouse IgG/goat anti-mouse IgG antigen-antibody pairs with different concentrations using the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method, and obtain the interaction kinetics curves and the interaction times. The experimental results prove that the OIRD method is a promising technique for label-free and real-time detection of the biomolecular interaction processes and achieving the quantitative information of interaction kinetics.

  3. Influences on particle shape in underwater pelletizing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kast, O., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Musialek, M., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Geiger, K., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Underwater pelletizing has gained high importance within the last years among the different pelletizing technologies, due to its advantages in terms of throughput, automation, pellet quality and applicability to a large variety of thermoplastics. The resulting shape and quality of pellets, however, differ widely, depending on material characteristics and effects not fully understood yet. In an experimental set-up, pellets of different volumes and shapes were produced and the medium pellet mass, the pellet surface and the bulk density were analyzed in order to identify the influence of material properties and process parameters. Additionally, the shaping kinetics at the die opening were watched with a specially developed camera system. It was found that rheological material properties correlate with process parameters and resulting particle form in a complex way. Higher cutting speeds were shown to have a deforming influence on the pellets, leading to less spherical s and lower bulk densities. More viscous materials, however, showed a better resistance against this. Generally, the viscous properties of polypropylene proofed to be dominant over the elastic ones in regard to their influence on pellet shape. It was also shown that the shapes filmed at the die opening and the actual form of the pellets after a cooling track do not always correlate, indicating a significant influence of thermodynamic properties during the cooling.

  4. The influence of the sterilisation process on certain thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Manal; Abreu, Maria Jose; Schacher, Laurence; Adolphe, Dominique; Cabeco Silva, Maria Elisabete

    2004-09-01

    Surgical clothing and sheets have to meet all the requirements set in the health-care industry regarding body comfort, absorption capacity and general recognition of physiological safety and sterilisation capacity. The disposable surgical gown market is growing and the demand will increase in all product groups and market sectors, where the health care industry is the most dynamic growth area. The aim of this study was to analyse some of the thermal properties of disposable surgical gowns before and after different sterilisation methods, and therefore the influence of the sterilisation process on their thermal comfort. The apparatus used to measure heat transfer properties was the Thermo Labo device (KES FB7) which evaluates the cool/warm sensation, thermal conductivity and insulation properties of the test item. The results obtained highlight the influence of the sterilisation process on the thermal and comfort properties.

  5. Influence of process parameters on hybrid forming of aluminum sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新明; 陈明安

    2001-01-01

    The influences of the plastic melt pressure and its distribution from the gate to the end of the mold, and of the friction coefficient between the sheet flange and the mold on forming process of the aluminum sheet have been investigated by Finite Element Method. It was shown that further deformation is mainly concentrated on metal sheet around the root corner of the mold, and that two highly strained zones with the severest thickness reduction are formed when the plastic melt pressure increased from 30 MPa to 50 MPa. The deformation of the sheet flange decreased and biaxial tension in plane of the sheet in the mold increased with increase of the friction coefficient. The non-uniform distribution of the plastic melt pressure had negligible influence on forming process of the sheet.

  6. Possible factors influencing high serum Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA in Indonesian patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Rahardjo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH cases in Indonesia frequently associated with high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA. To explore possible factors that could increase serum PSA level, we performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study on 805 consecutive patients in Sumber Waras and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospitals from 1994 to 1997. Clinical manifestations were evaluated and prostate biopsies were performed if indicated. Complete histopathological data were only available in 82 BPH patients with no urinary retention from 1998-1999 and a thin section of paraffin blocks of BPH patients which still could be found from 1994-1999 was analyzed using flow cytometer to obtain the S-phase fraction as a parameter of proliferative activity, From 805 patients, 461 (57% presented with urinary retention and need to be catheteized. Catheteization significantly increased PSA level if compared to noncatheterized patients (16.3 vs. 6,8 ng/mL, p= 0,000. Another data of 82 uncatheteized patients from 1998-1999 has revealed that 79 patients (96.3% had chronic prostatitis and 19 (23.2% showed the presence of prostatic-intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN with an increase of PSA level (5.4 ng/mL. The S-phase fraction of BPH without PIN cases was significantly higher in cases with PSA > 4 ng/ml than patients with PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml (I3.1% vs. 8.9%, p=0,008. As conclusion, the high serum PSA level was mostly due to urethral catheteization and increased prostate volume. There was a tendency of increasing PSA in subclinical inflammation and PIN. Cases with high PSA also showed high proliferative activities which is suggestive of mitogenic activity. (Med J Indones 2001; 10:22-8Keywords: BPH, high PSA, PIN, proliferative activity, s-phase fraction

  7. Analysis of seismic processing influence of Marlim field 4D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filpo, Eduardo; Ritter, Gerson; Pimentel, Marcia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    We present and discuss some preliminary results of the seismic processing analysis, which have been developed in Marlim field time-lapse studies. This field has been used as a pilot project for time-lapse analysis. The second seismic survey was acquired to enhance the seismic resolution at reservoir horizons, instead of aiming at a specific time-lapse study. Preliminary feasibility analysis indicates low possibility of water flow monitoring, but we are still investigating and learning from the data. At the present time, only the presence of a secondary gas has been investigated. In this paper, we investigate the influence of seismic processing on maps. (author)

  8. Storm track processes and the opposing influences of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T. A.; Baldwin, M.; Barnes, E. A.; Caballero, R.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Hwang, Y.-T.; Li, C.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Rivière, G.; Simpson, I. R.; Voigt, A.

    2016-09-01

    Extratropical cyclones are storm systems that are observed to travel preferentially within confined regions known as storm tracks. They contribute to precipitation, wind and temperature extremes in mid-latitudes. Cyclones tend to form where surface temperature gradients are large, and the jet stream influences their speed and direction of travel. Storm tracks shape the global climate through transport of energy and momentum. The intensity and location of storm tracks varies seasonally, and in response to other natural variations, such as changes in tropical sea surface temperature. A hierarchy of numerical models of the atmosphere-ocean system -- from highly idealized to comprehensive -- has been used to study and predict responses of storm tracks to anthropogenic climate change. The future position and intensity of storm tracks depend on processes that alter temperature gradients. However, different processes can have opposing influences on temperature gradients, which leads to a tug of war on storm track responses and makes future projections more difficult. For example, as climate warms, surface shortwave cloud radiative changes increase the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient, but at the same time, longwave cloud radiative changes reduce this gradient. Future progress depends on understanding and accurately quantifying the relative influence of such processes on the storm tracks.

  9. E-commerce influence on changes in logistics processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Żurek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The aim of this publication is to address the changes in retail trade, which have a direct influence on the development of e-commerce which in turn causes modifications to logistics chain management strategies and methods of flow control. Materials: The article has been written on the basis of an analysis of subject literature together with determining the influence of e-commerce to changes in logistics processes. The publications included in this study have been selected in order to present the subject of e-commerce development as well as evaluate changes in methods of flow control. The analysis has been prepared based on the author's experience and available reports and publications. Results: As a result of the conducted analysis, an assessment of the proficiency level of the changes in logistics processes on the local and international market as well as of the trends for these changes has been made. Conclusions: With the development of e-commerce, a new logistics chain management strategy began to appear, which covered both the process of handling the online and offline sales channel. Therefore, it can be concluded that properly adapted flow control methods will be the means for achieving the goal. Tasks will include: streamlining flow processes, improving the efficiency of logistic processes as well as adjusting them to market requirements.    

  10. Influences of multisensory experience on subsequent unisensory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan eShams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory perception has been the focus of intense research in recent years. It is now well established that crossmodal interactions are ubiquitous in perceptual processing and endow the system with improved precision, accuracy, processing speed, etc. While these findings have shed much light on principles and mechanisms of perception, ultimately it is not very surprising that multiple sources of information provide benefits in performance compared to a single source of information.Here, we argue that the more surprising recent findings are those showing that multisensory experience also influences the subsequent unisensory processing. For example, exposure to auditory-visual stimuli, can change the way auditory or visual stimuli are processed subsequently even in isolation. We review three sets of findings that represent three different types of learning ranging from perceptual learning, to sensory recalibration, to associative learning. In all these cases exposure to multisensory stimuli profoundly influences the subsequent unisensory processing. This diversity of phenomena may suggest that continuous modification of unisensory representations by multisensory relationships may be a general learning strategy used by the brain.

  11. Fairness influences early signatures of reward-related neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Bart; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-12-01

    Many humans exhibit a strong preference for fairness during decision-making. Although there is evidence that social factors influence reward-related and affective neural processing, it is unclear if this effect is mediated by compulsory outcome evaluation processes or results from slower deliberate cognition. Here we show that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and late positive potential (LPP), two signatures of early hedonic processing, are modulated by the fairness of rewards during a passive rating task. We find that unfair payouts elicit larger FRNs than fair payouts, whereas fair payouts elicit larger LPPs than unfair payouts. This is true both in the time-domain, where the FRN and LPP are related, and in the time-frequency domain, where the two signals are largely independent. Ultimately, this work demonstrates that fairness affects the early stages of reward and affective processing, suggesting a common biological mechanism for social and personal reward evaluation.

  12. A genome-wide integrative genomic study localizes genetic factors influencing antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina Rubicz

    Full Text Available Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is highly prevalent worldwide, and it has been associated with infectious mononucleosis and severe diseases including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Although EBV has been the focus of extensive research, much still remains unknown concerning what makes some individuals more sensitive to infection and to adverse outcomes as a result of infection. Here we use an integrative genomics approach in order to localize genetic factors influencing levels of Epstein Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 IgG antibodies, as a measure of history of infection with this pathogen, in large Mexican American families. Genome-wide evidence of both significant linkage and association was obtained on chromosome 6 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA region and replicated in an independent Mexican American sample of large families (minimum p-value in combined analysis of both datasets is 1.4×10(-15 for SNPs rs477515 and rs2516049. Conditional association analyses indicate the presence of at least two separate loci within MHC class II, and along with lymphocyte expression data suggest genes HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 as the best candidates. The association signals are specific to EBV and are not found with IgG antibodies to 12 other pathogens examined, and therefore do not simply reveal a general HLA effect. We investigated whether SNPs significantly associated with diseases in which EBV is known or suspected to play a role (namely nasopharyngeal lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis also show evidence of associated with EBNA-1 antibody levels, finding an overlap only for the HLA locus, but none elsewhere in the genome. The significance of this work is that a major locus related to EBV infection has been identified, which may ultimately reveal the underlying mechanisms by which the immune system regulates infection with this

  13. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  14. Influence of economical variables on a supercritical biodiesel production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biodiesel production from supercritical process. • Economical analysis. • Influence of market variables. - Abstract: Biodiesel has becoming more and more relevant in today’s society and economy due to its environmental advantages such as biodegradability, lower CO and CO2 emissions as well as less particulate pollutants. In this work the study of market and economic variables is presented and their effects compared when biodiesel is being produced using a supercritical technology. The production process is based on a supercritical technology with no catalyst and no co-solvent. Price for the raw materials, such as price for the alcohol as well as the oil has been studied. Also, selling price for biodiesel as well as glycerin has been analyzed and compared with prices from other biodiesel production technologies. Economic decisions such as percentage of failure in the production process, investment in research and development, and advertisement have been evaluated; also it has been considered the influence of the tax incentives on the global economy of the production process. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases

  15. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaruji Pomwised

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ. Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response.

  16. Use of chimeric proteins to investigate the role of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) structural domains in peptide binding and translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Shikha; Lapinski, Philip Edward; Raghavan, Malini

    2001-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) comprises two subunits, TAP1 and TAP2, each containing a hydrophobic membrane-spanning region (MSR) and a nucleotide binding domain (NBD). The TAP1/TAP2 complex is required for peptide translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. To understand the role of each structural unit of the TAP1/TAP2 complex, we generated two chimeras containing TAP1 MSR and TAP2 NBD (T1MT2C) or TAP2 MSR and TAP1 NBD (T2MT1C). We show that TAP1/T2MT...

  17. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai ZX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  18. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yim-wah Mak; Alice Yuen Loke

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5...

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 is induced in fibroblasts in polyomavirus middle T antigen-driven mammary carcinoma without influencing tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Boye S; Egeblad, Mikala; Rank, Fritz;

    2008-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasias. To determine if MMP13 plays a role in tumor progression, we crossed MMTV-PyMT mice with Mmp13 deficient mice. The absence of MMP13 did not influence tumor growth, vascularization, progression to more advanced tumor stages, or metastasis to the lungs, and the absence of MMP13 was not......Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 13 (collagenase 3) is an extracellular matrix remodeling enzyme that is induced in myofibroblasts during the earliest invasive stages of human breast carcinoma, suggesting that it is involved in tumor progression. During progression of mammary carcinomas in the...... polyoma virus middle T oncogene mouse model (MMTV-PyMT), Mmp13 mRNA was strongly upregulated concurrently with the transition to invasive and metastatic carcinomas. As in human tumors, Mmp13 mRNA was found in myofibroblasts of invasive grade II and III carcinomas, but not in benign grade I and II mammary...

  20. A Research on Chinese Thinking Influencing English Writing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪娟

    2008-01-01

    L2 writing process is a bilingual event.L2 writers have both LI and L2 at their disposal when they composing in L2. The tendency of LI occurrence varies with individuals composing activities.L2 Writers are more likely to depend on LI, when they were managing their writing process, generating and organizing ideas; but more likely to depend on L2 when undertaking task--examining and text--generating activities. This paper focuses on the influence of LI on L2, and the purpose is to demonstrate that Chinese thinking decreases with the improvement of English proficiency, but the amount of Chinese thinking decreases by a different margin.

  1. Adjuvant Effect of Cationic Liposomes for Subunit Influenza Vaccine: Influence of Antigen Loading Method, Cholesterol and Immune Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kros

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cationic liposomes are potential adjuvants for influenza vaccines. In a previous study we reported that among a panel of cationic liposomes loaded with influenza hemagglutinin (HA, DC-Chol:DPPC (1:1 molar ratio liposomes induced the strongest immune response. However, it is not clear whether the cholesterol (Chol backbone or the tertiary amine head group of DC-Chol was responsible for this. Therefore, in the present work we studied the influence of Chol in the lipid bilayer of cationic liposomes. Moreover, we investigated the effect of the HA loading method (adsorption versus encapsulation and the encapsulation of immune modulators in DC-Chol liposomes on the immunogenicity of HA. Liposomes consisting of a neutral lipid (DPPC or Chol and a cationic compound (DC-Chol, DDA, or eDPPC were produced by film hydration-extrusion with/without an encapsulated immune modulator (CpG or imiquimod. The liposomes generally showed comparable size distribution, zeta potential and HA loading. In vitro studies with monocyte-derived human dendritic cells and immunization studies in C57Bl/6 mice showed that: (1 liposome-adsorbed HA is more immunogenic than encapsulated HA; (2 the incorporation of Chol in the bilayer of cationic liposomes enhances their adjuvant effect; and (3 CpG loaded liposomes are more efficient at enhancing HA-specific humoral responses than plain liposomes or Alhydrogel.

  2. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  3. Advances in Research of the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing%抗原处理相关转运蛋白的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢瑾

    2011-01-01

    抗原处理相关转运蛋白(TAP)是一类转运蛋白,在MHCⅠ类分子抗原呈递过程中有重要作用,负责抗原肽从胞质到内质网腔的转运.由于TAP基因具有多态性,改变机体的免疫应答,从而增加了个体对疾病的易感性;体内外多种因素可调节TAP的表达及活性,TAP基因突变、调节机制的缺陷均可导致其表达下调,有利于病毒感染细胞,肿瘤细胞逃避免疫监视,从而影响疾病的发生发展.%The transporter associated with antigen processing( TAP )plays an important role in the presentation of major histocompatibility complex class Ⅰ antigen by translocating intracellular antigenic peptides from the cytosol into the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum Because of TAP gene have polymorphisms,it change the immunological response of individual and increase the sensitivity for disease; further more, there are many factors in vivo and in vitro adjust the expression and activation of TAP,TAP gene mutation and the deficiency of regulatory mechanism make down regulation of expression. It is good for virus infective cells and tumor cells to escape the immune surveillance, consequently, all these factors affect on the occurrence and development of disease.

  4. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  5. Influence of external potentials on heterogeneous diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakevičius, Rytis; Ruseckas, Julius

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider heterogeneous diffusion processes with the power-law dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position and investigate the influence of external forces on the resulting anomalous diffusion. The heterogeneous diffusion processes can yield subdiffusion as well as superdiffusion, depending on the behavior of the diffusion coefficient. We assume that not only the diffusion coefficient but also the external force has a power-law dependence on the position. We obtain analytic expressions for the transition probability in two cases: when the power-law exponent in the external force is equal to 2 η -1 , where 2 η is the power-law exponent in the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position, and when the external force has a linear dependence on the position. We found that the power-law exponent in the dependence of the mean square displacement on time does not depend on the external force; this force changes only the anomalous diffusion coefficient. In addition, the external force having the power-law exponent different from 2 η -1 limits the time interval where the anomalous diffusion occurs. We expect that the results obtained in this paper may be relevant for a more complete understanding of anomalous diffusion processes.

  6. Interferon Alpha Signalling and Its Relevance for the Upregulatory Effect of Transporter Proteins Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP in Patients with Malignant Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Heise

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFNα is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1 is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling.We could show that IFNα upregulates TAP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with malignant melanoma receiving adjuvant high-dose immunotherapy. IFNα also induced expression of TAP1 in mouse blood and tumor tissue and suppressed the formation of melanoma metastasis in an in vivo B16 tumor model. Besides its expression, TAP binding affinity and transport activity is induced by IFNα in human monocytic THP1 cells. Furthermore, our data revealed that IFNα clearly activates phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 in THP1 and A375 melanoma cells. Inhibition of Janus kinases abrogates the IFNα-induced TAP1 expression. These results suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is a crucial mediator for TAP1 expression elicited by IFNα treatment.We suppose that silencing of TAP1 expression provides tumor cells with a mechanism to escape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. The observed benefit of IFNα treatment could be mediated by the shown dual effect of TAP1 upregulation in antigen presenting cells on the one hand, and of TAP1 upregulation in 'silent' metastatic melanoma cells on the other hand. In conclusion, this work contributes to a better understanding of the mode of action of IFNα which is essential to identify markers to predict, assess and monitor therapeutic

  7. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Provost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the impact of patients’ experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada. Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n=307, 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06–1.46, as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p=0.05, while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p<0.01.  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients’ perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care.

  8. BACTERIAL LEACHING OF ELECTRONIC SCRAP: INFLUENCE OF PROCESS PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Harue Yamane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of bacterial leaching in the ore treatment is already known and also can be applied such as treatment of electronic waste to copper recovery. This paper investigates the influence of process parameters (pulp density, inoculums volume, rotation speed and initial concentration of ferrous iron on bacterial leaching of copper from printed circuit board of computers using the bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans–LR. Printed circuit boards from computers were comminuted using a hammer mill. The powder obtained was magnetically separated and the non-magnetic material used in this study. A shake flask study was carried out on the non-magnetic material using a shaker. The results show that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans–LR can leach 99% of copper from printed circuit boards (non–magnetic material under the determined conditions through of the studies.

  9. The influence of babbling patterns on the processing of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Nakai, Satsuki

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the preference of 27 British English- and 26 Welsh-learning infants for nonwords featuring consonants that occur with equal frequency in the input but that are produced either with equal frequency (Welsh) or with differing frequency (British English) in infant vocalizations. For the English infants a significant difference in looking times was related to the extent of production of the nonword consonants. The Welsh infants, who showed no production preference for either consonant, exhibited no such influence of production patterns on their response to the nonwords. The results are consistent with a previous study that suggested that pre-linguistic babbling helps shape the processing of input speech, serving as an articulatory filter that selectively makes production patterns more salient in the input.

  10. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim-wah Mak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856 were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423 were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885. Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446 or drank (OR = 1.894, and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455 or drink (OR = 11.825 were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills.

  11. Influence of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine antigens on growth and survival of the meningococcus in vitro and in ex vivo and in vivo models of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Kate L; Oriente, Francesca; Adu-Bobie, Jeannette; Montanari, Paolo; Ferlicca, Francesca; Giuliani, Marzia M; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Delany, Isabel

    2010-03-11

    A novel vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease - containing a combination of protein antigens identified by reverse vaccinology: fHBP fused to GNA2091, GNA2132 fused to GNA1030, and NadA - is currently in Phase III clinical trials. In order to determine the role of these antigens in the growth, survival and fitness of the meningococcus, we generated a mutant lacking the expression of all five protein antigens (5KO), a mutant lacking the three main antigens (fHBP, GNA2132 and NadA; 3KO), as well as strains lacking the single antigens. Our results show that abrogation of expression of these antigens in Neisseria meningitidis results in reduced growth in vitro, increased sensitivity of the bacterium to stresses it may encounter in the host, as well as reduced fitness in ex vivo models of infection and in an in vivo infant rat competitive index assay. These results support a multivalent vaccine approach, which was undertaken to strengthen the protective activity of the vaccine antigens, increase the breadth of MenB strains targeted by the vaccine, and limit the potential for selection of vaccine escape mutants.

  12. Development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria; Martínez, Manuel Rosendo; Schielen, Wilhelmus Joseph Gerardus

    2010-09-14

    In many countries, foot and mouth disease (FMD) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (NCP); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against NCP. Vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. We have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (FAL-ELISA), to detect and quantify NCP in vaccine-antigen batches regardless of its volume and composition. Samples are filtered through PVDF-filter microplates pre-coated with a monoclonal antibody against NCP. Filtration removes all unbound components in the sample and captured NCP are detected by anti-NCP conjugate followed by incubation with the substrate, luminol/peroxide. Analytical detection limit was 2 ng for purified NCP and 4 ng for vaccine-antigen batches spiked with NCP, which makes this assay sensitive enough to be applied to purity control of FMD vaccines. Vaccine components did not interfere with the antibody and substrate reactions in the assay. FAL-ELISA is an alternative for the in vivo tests, observing the objective to Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals for quality control of immunobiologicals.

  13. Assessing stability and assembly of the hepatitis B surface antigen into virus-like particles during down-stream processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Maria; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Rinas, Ursula

    2015-07-17

    The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a recombinant protein-based vaccine being able to form virus-like particles (VLPs). HBsAg is mainly produced using yeast-based expression systems, however, recent results strongly suggest that VLPs are not formed within the yeast cells during the cultivation but are formed in a gradual manner during the following down-stream procedures. VLPs are also not detectable during the first down-stream steps including mechanical and EDTA/detergent-assisted cell destruction. Moreover, VLPs are not detectable in the cell lysate treated with polyethylene glycol and colloidal silica. The first VLP resembling structures appear after elution of HBsAg from colloidal silica to which it binds through hydrophobic interaction. These first VLP resembling structures are non-symmetrical as well as heterodisperse and exhibit a high tendency toward cluster formation presumably because of surface exposed hydrophobic patches. More symmetrical and monodisperse VLPs appear after the following ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography most likely as the result of buffer changes during these purification steps (toward more neutral pH and less salt). Final treatment of the VLPs with the denaturant KSCN at moderate concentrations with following KSCN removal by dialysis does not cause unfolding and VLP disassembly but results in a re- and fine-structuring of the VLP surface topology. PMID:26079614

  14. The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Thompson, R; Lobo, V;

    1994-01-01

    We examined the impact of chemoprophylaxis on the cellular and humoral immune responses to polypeptides of the asexual Plasmodium falciparum blood stage antigens, the glutamate rich protein GLURP and Pf155/RESA, both of which in previous field studies have been identified as potentially protective...... responses to the GLURP molecule and partly to the Pf155/RESA antigen in this study population were shortlived and dependent on frequent boostering, but whether these antigens play a role in the development of natural clinical immunity remains open. In the experimental group of schoolchildren weekly...

  15. Dengue viruses cluster antigenically but not as discrete serotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Katzelnick (Leah); J.M. Fonville (Judith); G.D. Gromowski (Gregory D.); J.B. Arriaga (Jose Bustos); A. Green (Angela); S.L. James (Sarah ); L. Lau (Louis); M. Montoya (Magelda); C. Wang (Chunling); L.A. Van Blargan (Laura A.); C.A. Russell (Colin); H.M. Thu (Hlaing Myat); T.C. Pierson (Theodore C.); P. Buchy (Philippe); J.G. Aaskov (John G.); J.L. Muñoz-Jordán (Jorge L.); N. Vasilakis (Nikos); R.V. Gibbons (Robert V.); R.B. Tesh (Robert B.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A. Durbin (Anna); C.P. Simmons (Cameron P.); E.C. Holmes (Edward C.); E. Harris (Eva); S.S. Whitehead (Stephen S.); D.R. Smith (Derek Richard)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe four genetically divergent dengue virus (DENV) types are traditionally classified as serotypes. Antigenic and genetic differences among the DENV types influence disease outcome, vaccine-induced protection, epidemic magnitude, and viral evolution.We scharacterized antigenic diversity

  16. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  17. Influence of the Mold Current on the Electroslag Remelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Mathilde; Dussoubs, Bernard; Jardy, Alain; Escaffre, Jessica; Poisson, Henri

    2016-08-01

    The electroslag remelting process is widely used to produce high value-added alloys. The use of numerical simulation has proven to be a valuable way to improve its understanding. In collaboration with Aubert & Duval, the Institute Jean Lamour has developed a numerical transient model of the process. The consumable electrode is remelted within a mold assumed to be electrically insulated by the solidified slag skin. However, this assumption has been challenged by some recent studies: the solidified slag skin may actually allow a part of the melting current to reach the mold. In this paper, the evolution of our model, in order to take into account this possibility, is presented and discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data, while several sensitivity studies show the influence of some slag properties and operating parameters on the quality of the ingot. Even, a weakly conductive solidified slag skin at the inner surface of the mold may be responsible for a non-negligible amount of current circulating between the slag and crucible, which in turn modifies the fluid flow and heat transfer in the slag and ingot liquid pool. The fraction of current concerned depends mainly on the electrical conductivities of both the liquid and solidified slag.

  18. Influence of global climatic processes on environment The Arctic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmyansky, Mikhael; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kartashov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    One of the most actual problems of the present is changes of environment of Arctic regions under the influence of global climatic processes. Authors as a result of the works executed by them in different areas of the Russian Arctic regions, have received the materials characterising intensity of these processes. Complex researches are carried out on water area and in a coastal zone the White, the Barents, the Kara and the East-Siberian seas, on lake water areas of subarctic region since 1972 on the present. Into structure of researches enter: hydrophysical, cryological observations, direct measurements of temperatures, the analysis of the drill data, electrometric definitions of the parametres of a frozen zone, lithodynamic and geochemical definitions, geophysical investigations of boreholes, studying of glaciers on the basis of visual observations and the analysis of photographs. The obtained data allows to estimate change of temperature of a water layer, deposits and benthonic horizon of atmosphere for last 25 years. On the average they make 0,38⁰C for sea waters, 0,23⁰C for friable deposits and 0,72⁰C for atmosphere. Under the influence of temperature changes in hydrosphere and lithosphere of a shelf cryolithic zone changes the characteristics. It is possible to note depth increase of roof position of the cryolithic zone on the most part of the studied water area. Modern fast rise in temperature high-ice rocks composing coast, has led to avalanche process thermo - denudation and to receipt in the sea of quantity of a material of 1978 three times exceeding level Rise in temperature involves appreciable deviation borders of the Arctic glacial covers. On our monitoring measurements change of the maintenance of oxygen in benthonic area towards increase that is connected with reduction of the general salinity of waters at the expense of fresh water arriving at ice thawing is noticed. It, in turn, leads to change of a biogene part of ecosystem. The executed

  19. Characterization of the Antigen Processing Machinery and Endogenous Peptide Presentation of a Bat MHC Class I Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James W; Woon, Amanda P; Dudek, Nadine L; Croft, Nathan P; Ng, Justin H J; Baker, Michelle L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Purcell, Anthony W

    2016-06-01

    Bats are a major reservoir of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, henipaviruses, and Ebola virus. Although highly pathogenic to their spillover hosts, bats harbor these viruses, and a large number of other viruses, with little or no clinical signs of disease. How bats asymptomatically coexist with these viruses is unknown. In particular, little is known about bat adaptive immunity, and the presence of functional MHC molecules is mostly inferred from recently described genomes. In this study, we used an affinity purification/mass spectrometry approach to demonstrate that a bat MHC class I molecule, Ptal-N*01:01, binds antigenic peptides and associates with peptide-loading complex components. We identified several bat MHC class I-binding partners, including calnexin, calreticulin, protein disulfide isomerase A3, tapasin, TAP1, and TAP2. Additionally, endogenous peptide ligands isolated from Ptal-N*01:01 displayed a relatively broad length distribution and an unusual preference for a C-terminal proline residue. Finally, we demonstrate that this preference for C-terminal proline residues was observed in Hendra virus-derived peptides presented by Ptal-N*01:01 on the surface of infected cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify endogenous and viral MHC class I ligands for any bat species and, as such, provides an important avenue for monitoring and development of vaccines against major bat-borne viruses both in the reservoir and spillover hosts. Additionally, it will provide a foundation to understand the role of adaptive immunity in bat antiviral responses. PMID:27183594

  20. The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Thompson, R; Lobo, V;

    1994-01-01

    We examined the impact of chemoprophylaxis on the cellular and humoral immune responses to polypeptides of the asexual Plasmodium falciparum blood stage antigens, the glutamate rich protein GLURP and Pf155/RESA, both of which in previous field studies have been identified as potentially protective...... antigens. The study was carried out in the Escola Primária de Lingamo, a primary school in a suburban area of Maputo, Mozambique. A cohort of 392 schoolchildren (aged 7-12 years) was randomly allocated to two equal groups, one receiving chemoprophylaxis with dapsone/pyrimethamine (Maloprim), the other...... responses to the GLURP molecule and partly to the Pf155/RESA antigen in this study population were shortlived and dependent on frequent boostering, but whether these antigens play a role in the development of natural clinical immunity remains open. In the experimental group of schoolchildren weekly...

  1. A High-avidity WT1-reactive T-Cell Receptor Mediates Recognition of Peptide and Processed Antigen but not Naturally Occurring WT1-positive Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaigirdar, Adnan; Rosenberg, Steven A; Parkhurst, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) is an attractive target antigen for cancer immunotherapy because it is overexpressed in many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors but has limited, low-level expression in normal adult tissues. Multiple HLA class I and class II restricted epitopes have been identified in WT1, and multiple investigators are pursuing the treatment of cancer patients with WT1-based vaccines and adoptively transferred WT1-reactive T cells. Here we isolated an HLA-A*0201-restricted WT1-reactive T-cell receptor (TCR) by stimulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors with the peptide WT1:126-134 in vitro. This TCR mediated peptide recognition down to a concentration of ∼0.1 ng/mL when pulsed onto T2 cells as well as recognition of HLA-A*0201 target cells transfected with full-length WT1 cDNA. However, it did not mediate consistent recognition of many HLA-A*0201 tumor cell lines or freshly isolated leukemia cells that endogeneously expressed WT1. We dissected this pattern of recognition further and observed that WT1:126-134 was more efficiently processed by immunoproteasomes compared with standard proteasomes. However, pretreatment of WT1 tumor cell lines with interferon gamma did not appreciably enhance recognition by our TCR. In addition, we highly overexpressed WT1 in several leukemia cell lines by electroporation with full-length WT1 cDNA. Some of these lines were still not recognized by our TCR suggesting possible antigen processing defects in some leukemias. These results suggest WT1:126-134 may not be a suitable target for T-cell based tumor immunotherapies. PMID:26938944

  2. The Influence of Knowledge about Causal Mechanisms on Compound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence has shown that several factors influence whether a compound is represented as several independent components or as a configuration. However, most of the previous research focused on data-driven factors (e.g., modality of the stimuli presented in the experimental task). In one experiment, I analyzed the influence of people's…

  3. Speed optimized influence matrix processing in inverse treatment planning tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Wilkens, Jan J; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, Thomas [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Computer Science, Research Group Parallel and Distributed Systems, Im Neuenheimer Feld 348, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: p.ziegenhein@dkfz.de, E-mail: u.oelfke@dkfz.de

    2008-05-07

    An optimal plan in modern treatment planning tools is found through the use of an iterative optimization algorithm, which deals with a high amount of patient-related data and number of treatment parameters to be optimized. Thus, calculating a good plan is a very time-consuming process which limits the application for patients in clinics and for research activities aiming for more accuracy. A common technique to handle the vast amount of radiation dose data is the concept of the influence matrix (DIJ), which stores the dose contribution of each bixel to the patient in the main memory of the computer. This study revealed that a bottleneck for the optimization time arises from the data transfer of the dose data between the memory and the CPU. In this note, we introduce a new method which speeds up the data transportation from stored dose data to the CPU. As an example we used the DIJ approach as is implemented in our treatment planning tool KonRad, developed at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. A data cycle reordering method is proposed to take the advantage of modern memory hardware. This induces a minimal eviction policy which results in a memory behaviour exhibiting a 2.6 times faster algorithm compared to the naive implementation. Although our method is described for the DIJ approach implemented in KonRad, we believe that any other planning tool which uses a similar approach to store the dose data will also benefit from the described methods. (note)

  4. The fatigue process of concrete and its structural influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanuy, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue of concrete is a microcracking process leading to the change of the macroscopic material properties. In particular, progressive stiffness decrease and increase of total and residual strains are developed as a function of the number of cycles and the stress level. The influence of the fatigue process on the behaviour of structural members is complex, because a cyclic redistribution of stresses develops within the structure. Owing to this fact, the employ of S-N curves to estimate the fatigue life usually leads to extremely conservative results. In this paper, a fatigue model for concrete is presented accounting for the evolution of the material properties. The model is able to obtain the fatigue life and the evolution of stresses and strains. The results are compared with other available design rules and a modification is proposed to estimate the number of cycles to failure in a simple way for the engineering practice.

    La fatiga del hormigón está gobernada por un proceso de microfisuración interna que tiene como resultado macroscópico la modificación de las propiedades mecánicas, en particular, la reducción de la rigidez y el crecimiento de las deformaciones totales y residuales en función del nivel de la tensión. La influencia de este proceso en el comportamiento de elementos estructurales es compleja, porque éstos desarrollan una progresiva redistribución interna de tensiones. Por ello, el uso directo de las curvas S-N lleva normalmente a resultados excesivamente conservadores. En este artículo se presenta un modelo de fatiga del hormigón que incluye el cambio de las propiedades del material y es capaz de obtener tanto la vida a fatiga como la evolución de tensiones y deformaciones. Este modelo se compara con otros modelos normativos existentes y se propone una modificación en los mismos para calcular el número de ciclos resistentes de una forma simple y práctica.

  5. Alternative Ii-independent antigen-processing pathway in leukemic blasts involves TAP-dependent peptide loading of HLA class II complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van Luijn; M.E.D. Chamuleau; M.E. Ressing; E.J. Wiertz; S. Ostrand-Rosenberg; Y. Souwer; A. Zevenbergen; G.J. Ossenkoppele; A.A. van de Loosdrecht; S.M. Ham

    2010-01-01

    During HLA class II synthesis in antigen-presenting cells, the invariant chain (Ii) not only stabilizes HLA class II complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum, but also mediates their transport to specialized lysosomal antigen-loading compartments termed MIICs. This study explores an alternative HLA cl

  6. Transplacentally acquired maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in infants and its influence on the response to hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passively acquired maternal antibodies in infants may inhibit active immune responses to vaccines. Whether maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs in infants may influence the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Totally 338 pairs of mothers and children were enrolled. All infants were routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B based on 0-, 1- and 6-month schedule. We characterized the transplacental transfer of maternal anti-HBs, and compared anti-HBs response in children of mothers with or without anti-HBs. In a prospective observation, all 63 anti-HBs positive mothers transferred anti-HBs to their infants; 84.1% of the infants had higher anti-HBs concentrations than their mothers. One and half years after vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine, the positive rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC of anti-HBs in 32 infants with maternal anti-HBs were comparable with those in 32 infants without maternal antibody (90.6% vs 87.5%, P = 0.688, and 74.5 vs 73.5 mIU/ml, P = 0.742, respectively. In a retrospective analysis, five and half years after vaccination with three doses vaccine, the positive rates of anti-HBs in 88 children of mothers with anti-HBs ≥1000 mIU/ml, 94 children of mothers with anti-HBs 10-999 mIU/ml, and 61 children of mothers with anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml were 72.7%, 69.2%, and 63.9% (P = 0.521, respectively; anti-HBs GMC in these three groups were 38.9, 43.9, and 31.7 mIU/ml (P = 0.726, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate that maternal anti-HBs in infants, even at high concentrations, does not inhibit the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine. Thus, current hepatitis B vaccination schedule for infants will be still effective in the future when most infants are positive for maternal anti-HBs due to the massive vaccination against hepatitis B.

  7. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  8. INFLUENCE OF AGING ON ANTIBODY-FORMATION INVIVO AFTER IMMUNIZATION WITH THE PRIMARY T-CELL DEPENDENT ANTIGEN HELIX-POMATIA HEMOCYANIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGREEF, GE; KALLENBERG, CGM; VANSTAALDUINEN, GJ; REMARQUE, EJ; TJANDRA, YI; HIJMANS, W

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo antibody response to the primary T-cell dependent antigen Helix pomatia Haemocyanin (HPH) was studied, in order to detect the possible presence of a humoral immune deficiency in ageing. The IgG subclass distribution of the specific antibodies was also determined. In order to define a dos

  9. Influence of Process Parameters on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of burner operating conditions, burner geometry and fuel parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxide during combustion of pulverized coal. Main attention has been paid to combustion test facilities with self-sustaining flames, while extensions have been made t...

  10. The Influence of Contrast on Coherent Motion Processing in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Lilleskaret, Gry; Wright, Craig M.; Power, Garry F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the experiments was to investigate how manipulating the contrast of the signal and noise dots in a random dot kinematogram (RDK), influenced on motion coherence thresholds in adults with dyslexia. In the first of two experiments, coherent motion thresholds were measured when the contrasts of the signal and noise dots in an RDK were…

  11. Using organizational influence processes to overcome IS implementation barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngwenyama, Ojelanki; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental tenet of the information systems (IS) discipline holds that: (a) a lack of formal power and influence over the organization targeted for change, (b) weak support from top management, and (c) organizational memories of prior failures are barriers to implementation success. Our resear...

  12. Sex Differences in Influenceability: Toward Specifying the Underlying Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Petty, Richard E.

    Sex differences in influencability have emerged when discrepant advocacies were accompanied by greater expertise in the subject matter by men or women. Two types of stimuli, one about which men relative to women had high prior knowledge (football tackles) and one about which women had higher prior knowledge (women's fashions), were selected. Men…

  13. PATHWAYS OF RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN ANTIGENS IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO ALLOGENEIC ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Berkos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological allograft rejection is based on the process of recognition of donor antigens by T-cell receptors. Antigens are generally represented by molecules of major hystocompatibility complex (MHC, expressed by the donor organ tissue cells. Immune response to allogeneic transplant in its activity is greatly higher than response to conventional infection wherein the basic mechanisms of recognition of infectious antigens and alloantigens seem to be similar. In this review we have analyzed three main pathways of recognition of alloantigens. Those pathways are differentiated by the nature of antigen presenting cells, kinetics and duration of its influence on the formation of alloimmunity: direct, indirect and semidirect. Establishing the relationship between mechanisms of allorecognition and manifestations of graft rejection is of great clinical importance. 

  14. The influence of a modified lipopolysaccharide O-antigen on the biosynthesis of xanthan in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100

    OpenAIRE

    Steffens, Tim; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Giampà, Marco; Hublik, Gerd; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The exopolysaccharide xanthan is a natural product which is extensively used in industry. It is a thickening agent in many fields, from oil recovery to the food sector. Xanthan is produced by the Gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). We analyzed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of three mutant strains of the Xcc wild type B100 to distinguish if the xanthan production can be increased when LPS biosynthesis is affected. Results The Xcc B100 O-antigen (OA) i...

  15. "This program contains advertising": How the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences critical processing of sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boerman; E. van Reijmersdal; P. Neijens

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences the processing of sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure activates persuasion knowledge, which leads to critical processing of the sponsored content, and ultimately negatively affects the

  16. Influence of processing on vitamin C content of rosehip fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Ropciuc; Ana Leahu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To determine the effects of processing, such as dried fruits and pasteurization, on selected quality parameters, rosehip were processed to syrup, jam and dried fruits tea. For investigation of the contents of ascorbic acid, total soluble solids, pH values and the antioxidant capacity, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured in the samples was separated, identified and dosed in a HPLC SHMADZU...

  17. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  18. Influence and originality in the creative writing process

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Mark Everard

    2014-01-01

    Using an approach that distinguishes between the epistemologies of critical theory and creative practice, this study investigates notions of originality and influence in literary theory and considers their applicability to the teaching of creative writing and creative writing practice. It argues that current paradigms offer limited and contradictory explanations of these phenomena and makes the case that, through the assimilation of recent philosophical and scientific perspectives into a fram...

  19. Minimal Processing: Its Context and Influence in the Archival Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzalski, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Since its publication in 2005, Mark A. Greene and Dennis Meissner's "More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Archival Processing" has led to much discussion and self-examination within the archival community about working through backlogs. This article discusses the impact of Greene and Meissner's work and considers the questions and…

  20. Influence of Material Flow in Steel Manufacturing Process on Atmosphere Environmental Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Tao; CAI Jiu-ju; LU Zhong-wu; QI Yuan-hong; ZHANG Chun-xia

    2004-01-01

    The standard material flow diagram in steel manufacturing process was proposed to analyze the influences of various material flows on environmental load of 1 t of final product. Two influence factors and reducing measures of environmental load were pointed out. The environmental load was appraised for a typical technological process in a Chinese steel plant.

  1. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  2. Manufacturing of anode supported SOFCs: Processing parameters and their influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Severine; Menon, Mohan; Brodersen, Karen;

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of low cost, highly reliable and reproducible manufacturing processes has been focused for commercialization of SOFC technology. A major challenge in the production chain is the manufacture of anode-supported planar SOFC's single cells in which each layer in a layered structure...... contains a complex microstructure. In order to improve the cell performance as well as reducing the processing costs, it has been found necessary to consider the process chain holistically, because successful manufacture of such a cell and the achievement of optimal final properties depend on each...

  3. Influences on the part quality in conventional deep drawing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, B.A.; Yun, J.W.; Schaeffner, C. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Metal Forming and Metal Forming Machine Tools; Kroening, M.; Altpeter, I.; Kopp, M. [Saarbruecken Univ., Fraunhofer Inst. Nondestructive Testing (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Trends in the automotive industry tend towards safety, fuel saving and reduction of emissions. This leads to an increased application of higher- and high strength steels in car body production. One problem when cold forming these steels is spring back. This paper will discuss the effects of relevant forming parameters on spring back. In order to visualize the influence of forming parameters on sheet metal parts Barkhausen noise, which is correlated with the residual stresses, was measured nondestructively by 3MA (Micromagnetic Multiparameter Microstructure- and Stress-Analyses). (orig.)

  4. Influence of cracking in the desiccation process of clay soils

    OpenAIRE

    Levatti, Hector Ulises; Prat Catalán, Pere; Ledesma Villalba, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that clayey soils undergoing desiccation tend to shrink and eventually crack. Analysis of the behaviour and influence of cracks in these types of soils is very important in several engineering fields such as mine tailing dams, long-term radioactive waste storage, impervious core of earth dams, and in any situation where clay is used as a barrier to fluid flow. Loss of humidity and cracking changes the permeability of such barriers that may no longer work properly and pose pot...

  5. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing the mobility of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, affecting radionuclide mobility. These changes were assessed for coniferous and deciduous trees grown in lysimeter systems by examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. Our studies demonstrated the formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management or exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed

  6. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bestaven, Emma; Kambrun, Charline; Guehl, Dominique; Cazalets, Jean-René; Guillaud, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. M...

  7. Expectations from preceding prosody influence segmentation in online sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2011-12-01

    Previous work examining prosodic cues in online spoken-word recognition has focused primarily on local cues to word identity. However, recent studies have suggested that utterance-level prosodic patterns can also influence the interpretation of subsequent sequences of lexically ambiguous syllables (Dilley, Mattys, & Vinke, Journal of Memory and Language, 63:274-294, 2010; Dilley & McAuley, Journal of Memory and Language, 59:294-311, 2008). To test the hypothesis that these distal prosody effects are based on expectations about the organization of upcoming material, we conducted a visual-world experiment. We examined fixations to competing alternatives such as pan and panda upon hearing the target word panda in utterances in which the acoustic properties of the preceding sentence material had been manipulated. The proportions of fixations to the monosyllabic competitor were higher beginning 200 ms after target word onset when the preceding prosody supported a prosodic constituent boundary following pan-, rather than following panda. These findings support the hypothesis that expectations based on perceived prosodic patterns in the distal context influence lexical segmentation and word recognition.

  8. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  9. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  10. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties.

  11. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.

    2013-04-01

    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing radionuclide mobility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, the mobility of radionuclides. These effects were assessed for coniferous and hardwood tree species by using plants grown in lysimeter systems and examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. The study demonstrated formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides, and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management and exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed. This research provides a basis for focusing on key complexing agents in future studies to measure critical affinity constants and to incorporate this information into mathematical models describing biological effects on radionuclide mobility. 26 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  13. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the

  14. The influence of animacy on relative clause processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, W.M.; Vonk, W.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In previous research it has been shown that subject relative clauses are easier to process than object relative clauses. Several theories have been proposed that explain the difference on the basis of different theoretical perspectives. However, previous research tested relative clauses only with an

  15. Personality and Information Processing Speed: Independent Influences on Intelligent Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.; Rock, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Raven's matrices and inspection time (IT) were recorded from 56 subjects under five arousal levels. Raven's and IT correlated strongly (r = -0.7) as predicted by processing-speed theories of "g." In line with Eysenck's [Eysenck, H. J. (1967). "The biological basis of personality". Springfield, IL: Thomas] arousal theory of extraversion, there was…

  16. External Influences on an Internal Process: Supporting Preservice Teacher Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ann; Klipfel, Lyndsay Halpin

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to better understand how participating in teacher research as a student teacher compares to conducting it as a practicing teacher, a teacher educator and her former teacher education student engaged in a collaborative dialogue. They focus their reflections in this article on the impact of external forces on the process of teacher…

  17. Direct Influence of English Teachers in the Teaching Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamullah, Hafiz Muhammad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Ud Din, M. Naseer

    2008-01-01

    Teachers play a vital role in the classroom environment. Interaction between teacher and students is an essential part of the teaching/learning process. An educator, Flanders originally developed an instrument called Flanders Interaction Analysis (FIA). The FIA system was designed to categorize the types, quantity of verbal interaction and direct…

  18. Influences of Information Availability on Cognitive Processes in Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, John H.; Ostrom, Thomas M.

    Three experiments were conducted investigating information processing in a person perception task. A sequential judgement paradigm was employed in which subjects judged the suitability of stimulus persons for two different occupations. Traits describing each person were present for subjects' first judgements but not their second. Second decision…

  19. Aeration of bread dough influenced by different way processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peighambardoust, S.H.; Fallah, E.; Hamer, R.J.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of steady shearing versus z-blade mixing on mechanical aeration and gas retaining ability of the dough during processing and subsequent proofing and bread baking stages was investigated. Reduction in moisture content led to reduction in both static and dynamic densities of z-blade mixed d

  20. Influence of processing on vitamin C content of rosehip fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To determine the effects of processing, such as dried fruits and pasteurization, on selected quality parameters, rosehip were processed to syrup, jam and dried fruits tea. For investigation of the contents of ascorbic acid, total soluble solids, pH values and the antioxidant capacity, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured in the samples was separated, identified and dosed in a HPLC SHMADZU system coupled with UV–VIS detector (DAD. Ascorbic acid values of rosehip fruits dried tea and syrup were determined as 0.72 and 2.18 mg/100g, respectively. In addition, ascorbic acid contents of the rosehip fruits and jam were established as 415.86 and 37mg /100g, respectively. The colour changing from the different juice samples was measured by lightness values (L*, redness values (a* and yellowness (b* values. The result indicated the change in Hunter parameters, L* and b*. The results from the present study prove that the loss of vitamin C depends on the method of processing.

  1. SOURSOP LIQUOR PROCESSING: INFLUENCE OF THE PROCESS VARIABLES ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMANUEL NETO ALVES DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soursop is a well - appreciated tropical fruit, both in natura and in the form of juices and nectars. Despite its wide acceptance, there is lack of its use in the preparation of other products, such as alcoholic beverages. The objective of this study was to prepare soursop liquors by varying the concentrations of pulp and sucrose syrup with different contents of total soluble solids and to evaluate the effects of these on the physical and chemical characteristics of the beverages. In the production process, the pulp (300, 400 and 500 g was macerated with distilled alcohol for 20 days, after which it was filtered, added to the syrup (50, 60 and 70 ° Brix, bottled in polyethylene bottles and subjected to an accelerated aging. All drinks resulted in alcohol levels (15.25 to 16.69% v/v and total sugars (12.63 to 17.97% in accordance with the standards required by law. The experiments made with the lowest concentration of pulp showed the highest yields (84.17 and 85.25%. First - order models with interactions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. The pulp consisted of the most significant factor, influencing the largest number of responses (yield, alcohol content, dry residue, titratable acidity, titratable acidity/soluble solids ratio and luminosity. The larger coefficient of determination (R 2 values were found in the models adjusted to the data of yield, dry residue, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and total sugars, which were significant and predictive, showing values greater than 0.97.

  2. Influence of supercontinent cyclicity on global metallogenic processes: Main tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.; Rundquist, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of large and superlarge mineral deposits (LSMD) of the most important raw materials is correlated with supercontinent cycles in the geological history of the Earth. The latter displays the distinct correlation between metallogenic activity and cyclic global endogenous processes reflected in quasi-regular cycles, which result eventually in the assembly and breakup of supercontinents. In the framework of these cycles, the maximums in the LSMD assembly coincide with periods of intense growth of the subcontinent crust owing to growth of the matter originated from juvenile sources (Kenoran, Columbian cycles) or with epochs of intense recycling of the mature crust (Pangean, Amasian cycles). The Rodinian cycle with minimum activity of these both endogenous processes demonstrates simultaneously minimum metallogenic activity. The distribution of most LSMD types generally follows these main tendencies.

  3. The influence of ambient medium density on laser ablation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, M.M. III

    1995-11-01

    Interest in high flux transport processes has grown in recent years along with the ability and need to manipulate systems with microscopic length and time scales. These systems present unique engineering challenges. Because the time and length scales associated with these problems are very small, assumptions of local equilibrium, physical and mathematical smoothness of boundaries and the unambiguous definition of thermodynamic fields can not be automatically made, even though they may ultimately be acceptable. Furthermore, the observations are made on macroscopic or integrated scales. The large difference in scales between the temporal evolution of the process and the observation requires careful consideration of the claims made regarding the system`s microscopic, temporal behavior. In particular, consistency of a proposed model with observed results does not guarantee uniqueness, or predictive accuracy for the model. For these reasons, microscale heat transfer systems demand a careful consideration of the framework within which the experimentation and analysis are conducted.

  4. Factors influencing ERP projects success in the vendor selection process

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita HURBEAN

    2009-01-01

    Successful implementation of an ERP system is the result of knowledgeable and dedicated people working together. It entails company-wide commitment, openness to change, good planning and experienced guidance. These primary criteria determine the probability of gaining significant return on investment (ROI) from an ERP system. Using these criteria as guidelines during the system selection process and subsequent implementation can ensure that the chosen system will support and enable the busine...

  5. Post-secretion processing influences spider silk performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J; Wu, Chung-Lin; Blackledge, Todd A; Tso, I-Min

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic variation facilitates adaptations to novel environments. Silk is an example of a highly variable biomaterial. The two-spidroin (MaSp) model suggests that spider major ampullate (MA) silk is composed of two proteins-MaSp1 predominately contains alanine and glycine and forms strength enhancing β-sheet crystals, while MaSp2 contains proline and forms elastic spirals. Nonetheless, mechanical properties can vary in spider silks without congruent amino acid compositional changes. We predicted that post-secretion processing causes variation in the mechanical performance of wild MA silk independent of protein composition or spinning speed across 10 species of spider. We used supercontraction to remove post-secretion effects and compared the mechanics of silk in this 'ground state' with wild native silks. Native silk mechanics varied less among species compared with 'ground state' silks. Variability in the mechanics of 'ground state' silks was associated with proline composition. However, variability in native silks did not. We attribute interspecific similarities in the mechanical properties of native silks, regardless of amino acid compositions, to glandular processes altering molecular alignment of the proteins prior to extrusion. Such post-secretion processing may enable MA silk to maintain functionality across environments, facilitating its function as a component of an insect-catching web. PMID:22628213

  6. INFLUENCE OF PROCESS CONDITIONS ON MEASLES VIRUS STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant measles viruses are currently tested in clinical trials as oncolytic agent to be applied in cancer therapy. Contrary to their use as vaccine where 103 infectious virus particles per dose are needed, for cancer therapy 109 virus particles should be provided per dose. This leads to other challenges for the production process when compared to vaccine production. This study presents measles virus stability with regard to conditions during production and storage of the virus. Relevant process parameters such as temperature (4-37°C, pH (pH 4-11, conductivity (1.5 to 137.5 mS cm-1 and oxygen partial pressure were analyzed. The infectivity of measles virus particles decreased highly at 37 and 32°C, while at 22 and 4°C it remained stable for several hours or even days, respectively. The thermal inactivation reactions followed first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy and entropy were estimated. Towards changes in pH measles virus particles were very sensitive, while no inactivation could be observed with varying conductivity. Measles virus incubation at an oxygen partial pressure of 100% did not lead to any loss of infectivity. The results show which parameters should be considered and controlled strongly in the production process to further raise measles virus yields for the high amount needed in cancer therapy approaches.

  7. Who has a stake? How stakeholder processes influence partnership sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ellen Boyle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As universities attempt to expand their relevance by engaging with local and regional societal challenges, various kinds of partnerships are emerging. A broad range of stakeholders, from both the university and the community, are typically engaged in and influence the development, implementation and perpetuation of these partnerships. This paper juxtaposes analysis of three community-university partnerships in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, paying particular attention to the partnerships’ stakeholders, and to their relative importance. This research builds upon current understandings of critical factors in partnership sustainability, as these three partnerships have different goals, involve different university and community stakeholders, and are at different points in their organisational history. The fact that they share the same context – the same city – offers a unique opportunity for comparative case study analysis. The theory of stakeholder salience is used to explain findings about partnership sustainability and to make suggestions for strengthening existing partnerships. Specifically, we argue that stakeholder power and legitimacy, along with stakeholder urgency, are key factors in sustaining community-university partnerships. Keywords Community-university partnerships; economic development; community development; stakeholder salience

  8. Alterations in the antigen processing-presenting machinery of transformed plasma cells are associated with reduced recognition by CD8+ T cells and characterize the progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Racanelli, Vito; Leone, Patrizia; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Brunetti, Claudia; Perosa, Federico; Ferrone, Soldano; Dammacco, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma (MM) reflects the escape of transformed plasma cells from T-cell recognition because of impaired antigen processing-presenting machinery (APM). We studied plasma cells and CD8+ T cells from bone marrow of 20 MGUS patients, 20 MM patients, and 10 control patients. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry revealed significantly different patterns of APM component expression in plasma c...

  9. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-01

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  10. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnside Kellie L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication. KSHV ORF59 is antigenic in the infected host and is used as a marker for virus activation and replication. Results We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1 and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf, and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively. We found that ORF59 homologs of the RV1 and RV2 Old World primate rhadinoviruses are highly conserved with distinct phylogenetic clustering of the two rhadinovirus lineages. RV1 and RV2 ORF59 C-terminal domains exhibit a strong lineage-specific conservation. Rabbit antiserum was developed against a C-terminal polypeptide that is highly conserved between the macaque RV2 ORF59 sequences. This anti-serum showed strong reactivity towards ORF59 encoded by the macaque RV2 rhadinoviruses, RRV (rhesus and MneRV2 (pig-tail, with no cross reaction to human or macaque RV1 ORF59 proteins. Using this antiserum and RT-qPCR, we determined that RRV ORF59 is expressed early after permissive infection of both rhesus primary fetal fibroblasts and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero in vitro. RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses

  11. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minissale, M; Dulieu, F

    2014-07-01

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O2) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N2 on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  12. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Université de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  13. The influence of advanced processing on PWA 1480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.; Schnittgrund, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    High thermal gradient casting of PWA 1480 was evaluated as an avenue for reducing the size of casting porosity. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was also employed for the elimination of casting pores. An alternate to the standard PWA 1480 coating plus diffusion bonding aging heat treatment cycle was also evaluated for potential improvements in the properties of interest to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) application. Microstructural changes associated with the high thermal gradient casting process were quantified by measurement of the size and density of the casting porosity, the amount of retained casting eutectic, and dendrite arm spacings. The results of the advanced processing have shown an improvement in material microstructure due to high thermal gradient casting. Improved homogeneity of PWA 1480 is advantageous in providing an improved solution heat treatment window and, potentially, easier HIP. High thermal gradient casting improves fatigue life by reducing casting pore size. The alternate heat treatment improves the balance of strength and ductility which appears to improve low cycle fatigue life, but with a reduction in short time stress rupture life. Based upon these tests, hot isostatic pressing appears to afford further improvements in cyclic life, though additional evaluation is suggested. Development of the alternate heat treatment is not recommended due to the reduced stress rupture capability and the need to develop a new properties data base. High thermal gradient casting and HIP are recommended for application to single crystal castings.

  14. Non-covalent pomegranate (Punica granatum) hydrolyzable tannin-protein complexes modulate antigen uptake, processing and presentation by a T-cell hybridoma line co-cultured with murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Carballo, Sergio; Haas, Linda; Vestling, Martha; Krueger, Christian G; Reed, Jess D

    2016-12-01

    In this work we characterize the interaction of pomegranate hydrolyzable tannins (HT) with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of non-covalent tannin-protein complexes on macrophage endocytosis, processing and presentation of antigen. We isolated HT from pomegranate and complex to HEL, the resulting non-covalent tannin-protein complex was characterized by gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. Finally, cell culture studies and confocal microscopy imaging were conducted on the non-covalent pomegranate HT-HEL protein complexes to evaluate its effect on macrophage antigen uptake, processing and presentation to T-cell hybridomas. Our results indicate that non-covalent pomegranate HT-HEL protein complexes modulate uptake, processing and antigen presentation by mouse peritoneal macrophages. After 4 h of pre-incubation, only trace amounts of IL-2 were detected in the co-cultures treated with HEL alone, whereas a non-covalent pomegranate HT-HEL complex had already reached maximum IL-2 expression. Pomegranate HT may increase rate of endocytose of HEL and subsequent expression of IL-2 by the T-cell hybridomas. PMID:27406472

  15. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I Processing of the NY-ESO-1 Antigen Is Regulated by Rpn10 and Rpn13 Proteins and Immunoproteasomes following Non-lysine Ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Richard; Lehmann, Andrea; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Ebstein, Frédéric

    2016-04-15

    The supply of MHC class I-restricted peptides is primarily ensured by the degradation of intracellular proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Depending on the target and the enzymes involved, ubiquitination is a process that may dramatically vary in terms of linkages, length, and attachment sites. Here we identified the unique lysine residue at position 124 of the NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen as the acceptor site for the formation of canonical Lys-48-linkages. Interestingly, a lysine-less form of NY-ESO-1 was as efficient as its wild-type counterpart in supplying the HLA-A*0201-restricted NY-ESO-1157-165 antigenic peptide. In fact, we show that the regulation of NY-ESO-1 processing by the ubiquitin receptors Rpn10 and Rpn13 as a well as by the standard and immunoproteasome is governed by non-canonical ubiquitination on non-lysine sites. In summary, our data underscore the significance of atypical ubiquitination in the modulation of MHC class I antigen processing.

  16. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody: technetium-99m labeling and the validation process of a scintigraphic animal model with a non-cellular antigenic implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Marques, Fabio Luiz Navarro; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Hironaka, Fausto Haruki; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2002-07-01

    Animal models are currently used to verify the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals before its clinical application in Nuclear Medicine; however, there may be some limitations. The utilization of labelled anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in experimental models often requires implant of human antigens (usually a cellular implant), which cannot be achieved in immunocompetent animals. Our purpose was to label an anti-CEA MoAb with technetium-99m (99Tc) and to validate a simplified animal model using a noncellular antigenic implant. MoAb was directly labelled with 99mTc, after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. Labeling efficiency was checked by ascending chromatography and immunoreactive fraction was measured in plastic wells sensitized with the antigen. Radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated by dissection and scintigraphy in 5 mice groups; following the subcutaneous administration of Al(OH)3, CEA adsorbed Al(OH)2 and a control group evaluation. Labeling efficiency was 94+/-3%, which showed to be stable for 24 hr, with immunoreactive fraction above 50%. Invasive biodistribution evaluation showed prolonged blood retention, hepatic and renal uptake. A significant increase in uptake was observed in scintigraphic studies of animals with CEA-adsorbed Al(OH)3 implants compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The non-cellular antigenic implant model simplifies the pre-clinical evaluation of labelled MoAb. PMID:12146705

  17. Influence of polyphenols on the physiological processes in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz-Łyko, Anna; Arct, Jacek; Majewski, Sławomir; Pytkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade antioxidants from a group of polyphenols have been proposed as one of the most effective functional ingredients of anti-ageing properties that counteract the effects of oxidative damage to the skin. It has been shown that the use of polyphenols affects skin protection and mitigates inflammatory conditions of the skin. Numerous studies have confirmed that polyphenols by neutralizing free radicals, antioxidant activity and by their ability to chelate ions of transition metals can effectively reduce the level of nonprotein inflammatory mediators. The biological activity of polyphenols in the skin is primarily determined by their physicochemical properties and the ability to overcome the epidermal barrier as they try to reach appropriate receptors. This study reviews literature on the effects of polyphenols relating to the physiological processes in the skin and role of the major plant polyphenols in cosmetology and dermatology.

  18. Influence of Bicurative on Processibility of Composite Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Jawalkar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new series of composite propellant compositions, based on ammonium perchlorate,hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene and having metallic fuel as aluminium powder, have beendeveloped. Pressure cast-cum-cured compositions have also been developed with toluenediisocyanate (TDI, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, and a mixture of both curatives, i.e., TDIand IPDI, respectively, to study their effect on processibility, mechanical and ballistic propertiesof the compositions.  The data indicate that the compositions based on bicurative have a potlife of 7 - 8 h, viscosity build up is from 13280 poise to 14080 poise after 4 h, and the smoothprocessibility of the slurry is enhanced. Further, the mechanical properties are in the range12.2 kg/cm2, 40.2 kg/cm2, and 40.2 per cent for tensile strength, E-modulus and elongation,respectively, and burn rate is almost the same, i.e., 16 ±0.5 mm/s.

  19. Influence of scattering processes on electron quantum states in nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdnyakov Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the framework of quantum perturbation theory the self-consistent method of calculation of electron scattering rates in nanowires with the one-dimensional electron gas in the quantum limit is worked out. The developed method allows both the collisional broadening and the quantum correlations between scattering events to be taken into account. It is an alternativeper seto the Fock approximation for the self-energy approach based on Green’s function formalism. However this approach is free of mathematical difficulties typical to the Fock approximation. Moreover, the developed method is simpler than the Fock approximation from the computational point of view. Using the approximation of stable one-particle quantum states it is proved that the electron scattering processes determine the dependence of electron energy versus its wave vector.

  20. INFLUENCING OF BASIC FUNCTIONINGS INDEXES OF STORAGES ON PRIME PRICE OF CONTAINER-PIECE LOADS PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Severyn, A.; Shulika, О.; Il'chenko, R.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of ware-house technology of loads processing has been determined, a mathematical model has been built, dependence of prime price of the loads ware-house processing on the basic indexes of storages functioning has been set and the analysis of these indexes influencing on the prime price of processing has been carried out.

  1. Does Mood Influence Text Processing and Comprehension? Evidence from an Eye-Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Mason, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that mood influences cognitive processes. However, there is scarce data regarding the link between everyday emotional states and readers' text processing and comprehension. Aim: We aim to extend current research on the effects of mood induction on science text processing and comprehension, using…

  2. Influence of the dose rate in the PVDF degradation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Adriana S.M.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: adriananuclear@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InsTEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Faria, Luiz O., E-mail: farialo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from gamma radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation by products such as peroxide degradation. Radiation cross-linking technologies include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, polymer recycling, hydrogels etc. The degradation of PVDF polymer exposed to gamma irradiation in oxygen atmosphere in high dose rate has been studied and compared to obtained under smaller dose rates. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate (12 kGy/h and 2,592 kGy/h), with doses ranging from 100 kGy to 3,000 kGy. Different dose rate determine the prevalence of the processes being evaluated in this work by thermal measurements and infrared spectroscopy. It is shown that the degradation processes involve chain scissions and crosslink formation. The formation of oxidation products was shown at the surface of the irradiated film. The FTIR data revealed absorption bands at 1730 and 1853 cm{sup -1} which were attributed to the stretch of C=O bonds, at 1715 and 1754 cm{sup -1} which were attributed to the C=C stretching and at 3518, 3585 and 3673 cm{sup -1} which were associated with NH stretch of NH{sub 2} and OH. Thermogravimetric studies reveal that the irradiation induced the increasing residues and decrease of the temperature of the decomposition start. (author)

  3. A prospective study of the influence of a thalassaemia on morbidity from malaria and immune responses to defined Plasmodium falciparum antigens in Gambian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, S J; Rowe, P; Allsopp, C E;

    1993-01-01

    The protective effect of alpha thalassaemia (-alpha/alpha alpha) against morbidity from falciparum malaria was assessed in a prospective study of rural Gambian children. The gene frequency for single alpha-globin gene deletions was 0.12. Malariometric indices measured during cross-sectional surveys...... and morbidity from malaria determined by weekly surveillance were similar in children with alpha thalassaemia and in those with a normal alpha-globin genotype. However, the small number of children who carried both alpha thalassaemia and the sickle cell trait had fewer clinical episodes of malaria...... cell-mediated immune responses to the malaria antigens studied in children heterozygous for alpha thalassaemia compared with children with a normal alpha-globin genotype....

  4. Influence of process parameters on the weld lines of a micro injection molded component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gava, Alberto; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2007-01-01

    The insufficient entanglement of the molecular chains and the stress amplification at the v-notch of a weld line compromise the mechanical strength of a plastic product, also in the micro scale. To investigate the influence of process parameters on the weld lines formation, a special micro cavity...... influenced by mold temperature and injection speed....

  5. CD8+ T Cell Fate and Function Influenced by Antigen-Specific Virus-Like Nanoparticles Co-Expressing Membrane Tethered IL-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Wojta-Stremayr

    Full Text Available A variety of adjuvants fostering humoral immunity are known as of today. However, there is a lack of adjuvants or adjuvant strategies, which directly target T cellular effector functions and memory. We here determined whether systemically toxic cytokines such as IL-2 can be restricted to the site of antigen presentation and used as 'natural adjuvants'. Therefore, we devised antigen-presenting virus-like nanoparticles (VNP co-expressing IL-2 attached to different membrane-anchors and assessed their potency to modulate CD8+ T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Efficient targeting of IL-2 to lipid rafts and ultimately VNP was achieved by fusing IL-2 at its C-terminus to a minimal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchor acceptor sequence. To identify optimal membrane-anchor dimensions we inserted one (1Ig, two (2Ig or four (4Ig immunoglobulin(Ig-like domains of CD16b between IL-2 and the minimal GPI-anchor acceptor sequence of CD16b (GPI. We found that the 2IgGPI version was superior to all other evaluated IL-2 variants (IL-2v in terms of its i degree of targeting to lipid rafts and to the VNP surface, ii biological activity, iii co-stimulation of cognate T cells in the absence of bystander activation and iv potency to induce differentiation and acquisition of CD8+ T cell effector functions in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the GPI version rather favored memory precursor cell formation. These results exemplify novel beneficial features of membrane-bound IL-2, which in addition to its mere T cell stimulatory capacity include the induction of differential effector and memory functions in CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  6. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, Minissale

    2014-01-01

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O$_2$) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80 $\\%$ at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-...

  7. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS ON GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES AND EFFICIENCY OF USING CREDIT RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhko, O.; R. Rak

    2008-01-01

    The problems of international financial organizations functioning in global process of economic relations are considered. The factors of influence on the effectiveness of using its loan resources in Ukraine are defined.

  8. The influence of and interaction between socialization agents in the child-consumers purchasing process.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubil, Dijana; Schöld, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    In several years researchers have focused on identifying different socialization agents that influence the child consumer in the purchasing process. These studies have identified parents, friends and peers, television, role models, and different virtual communities as socialization agents. However, there is still no understanding of how the socialization agents are integrated in the decision-making process. The purpose is therefore to identify how the child-consumers are influenced by differe...

  9. The Influence of Presage and Study Processes on Academic Success of Undergraduate Turkish Students

    OpenAIRE

    Suphi, Nilgün

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to make a preformative evaluation on which presage (personal and institutional) factors have the strongest influence on the learning process factors and academic achievement and which learning process factors have the strongest influence on academic achievement of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th year Turkish undergraduate students studying in the Faculty of Education in the Eastern Mediterranean University in one of the following programs: Guidance and Psychologica...

  10. ELECTRIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COMPLEX EROSION PROCESSING BY INTRODUCING THE ELECTROLYTE THROUGH THE TRANSFER OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Nioata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric and electrochemical complex erosion processing is influenced by a great number of factors acting in tight interdependence and mutually influencing one another for achieving the stability of the processing process and achieving the final technological characteristics.The values taking part in developing the fundamental phenomena of the mechanism of complex erosion prevailing and contributes to the definition of technological characteristics, are factors.The paper presents the U potential difference and electric strength I as determining factors of the complex erosion process as well as other factors deriving from them: the current density, the power of the supply source.

  11. International perspectives on the influence of structure and process of weaning from mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Louise; Blackwood, Bronagh; Burns, Suzanne M;

    2011-01-01

    Recently, clinical and research attention has been focused on refining weaning processes to improve outcomes for critically ill patients who require mechanical ventilation. One such process, use of a weaning protocol, has yielded conflicting results, arguably because of the influence of existing...... context and processes. Objective To compare international data to assess differences in context and processes in intensive care units that could influence weaning. Methods Review of existing national data on provision of care for critically ill patients, including structure, staffing, skill mix, education...

  12. Transformation of organisations of work in the processes of globalisation: Influence of neo-liberal ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Božo V.

    2004-01-01

    In sociology of organisation, as a special branch of sociology of work, prevailing opinions today are those that do not separate organisation of work from globalisation processes. No matter whether globalisation processes are seen from optimistic, pessimistic, or skeptical point of view, the fact that globalisation processes do exist in modern societies and that they do influence transformation of organisation of work is not disputable. Globalisation processes imposed distribution of risk, in...

  13. RESEARCH ON INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON A PRECISION FORGING PROCESS OF BLADE WITH A TENON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.L. Liu; H. Yang; T. Gao; M. Zhan; W. Cai

    2005-01-01

    The blade precision forging process is a forming process with high temperature and large plastic deformation. Interaction of deformation and heat conduction leads to large uneven distribution of temperature. The unevenness of temperature distribution has a great effect on mechanical properties and the microstructure of materials. So it is necessary to consider the influence of temperature on the precision forging process of blades. Taking a blade with a tenon into consideration, a 3D mechanical model in precision forging is built up. The distribution laws of temperature field and the influence of the temperature on the equivalent stress in the process are obtained by using 3-D coupled thermo-mechanical FEM code developed by the authors. The results obtained illustrate that the influence of the temperature field on the blade forging process is considerable. The achievements of predicting microstructure and mechanical properties for forged blades is significant.

  14. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  15. The Influence of Alcalase Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Soybean Antigen Proteins in Soybean Meal%碱性蛋白酶水解对豆粕中大豆抗原蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王章存; 李乐静; 赵学伟; 崔胜文; 胡金强; 王吉中

    2013-01-01

    Soybean ranks among the "big 8" of the most allergenic food. The globulins 7S (β- conglycinin) and 11S (glycinin ) , the major stored proteins of soybean, are also the primary antigen proteins. The changes of the two antigen proteins were investigated during the Alcalase enzymatic hydrolysis process of soybean meal. The results showed that the primary antigen proteins such as α', α,β - subunits of globulin 7S (β- conglycinin) were hydro-lyzed completely after 10 min of enzymatic hydrolysis,and so was the acidic subunit of globulin (US) after 60 minutes of enzymatic hydrolysis. And meanwhile, the new components of 23 ku and below 14 ku mass fractions appeared. The 95.1% of soybean meal protein was soluble in water after enzymatic hydrolysis,while 68. 1% in trichlo-roacetic acid ( TCA ).%大豆是八大食物过敏源之一,其中主要蛋白成分7S和11S球蛋白也是致敏性较强的抗原蛋白.本试验研究了豆粕在Alcalase酶水解过程中7S和11S两种大豆抗原蛋白的变化.结果表明,酶解10 min时7S伴球蛋白的α'、α和β亚基、酶解60 min时11S球蛋白的酸性亚基等主要抗原蛋白成分即被完全水解,同时新产生了23 ku和大量14 ku以下组分;酶解豆粕中95.1%的蛋白可溶于水,其中68.1%蛋白质可溶于三氯乙酸.

  16. Influence of Stimulus Properties and Sensory Task Instructions on Oral Processing Behavior of Liquid Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, J.A.M.; Wijk, De R.A.; Graaf, de Kees; Stieger, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of texture properties and sensory task instructions on oral processing behavior of liquid stimuli. Oral processing of one sip of water, skimmed milk, thickened skimmed milk, cream and cream with poppy seeds was quantified using Surface Electromyography. Oral be

  17. Elucidating the mechanisms of protein antigen adsorption to the CAF/NAF liposomal vaccine adjuvant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamborg, Mette; Rose, Fabrice; Jorgensen, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    The reverse vaccinology approach has recently resulted in the identification of promising protein antigens, which in combination with appropriate adjuvants can stimulate customized, protective immune responses. Although antigen adsorption to adjuvants influences vaccine efficacy and safety, little...

  18. Processing Parameters Influence on Wear Resistance Behaviour of Friction Stir Processed Al-TiC Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Akinlabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing (FSP being a novel process is employed for the improvement of the mechanical properties of a material and the production of surface layer composites. The vital role of the integrity of surface characteristics in the mechanical properties of materials has made the research studies into surface modification important in order to improve the performance in practical applications. This study investigates the effect of processing parameters on the wear resistance behavior of friction stir processed Al-TiC composites. This was achieved through microstructural characterization by using both the optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM, microhardness profiling, and tribological characterization by means of the wear. The microhardness profiling of the processed samples revealed an increased hardness value, which was a function of the TiC particles incorporated when compared to the parent material. The wear resistance property was also found to increase as a result of the TiC powder addition. The right combination of processing parameters was found to improve the wear resistance property of the composites produced.

  19. The influence of managerial experience and style on software development process

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Gerry; O'Connor, Rory

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of how software process and software process improvement is applied in actual practice in the software industry using the indigenous Irish software product industry as a test-bed. This study focuses on the role and influence of both the Company Founder and the Software Development Manager on the initial formation of software development process practices. The results of this study contain useful lessons for software entrepreneurs who need to make dec...

  20. The Influence of Processing on the DNA Integrity in Several Raw Materials of Marine Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Xiao; Zhang Xuejiao; Xu Zichu; Wu Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    With the development of molecular biotechnology, methods for identification of marine food are developed from protein to DNA. The experimental materials are striped bass, Sturgeon and mandarin fish. They were processed with boiling, salting and microwave-heating methods. DNA-based research has been conducted in almost every corner in food material identification. This study is mainly about the identification methods of distinguishing processed aquatic products and the influence of processing ...

  1. Peers and the Emergence of Alcohol Use: Influence and Selection Processes in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Ragan, Daniel T.; Wallace, Lacey; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E; Moody, James

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses not only influence and selection of friends as sources of similarity in alcohol use, but also peer processes leading drinkers to be chosen as friends more often than non-drinkers, which increases the number of adolescents subject to their influence. Analyses apply a stochastic actor-based model to friendship networks assessed five times from 6th through 9th grades for 50 grade cohort networks in Iowa and Pennsylvania, which include 13,214 individuals. Results show definit...

  2. Immunity to intracellular Salmonella depends on surface-associated antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somedutta Barat

    Full Text Available Invasive Salmonella infection is an important health problem that is worsening because of rising antimicrobial resistance and changing Salmonella serovar spectrum. Novel vaccines with broad serovar coverage are needed, but suitable protective antigens remain largely unknown. Here, we tested 37 broadly conserved Salmonella antigens in a mouse typhoid fever model, and identified antigen candidates that conferred partial protection against lethal disease. Antigen properties such as high in vivo abundance or immunodominance in convalescent individuals were not required for protectivity, but all promising antigen candidates were associated with the Salmonella surface. Surprisingly, this was not due to superior immunogenicity of surface antigens compared to internal antigens as had been suggested by previous studies and novel findings for CD4 T cell responses to model antigens. Confocal microscopy of infected tissues revealed that many live Salmonella resided alone in infected host macrophages with no damaged Salmonella releasing internal antigens in their vicinity. In the absence of accessible internal antigens, detection of these infected cells might require CD4 T cell recognition of Salmonella surface-associated antigens that could be processed and presented even from intact Salmonella. In conclusion, our findings might pave the way for development of an efficacious Salmonella vaccine with broad serovar coverage, and suggest a similar crucial role of surface antigens for immunity to both extracellular and intracellular pathogens.

  3. Influence of cooking time and cooling rate on the functionality and microstructure of processed cheese spreads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaodong; WU Han; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of cooking time and cooling rate on functionality and microstructure of processed cheese spreads. When the cooking time was 20 min, the hardness and apparent viscosity were increased, and formed a homogenous, dense, and three-dimensional protein network, and a stronger gel was formed at this time. The slow cooling can increase the hardness and apparent viscosity of products, protein wall was thicker, and network was closer, so products can formed a stronger gel structure. The influence of cooking time on the functional properties was more significant than the influence of rapid cooling.

  4. Experimental studies on the influence of porosity on membrane absorption process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; REN Zhongqi; ZHANG Zeting; ZHANG Weidong

    2007-01-01

    Eight kinds of flat membranes with different micro-structures were chosen to carry out the membrane absorption experiments with CO2 and de-ionized water or According to experimental results,the membrane pores shape (stretched pore and cylinder pore) and membrane thickness do not affect the membrane absorption process,and the membrane porosity has only little influence on membrane absorption process for slow mass transfer system.However,the influence of porosity on the membrane absorption process became visible for fast mass transfer system.Moreover,the mass transfer behavior near the membrane surface on liquid side was studied.The results show that the influence of membrane porosity on mass transfer relates to flow condition,absorption system and distance between micro-pores,etc.

  5. Combination of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genetic Background Influences the Onset Age of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. The presence of 12 loci of KIR was detected individually. HLA-A, -B, and -C loci were genotyped with high resolution by a routine sequence-based typing method. The effect of each KIR locus, HLA ligand, and HLA-KIR combination was examined individually by Kaplan-Meier (KM analysis. Multivariate Cox hazard regression model was also applied. We identified C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 as an independent risk factor for earlier onset age of HCC (median onset age was 44 for C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 positive patients compared to 50 for negative patients, P=0.04 for KM analysis; HR = 1.70, P=0.004 for multivariate Cox model. We conclude that KIR and HLA genetic background can influence the onset age of HCC in male patients with HBV infection. This study may be useful to improve the current HCC surveillance program in HBV-infected patients. Our findings also suggest an important role of natural killer cells (or other KIR-expressing cells in the progress of HBV-related HCC development.

  6. Calculating Method for Influence of Material Flow on Energy Consumption in Steel Manufacturing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qing-bo; LU Zhong-wu; CAI Jiu-ju

    2007-01-01

    From the viewpoint of systems energy conservation, the influences of material flow on its energy consumption in a steel manufacturing process is an important subject. The quantitative analysis of the relationship between material flow and the energy intensity is useful to save energy in steel industry. Based on the concept of standard material flow diagram, all possible situations of ferric material flow in steel manufacturing process are analyzed. The expressions of the influence of material flow deviated from standard material flow diagram on energy consumption are put forward.

  7. Novel selective inhibitors of aminopeptidases that generate antigenic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Saveanu, Loredana; Stratikos, Efstratios; Vourloumis, Dionisios

    2013-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases, ERAP1 and ERAP2, as well as Insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) play key roles in antigen processing, and have recently emerged as biologically important targets for manipulation of antigen presentation. Taking advantage of the available structural and substrate-selectivity data for these enzymes, we have rationally designed a new series of inhibitors that display low micromolar activity. The selectivity profile for these three highly homologous aminopeptidases provides a promising avenue for modulating intracellular antigen processing. PMID:23916253

  8. A model-free definition of coupling strength for assessing the influence between climatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, J.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    Assessing the strength of influence between climatic processes from observational data is an important problem on the way to construct conceptual models or make predictions. An example being the influence of ENSO on the Indian Monsoon compared to the influence of other climatic processes. It is an especially difficult task if the interactions are nonlinear where linear measures like the Pearson correlation coefficient fail. Apart from nonlinearity, auto-dependencies in the processes can lead to misleading high values of coupling strength. There exist statistical methods that address these issues, but most of them assume some model, e.g., a linear model in the case of the partial correlation. We propose a measure based on conditional mutual information that makes no assumptions on the underlying model and is able to exclude auto-dependencies and even influences of external processes. We investigate how the strength measured relates to model systems where a coupling strength is known and discuss its limitations. The measure is applied to time series of different climate indices and gridded data sets to gain insights into the coupling strength between climatic teleconnections. Applied to more than two time series it is also able to shed light on mechanisms of interactions between multiple processes.

  9. A Framework for Investigating Influence of Organizational Decision Makers on Data Mining Process Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Hajisafari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, few studies deal with evaluation of data mining plans in context of solvng organizational problems. A successful data miner is searching to solve a fully defined business problem. To make the data mining (DM results actionable, the data miner must explain them to the business insider. The interaction process between the business insiders and data miners is actually a knowledge-sharing process. In this study through representing a framwork, influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process and results investigated. By investigating research literature, the critical success factors of data mining plans was identified and the role of organizational decision makers in each step of data mining was investigated.‌ Then, the conceptual framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement was designed. By getting expert opinions, the proposed framework was analyzed and evantually designed the final framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement. Analysis of experts opinions showed that by knowledge sharing of data ming results with decision makers, "learning", "action or internalization" and "enforcing/unlearning" will become as critical success factors. Also, results of examining importance of decision makers' feedback on data mining steps showed that getting feedback from decision makers could have most influence on "knowledge extraction and representing model" step and least on "data cleaning and preprocessing" step.

  10. Influence of Processing Parameters on Granularity Distribution of Superalloy Powders during PREP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanming CHEN; Benfu HU; Yiwen ZHANG; Huiying LI; Quanmao YU

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of processing parameters on the granularity distribution of superalloy powders during the atomization of plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP), in this paper FGH95 superalloy powders is prepared under different processing conditions by PREP and the influence of PREP processing parameters on the granularity distribution of FGH95 superalloy powders is discussed based on fractal geometry theory. The results show that with the increase of rotating velocity of the self-consuming electrode, the fractal dimension of the granularity distribution increases linearly, which results in the increase of the proportion of smaller powders. The change of interval between plasma gun and the self-consuming electrode has a little effect on the granularity distribution, also the fractal dimension of the granularity distribution changed a little correspondingly.

  11. Influences of dehydrating process on properties of ATO nano-powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴湘伟; 陈振华; 黄培云

    2004-01-01

    Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanometer powders were synthesized by hydrolysis of alkoxides, using SnCl4 ·5H2O and SbCl3 as raw materials. Some dehydrating processes, such as n-butanol/xylene mixed solvent heterogeneous azeotropic distillation, organic dehydrating agent and other dehydrating processes, were used to treat the wet colloids for preparing nonagglomerated ATO nanoparticles. The influences of dehydrating processes on the particle size, agglomeration and resistance were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET). It is indicated that the dehydrating methods have great influences on the products properties, and that n-butanol/xylene mixed solvent heterogeneous azeotropic distillation processing and organic dehydrating agent can effectively remove the residual H2O molecules in wet colloids, and be used to prepare powders with high surface areas, about 85.32 m2/g, low agglomeration and good conductivity.

  12. The influence of gas phase composition on the process of Au-Hg amalgam formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of thin Au films deposited on a glass substrate with Hg vapor at 298 K was studied. The influence of gas phase composition on the kinetics of the amalgamation process was examined. Several gas atmospheres were tried: vacuum (residual gases pressure ∼1x10-7 Pa, with Hg vapor pressure 0.24 Pa), H2, Ar and air at pressure around 101 kPa. The electrical resistance measurements in the process of Au-Hg amalgam formation were correlated with the atomic force microscopy investigations of amalgam surface structure and X-ray diffraction spectra of the bulk. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate the influence of gas phase composition on the kinetics of the amalgamation process. The experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations of the kinetic processes occurring at the thin Au film surface

  13. Influence of cleaning process on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengxiang; Ding, Tao; Ye, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Bin; Cheng, Xinbin; Liu, Huasong; Ji, Yiqin; Wang, Zhanshan

    2011-03-20

    The cleaning process of optical substrates plays an important role during the manufacture of high-power laser coatings. Two kinds of substrates, fused silica and BK7 glass, and two cleaning processes, called process 1 and process 2 having different surfactant solutions and different ultrasonic cleaning parameters, are adopted to compare the influence of the ultrasonic cleaning technique on the substrates. The evaluation standards of the cleaning results include contaminant-removal efficiency, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold of the substrates. For both fused silica and BK7, process 2 is more efficient than process 1. Because acid and alkaline solutions can increase the roughness of BK7, process 2 is unsuitable for BK7 glass cleaning. The parameters of the cleaning protocol should be changed depending on the material of the optical components and the type of contamination.

  14. The influence of initial powder properties on the mechanical alloying process and the final powders structure

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczak, M.; R. Nowosielski; W. Pilarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this work is to study the influence of initial powder properties on the mechanical alloying process and final powders structure and the production of chosen powder alloy by mechanical alloying method.Design/methodology/approach: The test material was the pure niobium, tin and copper powders. The powders were ground for 2 and 10 hrs. The mechanical alloying process was conducted in a high energy SPEX mill under inert argon atmosphere. The chemical constitution and conc...

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES AND PRACTICES:THE PROPOSITIONS FOR SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bogićević-Milikić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to address the influence of national culture on HRM practices and processes in order to draw conclusions for Serbian HR practitioners, multinational corporations operating in Serbia, and any other country or organizational context that has similar cultural characteristics. To achieve this we first review the relevant literature to identify the interdependencies between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and HRM practices and processes. On the basis of recognized relationships ...

  16. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Marián Tokár; Helena Frančáková; Tatiana Bojňanská; Marek Bennár

    2011-01-01

    Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate) and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters wh...

  17. Serotonergic modulation and its influence on signal processing at cellular level in deep cerebellar nuclei neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meng-Larn

    2007-01-01

    Deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons generate the final output of cerebellum and receive abundant modulatory serotonergic inputs from brainstem neurons. The aim of this present study was to elucidate the influence of serotonin on signal processing performed by DCN neurons. Since signal processing is determined by the interplay between intrinsic and synaptic properties, the impact of serotonin on intrinsic as well as synaptic properties was investigated. To this end whole-cell patch clamp reco...

  18. Analysis of Laminate Thickness Influence on Compressibility Behavior in a Rift Process

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Sorrentino; Costanzo Bellini

    2014-01-01

    RIFT (Resin Infusion under Flexible Tool) process modelling requires accurate material data like resin viscosity, reinforcement compressibility and reinforcement permeability. During the mould closing, the compression phase and the resin flow are important stages that strongly influence the quality of the obtained parts. In RIFT process the upper mould is a formable vacuum bag: its flexibility makes the pressure field change the local compaction state of the reinforcement and so it alters the...

  19. Influence of substrate process tolerances on transmission characteristics of frequency-selective surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhang; Jun Lu; Guancheng Sun; Hongliang Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-selective surface (FSS) is a two-dimensional periodic structure consisting of a dielectric substrate and the metal units (or apertures) arranged periodically on it. When manufacturing the substrate, its thickness and dielectric constant suffer process tolerances. This may induce the center frequency of the FSS to shift, and consequently influence its characteristics. In this paper, a bandpass FSS structure is designed. The units are the Jerusalem crosses arranged squarely. The mode-matching technique is used for simulation. The influence of the tolerances of the substrate's thickness and dielectric constant on the center frequency is analyzed. Results show that the tolerances of thickness and dielectric constant have different influences on the center frequency of the FSS. It is necessary to ensure the process tolerance of the dielectric constant in the design and manufacturing of the substrate in order to stabilize the center frequency.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION IN THE PROCESS OF ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Zait

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Present article aims, based on direct research, to identify of main sources of information in the process of accessing European funds. Performed within Trotus Valley, Bacau, the proposed research provides pertinent information from the perspective of the main sources of influence on the manifestation of interest in accessing funding and in terms of highlighting the influence of various socio-demographic variables on such information sources. According to the Romanian experience of accessing European funds, apparently formal communication efforts prove ineffective, being less reliable and stimulating compared to the informal interpersonal communication. Because most of the potential beneficiaries of EU funds precept this process as one dominated by sinuous and powerful bureaucracy, we tend to believe that in the expressions of interest in accessing EU funds, formal communication only meet the cognitive structure of attitude, affective and conative entering under the influence of informal communication.

  1. The characterization of regenerative processes on grapevine culture under DDW influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of DDW (Deuterium Depleted Water) on regenerative processes in grapevine a culture of explants, taken out from plants belonging to Feteasca Alba and Feteasca Neagra sorts, was made in a DDW medium and compared with to usual medium. During three subculture (90-100 days of culture), the influence of DDW on the regenerative processes and the biochemical composition of biological material were observed. It was investigated the possibility of using DDW like a sterile agent for explants (in initialization stage) and in treatment against mould (in acclimatization stage). Without excluding the endogen factor, our observations on biological materials cultivated in vitro, demonstrated a positive influence of DDW, by the increase of growth and acclimatization rate. (authors)

  2. The characterization of regenerative processes on grapevine culture under DDW influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of DDW on regenerative processes in grapevine culture, an explants culture, with plants belonging to Feteasca Alba and Feteasca Neagra varieties was made, which was growth on medium with DDW, and compared with the usual water medium. During three subculture (90-100 days of culture), the influence of DDW on the regenerative processes and the biochemical composition of biological material were observed. It was investigated the possibility of DDW use like sterile agent for explants (in initialization stage) and in treatment against mould (in acclimatization stage). Without excluding the endogenous factor, our observations on biological material coming from in vitro, demonstrated a positive influence of DDW, namely an increase of multiplication and acclimatization rate. (authors)

  3. Influence of process variables on the properties of laccase biobleached pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Miranda, Jesús; García-Fuentevilla, Luisa L; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, Maria E; Diaz, Manuel J; Eugenio, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    A laccase stage can be used as a pre-treatment of a standard chemical bleaching sequence to reduce environmental concerns associated to this process. The importance of each independent variable and its influence on the properties of the bleached pulp have been studied in depth in this work, using an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with four independent variables (laccase, buffer, mediator and oxygen) as input. Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp was biobleached using a laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus and a natural mediator (acetosyringone). Later, an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide treatment were applied. Most biobleaching processes showed a decrease in kappa number and an increase in brightness with no significant impact on the viscosity values, compared with the control. Oxygen was the variable with the smallest influence on the final pulp properties while the laccase and buffer solution showed a significant influence. PMID:25085529

  4. Implied Spatial Meaning and Visuospatial Bias: Conceptual Processing Influences Processing of Visual Targets and Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood G Gozli

    Full Text Available Concepts with implicit spatial meaning (e.g., "hat", "boots" can bias visual attention in space. This result is typically found in experiments with a single visual target per trial, which can appear at one of two locations (e.g., above vs. below. Furthermore, the interaction is typically found in the form of speeded responses to targets appearing at the compatible location (e.g., faster responses to a target above fixation, after reading "hat". It has been argued that these concept-space interactions could also result from experimentally-induced associations between the binary set of locations and the conceptual categories with upward and downward meaning. Thus, rather than reflecting a conceptually driven spatial bias, the effect could reflect a benefit for compatible cue-target sequences that occurs only after target onset. We addressed these concerns by going beyond a binary set of locations and employing a search display consisting of four items (above, below, left, and right. Within each search trial, before performing a visual search task, participants performed a conceptual task involving concepts with implicit upward or downward meaning. The search display, in addition to including a target, could also include a salient distractor. Assuming a conceptually driven visual bias, we expected to observe, first, a benefit for target processing at the compatible location and, second, an increase in the cost of the salient distractor. The findings confirmed both predictions, suggesting that concepts do indeed generate a spatial bias. Finally, results from a control experiment, without the conceptual task, suggest the presence of an axis-specific effect, in addition to the location-specific effect, suggesting that concepts might cause both location-specific and axis-specific spatial bias. Taken together, our findings provide additional support for the involvement of spatial processing in conceptual understanding.

  5. Implied Spatial Meaning and Visuospatial Bias: Conceptual Processing Influences Processing of Visual Targets and Distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozli, Davood G; Pratt, Jay; Martin, K Zoë; Chasteen, Alison L

    2016-01-01

    Concepts with implicit spatial meaning (e.g., "hat", "boots") can bias visual attention in space. This result is typically found in experiments with a single visual target per trial, which can appear at one of two locations (e.g., above vs. below). Furthermore, the interaction is typically found in the form of speeded responses to targets appearing at the compatible location (e.g., faster responses to a target above fixation, after reading "hat"). It has been argued that these concept-space interactions could also result from experimentally-induced associations between the binary set of locations and the conceptual categories with upward and downward meaning. Thus, rather than reflecting a conceptually driven spatial bias, the effect could reflect a benefit for compatible cue-target sequences that occurs only after target onset. We addressed these concerns by going beyond a binary set of locations and employing a search display consisting of four items (above, below, left, and right). Within each search trial, before performing a visual search task, participants performed a conceptual task involving concepts with implicit upward or downward meaning. The search display, in addition to including a target, could also include a salient distractor. Assuming a conceptually driven visual bias, we expected to observe, first, a benefit for target processing at the compatible location and, second, an increase in the cost of the salient distractor. The findings confirmed both predictions, suggesting that concepts do indeed generate a spatial bias. Finally, results from a control experiment, without the conceptual task, suggest the presence of an axis-specific effect, in addition to the location-specific effect, suggesting that concepts might cause both location-specific and axis-specific spatial bias. Taken together, our findings provide additional support for the involvement of spatial processing in conceptual understanding. PMID:26953570

  6. Vaccination of mice with plasmids expressing processed capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus - Importance of dominant and subdominant epitopes for antigenicity and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Aasted, Bent;

    2007-01-01

    The capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) displays several independent B cell epitopes, which stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies. Some of these epitopes are highly variable between virus strains, but dominate the immune response. The site A on VP1 is the most prominent...... example of a dominant and variable site. This variability is a problem when designing vaccines against this disease, because it necessitates a close match between vaccine strain and virus in an outbreak. We have introduced a series of mutations into viral capsid proteins with the aim of selectively...... silencing two dominant and highly variable epitopes and thereby divert immune responses toward less dominant but more conserved, protective epitopes. When mice were immunized with modified antigens, the resulting immune responses showed a higher degree of cross-reactivity towards heterologous virus...

  7. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...... carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue...

  8. Influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education: Ethiopian higher education in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftu Hindeya Gebremeskel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Ethiopian public higher education as a case in point, this paper examined the influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education. It showed how the goals of the Process have been reflected on the current reforms undergoing in Ethiopian higher education. In doing so, relevant policy documents and national guidelines were reviewed taking the Bologna elements as a framework for discussion. Developments of partnership between the African and European Unions in higher education were also examined to see the influence of the Process at continental level in the foreseeable future. Though the process might have influence in other aspects of Ethiopian higher education, emphasis was given in this paper to elements reflected in academic curricula and teaching learning process. In this regard, elements such as modularization, European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS, Competence Based Education (CBE, flexibility of learning and recognition of prior learning were identified. Opportunities and challenges of implementing the spillover effects of the Process were also discussed.

  9. Language influences on numerical development – Inversion effects on multi-digit number processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eKlein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In early numerical development, children have to become familiar with the Arabic number system and its place-value structure. The present review summarizes and discusses evidence for language influences on the acquisition of the highly transparent structuring principles of digital-Arabic digits by means of its moderation through the transparency of the respective language’s number word system. In particular, the so-called inversion property (i.e., 24 named as ‘four and twenty’ instead of ‘twenty four’ was found to influence number processing in children not only in verbal but also in non-verbal numerical tasks. Additionally, there is first evidence suggesting that inversion-related difficulties may influence numerical processing longitudinally. Generally, language-specific influences in children’s numerical development are most pronounced for multi-digit numbers. Yet, there is currently only one study on three-digit number processing for German-speaking children. A direct comparison of additional new data from Italian-speaking children further corroborates the Whorfian claim that language impacts on all types of cognitive (number processing as inversion-related interference was found most pronounced for German-speaking children. In sum, we conclude that numerical development may not be language-specific but seems to be moderated by language.

  10. The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students' Performances in Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students' performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control…

  11. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  12. Complex Network Structure Influences Processing in Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological…

  13. Influence of cultivar and processing on the allergenicity of pistachio nut assessed in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinction between different cultivars of pistachio nut, and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio pro...

  14. Teaching Methods Influencing the Sustainability of the Teaching Process in Technology Education in General Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobik, Mart

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of technology education is related to a traditional understanding of craft and the methods used to teach it; however, the methods used in the teaching process have been influenced by the innovative changes accompanying the development of technology. In respect to social and economic development, it is important to prepare young…

  15. The Influence of Semantic Processing on Phonological Decisions in Children and Adults: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the behavioral effects and neural activation patterns associated with implicit semantic processing influences on phonological judgments during reading in children and adults. Method: Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 2 groups, children (9-13 years) and adults, performing a homophone judgment…

  16. Influence of genetic background on anthocyanin and copigment composition and behavior during thermoalkaline processing of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual color is a primary factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in-situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. We used 24 genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) to investigate the effect of pigment and copigme...

  17. Past Experience Influences the Processing of Stimulus Compounds in Human Pavlovian Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Klaus G.; Lachnit, Harold; Shanks, David R.

    2004-01-01

    In two human skin conductance conditioning experiments we investigated whether processing of stimulus compounds can be influenced by past experience. Participants were either pre-trained with a discrimination problem that could be solved elementally (A+, B-, AB+, C- in Experiment 1 and A+, AB+, C-, CB- in Experiment 2) or one that required a…

  18. The Social Group Influences of US Health Journalists and Their Impact on the Newsmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M. P.; Blake, K. D.; Meissner, H. I.; Viswanath, K.

    2013-01-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--"media agenda-setting" and…

  19. The influence of thermal deformation processes on frequency conversion in an LBO crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapov, Yu D.; Dyakov, V. A.; Grechin, S. G.; Kasyanov, I. V.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the thermal deformation process on frequency conversion in an LBO crystal is considered. The different temperature bandwidths at the harmonic generation of YAG:Nd laser radiation were obtained experimentally three times at different types of crystal fixation.

  20. Social Influence Interpretation of Interpersonal Processes and Team Performance Over Time Using Bayesian Model Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Alan R.; van de Schoot, Rens; Delmar, Frédéric; Crano, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The team behavior literature is ambiguous about the relations between members’ interpersonal processes—task debate and task conflict—and team performance. From a social influence perspective, we show why members’ interpersonal processes determine team performance over time in small groups. Together,

  1. Influence of material quality and process-induced defects on semiconductor device performance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. A.; Mckee, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of major causes of device yield degradation is presented. The relationships of device types to critical processes and typical defects are discussed, and the influence of the defect on device yield and performance is demonstrated. Various defect characterization techniques are described and applied. A correlation of device failure, defect type, and cause of defect is presented in tabular form with accompanying illustrations.

  2. The influence of infectious factors on dendritic cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicka-Sierszen, Agata; Grzegorczyk, Janina Ł.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens can have a negative influence on dendritic cells (DCs), causing their apoptosis, which prevents active presentation of foreign antigens. It results in a state of immunosuppression which makes the body susceptible to secondary infections. Infected immature DCs have lower expression of co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules, reduced ability to secrete cytokines and an inhibited maturation process and are incapable of effective antigen presentation and activation of T-lymphocytes. In so...

  3. Factors Influencing Implementation of Nursing Process by Nurses: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroozan Atashzadeh Shourideh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing process is a systematic and dynamic method that will help to improve the quality of patient care. Reviewing the literature indicates that implementation of nursing process not only in Iran but also in many countries has encountered many challenges. Applying nursing process requires understanding the factors affecting its implementation from the perspective of nurses and understanding the way these factors influence the nursing process. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that may influence the implementation of nursing process by nurses in Iran. Methods: A grounded theory was used to explore the nurses’ perspectives on implementation of nursing process. 18 clinical nurses, 12 nurse educators and 6 nurse managers participated in semi-structured interviews and data were simultaneously and constantly compared. Results: Personal-managerial factor was found as a core variable in this study. It means that a set of personal and managerial factors should be provided to help nurses apply nursing process to improve quality of nursing care. This variable includes two levels of axial codes: personal level and managerial level. Three categories in personal level code (awareness, attitude and skill and five categories in managerial level code (supervision, adequate human resources, reinforcement and punishment, appropriate tools and conditions, and cooperation emerged. Conclusion: Factors which influence the implementation of nursing process by nurses are varied and complex and related to personal and managerial factors. Therefore, nurse managers and nurse educators should try to remove barriers and provide facilities to promote implementation of nursing process and increase the quality of care based on nursing process.

  4. The expression and functional activity of membrane-bound human leukocyte antigen-G1 are influenced by the 3'-untranslated region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Signe Goul; Hantash, Basil M; Zhao, Longmei;

    2013-01-01

    , and graft rejection after organ transplantation. We have investigated the effect of HLA-G polymorphism in the 3'UTR on the processing and stability of the membrane-bound HLA-G1 (mHLA-G1) isoform, as well as its functional significance. Different HLA-G1 cDNA sequences were transduced into the human K562 cell...

  5. Effect of anticancer therapy on Tn antigen exposure on the leucocyte membranes in patients with leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Maslak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tn-antigen (Thomsen-nouvelle antigen is tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen with only one GalNAc residue attached to serine or threonine of polypeptide chain. There is not enough data about the expression of this glycotope in hematologic processes. But the correlations between increasing Tn-antigen expression on the cell surface and tumor growth progression, invasion, and activation of cell migration are well known. Therefore, the currently important area of modern research is studying of the impact of anticancer therapy by expression of this carbohydrate antigen in the onco-proliferative process. There are two types of cytostatic therapies in clinical hospitals of Ukraine: COP-therapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone and FC-therapy (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, which are the most popular due to their effectiveness and low price. The aim of our study was to investigate Tn-antigen exposure on the surface of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes in polycythemia vera and subleukemic myelosis; to examine the influence of COP- and FC-therapies on Tn-antigen exponation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The objects of the study were blood cells of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 25, polycythemia vera (n = 15 and subleukemic myelosis (n = 15 aged 58–66 years. Healthy hematologic volunteers (n = 15 aged 55 to 65 years were in the control group. Lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 25 were also studied after the chemotherapy treatment of patients divided into two groups: those who took COP-therapy (n = 13; and those who treated with FC-therapy (n = 12. Tn-antigen exposure on lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes was investigated by Beckman Сoulter EPICS flow cytometer with primary monoclonal Tn-antigen anybodies (Institute of Immunology, Moscow, Russia and secondary fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled antybodies (Millipore, USA. The number of dead cells was monitored by binding

  6. Influence of in line monitored fluid bed granulation process parameters on the stability of Ethinylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßteuscher-Carl, Katrin; Fricke, Sabine; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2015-12-30

    Ethinylestradiol (EE) as a highly active and low dosed compound is prone to oxidative degradation. The stability of the drug substance is therefore a critical parameter that has to be considered during drug formulation. Beside the stability of the drug substance, granule particle size and moisture are critical quality attributes (CQA) of the fluid bed granulation process which influence the tableting ability of the resulting granules. Both CQA should therefore be monitored during the production process by process analytic technology (PAT) according to ICH Q8. This work focusses on the effects of drying conditions on the stability of EE in a fluid-bed granulation process. We quantified EE degradation products 6-alpha-hydroxy-EE, 6-beta-hydroxy-EE, 9(11)-dehydro-EE and 6-oxo-EE during long time storage and accelerated conditions. PAT-tools that monitor granule particle size (Spatial filtering technology) and granule moisture (Microwave resonance technology) were applied and compared with off-line methods. We found a relevant influence of residual granule moisture and thermic stress applied during granulation on the storage stability of EE, whereas no degradation was found immediately after processing. Hence we conclude that drying parameters have a relevant influence on long term EE stability. PMID:26541302

  7. CFD-based simulation of operational point influences on product changing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöke, L.; Wortberg, J.

    2014-05-01

    In the means of production, saving resources is becoming more and more a priority optimizing plastics extrusion processes. The analysis of color and material changes has become very interesting to prevent unnecessary material loss. This interest is justified especially due to increasing numbers of changing processes as a reaction of more individual product specifications and thus decreasing lot sizes in the last decades. It can be shown that commercial numerical tools are capable of plausible calculations of changing processes, enabling process observations and giving the possibility of predicting different influences. Due to the highly dynamical character of the flow behavior in the control volume, a transient approach is necessary to show the effects of different operational points on product changes. To determine the progress of the product change the volume of fluid model (VOF) as multiphase approach is used. The analysis of influences from operational points on the changing process is achieved by separate observations of two important input parameters. On one hand the effects of varied mass flow rates as inlet boundary conditions and on the other hand different mass temperatures are observed. To check the plausibility of the calculation method the results are discussed referring to exemplary experimental data in qualitative comparison. The experimental data is obtained using special laboratory equipment neglecting influences from the extruder and taking only the die as control volume into consideration.

  8. On the influence of human factor on mechanical properties in aluminium hot extrusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Peruš

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A non-parametric model was proposed for modelling the influence of different technological and chemical parameters on the mechanical properties of the 6082 aluminium alloys during the hot extrusion process with a special consideration of human factor. It was shown that human factor (influence of process engineers was important and that it could be efficiently modeled and taken into account by the proposed Conditional Average Estimator (CAE method. Production might be improved (optimized by a proper education and/or by eliminating critical process engineers. It was found that the highest values for elongation and yield stress did not coincide with the range of the most frequent combinations of input parameters.

  9. Analysis of Laminate Thickness Influence on Compressibility Behavior in a Rift Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sorrentino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RIFT (Resin Infusion under Flexible Tool process modelling requires accurate material data like resin viscosity, reinforcement compressibility and reinforcement permeability. During the mould closing, the compression phase and the resin flow are important stages that strongly influence the quality of the obtained parts. In RIFT process the upper mould is a formable vacuum bag: its flexibility makes the pressure field change the local compaction state of the reinforcement and so it alters the permeability. Preform compaction depends on its compressibility, that is influenced by laminate thickness: the aim of this work is to analyse the relation between them. Moreover, this analysis is carried out observing preform deformation during process condition, in fact compression is applied by vacuum bag instead of compression testing machine.

  10. Influence of the Migration Process on the Learning Performances of Fuzzy Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akrout, Khaled; Baron, Luc; Balazinski, Marek;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of the process of migration between populations in GENO-FLOU, which is an environment of learning of fuzzy knowledge bases by genetic algorithms. Initially the algorithm did not use the process of migration. For the learning, the algorithm uses a hybrid coding......, binary for the base of rules and real for the data base. This hybrid coding used with a set of specialized operators of reproduction proven to be an effective environment of learning. Simulations were made in this environment by adding a process of migration. While varying the number of populations...

  11. Elastocaloric cooling processes: The influence of material strain and strain rate on efficiency and temperature span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marvin; Schütze, Andreas; Seelecke, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the influence of material strain and strain rate on efficiency and temperature span of elastocaloric cooling processes. The elastocaloric material, a newly developed quaternary Ni-Ti-Cu-V alloy, is characterized at different maximum strains and strain rates. The experiments are performed with a specially designed test setup, which enables the measurement of mechanical and thermal process parameters. The material efficiency is compared to the efficiency of the Carnot process at equivalent thermal operation conditions. This method allows for a direct comparison of the investigated material with other caloric materials.

  12. Elastocaloric cooling processes: The influence of material strain and strain rate on efficiency and temperature span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of material strain and strain rate on efficiency and temperature span of elastocaloric cooling processes. The elastocaloric material, a newly developed quaternary Ni-Ti-Cu-V alloy, is characterized at different maximum strains and strain rates. The experiments are performed with a specially designed test setup, which enables the measurement of mechanical and thermal process parameters. The material efficiency is compared to the efficiency of the Carnot process at equivalent thermal operation conditions. This method allows for a direct comparison of the investigated material with other caloric materials.

  13. Influence of mobile games on the process of teaching of students that can not swim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelnykov G.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considered direction in teaching of students to swimming in terms 25 meter pool. 30 students took part in an experiment. The place of mobile games in the process of teaching of novices is certain. Information of results of testing of level of physical preparedness of students is presented. Positive influence of mobile games on the process of mastering of skills of swimming and co-operations on water is marked. Forms and methods of mastering of skills and conduct in water are offered. The motive mode and forms of organization of educational process of not able to swim students is recommended.

  14. The Influence of Processing on the DNA Integrity in Several Raw Materials of Marine Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of molecular biotechnology, methods for identification of marine food are developed from protein to DNA. The experimental materials are striped bass, Sturgeon and mandarin fish. They were processed with boiling, salting and microwave-heating methods. DNA-based research has been conducted in almost every corner in food material identification. This study is mainly about the identification methods of distinguishing processed aquatic products and the influence of processing on the DNA integrity in the raw materials of marine foods.

  15. THEORY DEPOSITION MODEL AND INFLUENCING FACTORS DURING PROCESS OF PREPARING MICRO-LAYER LAMINATE BY EBPVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.P. Shi; X.D. He; Y. Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the characteristics of electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) technique and the whole process of preparing micro-layer composite laminate. And several major influencing factors are presented and discussed. It was found that residual gas pressure should be low enough to guarantee the unobstructed transportation of vapor steam and electron beam; the evaporation method and evaporation speed are up to the different vapor pressure deficit of compositions of raw materials; and the substrate temperature could have great influence on the microstructure of the micro-layer laminates.

  16. Blends of ground tire rubber devulcanized by microwaves/HDPE - Part A: influence of devulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main objective of this work is the study of the influence of microwaves devulcanization of the elastomeric phase on dynamically revulcanized blends based on Ground Tire Rubber (GTR/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE. The devulcanization of the GTR was performed in a system comprised of a conventional microwave oven adapted with a motorized stirring at a constant microwaves power and at various exposure times. The influence of the devulcanization process on the final properties of the blends was evaluated in terms of mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal and rheological properties. The morphology was also studied.

  17. Influence of processing sequence on the tribological properties of VGCF-X/PA6/SEBS composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Yu; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    In order to develop the new tribomaterials for mechanical sliding parts with sufficient balance of mechanical and tribological properties, we investigated the influence of processing sequence on the tribological properties of the ternary nanocomposites: the polymer blends of polyamide 6 (PA6) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene copolymer (SEBS) filled with vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF-X), which is one of carbon nanofiber (CNF) and has 15nm diameter and 3μm length. Five different processing sequences: (1) VGCF-X, PA6 and SEBS were mixed simultaneously (Process A), (2) Re-mixing (Second compounding) of the materials prepared by Process A (Process AR),(3) SEBS was blended with PA6 (PA6/SEBS blends) and then these blends were mixed with VGCF-X (Process B), (4) VGCF-X was mixed with PA6 (VGCF-X/PA6 composites) and then these composites were blended with SEBS (Process C), and (5) VGCF-X were mixed with SEBS (VGCF-X/SEBS composites) and then these composites were blended with PA6 (Process D) were attempted for preparing of the ternary nanocomposites (VGCF-X/PA6/SEBS composites). These ternary polymer nanocomposites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Their tribological properties were evaluated by using a ring-on-plate type sliding wear tester under dry condition. The tribological properties such as the frictional coefficient and the specific wear rate were influenced by the processing sequence. These results may be attributed to the change of internal structure formation, which is a dispersibility of SEBS particle and VGCF-X in ternary nanocomposites (VGCF-X/PA6/SEBS) by different processing sequences. In particular, the processing sequences of AR, B and D, which are those of re-mixing of VGCF-X, have a good dispersibility of VGCF-X for the improvement of tribological properties.

  18. Formaldehyde scavengers function as novel antigen retrieval agents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig T. Vollert; Moree, Wilna J; Steven Gregory; Bark, Steven J.; Eriksen, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen retrieval agents improve the detection of formaldehyde-fixed proteins, but how they work is not well understood. We demonstrate that formaldehyde scavenging represents a key characteristic associated with effective antigen retrieval; under controlled temperature and pH conditions, scavenging improves the typical antigen retrieval process through reversal of formaldehyde-protein adduct formation. This approach provides a rational framework for the identification and development of more...

  19. The influence of thermomechanical processing on microstructural evolution of Ti600 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Temperature and strain rate have great influence on the microstructure features. → The formation of sub-grain and dislocation wall is the typically microstructure features observed in the β single-phase. → The elongated lamellar α platelets kinked increasingly and break up under the α + β processing conditions. → The softening mechanisms of the Ti600 alloy hot compressed at 1000-1100 deg. C are mainly dynamic recovery. - Abstract: The influences of thermomechanical processing on microstructural evolution of Ti600 alloy were studied in the temperature range of 800-1100 deg. C, and at the strain rate of 0.001-10 s-1. During the isothermal compression experiment, the flow stress-strain curves are examined in the β single-phase and in the α + β two-phase regions. The results show that the thermomechanical processing parameters have significant influences on the microstructure of Ti600 alloy, especially on the grain size, morphologies of α phase. Moreover, the microstructural evolution was analyzed by optical microstructure (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that typical of dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization phenomenon occurring in the thermomechanical processing. These results will optimize the microstructural control for hot working of Ti600 alloy and deepen the understanding of the flow softening mechanism of near-α titanium alloy.

  20. Influence of melt superheat on breakup process of close-coupled gas atomization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In close-coupled gas atomization(CCGA), the influences of melt superheat on breakup process are fundamental to obtain desired or finer powder. Based on a series of Cu atomization experiment under different superheating conditions, the influences of melt superheat on breakup process were studied. Experimental results indicate that as the melt superheat is increased to 150, 200, 250 and 300 K, the mean particle size (D50) decreases consequently to 34.9, 32.3, 30.9 and 19.7 μm. Theoretical analysis reveals that the primary breakup and secondary breakup processes are close coupled, and the melt superheat radically influences the melt properties,and plays a crucial role on governing the filming process of primary breakup and the atomization modes of secondary breakup. There exists a strong nonlinear decrease of contact angle of melt to nozzle orifice wall when the superheat is increased from 250 K to 300 K,leading to a marked fall of the film thickness formed in primary breakup, and D50 of copper powders is therefore sharply reduced.However, the log-normal distribution feature of particle size has not been substantially improved.

  1. The influence of thermomechanical processing on microstructural evolution of Ti600 titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Yuanfei [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Zeng Weidong, E-mail: zengwd@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Qi Yunlian; Zhao Yongqing [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Temperature and strain rate have great influence on the microstructure features. {yields} The formation of sub-grain and dislocation wall is the typically microstructure features observed in the {beta} single-phase. {yields} The elongated lamellar {alpha} platelets kinked increasingly and break up under the {alpha} + {beta} processing conditions. {yields} The softening mechanisms of the Ti600 alloy hot compressed at 1000-1100 deg. C are mainly dynamic recovery. - Abstract: The influences of thermomechanical processing on microstructural evolution of Ti600 alloy were studied in the temperature range of 800-1100 deg. C, and at the strain rate of 0.001-10 s{sup -1}. During the isothermal compression experiment, the flow stress-strain curves are examined in the {beta} single-phase and in the {alpha} + {beta} two-phase regions. The results show that the thermomechanical processing parameters have significant influences on the microstructure of Ti600 alloy, especially on the grain size, morphologies of {alpha} phase. Moreover, the microstructural evolution was analyzed by optical microstructure (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that typical of dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization phenomenon occurring in the thermomechanical processing. These results will optimize the microstructural control for hot working of Ti600 alloy and deepen the understanding of the flow softening mechanism of near-{alpha} titanium alloy.

  2. Influence of the Scrap Tyre Processing Techniques on the Physical Properties of the Crumb Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Aziz Memon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The processing mechanism of scrap tyres to produce CR (Crumb Rubber has a great influence on the properties of the CRMB (Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen. A fair amount of research was observed in the literature on the bitumen modified by CR processed cryogenically and ambiently. However, little or no work has been done on the CR processed by the other methods such as the Aquablast processing technique, which is a relatively a new waste tyre rubber processing technique within the CR industry. In this study, CR obtained from the two sources; ambient and Aquablast grinding techniques were primarily assessed with a helium pycnometer and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy for their physical properties and appearance respectively. Observations from this laboratory study indicated: (1 the density of the ambient CR was slightly higher than the CR obtained from Aquablast technique; (2 difference in physical appearance was found insignificant.

  3. Motivational influences on impression formation: outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L; Fiske, S T

    1987-09-01

    How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. The results of the three experiments indicate that there are important influences of outcome dependency on impression formation. These results are consistent with a model in which the tendency for short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency to facilitate individuating impression formation processes is mediated by an increase in accuracy-driven attention to attribute information.

  4. Motivational influences on impression formation: outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L; Fiske, S T

    1987-09-01

    How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. The results of the three experiments indicate that there are important influences of outcome dependency on impression formation. These results are consistent with a model in which the tendency for short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency to facilitate individuating impression formation processes is mediated by an increase in accuracy-driven attention to attribute information. PMID:3656080

  5. Irradiating of Bulk Soybeans: Influence on Their Functional and Sensory Properties for Soyfood Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chiew-Ling; Wilson, Lester A.; Boylston, Terri; Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Soybeans were chosen for lunar and planetary missions, where soybeans will be supplied in bulk or grown locally, due to their nutritive value and ability to produce oil and protein for further food applications. However, soybeans must be processed into foods prior to consumption. Radiation that soybeans would be exposed to during bulk storage prior to and during a Mars mission may influence their germination and functional properties. The influence of radiation includes the affect of surface pasteurization to ensure the astronauts safety from food-borne illnesses (HACCP, CCP), and the affect of the amount of radiation the soybeans receive during a Mars mission. Decreases in the amount of natural antioxidants free radical formation, and oxidation-induced changes in the soybean will influence the nutritional value, texture, color, and aroma of soyfoods. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pasteurization and sterilization surface radiation on whole soybeans using gamma and electron beam radiation. The influence of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30kGy on microbial load, germination rate, ease of processing, and quality of soymilk and tofu were determined. Surface radiation of whole dry soybeans using electron beam or gamma rays from 1-30kGy did provide microbial safety for the astronauts. However, the lower dose levels had surviving yeasts and molds. These doses caused oxidative changes that resulted in soymilk and tofu with rancid aromas. GC-MS of the aroma compounds using SPME Headspace confirmed the presence of lipid oxidation compounds. Soybean germination ability was reduced as radiation dosage increased. While lower doses may reduce these problems, the ability to insure microbial safety of bulk soybeans will be lost. Counter measures could include vacuum packaging, nitrogen flushing, added antioxidants, and radiating under freezing conditions. Doses below 1kGy need to be investigated further to determine the influence of the radiation encountered

  6. The influence of different parameters on the hydration process of binders based on alkali activated slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARKO KRIZAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain types of activators (water glass Na2O·nSiO2 and sodium-metasilicate Na2SiO3·5H2O on the hydration process of alkali activated slag was investigated in this study. The influence of activator concentration, specific surface area of the slag and the modulus n of the water glass (mass ratio between SiO2 and Na2O on the kinetics of the hydration process i.e., the change of compressive strength were also investigated. Poorly crystallized low base calcium silicate hydrate C–S–H (I is the main hydration product of alkali activated slag regardless of the activator used. This is the reason for the rapid increase in the strength of alkali activated slag and also of the very high strength values. The strength growth rate and strength values were significantly higher when sodium–metasilicate was used as the activator than when water glass was used. The specific surface area of the slag and the activator concentration are parameters which have a closely connected influence on strength and their action is cumulative. The modulus n of water glass does not have an explicit influence on the strength of alkali activated slag.

  7. Process Influences on Laser-beam Melting of the Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Dominik; Renza, Johanna; Zaeh, Michael F.; Glasschroeder, Johannes

    Magnesium's great lightweight potential and high biocompatibility render laser-beam melting of this metal increasingly interesting. Despite recent research activities in this field, the properties thereby achieved are still inadequate for industrial or medical use. Low surface quality caused by powder sintered to parts' boundaries is one of the main problems. This effect is discussed theoretically and examined on single tracks of the magnesium alloy AZ91. Welding-penetration depth and width was measured on a magnesium plate with and without a powder layer. For the derivation of suitable process parameters, structures with incrementally increasing hatch distances were built and microscopically analyzed. The influence on defect percentage and hardness of the parts was determined based on specimens manufactured with different layer thicknesses. The influence of the oxygen content on solids was analyzed by varying the process atmosphere.

  8. The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Chunping; DING Juwen; YANG Fei; DONG Delong; RONG Mingzhe; XU Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB).The distributions of pressure,temperature,gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated,and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results.Based on the airflow in the arc chamber,the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated.It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process.To verify the simulation results,the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested.This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design.

  9. Global Coherence in Younger and Older Adults: Influence of Cognitive Processes and Discourse Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine the influence of cognitive processes on discourse global coherence ability measured across different discourse tasks and collected from younger (n = 40; 20–39 y.o.) and older (n = 40; 70–87 y.o.) cognitively healthy adults. Study participants produced oral language samples in response to five commonly used discourse elicitation tasks and they were analyzed for maintenance of global coherence. Participants also completed memory and attention measures. Group differences on the global coherence scale were found for only one type of discourse – recounts. Across discourse elicitation tasks the lowest global coherence scores were found for recounts compared to the other discourse elicitation tasks. The influence of cognitive processes on maintenance of global coherence differed for the two age groups. For the younger group, there were no observed significant relationships. For the older group, cognitive measures were related to global coherence of stories and procedures. PMID:23656430

  10. Influence of laser wavelength on the thermal conduction and ablation processes in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical problems relating to electron thermal conductivity in laser-produced plasmas are investigated. The classical theory of Spitzer-Haerm is discussed together with the processes able to decrease the thermal conduction: influence of the magnetic field, and plasma instabilities. The turbulence effects and the energy transfer by suprathermal electrons are also reported. The laser-produced flows and the influence of thermal conductivity or the ablation process are studied (plane flows, flows in spherical geometry, case of non-localized absorption at the critical density). The experimental method (thin sheet method) is discussed using numerical simulations. The experimental device is described (laser, preparation of polystyrene thin sheets) and some results are given: determination of the ablation mass flux in picosecond regimes for various lambda; study of the ablation pressure; consequences for the acceleration of thin targets and generation of shock waves in solids; study of hydrodynamic efficiency in the nanosecond regime

  11. The influence of vertical motor responses on explicit and incidental processing of power words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianjiao; Sun, Lining; Zhu, Lei

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating that power judgment is affected by vertical information. Such interaction between vertical space and power (i.e., response facilitation under space-power congruent conditions) is generally elicited in paradigms that require participants to explicitly evaluate the power of the presented words. The current research explored the possibility that explicit evaluative processing is not a prerequisite for the emergence of this effect. Here we compared the influence of vertical information on a standard explicit power evaluation task with influence on a task that linked power with stimuli in a more incidental manner, requiring participants to report whether the words represented people or animals or the font of the words. The results revealed that although the effect is more modest, the interaction between responses and power is also evident in an incidental task. Furthermore, we also found that explicit semantic processing is a prerequisite to ensure such an effect.

  12. Process influences and correction possibilities for high precision injection molded freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Modern injection molding processes offer a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high volume applications. Besides form deviation of molded freeform optics, internal material stress is a relevant influencing factor for the functionality of a freeform optics in an optical system. This paper illustrates dominant influence parameters of an injection molding process relating to form deviation and internal material stress based on a freeform demonstrator geometry. Furthermore, a deterministic and efficient way for 3D mold correcting of systematic, asymmetrical shrinkage errors is shown to reach micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm. In a second case, a stress-optimized parameter combination using unusual molding conditions was 3D corrected to reach high precision and low stress freeform polymer optics.

  13. Influence of process parameters on deep drawing of AA6111 aluminum alloy at elevated temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马闻宇; 王宝雨; 傅垒; 周靖; 黄鸣东

    2015-01-01

    To gain a deep insight into the hot drawing process of aluminum alloy sheet, simulations of cylindrical cup drawing at elevated temperatures were carried out with experimental validation. The influence of four important process parameters, namely, punch velocity, blank holder force (BHF), friction coefficient and initial forming temperature of blank on drawing characteristics (i.e. minimum thickness and thickness deviation) was investigated with the help of design of experiments (DOE), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of mean (ANOM). Based on the results of ANOVA, it is shown that the blank holder force has the greatest influence on minimum thickness. The importance of punch velocity for thickness deviation is 44.35%followed by BHF of 24.88%, friction coefficient of 15.77%and initial forming temperature of blank of 14.995%. After determining the significance of each factor on forming characteristics, how the individual parameter affects characteristics was further analyzed by ANOM.

  14. Influence of laser parameters on quality of microholes and process efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, A.; Kunz, C.; Kraus, M.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.; Ingildeev, D.; Hermanutz, F.

    2014-03-01

    To enable the direct-spinning process of super-micro fibres (pulses together with a helical drilling optics microholes with high accuracy were manufactured in metals of a thickness in the range of 0.3 mm. However, the required process time for a single microhole ranges up to several ten seconds. Simple energy balance considerations show that higher averaged powers - either achieved with larger pulse energies or an increased repetition rate - considerable reduce the process time. In this case plasma formation and heat accumulation show an increased formation of melt and recast. Thus, the objective is to increase the productivity while maintaining consistent quality of the microholes. With this aim, the influence of pulse energy and repetition rate on the borehole geometry, processing quality and process efficiency was investigated for helical drilling. In the present research work a TruMicro 5250 laser source (tp = 8 ps, λ=515 nm, fR=800 kHz) was used. To determine the process time of the microhole the transmitted laser radiation was recorded. A systematic evaluation of the process quality and process time dependent on pulse energy and repetition rate will be presented in this contribution. First laser manufactured spinning nozzles with microhole diameters down to 25 μm processed in 0.24 mm thick AuPt alloy were used to fabricate unique super-micro fibres with yarn counts down to 0.2 dtex.

  15. Cultural influences, decision making process and consumer behaviour of the Middle Class Chinese Outbound Tourist.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Luc JJ

    2010-01-01

    The research investigates the consumer behaviour of the emerging “Middle Class Mainland Chinese Outbound Tourist”. With the Chinese outbound tourism market being one of the fastest growing worldwide and poised for exponential growth in years to come, tourism industry professionals would benefit from a deeper understanding. The focus of the thesis considers which cultural influences are important in the decision making process of the Chinese middle class consumer, what are the pre-cons...

  16. Cognitive processes influencing prospective memory performance in old age : a cognitive neuroscience approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eschen, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to contribute to a deeper understanding of cognitive processes influencing prospective memory performance in old age. Prospective memory is defined as the realization of activities intended for future execution. Four studies using cognitive neuroscience methods were conducted. In the first study healthy old adults were compared to patients with impaired executive functions and normal episodic memory showing that their executive, but not their episodic memory deficit...

  17. The influence of decision heuristics and overconfidence on multiattribute choice: A process-tracing study

    OpenAIRE

    Selart, Marcus; Kuvaas, Bård; Boe, Ole; Takemura, Kazuhisa

    2006-01-01

    In the present study it was shown that decision heuristics and confidence judgements play important roles in the building of preferences. Based on a dual-process account of thinking, the study compared people who did well versus poorly on a series of decision heuristics and overconfidence judgement tasks. The two groups were found to differ with regard to their information search behaviour in introduced multiattribute choice tasks. High performers on the judgemental tasks were less influenced...

  18. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  19. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research

  20. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

  1. Beeswax organogels: Influence of gelator concentration and oil type in the gelation process

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Artur J.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Fasolin, L.; Cunha, Rosiane L.; Vicente, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work focused on how different types of oil phase, MCT (medium chain triglycerides) and LCT (long chain triglycerides), exert influence on the gelation process of beeswax and thus properties of the organogel produced thereof. Organogels were produced at different temperatures and qualitative phase diagrams were constructed to identify and classify the type of structure formed at various compositions. The microstructure of gelator crystals was studied by polarized light microscopy. Melting...

  2. Influence of peppermint oil on absorptive and secretory processes in rat small intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Beesley, A; HARDCASTLE, J; Hardcastle, P T; Taylor, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peppermint oil is used to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, relaxing intestinal smooth muscle by reducing the availability of calcium, but its effects on intestinal transport are unknown. AIMS: To determine the effect of peppermint oil on intestinal transport processes. METHODS: The influence of peppermint oil on intestinal transport was investigated in rat jejunum using both intestinal sheets mounted in Ussing chambers and brush border membrane vesicles. RESULTS: ...

  3. Immaturities in Reward Processing and Its Influence on Inhibitory Control in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Geier, C.F.; Terwilliger, R; Teslovich, T.; Velanova, K.; Luna, B.

    2009-01-01

    The nature of immature reward processing and the influence of rewards on basic elements of cognitive control during adolescence are currently not well understood. Here, during functional magnetic resonance imaging, healthy adolescents and adults performed a modified antisaccade task in which trial-by-trial reward contingencies were manipulated. The use of a novel fast, event-related design enabled developmental differences in brain function underlying temporally distinct stages of reward proc...

  4. Influence of Process Parameters on Microhardness of Electroless Ni-B Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Sahoo; Suman Kalyan Das

    2012-01-01

    Electroless Ni-B coatings have found large applications due to their high hardness and wear resistance. The present paper tries to investigate the influence of coating process parameters on the microhardness of electroless Ni-B coating with the help of Taguchi analysis. Four parameters, namely, bath temperature, concentration of reducing agent, concentration of nickel source, and annealing temperature, are considered and fitted into an L27 orthogonal array to find out the optimized condition ...

  5. Sanitation, fish handling and artisanal fish processing within fishing communities: socio-cultural influences

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.O.; Kyangwa, I.

    2005-01-01

    postive transformation of the fisheries sector in Uganda has of recent been scatted by failure to mountain fish quality and safety,akey prerequiste for retaining and gaining fish markets. The social cultural study established the extent to which social cutural practices had affected the levels and the use of sanitation facilities,fish handling facilities and artisanal fish processing techniques and the factors that influenced these practices in the fishing communities of lake victoria. ...

  6. Influence of physical and chemical factors on biological leaching process of copper from printed circuit boards

    OpenAIRE

    Willner, J

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research regarding the biological leaching of this metal from electronic wastes components in the form of printed circuit boards. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of some physical and chemical factors (e.g. pH, oxidation-reduction potential) on bioleaching process and efficiency of copper transfer from solid phase into solution. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The obtai...

  7. Transformation of organisations of work in the processes of globalisation: Influence of neo-liberal ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Božo V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In sociology of organisation, as a special branch of sociology of work, prevailing opinions today are those that do not separate organisation of work from globalisation processes. No matter whether globalisation processes are seen from optimistic, pessimistic, or skeptical point of view, the fact that globalisation processes do exist in modern societies and that they do influence transformation of organisation of work is not disputable. Globalisation processes imposed distribution of risk, instead of earlier interior processes, which were happening within the frame of distribution of goods (and services among agents in processes of work. Transformation of organisation of work has been happening in the direction of becoming more changeable, adaptable and temporary. Although on the path of transformation of organisation of work resistance can be seen, which come from prevailing bureaucratic structures and relations, globalisation processes “put” into them some dominant neo-liberal values. As value basis of these processes are mostly seen in the form of neo-liberal ideology, its influence to transformation of organisation of work cannot be neglected; behind each ideology is a function of “protection” of certain social agents. Neo-liberal ideology “makes sense” of changes of organisation of work in the way that it gives them legitimacy of “promoters” of globalisation processes, in the centre of which is the struggle for profit on the international market. This is the reason why globalisation processes appear as a good (international frame for spreading of neo-liberal ideology, as like in economically high developed societies as in societies of post-socialistic transition. Neo -liberal ideology does not care much for characteristics of other aspects of work, which concern content of work and position of agents of work in its organisation. In accordance with neo-liberal ideology, today we can identify some influences of globalisation

  8. Instability of induction cooker (electromagnetic stove) antigen retrieval in immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Zheng, Xiang-Yi

    2012-03-01

    An induction cooker is a modern electric cooker that takes electromagnetic induction principle to heat. As it has high efficiency, no open flame, and is safe and convenient, more and more laboratories use it as an antigen retrieval heating tool in immunohistochemistry. We found that there was still some instability with the induction cooker, because with certain antigens the power change influenced the results of immunohistochemistry staining, showing weaker staining intensity or decreased number of positive cells, but which were not entirely negative. For some antigens, it had no influence on results. The instability of this heating tool for antigen retrieval was caused partly by negligent operators, and which may influence the experimental results and the pathologic diagnosis.

  9. The influence of culture on human resource management processes and practices: The propositions for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević-Milikić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to address the influence of national culture on HRM practices and processes in order to draw conclusions for Serbian HR practitioners, multinational corporations operating in Serbia, and any other country or organizational context that has similar cultural characteristics. To achieve this we first review the relevant literature to identify the interdependencies between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and HRM practices and processes. On the basis of recognized relationships we put forward 11 propositions about likely appropriate HRM practices (such as job analysis, recruitment and selection, human resource planning and career management for the Serbian cultural context, characterized by high Uncertainty Avoidance, high Power Distance, Collectivism and Femininity.

  10. Circadian and sleep episode duration influences on cognitive performance following the process of awakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The process of waking up from an episode of sleep can produce temporary deficits in cognitive functioning and low levels of alertness and vigilance, a process referred to as sleep inertia. Cognitive ability varies as a function of time-of-day; cognitive ability associated with sleep inertia also shows circadian influences with deleterious effects most pronounced when awakened from biological night, possibly paralleling the core body temperature minimum. The length of the sleep episode may contribute to the severity of sleep inertia. Short sleep episodes (awakening is distinct from other aspects of awareness. PMID:20970004

  11. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  12. The influence of medical expertise, case typicality and illness script component on case processing and disease probability estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.F.M. Custers; H.P.A. Boshuizen (Henny); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe present study investigated the influence of medical expertise, case typicality, and illness script component (enabling conditions vs. consequences) on the speed of case information processing and subjective disease probabilities. It was hypothesized that expert subjects would process

  13. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF CUTTING REGIME ON THE WEAR OF DRILLS AT STEEL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Marius CIUREZU GHERGHE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the influence of cutting regime on the wear drills at steel processing , in particular the processing of stainless steel X17CrNi16-2 SR EN 10088-4 DIN 17440. We are interested in wear of the drill at processing of this type of stainless steel , which has applicability in energy industry given the special characteristics of its. We want a maximum value of 0.2 mm for the wear of the drill, measurement and taking pictures are made using a microscope DigiMicro 2.0 and the software used is MicroCapture. Processing was done on machining center YMC YOUNG TECH 1050, and the tool used was 8 mm drill bit high speed steel.

  14. Background ozone in the southern Europe and Mediterranean area: Influence of the transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The troposphere is subject to continuous inputs, production and removal processes of ozone and its precursors from natural processes and human activities acting together within a very complex system. In order to assess the behaviour of background ozone in the Mediterranean area, a description of trends, seasonal and diurnal behaviours of free tropospheric ozone is provided. In the Mediterranean area and southern Europe the background tropospheric ozone concentration appears significantly affected by three main air mass transport processes: (i) transport of polluted air masses on regional and long-range scales, (ii) downward transport of stratospheric air masses, and (iii) transport of mineral dust from the Sahara desert. In this review of the literature of the last two decades, we present an overview of these phenomena, mainly monitored at high baseline mountain stations representative of background atmospheric conditions. - How background ozone is influenced by vertical and horizontal transport processes in the southern Europe and the Mediterranean area.

  15. Processes that initiate turbidity currents and their influence on turbidites: A marine geology perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David J.W.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    How the processes that initiate turbidity currents influence turbidite deposition is poorly understood, and many discussions in the literature rely on concepts that are overly simplistic. Marine geological studies provide information on the initiation and flow path of turbidity currents, including their response to gradient. In case studies of late Quaternary turbidites on the eastern Canadian and western U.S. margins, initiation processes are inferred either from real-time data for historical flows or indirectly from the age and contemporary paleogeography, erosional features, and depositional record. Three major types of initiation process are recognized: transformation of failed sediment, hyperpycnal flow from rivers or ice margins, and resuspension of sediment near the shelf edge by oceanographic processes. Many high-concentration flows result from hyperpycnal supply of hyperconcentrated bedload, or liquefaction failure of coarse-grained sediment, and most tend to deposit in slope conduits and on gradients Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  16. Influência dos antígenos de histocompatibilidade humanos na susceptibilidade e expressão clínica de doenças psiquiátricas Influence of human histocompatibility antigens on susceptibility to and clinical expression of psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    2006-08-01

    the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders. Development of new molecular methods to typify HLA alleles and recent nomenclature updates have been contributing to a better understanding of this system. Unfortunately, this information has not been adequately disclosed in the medical literature. This article aims to review HLA structure, antigen function, detection methods, and current nomenclature, as well as to describe its association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Articles published between 1995 and 2005 (to reflect the most recent knowledge of the subject were searched in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. It is concluded that HLA antigens influence risk, clinical status, and therapeutic response of some mental disorders, even if they do not act alone on these pathologic processes. Although HLA has been associated with schizophrenia (HLA-DRB1*0101, autism (HLA-DR4, and bipolar disorder (HLA class I, these associations vary across different ethnicities and clinical manifestations. The best definition of genetic markers associated with mental disorders is important to understand possible pathogenic mechanisms, predict individual risk of developing these diseases, and contribute to future prophylactic or therapeutic interventions.

  17. Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb): a compendium of antigen-antibody interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Raskar-Renuse, Snehal; Natekar-Kalantre, Girija; Saxena, Smita A

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb) is an immunoinformatics resource developed at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune, and is available online at http://bioinfo.net.in/AgAbDb.htm. Antigen-antibody interactions are a special class of protein-protein interactions that are characterized by high affinity and strict specificity of antibodies towards their antigens. Several co-crystal structures of antigen-antibody complexes have been solved and are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). AgAbDb is a derived knowledgebase developed with an objective to compile, curate, and analyze determinants of interactions between the respective antigen-antibody molecules. AgAbDb lists not only the residues of binding sites of antigens and antibodies, but also interacting residue pairs. It also helps in the identification of interacting residues and buried residues that constitute antibody-binding sites of protein and peptide antigens. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction Finder (AAIF), a program developed in-house, is used to compile the molecular interactions, viz. van der Waals interactions, salt bridges, and hydrogen bonds. A module for curating water-mediated interactions has also been developed. In addition, various residue-level features, viz. accessible surface area, data on epitope segment, and secondary structural state of binding site residues, are also compiled. Apart from the PDB numbering, Wu-Kabat numbering and explicit definitions of complementarity-determining regions are provided for residues of antibodies. The molecular interactions can be visualized using the program Jmol. AgAbDb can be used as a benchmark dataset to validate algorithms for prediction of B-cell epitopes. It can as well be used to improve accuracy of existing algorithms and to design new algorithms. AgAbDb can also be used to design mimotopes representing antigens as well as aid in designing processes leading to humanization of antibodies. PMID:25048123

  18. Mathematical modeling process of liquid filtration taking into account reverse influence of process characteristics on medium characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Safonyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and solves the questions of accounting for reverse influence of process characteristics (the contamination concentration of liquid and sediment on medium characteristics (the coefficients of porosity, filtration, diffusion, mass-transfer and others by the example of liquid cleaning in magnetic and sorption filters. The algorithm of numerical-asymptotic approximation to the solution of the relevant model task which is described by the system of nonlinear singular perturbative differential equations of the type «convection-diffusion-mass-transfer». The proper correlations (formulas are effective for conducting theoretical researches which are aimed at the «productivity» (in particular, optimization of the parameters of filtration process (namely: time of protective action of load, sizes of filter, and others in cases of predominance of convection and sorption components of the proper process above diffusive and desorption components, that takes place in large majority of filtration installations. The computer experiment was conducted on this basis. These ones results show the advantages of the offered model in comparing to classic.

  19. Laser shock peening of Ti-17 titanium alloy: Influence of process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellard, C.; Retraint, D.; Francois, M. [University of Technology of Troyes (UTT), Charles Delaunay Institute, LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6279, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Rouhaud, E., E-mail: rouhaud@utt.fr [University of Technology of Troyes (UTT), Charles Delaunay Institute, LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6279, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Le Saunier, D. [SNECMA Evry - Corbeil, Route Henry Auguste Desbrueres, 91003 Evry (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser shock peening parameters studied through a design of experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser fluence, pulse duration, number of impacts and sample thickness are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed work hardening is low, the roughness is lightly affected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant part of hardness increase is due to compressive residual stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High tensile residual stresses can appear on thin laser shocked specimens. - Abstract: The influence of the process parameters of laser shock peening was investigated on specimens made of an aeronautic titanium alloy: Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Cr-4Mo (Ti-17). In order to quantify the effect of relevant process parameters, an experimental design was carried out. It is based on a full factorial design with four factors (laser fluence, pulse duration, number of impacts and thickness of the sample) and two levels for each factor. The process is characterised with the following variables: the depth of the impacts, the roughness of the treated surface, the hardening of the material (itself evaluated with the hardness and X-ray diffraction peak width), the residual stresses left in the sample and the global curvature of the sample. It is found that all the parameters have an influence on the residual stresses and that laser shock peening has no influence on roughness and low influence on work-hardening. The variables are then analysed in order to evaluate correlations. The increase in hardness is found to be essentially due to compressive residual stresses, cold work-hardening having only a small effect. In thin specimens, the stress redistribution due to self-equilibrium leads to tensile residual stresses at the treated surface and to large deformations of the specimens.

  20. Ageing process influence on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites applied in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The application of polymeric materials for medical purposes is growing very fast. Polymers have found applications in such diverse biomedical fields as tissue engineering, implantation of medical devices and artificial organs, prostheses, ophthalmology, dentistry, bone repair and many other medical fields. The requirements for materials used in the construction of removable dentures are becoming more and more demanding. The introduction of improved flexible materials has been a considerable advance. The aim of this work was to determine how the properties of thermoplastic materials change over time in terms of weight changes and artificial saliva sorption. Purpose of this paper was to evaluate the influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites applied in dentistry.Design/methodology/approach: Polyamide samples about the diversified content of the glass fibre were produced with method of the injection moulding. Denotation of the absorbency of artificial saliva was performed on standardized samples according to the norm. Samples were dried up to fixed mass, and then they were soaked in artificial saliva. Two temperatures of examination were applied 23°C and 30°C.Findings: An influence of the absorbability on mechanical properties of composites was determined. Examinations allowed to show that the absorbency of artificial saliva through composite is dependent on the temperature.Research limitations/implications: To fully evaluate the influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites applied in human body environment it is planned to continue described research. Simultaneous influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites shall be tested.Originality/value: Applying strengthened thermoplastics with glass fibre on dentures is a new look at materials applied in dentistry.

  1. Process factors influencing spinning deformation of thin-walled tubular part with longitudinal inner ribs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江树勇; 薛克敏; 宗影影; 喻林

    2004-01-01

    As a successively and locally plastic deformation process, ball backward spinning is applied for the purpose of producing thin-walled tubular parts with longitudinal inner ribs. By simplifying ball backward spinning as forward extrusion mechanics model, slab method is used in order to solve spinning force. Based on plastic mechanics, the influence of the process parameters involved on formability of inner ribs as well as the quality defects of spun parts is analyzed so as to present an approach to acquire the desired parts. The quality of inner ribs is one of the critical tasks in obtaining the desired spun workpieces and the height of inner rib depends greatly on spinning material,ball diameter, feed ratio, and wall thickness of tubular blank. The knowledge of the influence of process variables such as ball diameter, feed ratio, and wall thickness of tubular blank on the spinning process is essential to prevent the quality defects of the spun parts and obtain the desired spun parts.

  2. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus nucleic acid binding proteins BRO-B and BRO-E associate with host T-cell intracellular antigen 1 homologue BmTRN-1 to influence protein synthesis during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Eiji; Muto, Sayaka; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Mori, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    Previous reports have indicated that the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) nucleic acid binding proteins BRO-B and BRO-E are expressed during the early stage of infection and that the BRO family likely supports the regulation of mRNA; however, no study has directly examined the function of BRO family proteins in virus-permissive cells. Here, we show that BRO-B and BRO-E associate with cellular T-cell intracellular antigen 1 homologue (BmTRN-1), a translational regulator, and other cellular translation-related proteins in silkworm cells during viral infection. We created BM-N cells that expressed BRO-B/E to study molecular interactions between BmTRN-1 and BRO-B/E and how they influenced protein synthesis. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that BmTRN-1 was localized in cytoplasmic foci during BmNPV infection. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed that BmTRN-1 and BRO-B/E were colocalized in the amorphous conspicuous cytoplasmic foci. Reporter gene studies revealed that co-expression of BRO-B/E synergistically led to a significant decrease in protein synthesis from a designed transcript carrying the 5'untranslated region of a cellular mRNA with no significant change of transcript abundance. Additionally, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of BmTRN-1 resulted in a marked inhibition of the ability of BRO-B/E to regulate the transcript. These results suggested that the association of BmTRN-1 with BRO-B/E is responsible for the inhibitory regulation of certain mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level and add an additional mechanism for how baculoviruses control protein synthesis during infection.

  3. Murine antigen-induced arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; Joosten, L.A.B.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Antigen induced arthritis is a unilateral T-cell driven model caused by direct injection of an antigen into the knee joint of a FCA preimmunized animal. The chronicity is determined by antigen retention in avascular structures of the joint through charge mediated binding or antibody mediated trappin

  4. THE OF PROCESSES OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN CONTEXT OF THE FILM OF “THE WAVE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat YILDIZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, it is aimed to explain the basic concepts of social influence and to evaluate the processes of social influence of the related scenes of The Wave Film by being analyzed in context of these concepts. Initially brief information about experiments conducted by Sherif, Asch and Milgram in context of social influnce is given and the concepts related to this topic are explained. Then, the film is analyzed in the context of related concepts by summing up topic of the film. The film is based on real events and it can be said that its theme, fiction and scenes present epitome and good examples with regard to depictions and level of explaining of concepts related social influence. As a result, it is thought that the film of The Wave is appropriate and making contribution in that how man is influenced by others in various ways and how man transform in order to adapt enviroment himself by explaining with visual methods.

  5. Thermodynamic evolution of cosmological baryonic gas: I. Influence of non-equipartition processes

    CERN Document Server

    Courty, S

    2003-01-01

    Using N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, the influence of non-equipartition processes on the thermal and dynamical properties of cosmological baryonic gas is investigated. We focus on a possible departure from equilibrium between electrons, ions and neutral atoms in low temperature (10^4-10^6 K) and weakly ionized regions of the intergalactic medium. The simulations compute the energy exchanges between ions, neutrals and electrons, without assuming thermal equilibrium. They include gravitation, shock heating and cooling processes, and follow self-consistently the chemical evolution of a primordial composition hydrogen-helium plasma without assuming collisional ionization equilibrium. At high redshift, a significant fraction of the intergalactic medium is found to be warmer and weakly ionized in simulations with non-equipartition processes than in simulations in which the cosmological plasma is considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. With a semi-analytical study of the out of equilibrium regions we show t...

  6. Modeling of budgetary funding influence on socio-demographic processes of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vladimirovna Vasil'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of modeling socio-demographic processes in a region based on the minimax approach. In this method, the simulated socio-demographic processes reflect the performance of a population fertility age model, reproductive systems and the structure of mortality, as management impact tools of fiscal spending on socially significant budget items (health, physical culture and sport, social policy, education, environmental protection are considered. Testing methodology on the examples of the Russian Federation subjects included in the Ural Federal District is presented. Peculiarities of influence of funding of each socially important item on the social and demographic processes in the regions of the Ural Federal District are shown. Priorities of distribution of funds based on the level of budgetary provision in the region to ensure optimization of socio-demographic development of the region are shaped.

  7. Numerical analysis of tunnel reinforcing influences on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; TANG Chun-an; ZHU Wan-cheng; LI Di-yuan; LI Shu-cai

    2008-01-01

    Based on mesoscopic damage mechanics, numerical code RFPA2D (dynamic edition) was developed to analyze the influence of tunnel reinforcing on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves. The results show that the propagation phenomenon of stress wave in the surrounding rock of tunnel and the failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves are reproduced realistically by using numerical code RFPAED; from the failure process of surrounding rock,the place at which surrounding rock fractures is transferred because of tunnel reinforcing, and the rockfall and collapse caused by failure of surrounding rock are restrained by tunnel reinforcing; furthermore, the absolute values of peak values of major principal stress, and the minimal principal stress and shear stress at center point of tunnel roof are reduced because of tunnel reinforcing, and the displacement at center point of tunnel roof is reduced as well, consequently the stability of tunnel increases.

  8. Continuous melt granulation: Influence of process and formulation parameters upon granule and tablet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Tinne; Vancoillie, Jochem; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has a growing interest in alternative manufacturing models allowing automation and continuous production in order to improve process efficiency and reduce costs. Implementing a switch from batch to continuous processing requires fundamental process understanding and the implementation of quality-by-design (QbD) principles. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between formulation-parameters (type binder, binder concentration, drug-binder miscibility), process-parameters (screw speed, powder feed rate and granulation temperature), granule properties (size, size distribution, shape, friability, true density, flowability) and tablet properties (tensile strength, friability, dissolution rate) of four different drug-binder formulations using Design of experiments (DOE). Two binders (polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Soluplus®) with a different solid state, semi-crystalline vs amorphous respectively, were combined with two model-drugs, metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and caffeine anhydrous (CAF), both having a contrasting miscibility with the binders. This research revealed that the granule properties of miscible drug-binder systems depended on the powder feed rate and barrel filling degree of the granulator whereas the granule properties of immiscible systems were mainly influenced by binder concentration. Using an amorphous binder, the tablet tensile strength depended on the granule size. In contrast, granule friability was more important for tablet quality using a brittle binder. However, this was not the case for caffeine-containing blends, since these phenomena were dominated by the enhanced compression properties of caffeine Form I, which was formed during granulation. Hence, it is important to gain knowledge about formulation behavior during processing since this influences the effect of process parameters onto the granule and tablet properties. PMID:27449628

  9. Continuous melt granulation: Influence of process and formulation parameters upon granule and tablet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Tinne; Vancoillie, Jochem; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has a growing interest in alternative manufacturing models allowing automation and continuous production in order to improve process efficiency and reduce costs. Implementing a switch from batch to continuous processing requires fundamental process understanding and the implementation of quality-by-design (QbD) principles. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between formulation-parameters (type binder, binder concentration, drug-binder miscibility), process-parameters (screw speed, powder feed rate and granulation temperature), granule properties (size, size distribution, shape, friability, true density, flowability) and tablet properties (tensile strength, friability, dissolution rate) of four different drug-binder formulations using Design of experiments (DOE). Two binders (polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Soluplus®) with a different solid state, semi-crystalline vs amorphous respectively, were combined with two model-drugs, metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and caffeine anhydrous (CAF), both having a contrasting miscibility with the binders. This research revealed that the granule properties of miscible drug-binder systems depended on the powder feed rate and barrel filling degree of the granulator whereas the granule properties of immiscible systems were mainly influenced by binder concentration. Using an amorphous binder, the tablet tensile strength depended on the granule size. In contrast, granule friability was more important for tablet quality using a brittle binder. However, this was not the case for caffeine-containing blends, since these phenomena were dominated by the enhanced compression properties of caffeine Form I, which was formed during granulation. Hence, it is important to gain knowledge about formulation behavior during processing since this influences the effect of process parameters onto the granule and tablet properties.

  10. The influence of dispositional mindfulness on safety behaviors: a dual process perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Changxu

    2014-09-01

    Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators' safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators' selection and training program to improve organizational safety.

  11. Influence of Processing Parameters on Grain Size Evolution of a Forged Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, L. A.; Páramo, P.; Salas Zamarripa, A.; de la Garza, M.; Guerrero-Mata, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of nickel-based superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. Microstructure modification and the effect of process variables such as forging temperature, die-speed, and tool heating were evaluated after hot die forging of a heat-resistant nickel-based alloy. Forging sequences in a temperature range from 1253 to 1323 K were considered through experimental trials. An Avrami model was applied using finite element data to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization at different evolution zones. It was observed that sequential forging at final temperatures below 1273 K provided greater grain refinement through time-dependent recrystallization phenomena. This investigation was aim to explore the influence of forging parameters on grain size evolution in order to design a fully homogenous and refined microstructure after hot die forging.

  12. Virtually simulated social pressure influences early visual processing more in low compared to high autonomous participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Sina Alexa; Herrmann, Christoph Siegfried

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study, we showed that virtually simulated social group pressure could influence early stages of perception after only 100  ms. In the present EEG study, we investigated the influence of social pressure on visual perception in participants with high (HA) and low (LA) levels of autonomy. Ten HA and ten LA individuals were asked to accomplish a visual discrimination task in an adapted paradigm of Solomon Asch. Results indicate that LA participants adapted to the incorrect group opinion more often than HA participants (42% vs. 30% of the trials, respectively). LA participants showed a larger posterior P1 component contralateral to targets presented in the right visual field when conforming to the correct compared to conforming to the incorrect group decision. In conclusion, our ERP data suggest that the group context can have early effects on our perception rather than on conscious decision processes in LA, but not HA participants.

  13. Class II HLA antigens in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D H; Hornabrook, R W; Dagger, J; Fong, R

    1989-01-01

    HLA typing in Wellington revealed a stronger association of multiple sclerosis with DR2 than with DQw1. The association with DQw1 appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium of this antigen with DR2. These results, when considered in conjunction with other studies, are most easily explained by the hypothesis that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is influenced by multiple risk factors, with DR2 being an important risk factor in Caucasoid populations. PMID:2732726

  14. The influence of valence and decision difficulty on self-referential processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harma eMeffert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-referential processing is defined as the process by which a person becomes aware that specific contents are related to his or her own self. Cortical midline structures, such as dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex, and regions such as inferior frontal cortex, insula and temporal pole have been implicated in self-referential processing. However, the specific contribution of each of these areas is still largely unknown. More particularly, not many studies have examined the influence of valence and decision making difficulty on regions involved in self-referential processing. In this study, participants evaluated how well personality traits, differing in valence and decision difficulty, described themselves or president Obama. In line with predictions, ventral, rostral and dorsal parts of medial prefrontal cortex showed greater activity when participants judged traits about themselves relative to judging traits about President Obama. However, none of these regions showed significant modulation by trait valence. Increasing trait decision difficulty was associated with increased activity within dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral anterior insula. However, there was very minimal overlap (6/119 voxels, i.e. 5% of the regions of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex implicated in self-referential processing and those implicated in trait decision difficulty. The results are interpreted within current accounts of self-referential processing.

  15. Influence of processing on the allergenic properties of pistachio nut assessed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Maleki, Soheila J; Nasiraii, Leila Roozbeh; Falak, Reza; Sima, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2010-09-22

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinctions between different cultivars of pistachio nut and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio protein extracts. The influence of different processes on allergenicity was investigated using competitive inhibition ELISA and Western blotting assays. The Western blotting results of extracts from pistachio cultivars showed no marked difference among them. The IgE-binding capacity was significantly lower for the protein extract prepared from steam-roasted than from raw and dry-roasted pistachio nuts. The results of sensory evaluation analysis and hedonic rating proved no significant differences in color, taste, flavor, and overall quality of raw, roasted, and steam-roasted pistachio nut treatments. The most significant finding of the present study was the successful reduction of IgE-binding by pistachio extracts using steam-roast processing without any significant changes in sensory quality of product.

  16. Influence of precursor a-Si:H dehydrogenation on the aluminum induced crystallization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Weiyuan, E-mail: weiyuan.duan0924@mail.sim.ac.cn [New Energy Technology Center, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 235 Chengbei Road, Jiading, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Qiu, Yu, E-mail: yuqiu@mail.sim.ac.cn [New Energy Technology Center, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 235 Chengbei Road, Jiading, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Liping; Yu, Jian; Bian, Jiantao; Liu, Zhengxin [New Energy Technology Center, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 235 Chengbei Road, Jiading, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film grown on low cost substrates such as glass at low temperature is an attractive material for cost-effective solar cells. This work studied the influence of dehydrogenation of a-Si:H precursor on the crystallization behavior by aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) process below the eutectic temperature of 577 °C. The a-Si:H films were deposited by PECVD and aluminum was evaporated in a vacuum evaporation equipment, respectively. Some of the a-Si:H thin films were dehydrogenated in nitrogen atmosphere before aluminum evaporation. It was found that hydrogen content in a-Si:H drops to a stable value after annealing at 480 °C for 1 h. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements were used to investigate the structural characteristics of the a-Si:H and the prepared poly-Si thin films. Our results show that although the dehydrogenation increases AIC temperature and reduces AIC rate, it can improve microstructural quality of poly-Si thin films, leading to less tensile stress, higher crystallinity, smoother and more conformal surface morphology. - Highlights: • The influence of a-Si:H precursor dehydrogenation on AIC process was studied. • Dehydrogenation can improve microstructural quality of poly-Si thin films. • Smoother surface morphology can be observed on dehydrogenation samples after AIC. • The dehydrogenation process is necessary for fabricating high quality solar cells.

  17. Influence of processing on the allergenic properties of pistachio nut assessed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Maleki, Soheila J; Nasiraii, Leila Roozbeh; Falak, Reza; Sima, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2010-09-22

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinctions between different cultivars of pistachio nut and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio protein extracts. The influence of different processes on allergenicity was investigated using competitive inhibition ELISA and Western blotting assays. The Western blotting results of extracts from pistachio cultivars showed no marked difference among them. The IgE-binding capacity was significantly lower for the protein extract prepared from steam-roasted than from raw and dry-roasted pistachio nuts. The results of sensory evaluation analysis and hedonic rating proved no significant differences in color, taste, flavor, and overall quality of raw, roasted, and steam-roasted pistachio nut treatments. The most significant finding of the present study was the successful reduction of IgE-binding by pistachio extracts using steam-roast processing without any significant changes in sensory quality of product. PMID:20735130

  18. Immaturities in reward processing and its influence on inhibitory control in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, C F; Terwilliger, R; Teslovich, T; Velanova, K; Luna, B

    2010-07-01

    The nature of immature reward processing and the influence of rewards on basic elements of cognitive control during adolescence are currently not well understood. Here, during functional magnetic resonance imaging, healthy adolescents and adults performed a modified antisaccade task in which trial-by-trial reward contingencies were manipulated. The use of a novel fast, event-related design enabled developmental differences in brain function underlying temporally distinct stages of reward processing and response inhibition to be assessed. Reward trials compared with neutral trials resulted in faster correct inhibitory responses across ages and in fewer inhibitory errors in adolescents. During reward trials, the blood oxygen level-dependent signal was attenuated in the ventral striatum in adolescents during cue assessment, then overactive during response preparation, suggesting limitations during adolescence in reward assessment and heightened reactivity in anticipation of reward compared with adults. Importantly, heightened activity in the frontal cortex along the precentral sulcus was also observed in adolescents during reward-trial response preparation, suggesting reward modulation of oculomotor control regions supporting correct inhibitory responding. Collectively, this work characterizes specific immaturities in adolescent brain systems that support reward processing and describes the influence of reward on inhibitory control. In sum, our findings suggest mechanisms that may underlie adolescents' vulnerability to poor decision-making and risk-taking behavior. PMID:19875675

  19. Grasping the sound: Auditory pitch influences size processing in motor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Luca; Lega, Carlotta; Cattaneo, Zaira; Girelli, Luisa; Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that individuals consistently match auditory pitch with visual size. For instance, high-pitched sounds are perceptually associated with smaller visual stimuli, whereas low-pitched sounds with larger ones. The present study explores whether this crossmodal correspondence, reported so far for perceptual processing, also modulates motor planning. To address this issue, we carried out a series of kinematic experiments to verify whether actions implying size processing are affected by auditory pitch. Experiment 1 showed that grasping movements toward small/large objects were initiated faster in response to high/low pitches, respectively, thus extending previous findings in the literature to more complex motor behavior. Importantly, auditory pitch influenced the relative scaling of the hand preshaping, with high pitches associated with smaller grip aperture compared with low pitches. Notably, no effect of auditory pitch was found in case of pointing movements (no grasp implied, Experiment 2), as well as when auditory pitch was irrelevant to the programming of the grip aperture, that is, in case of grasping an object of uniform size (Experiment 3). Finally, auditory pitch influenced also symbolic manual gestures expressing "small" and "large" concepts (Experiment 4). In sum, our results are novel in revealing the impact of auditory pitch on motor planning when size processing is required, and shed light on the role of auditory information in driving actions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280267

  20. DETERMINING THE INFLUENCE OF LAYER THICKNESS FOR RAPID PROTOTYPING WITH STEREOLITHOGRAPHY (SLA PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju.B.S,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Stereolithography is a Rapid prototyping technique, which allows direct transformation of CAD files into epoxy resin parts for building the physical models, these are built from photo-curable thermosetting resins. Part quality in the Stereolithography process is a function of the build parameters such as hatch cure depth, layer thickness, orientation and hatch file. This paper attempts to identify and study the various process parameters governing thestereolithography system, specifically the influence of layer thickness related to the part characteristics. The part characteristics can be divided into part physical characteristics and mechanical characteristics. The part physical characteristics are surface finish, dimensional accuracy and distortion where as mechanical characteristics are flexural property, ultimate tensile strength and impact strength. Thus paper proposes to study the influence of the layer thickness (build parameters over the part quality. The study is conducted on the test samples of SL 5530, which were built on SLA5000 machine, under different sets of process parameters and tested under ASTM specified test conditions. The results have been analyzed to achieve an optimal layer at which the mechanical properties are high with minimum dimensional instability, which is found to be 100 micron layer thickness. To obtain an optimallayer thickness for the SLA parts is the end result of the paper.

  1. Bm-CPI-2, a cystatin from Brugia malayi nematode parasites, differs from Caenorhabditis elegans cystatins in a specific site mediating inhibition of the antigen-processing enzyme AEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Janice; Manoury, Bénédicte; Balic, Adam; Watts, Colin; Maizels, Rick M

    2005-02-01

    The filarial parasite Brugia malayi survives for many years in the human lymphatic system. One immune evasion mechanism employed by Brugia is thought to be the release of cysteine protease inhibitors (cystatins), and we have previously shown that the recombinant cystatin Bm-CPI-2 interferes with protease-dependent antigen processing in the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway. Analogy with vertebrate cystatins suggested that Bm-CPI-2 is bi-functional, with one face of the protein blocking papain-like proteases, and the other able to inhibit legumains such as asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP). Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out on Bm-CPI-2 at Asn-77, the residue on which AEP inhibition is dependent in vertebrate homologues. Two mutations at this site (to Asp and Lys) showed 10-fold diminished and ablated activity respectively, in assays of AEP inhibition, while blocking of papain-like proteases was reduced by only a small degree. Comparison of the B. malayi cystatins with two homologues encoded by the free-living model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, suggested that while the papain site may be intact, the AEP site would not be functional. This supposition was tested with recombinant C. elegans proteins, Ce-CPI-1 (K08B4.6) and Ce-CPI-2 (R01B10.1), both of which block cathepsins and neither of which possess the ability to block AEP. Thus, Brugia CPI-2 may have convergently evolved to inhibit an enzyme important only in the mammalian environment.

  2. The Influence of Tropospheric Processes in Modeling the Middle Atmosphere with Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    Our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and has a vertical grid point resolution of about 0.5 km to resolve the interactions of gravity waves (GWs) described with Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP). This model produces in the stratosphere and mesosphere the major features of QBO, SAO, tides, and planetary waves. The purpose of this paper is to discuss results from an initial study with our 3D model that shows how certain tropospheric processes can affect the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Under the influence of tropospheric heating, and augmented by GW interactions, two distinct but related processes can be identified. (1) A meridional circulation develops in the stratosphere, with rising motions at low latitudes that are in magnitude comparable to the downward propagation of the QBO. As Dunkerton pointed out, a larger GW source is then required to reproduce the observed QBO, which tends to move us closer to the values recommended for the DSP. This has significant consequences for our model results that describe the upper mesosphere, considering the general importance of GWs for this region and in influencing planetary waves (e.g., 2-day wave) and tides in particular. (2) Tropospheric heating produces zonal jets near the tropopause that are related to latitudinal variations in pressure and reversing temperature variations (resembling the dynamical conditions near the mesopause), which in turn is conducive to generate baroclinic instability. Modeling results show that our ability to generate the QBO critically depends on the magnitude of the temperature reversal that is a measure of this instability. Planetary waves are generated in this process, which can apparently interfere with or augment the GW interactions. As originally demonstrated by Lindzen and Holton, the eastward propagating Kelvin waves and westward propagating Rossby gravity waves (generated by tropospheric convection) can in principle provide

  3. Process optimization in high-average-power ultrashort pulse laser microfabrication: how laser process parameters influence efficiency, throughput and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Loeschner, Udo

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, laser processing of technical grade stainless steel and copper using high-average-power ultrashort pulse lasers is studied in order to gain deeper insight into material removal for microfabrication. A high-pulse repetition frequency picosecond and femtosecond laser is used in conjunction with high-performance galvanometer scanners and an in-house developed two-axis polygon scanner system. By varying the processing parameters such as wavelength, pulse length, fluence and repetition rate, cavities of standardized geometry are fabricated and analyzed. From the depths of the cavities produced, the ablation rate and removal efficiency are estimated. In addition, the quality of the cavities is evaluated by means of scanning electron microscope micrographs or rather surface roughness measurements. From the results obtained, the influence of the machining parameters on material removal and machining quality is discussed. In addition, it is shown that both material removal rate and quality increase by using femtosecond compared to picosecond laser pulses. On stainless steel, a maximum throughput of 6.81 mm3/min is achieved with 32 W femtosecond laser powers; if using 187 W picosecond laser powers, the maximum is 15.04 mm3/min, respectively. On copper, the maximum throughputs are 6.1 mm3/min and 21.4 mm3/min, obtained with 32 W femtosecond and 187 W picosecond laser powers. The findings indicate that ultrashort pulses in the mid-fluence regime yield most efficient material removal. In conclusion, from the results of this analysis, a range of optimum processing parameters are derived feasible to enhance machining efficiency, throughput and quality in high-rate micromachining. The work carried out here clearly opens the way to significant industrial applications.

  4. Immune complexes that contain HIV antigens activate peripheral blood T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolevskaya, L B; Shmagel, K V; Saidakova, E V; Shmagel, N G; Chereshnev, V A

    2016-07-01

    Uninfected donor T cells were treated in vitro by model immune complexes that contained either HIV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens. Unlike HCV antigen-containing complexes, the immune complexes that contained HIV antigens have been shown to activate peripheral blood T cells of uninfected donors under in vitro conditions. Both the antiviral antibodies and HIV antigen were involved in the activation process. The unique properties of the immune complexes formed by HIV antigens and antiviral antibodies are believed to result from the virus-specific antibody properties and molecular conformation of the antigen-antibody complex. PMID:27595830

  5. Influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt impurities on the cathodic process in zinc electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By means of an electrochemical study,the influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt on cathodic polarization in the zinc electrowinning process,the associated kinetic equations and parameters,and the polarization mechanism have been studied.The results show that the experimental values of the kinetic parameters are in accord with the theoretical values in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution with a single impurity is added.In contrast,the charge transfer coefficient α is smaller than the theoretical value in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution when the three impurities are added together.

  6. Influences of different types of magnetic fields on HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU; Bifen; MA; Xiaolin; GUO; Kaihua; LI; Jianhong

    2004-01-01

    In this study, visualizations and experiments are carried out on the influence of static and rotating magnetic fields on the characteristics of HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation, such as crystallization form, formation temperature and induction time. It has been found that a proper rotating magnetic field can considerably improve the low-pressure gas hydrate formation process,especially in increasing the formation temperature and shortening the induction time. The morphology of the gas hydrate formation appears rather complex and compact. However, a proper static magnetic field can make the gas hydrate crystal more organized, which will be benefit to heat transfer.

  7. Influence of physical and chemical factors on biological leaching process of copper from printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Willner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research regarding the biological leaching of this metal from electronic wastes components in the form of printed circuit boards. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of some physical and chemical factors (e.g. pH, oxidation-reduction potential on bioleaching process and efficiency of copper transfer from solid phase into solution. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The obtained results were discussed.

  8. Influence of cast surface finishing process on metal-ceramic bond strength

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Vojvodić,; Zdravko Schauperl,; Martina Lauš-Šošić,; Ketij Mehulić,; Sanja Štefančić

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the influence of different cast surface finishingprocess on metal-ceramics bond strength.Methods Six Co-Cr alloy sample groups were cast (Wirobond C,BEGO, Bremen, Germany) and randomly selected for use in oneof the six different final processing of the casting surface (oxidation,sandblasting with 110 and 250 µm Al2O3, bonding agent,hydrochloric acid solution) prior to application of feldspathic ceramic(Duceram Kiss, DeguDent, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany).The testing was carried...

  9. Cereal Processing Influences Postprandial Glucose Metabolism as Well as the GI Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoy, Sophie; Normand, Sylvie; Meynier, Alexandra; Sothier, Monique; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Brand-Miller, Jeannie; Laville, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Technological processes may influence the release of glucose in starch. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response and the kinetics of appearance of exogenous glucose from 2 cereal products consumed at breakfast. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men were submitted to a randomized, open, crossover study that was divided into 2 parts: 12 of the 25 subjects were included in the “isotope part,” and the 13 other subjects were included in the “glycemic part.” On test days, s...

  10. Influence of Process Parameters on Forming of Arched Aircraft Skin with Aluminum Alloy 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huajun; Zhang, Shuangjie; Gao, Ying

    To solve these problems such as easily springback and hardly controlling the loading direction when arched aircraft skin is formed, stretch forming of steel plate with aluminium alloy 2024 was simulated by the finite element software Abaqus, and the shape of the stretch forming die was the arc with radius 350mm. The influence of process parameters, such as stretch forming track and dangling length on forming of arched aircraft skin was researched, and the reasonable range of stretch forming length track and dangling length was given. The results have significance for research the forming law of arched aircraft skin.

  11. Expression, purification, and molecular analysis of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1): a production process developed for a lead candidate recombinant hookworm vaccine antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Gaddam Narsa; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Tsao, Eric I; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1) belongs to a unique Nu class of GSTs and is a lead candidate antigen in a bivalent human hookworm vaccine. Here we describe the expression of Na-GST-1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris at the 20 L manufacturing scale and its purification process performed by three chromatographic steps, comprised of a Q Sepharose XL anion exchange column, followed by a Butyl Sepharose HP hydrophobic affinity column and a Superdex 75 size-exclusion column. Approximately 1.5 g of recombinant protein was recovered at an overall process yield of 51%, with a purity grade of 98% and the absence of detectable host cell protein. By mass spectrometry the recombinant protein exhibits a mass of 23,676Da, which closely matches the predicted molecular mass of the protein. The expression and purification methods described here are suitable for further scale-up product development and for its use to design formulation processes suitable to generate a vaccine for clinical testing. PMID:22503665

  12. Carbohydrate-functionalized nanovaccines preserve HIV-1 antigen stability and activate antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Ramirez, J E; Roychoudhury, R; Habte, H H; Cho, M W; Pohl, N L B; Narasimhan, B

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with ligands that target specific receptors on immune cells offers the opportunity to tailor adjuvant properties by conferring pathogen mimicking attributes to the particles. Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine adjuvants with desirable characteristics such as immunomodulation, sustained antigen release, activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stabilization of protein antigens. These capabilities can be exploited to design nanovaccines against viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, due to the important role of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in viral spread. In this work, an optimized process was developed for carbohydrate functionalization of HIV-1 antigen-loaded polyanhydride nanoparticles. The carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles preserved antigenic properties upon release and also enabled sustained antigen release kinetics. Particle internalization was observed to be chemistry-dependent with positively charged nanoparticles being taken up more efficiently by DCs. Up-regulation of the activation makers CD40 and CD206 was demonstrated with carboxymethyl-α-d-mannopyranosyl-(1,2)-d-mannopyranoside functionalized nanoparticles. The secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was shown to be chemistry-dependent upon stimulation with carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles. These results offer important new insights upon the interactions between carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles and APCs and provide foundational information for the rational design of targeted nanovaccines against HIV-1. PMID:25068589

  13. The influence of milling-burnishing successive and simultaneous processes on the surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraş, C. C.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    The present techniques do not offer the possibility for milling and burnishing at the same time. The novelty of this study is the development of a new tool and tool holder that allows this processes to take place simultaneous. Magnesium alloys have a wide range of usages in industry; in the past years they seem to be a promising solution to classic implants. Improvements in fatigue and tensile strength need to be made. Heat treatments are difficult to implement, so the solution is a mechanical treatment. The burnishing process offers very good results, but it has difficulties in simultaneous machining with the milling process. Thereby a hydraulic roller burnishing tool and a special tool holder was manufactured to solve this issue. The combined process was carried out on a CNC milling machine. This study seeks to highlight the influence of the milling-burnishing process parameter on the surface roughness in the case of magnesium alloy AZ31B-F. Parameters like speed and feed of cut, burnishing pressure and depth where taken into consideration. It was noted that with the increase of the feed, speed, pressure and depth of burnishing the general percentage improvement of the surface roughness was higher.

  14. The influence of nanoadditives on the tribological properties of process fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, T.; Svobodová, L.; Borůvková, K.; Louda, P.; Voleský, L.

    2016-04-01

    Tribology deals with interaction of surfaces in relative motion depending on their design, friction, wear and lubrication. The proper use of process fluids or lubricants can bring a significant reduction in friction and the amount of wear, thereby leading to a reduction in power consumption. During different technological operations contamination of used process fluids or lubricants occurs. Such contamination leads not only to a reduction of the lifetime of the lubricants but it can also change the functional properties and increase the health risks for operators. The quality of the process fluid is among other things influenced by bacterial attacks. The use of nanoadditives is one method for inhibiting the bacteria and improving the bioavailability and stability of the technological fluids. Nanolubricant is a new system composed of nanometer-sized particles dispersed in a base lubricant. The doping of lubricants with nanoparticles is one of the ways to solve problems with the removal of bacteria, whereby improving the biological, chemical and technological stability of process fluids. In the article, we monitor the effects of doping process fluids with nanoparticles of silica (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) on the friction coefficient and on the wear of friction pairs of Si3N4 balls against steel 16MnCr5, EN 10084-94.

  15. Nuclear masses near $N=82$ that influence $r$-process abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, M; Beard, M; Fang, D -L; Aprahamian, A

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear masses are one of the key ingredients of nuclear physics that go into astrophysical simulations of the $r$ process. Nuclear masses effect $r$-process abundances by entering into calculations of Q-values, neutron capture rates, photo-dissociation rates, beta-decay rates, branching ratios and the properties of fission. Most of the thousands of short-lived neutron-rich nuclei which are believed to participate in the $r$ process lack any experimental verification, thus the identification of the most influential nuclei is of paramount importance. We have conducted mass sensitivity studies near the $N=82$ closed shell in the context of a main $r$-process. Our studies take into account how an uncertainty in a single nuclear mass propagates to influence the relevant quantities of neighboring nuclei and finally to $r$-process abundances. We identify influential nuclei in various astrophysical conditions using the FRDM mass model. We show that our conclusions regarding these key nuclei are still retained when a...

  16. Influence of the Constitutive Flow Law in FEM Simulation of the Radial Forging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Pantalé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial forging is a widely used forming process for manufacturing hollow products in transport industry. As the deformation of the workpiece, during the process, is a consequence of a large number of high-speed strokes, the Johnson-Cook constitutive law (taking into account the strain rate seems to be well adapted for representing the material behavior even if the process is performed under cold conditions. But numerous contributions concerning radial forging analysis, in the literature, are based on a simple elastic-plastic formulation. As far as we know, this assumption has yet not been validated for the radial forging process. Because of the importance of the flow law in the effectiveness of the model, our purpose in this paper is to analyze the influence of the use of an elastic-viscoplastic formulation instead of an elastic-plastic one for modeling the cold radial forging process. In this paper we have selected two different laws for the simulations: the Johnson-Cook and the Ludwik ones, and we have compared the results in terms of forging force, product's thickness, strains, stresses, and CPU time. For the presented study we use an AISI 4140 steel, and we denote a fairly good agreement between the results obtained using both laws.

  17. Influence of Design Margin on Operation Optimization and Control Performance of Chemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锋; 蒋慧蓉; 王锐; 罗雄麟

    2014-01-01

    Operation optimization is an effective method to explore potential economic benefits for existing plants. The maximum potential benefit from operation optimization is determined by the distances between current operat-ing point and process constraints, which is related to the margins of design variables. Because of various distur-bances in chemical processes, some distances must be reserved for fluctuations of process variables and the opti-mum operating point is not on some process constraints. Thus the benefit of steady-state optimization can not be fully achieved while that of dynamic optimization can be really achieved. In this study, the steady-state optimization and dynamic optimization are used, and the potential benefit is divided into achievable benefit for profit and un-achievable benefit for control. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is used for case study. With the analysis on how the margins of design variables influence the economic benefit and control performance, the bottlenecks of process design are found and appropriate control structure can be selected.

  18. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  19. Short term preservation of hide using vacuum: influence on properties of hide and of processed leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudro, Ilze; Valeika, Virgilijus; Sirvaitytė, Justa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate vacuum influence on hide preservation time and how it affects hide structure. It was established that vacuum prolongs the storage time without hide tissue putrefaction up to 21 days when the storage temperature is 4°C. The microorganisms act for all storage times, but the action is weak and has no observable influence on the quality of hide during the time period mentioned. The hide shrinkage temperature decrease is negligible, which shows that breaking of intermolecular bonds does not occur. Optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry also did not show any structural changes which can influence the quality of leather produced from such hide. The qualitative indexes of wet blue processed under laboratory conditions and of leather produced during industrial trials are presented. Indexes such as chromium compounds exhaustion, content of chromium in leather, content of soluble matter in dichloromethane, strength properties, and shrinkage temperature were determined. Properties of the leather produced from vacuumed hide under industrial conditions conformed to the requirements of shoe upper leather.

  20. Methodology on Investigating the Influences of Automated Material Handling System in Automotive Assembly Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Seha; Azni Jafar, Fairul; Jamaludin, Zamberi

    2016-02-01

    A case study was selected as a method to collect data in actual industry situation. The study aimed to assess the influences of automated material handling system in automotive industry by proposing a new design of integration system through simulation, and analyze the significant effect and influence of the system. The method approach tool will be CAD Software (Delmia & Quest). The process of preliminary data gathering in phase 1 will collect all data related from actual industry situation. It is expected to produce a guideline and limitation in designing a new integration system later. In phase 2, an idea or concept of design will be done by using 10 principles of design consideration for manufacturing. A full factorial design will be used as design of experiment in order to analyze the performance measured of the integration system with the current system in case study. From the result of the experiment, an ANOVA analysis will be done to study the performance measured. Thus, it is expected that influences can be seen from the improvement made in the system.

  1. Cascading processes and interactions in torrent catchments and their influence on the damage pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth; Gebbers, David

    2014-05-01

    Research on single geomorphological processes during damaging events has a long history; however, comprehensive documentations and analyses of the events have been conducted not until the late 1980s. Thus, for highly damaging events insights about triggering, the evolution and the impacts of processes during an event and the resulting damage were produced. Though, in the majority of cases the processes were studied in a well-defined procedure of one disciplinary focus. These focused studies neglect mutable influences which may alter the sequence of the process or the event. During damaging events multiple geomorphological processes are active which leads to the assumption that they have a certain impact on each other and the course of damaging effect. Consequently, for a comprehensive hazard and risk analysis all processes of a catchment have to be analysed and evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively (MARZOCCHI, 2007). Although the demand for a sophisticated risk management is increasing, the research on interactions as well as on physical vulnerability to multiple hazards, including the different processes impact effects, is still very limited (KAPPES et al., 2010, 2011). The challenges in this field are the quantity of data needed, and furthermore to conduct this kind of analysis is very complex and complicated (KAPPES et al. 2012). Yet, knowledge about possible interactions and resulting impact effects could significantly contribute to the reduction of risk in a region. The objective of this study is to analyse, i) how geomorphological processes interact with each other and with other factors of the surrounding during a damaging event, ii) what influences those interactions have on the resulting damage of the event and iii) whether or not different events are comparable in terms of those interactions and their impacts. To meet these objectives, 15 damaging torrent events, which occurred between 2000 and 2011 in the Bernese Oberland and the Pennine Alps

  2. Influence of Color Noise on Processing of Optical Signals by Swarm Intellect Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimullin, D. Z.; Sibgatullin, M. E.; Kamalova, D. I.; Salakhov, M. Kh.

    2015-09-01

    An approach based on stochastic particle swarm optimization was applied for the mathematical processing of spectral profiles with noise. To test the algorithm's stability with respect to noise, we used the noises with different values of the Hurst index which characterizes noise component from the point of view of prevalence of low-frequency or high-frequency component in it. The Hurst index varied from 0.1 to 0.9. An influence of color noise with level from 1 to 10% on processing of optical signals by particle swarm optimization algorithm was analyzed. This method is shown to be stable with respect to noise with the level of 10% if it's the Hurst index does not exceed the value of 0.5.

  3. Influence of processing parameters on the structure and properties of barium strontium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium strontium titanate (BST) with the molar formula (Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3) has been prepared by two different processing methods: mixed-oxide (BST-MO) and reaction-sintering (BST-RS). X-ray powder diffraction study shows differences in grain size and crystal symmetry for both these ceramics. The former shows a tetragonal symmetry while the latter presents a cubic symmetry. The occurrence of polar micro-regions associated with the higher chemical non-homogeneous distribution of ion defects from the influence of the processing parameters is the main reason for the higher peak dielectric constant (Km), the higher remanent polarization (Pr), the higher coercive field (Ec), the higher peak current density (Jm), and the lower temperature of peak dielectric constant (Tm) in BST-MO ceramics

  4. Influence of process parameters on thermal-rate treatment of ZA42 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成栋; 田学雷; 赵梅; 耿浩然

    2002-01-01

    Sand casting process and directional solidification technique combining thermal-rate treatment(TRT) were used. The influence of process parameters on TRT was investigated according to the values of impact toughness. At the same time, the mechanism of TRT was discussed. The results showed that TRT can improve the impact toughness of this alloy, while the hardness is basically constant. The time of heat preservation should not be more than 5min. Different forms of cooling intensification additive have different effects among which the zinc ingot solidified in graphite mold is the best one that can improve impact toughness of samples by more than 80%. With increasing the cooling temperature, the value of α(Al) crystal lattice constant increases. The element Sb has negative effect on TRT.

  5. Influence of concentration of zinc ions on electrocrystallization process of zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the influence of Zn2+ ion concentration in electrolyte solutions on zinc electroplating process. The results show that, at high overpotentials, the nucleation of zinc is instantaneous, and nuclear density increases with the overpotentials increasing. While at low overpotentials, the zinc may be preferentially electrodeposited on surface inhomogeneities such as emergence points of edge, screw dislocations, atomic disorder, kink sites, or monoatomic steps, and no distinguished nucleation current can be observed. The major dissolution peak in cyclic voltammogram drifts positively due to the change of the rate-determining step of zinc electroplating processes from diffusion to the electrochemical reaction with the increase of Zn2+ ion concentration.

  6. The influence of processing on microstructure and properties of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.N.; Wright, J.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01

    An Fe-28%Al alloy containing 5% Cr has been synthesized by reaction of elemental powders, followed by consolidation using hot isostatic pressing or hot extrusion. The resulting materials are fully dense, homogeneous, and have a grain size of less than 5{mu}m. Processing strongly influences the propensity toward secondary recrystallization. While HIPped material is extremely resistant to grain growth, under some circumstances hot extruded material undergoes secondary recrystallization, resulting in grain sizes as large as 25 millimeters. Elevated temperature tensile properties and strain rate sensitivities are reported for fine and very coarse grained materials. Grain boundary sliding is not a significant deformation mode for any of the materials. The properties are compared to those of Fe{sub 3}Al processed from conventional hot extruded prealloyed. powder. It has been found that the reaction synthesized materials generally have superior elevated temperature tensile strength.

  7. Influence of subsolvus thermomechanical processing on the low-cycle fatigue properties of haynes 230 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Fitzpatrick, Michael D.; Klarstrom, Dwaine

    1995-03-01

    Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue tests have been conducted in air at elevated temperature to determine the influence of subsolvus thermomechanical processing on the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of HAYNES 230 alloy. A series of tests at various strain ranges was conducted on material experimentally processed at 1121 °C, which is below the M23C6 carbide solvus temperature, and on material fully solution annealed at 1232 °C. A comparative strain-life analysis was performed on the LCF results, and the cyclic hardening/softening characteristics were examined. At 760 °C and 871 °C, the fatigue life of the experimental 230/1121 material was improved relative to the standard 230/1232 material up to a factor of 3. The fatigue life advantage of the experimental material was related primarily to a lower plastic (inelastic) strain amplitude response for a given imposed total strain range. It appears the increase in monotonic flow stress exhibited by the finer grain size experimental material has been translated into an increase in cyclic flow stress at the 760 °C and 871 °C test temperatures. Both materials exhibited entirely transgranular fatigue crack initiation and propagation modes at these temperatures. The LCF performance of the experimental material in tests performed at 982 °C was improved relative to the standard material up to a factor as high as 2. The life advantage of the 230/1121 material occurred despite having a larger plastic strain amplitude than the standard 230/1232 material for a given total strain range. Though not fully understood at present, it is suspected that this behavior is related to the deleterious influence of grain boundaries in the fatigue crack initiations of the standard processed material relative to the experimental material, and ultimately to differences in carbide morphology as a result of thermomechanical processing.

  8. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered—that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  9. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered-that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  10. Influence of dimethylpolysiloxane addition to edible oils: dependence on the main variables of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in the absence of food to define the influence of significant variables of the frying process, i.e. oil unsaturation, temperature, surface-to-oil volume ratio, type of heating and dimethylpolysiloxane (DMPS addition. Special emphasis was placed on clarifying the action of the addition of low concentrations of DMPS to frying oils. From statistical evaluation based on the content of polar compounds, the strong influence of the variables surface-to-oil volume ratio, DMPS addition and oil unsaturation was deduced. However, changes due to 10ºC difference in temperature were not significant. Analysis of two-way interactions demonstrated that interactions between type of heating/DMPS addition, type of heating/oil unsaturation, surface-to-oil volume ratio/DMPS addition and surface-to-oiI volume ratio/oil unsaturation were significant, thus indicating the complexity of the frying process. Finally, it was found that increase in specific groups of compounds formed through oxidative polymerization as well as loss of natural antioxidants depended mainly on the total content of polar compounds and, at a second level, on the oil unsaturation.

  11. Positive aspects of interlinguistic influences in the process of L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mikołajczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes that take place in the mind of a multilingual person during the second language acquisition are mostly shrouded in mystery. We can only observe traces of these processes manifesting themselves in the interpenetration of two or more linguistic systems. The current study aims to recognize how the knowledge of L1, in this case Spanish, influences on the acquisition and usage of the target language – Portuguese (L2, and how to take advantage of the interferences to make the L2 learners succeed. The possibility of linguistic influences grows with each acquired language. There are also important contributing factors such as a degree of similarity between the languages, a level of proficiency in each of them, and the manner and time of a language acquisition. During the Portuguese course at the Spanish Philology, we can observe such phenomena as: code switching or total displacement, hybrids, false friends, multi-word units calquing, and morphogrammatical transfer. Although one of the factors that affects the L2 acquisition is the level of proficiency, the students hardly take advantage of their mother tongue, selecting the language typologically closer to Portuguese, Spanish. The students use the previously acquired knowledge to create analogies that should be considered as an intermediate step in the acquisition of L2, not as something negative, but rather a means for providing a starting point for the analysis of error which, consequently, leads to improvement.

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE TEXTILE MATERIAL DOUBLING PROCESS BY THERMOFUSING ON VAPOR PERMEABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica PORAV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To confer shape and volume parameters, to ensure dimensional stability of surfaces and contours, some parts of clothing are doubled using the process of thermofusion with certain woven or nonwoven chemicalized materials. A priority in the work of producers of fabrics and textiles is to ensure comfort parameters and functions of apparel products are met and respected. Clothing products should ensure optimum insulation, air permeability, moisture absorption and transfer in order to give the wearer wellbeing and safety. In this paper we propose to analyze the influence of the technological process of doubling on the vapour permeability of the doubled assembly, compared with the permeability of the non-doubled material. As materials made of natural fibers are increasingly required, we focused on two natural fiber fabrics – 100% linen and 100% cotton - and a mixed natural fiber material – 64% linen, 34% viscose and 2% elastane. They were each doubled using thermofusion with woven or nonwoven chemicalized materials composed of wool mixed with polyamide. Laboratory measurements allow us to conclude to what extent the vapor permeability of the thermofused assemblies is influenced.

  13. The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chunping; Ding, Juwen; Yang, Fei; Dong, Delong; Rong, Mingzhe; Xu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB). The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated, and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results. Based on the airflow in the arc chamber, the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated. It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process. To verify the simulation results, the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested. This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2015CB251002, 6132620303) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51377128, 51577144), and Science and Technology Project Through Grid State Corporation (No. SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564)

  14. The influence of longitudinal space charge fields on the modulation process of coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Litvinenko, V. N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-05-21

    Initial modulation in Coherent electron cooling (CeC) scheme relies on ion charge screening by electrons. In a CeC system with bunched electron beam, the long-range longitudinal space charge force is inevitably induced. For a relatively dense electron beam, it can be comparable or even greater than the attractive force from the ion. Hence, space-charge field influence to the modulation process could be important. If the longitudinal Debye length is much smaller than the electron bunch length, the modulation induced by the ion happens locally. In this case, the long-range longitudinal space charge field can be approximated as a uniform electric field across the region. In this paper we developed an analytical model to study the dynamics of ion shielding in the presence of a uniform electric field. We are solving the coupled Vlasov-Poisson equation system for infinite anisotropic electron plasma and estimate the influences of the longitudinal space charge field to the modulation process. We present numerical estimates for a case of the proof of CeC principle experiment at RHIC.

  15. The Influence of Dust-radiation-microphysics Processes on Tropical Cyclone Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Cheng, C.; Chen, J.; Lin, Y.; Lee, H.; Tsai, I.

    2011-12-01

    Saharan dust can modify the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and its environment by changing the energy budget through direct and indirect radiative forcing. Scattering and absorption of radiation by suspended dust directly modifies the energy budget in the atmosphere and at the surface. Smaller dust particles can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods and propagate over the Atlantic Ocean along with SAL. These fine particles can reach an altitude of 8-9 km, where they nucleate ice crystals and transform cloud microphysical properties, indirectly changing the energy budget. Thus, the dust within the air mass is likely to affect the evolution of hurricane properties, life cycles, and the corresponding cloud systems through the dust-cloud-radiation interactions. A tracer model based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model (named WRFT) was developed to study the influence of dust-radiation-microphysics effects on hurricane activities. The dust-radiation effects and a two-moment microphysics scheme with dust particles acting as ice nuclei were implemented into WRFT. In this work, two easterly waves, which were precursors of Tropical Storm Debby and Hurricane Ernesto, during 18-25 August 2006 were studied. Four high-resolution numerical experiments were conducted with the combinations of activating/deactivating dust-radiation and/or dust-microphysics processes. Results from these four experiments are compared to investigate the influence of dust-radiation-microphysics processes on these two storm developments.

  16. What's Coming Near? The Influence of Dynamical Visual Stimuli on Nociceptive Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Annick L; Crombez, Geert; Legrain, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Objects approaching us may pose a threat, and signal the need to initiate defensive behavior. Detecting these objects early is crucial to either avoid the object or prepare for contact most efficiently. This requires the construction of a coherent representation of our body, and the space closely surrounding our body, i.e. the peripersonal space. This study, with 27 healthy volunteers, investigated how the processing of nociceptive stimuli applied to the hand is influenced by dynamical visual stimuli either approaching or receding from the hand. On each trial a visual stimulus was either approaching or receding the participant's left or right hand. At different temporal delays from the onset of the visual stimulus, a nociceptive stimulus was applied either at the same or the opposite hand, so that it was presented when the visual stimulus was perceived at varying distances from the hand. Participants were asked to respond as fast as possible at which side they perceived a nociceptive stimulus. We found that reaction times were fastest when the visual stimulus appeared near the stimulated hand. Moreover, investigating the influence of the visual stimuli along the continuous spatial range (from near to far) showed that approaching lights had a stronger spatially dependent effect on nociceptive processing, compared to receding lights. These results suggest that the coding of nociceptive information in a peripersonal frame of reference may constitute a safety margin around the body that is designed to protect it from potential physical threat. PMID:27224421

  17. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF OZONE ON THE GROWTH PROCESSES OF MAIZE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the yield of crops is a global challenge substantiated by the scientists from all over the world. To achieve this goal, there are various ways, one of which is the ozonation of seeds before sowing. This method inhibits harmful microflora, which could be formed on the seed during the period of storage, and excites the chemical processes within the seed that can accelerate the process of growth. But despite the positive effect of ozone-air mixture of seeds and a variety of conducting research there is still no reliable data on the technological parameters of ozone effects on seed crops (e.g., corn. In this regard, we have conducted experimental studies to determine the effective parameters of the ozonation of corn seeds, such as the concentration of ozone in the ozone-air mixture, exposure time and binning after treatment. The influence of these parameters was assessed by changes in growth performance of seed, such as germination, germination and growth of strength. Just at the end of the pilot study we carried out a statistical analysis of the data, which allowed us to estimate the degree of influence of each independent parameter (ozone concentration, exposure time, binning after treatment for each dependent parameter (germination energy, germination, growth force. The data obtained is presented in the article

  18. Cross-Cultural Influences on Rhythm Processing: Reproduction, Discrimination, and Beat Tapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures of musical rhythm differ between cultures, despite the fact that the ability to synchronize one’s movements to musical rhythms appears to be universal. To measure the influence of culture on rhythm processing, we tested East African and North American adults on the perception, production, and beat tapping of rhythms derived from East African and Western music. To assess rhythm perception, participants identified whether pairs of rhythms were same or different. To assess rhythm production, participants reproduced rhythms after hearing them. To assess beat tapping, participants tapped the beat along with repeated rhythms. We expected that performance in all three tasks would be influenced both by the culture of the participant and by the culture of the rhythm. Specifically, we predicted that a participant’s ability to discriminate, reproduce, and accurately tap the beat would be better for rhythms from their own culture than for rhythms from another culture. In the rhythm discrimination task, there were no differences in discriminating culturally familiar and unfamiliar rhythms. In the rhythm reproduction task, both groups reproduced East African rhythms more accurately than Western rhythms, but East African participants also showed an effect of cultural familiarity, leading to a significant interaction. In the beat tapping task, participants in both groups tapped the beat more accurately for culturally familiar than unfamiliar rhythms. The results demonstrate that culture does influence the processing of musical rhythm. In terms of the function of musical rhythm, our results are consistent with theories that musical rhythm enables synchronization. Musical rhythm may foster musical cultural identity by enabling within-group synchronization to music, perhaps supporting social cohesion.

  19. The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of biomimetic integrated honeycomb plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jiandong; Gu, Yueyan; Zhao, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates (FIHPs) was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), and the results were compared with experimental data, yielding the following findings: 1) Processing holes under tensile stress have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of FIHPs, which is particularly obvious when initial imperfections are formed during sample preparation. 2) A proposed design technique based on changing the shape of the processing holes from circular to elliptical effectively reduces the stress concentration when such holes must exist in skin or components under tension, and this method motivates a design concept for experimental tests of FIHPs bearing dynamic or fatigue loads. 3) The flexural failure modes of FIHPs were confirmed via FEM analysis, and the mechanism by which trabeculae in FIHPs can effectively prevent cracks from emerging and cause cracks to develop along certain paths was ascertained. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of processing holes in bionic honeycomb plates and other similar components in practical engineering applications. PMID:27612774

  20. Siofor influence on the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status at patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Chernysheva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to research siofor influence (metformin on the activity of the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods — 62 patients with metabolic syndrome at the age from 30 till 60 were examined and treated by siofor (1700 mg per day during a year. The process of lipid peroxidation was studied due to the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum. Antioxidant capacity was based on the antioxidant reaction in the blood serum with definite number of exogenic hydrogen dioxide (mkmole/l with the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results — Intensification of process of lipid peroxidation has been observed at patients with metabolic syndrome — the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum has been 2.9 (1.9, 3.9 mkM (presented as median and interquartile range, antioxidant activity of blood serum has been decreased — 276.4 (239.0, 379.9 mkmole/l. In 12 months of siofor intake hydroperoxide level has been decreased till 1.1 (0.8, 1.9 mkМ, but antioxidant activity has been increased and amounted 320.0 (278.9, 334.3 mkmole/l. Conclusion — Siofor has been proved to be a highly effective medicine for correction of process of lipid peroxidation and for improvement of antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome.

  1. Influence of smelting processes on precipitation behaviors and mechanical properties of low activation ferrite steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Creep properties could be improved dramatically by control of smelting process. → VIM + ESR smelting process could improve the W macrosegregation. → W could accelerate the transition of M7C3 to M23C6 in RAFM steel. → The synergetic effect of carbides and tungsten depletion of solid solution lead to the decrease in creep resistance. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of smelting processes on precipitation behaviors and mechanical properties of CLF-1 (China low activation ferrite) steel was investigated. Mechanical properties of CLF-1 steels melted by vacuum induction melting (VIM, CS25 steel) and vacuum induction melting followed by consumable electrode remelting (VIM + ESR, CS350 steel) had been studied. The results indicated that the steels showed similar values of hardness and tensile strength, however, creep properties of CLF-1 steel were obviously improved by VIM + ESR process. M23C6 and M7C3 Carbides were precipitated in the CS25 steel, and M23C6 carbides were precipitated in CS350 steel after high-temperature tempering at 1013 K for 90 min. Creep properties of CS25 steel were shown to be dramatically deteriorated by the existence of rod M7C3 precipitates, which was due to W macrosegregation in the CS25 steel melted by VIM. M7C3 was replaced by M23C6 after ageing at 823 K for 5000 h.

  2. Influence of Water Content on Mechanical Properties of Rock in Both Saturation and Drying Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zilong; Cai, Xin; Cao, Wenzhuo; Li, Xibing; Xiong, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Water content has a pronounced influence on the properties of rock materials, which is responsible for many rock engineering hazards, such as landslides and karst collapse. Meanwhile, water injection is also used for the prevention of some engineering disasters like rock-bursts. To comprehensively investigate the effect of water content on mechanical properties of rocks, laboratory tests were carried out on sandstone specimens with different water contents in both saturation and drying processes. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique was applied to study the water distribution in specimens with variation of water contents. The servo-controlled rock mechanics testing machine and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique were used to conduct both compressive and tensile tests on sandstone specimens with different water contents. From the laboratory tests, reductions of the compressive and tensile strength of sandstone under static and dynamic states in different saturation processes were observed. In the drying process, all of the saturated specimens could basically regain their mechanical properties and recover its strength as in the dry state. However, for partially saturated specimens in the saturation and drying processes, the tensile strength of specimens with the same water content was different, which could be related to different water distributions in specimens.

  3. Influence of annealing temperatures on solution-processed AlInZnO thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) using solution-processed aluminum indium zinc oxide (AIZO) as a channel layer were fabricated in this study. Influence of annealing temperatures on solution processed AIZO thin films surface, structural and chemical properties had been intensively investigated. The AIZO films existed in an amorphous phase even through the annealing temperature reach up to 500 °C. The as-prepared AIZO films with surface root-mean-square roughness values less than 0.6 nm were uniform and smooth. As the annealing temperatures exceeded 400 °C, the impurities and hydroxyl groups in the AIZO films had almost no change, demonstrating that the AIZO oxide formation was almost completed. Above all, the solution processed AIZO TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high saturation mobility of 20.8 cm2/V s, threshold voltage of −0.39 V, small subthreshold swing of 0.13 V/dec and high on/off current ratio of 5 × 106. - Highlights: • AIZO thin films and AIZO TFTs were prepared by solution-process in this research. • Their properties depended on annealing temperatures were analyzed systematically. • AIZO thin films oxidization behaviors were almost complete when annealed at 400 °C. • AIZO TFTs show high mobility (20.8 cm2/V s) and low subthreshold swing (0.13 V/dec)

  4. Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2014-08-27

    Methods used in processing California-style black ripe olives generate acrylamide. California-style black ripe olives contain higher levels of acrylamide (409.67 ± 42.60-511.91 ± 34.08 μg kg(-1)) as compared to California-style green ripe olives (44.02 ± 3.55-105.79 ± 22.01 μg kg(-1)), Greek olives (acrylamide formation. Preprocessing brine storage influenced the formation of acrylamide in a time-dependent manner. Acrylamide increased during the first 30 days of storage. Longer brine storage times (>30 days) result in lower acrylamide levels in the finished product. The presence of calcium ions in the preprocessing brining solution results in higher levels of acrylamide in finished products. Air oxidation during lye processing and the neutralization of olives prior to sterilization significantly increase the formation of acrylamide in the finished products. Conversely, lye-processing decreases the levels of acrylamide in the final product. These results indicate that specific steps in the California-style black ripe olive processing may be manipulated to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in finished products.

  5. Influence of material properties on the sheared impact process of shear-cap in squib valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Squib valve is a key valve in the new generation nuclear power plant, which has not been localized and the research on the failure process of shear-cap is necessary. Purpose: This research aims to study the influence of material on the failure process of shear-cap in squib valve. Methods: The finite element method is used to simulate the shear-caps' sheared process of different materials-Inconel 690, 304 stainless steel and 321 stainless steel. Results: As a result, the failure time and the final speed of piston are shown at each impact speed. Conclusions: The shear-cap of Inconel 690 is hardest to shear. A method to get the critical impact speed in the open process of valve is proposed. It can be found that the residual kinetic energy of the piston has the common feature and is 25% of the initial kinetic energy. Piston's final speed has a linear relationship to its initial speed for all three materials. (authors)

  6. Influence of annealing temperatures on solution-processed AlInZnO thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yana [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Jianguo [Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Xifeng, E-mail: lixifeng@shu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) using solution-processed aluminum indium zinc oxide (AIZO) as a channel layer were fabricated in this study. Influence of annealing temperatures on solution processed AIZO thin films surface, structural and chemical properties had been intensively investigated. The AIZO films existed in an amorphous phase even through the annealing temperature reach up to 500 °C. The as-prepared AIZO films with surface root-mean-square roughness values less than 0.6 nm were uniform and smooth. As the annealing temperatures exceeded 400 °C, the impurities and hydroxyl groups in the AIZO films had almost no change, demonstrating that the AIZO oxide formation was almost completed. Above all, the solution processed AIZO TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high saturation mobility of 20.8 cm{sup 2}/V s, threshold voltage of −0.39 V, small subthreshold swing of 0.13 V/dec and high on/off current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 6}. - Highlights: • AIZO thin films and AIZO TFTs were prepared by solution-process in this research. • Their properties depended on annealing temperatures were analyzed systematically. • AIZO thin films oxidization behaviors were almost complete when annealed at 400 °C. • AIZO TFTs show high mobility (20.8 cm{sup 2}/V s) and low subthreshold swing (0.13 V/dec)

  7. The Influence of Self-Esteem on the Mate Selection Process of African American Females: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Bilton, Joya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study examined the influence of African American females' level of self-esteem on the mate-selection process. Secondly, this study was concerned with the influence of the level of self-esteem of African American females on valuing the mate-selection characteristics of interpersonal skills,…

  8. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  9. Influence of metastable retained austenite on macro and micromechanical properties of steel processed by the Q and P process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirková, Hana, E-mail: h.jirkova@email.cz [University of West Bohemia, Research Centre of Forming Technology – FORTECH, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Mašek, Bohuslav [University of West Bohemia, Research Centre of Forming Technology – FORTECH, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Wagner, Martin F.-X. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Materials Engineering Group, Erfenschlager Str. 73, 09125 Chemnitz (Germany); Langmajerová, Danuše; Kučerová, Ludmila [University of West Bohemia, Research Centre of Forming Technology – FORTECH, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Treml, Ruth; Kiener, Daniel [Montanuniversität Leoben, Department Materials Physics, Jahnstrasse 12/I, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • New methods of heat treatment were applied at low alloyed high strength steel. • High UTS of 1907 MPa with ductility of 17% were obtained for low alloyed steel. • Test of deformation behavior of martensite–austenite microstructure in micro-volumes. • Plastic deformation higher than 17% was obtained for martensite microstructure RA. - Abstract: By stabilising metastable austenite with a suitable morphology in a martensitic structure, it is possible to impart to multi-phase steels high ductility combined with tensile strengths exceeding 2000 MPa. One way to achieve such mixed structures consisting of martensite and retained austenite (RA) is the Q and P (quenching and partitioning) process. The resulting structure contains metastable austenite in the form of thin foils located between martensite laths or plates. The stability of austenite under mechanical loading is the essential factor contributing to the extraordinary plasticity of such materials during cold deformation. A steel with 0.43% of carbon, alloyed with manganese, silicon and chromium was chosen for the experiment described in the present paper. Using the Q and P process, a martensitic structure with 20% of retained austenite was obtained. As cold plastic deformation causes the austenite to transform, 10% cold deformation was applied after the Q and P process. This deformation reduced the RA fraction to 11%. Materials prepared by this method were examined using micro-pillar compression experiments. Using the focused ion beam (FIB) method, pillars of 3 × 3 μm cross-section and 8 μm length were fabricated. These were afterwards mechanically tested in situ in an electron microscope in quasi-static compression at a true strain rate of 3 × 10{sup −4} s{sup −1} to different amounts of plastic strain. The experiment showed that mechanical properties of the two conditions of material differ in terms of yield strength and the strain hardening exponent. An additional metallographic

  10. Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5—3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm with 700—900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65—2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69—0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80—90%, and in temperate size particle10—20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73—3.09. Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.

  11. Influence of the demand information quality on planning process accuracy in supply chain. Case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Szozda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification and analysis of factors that affect the accuracy of demand planning process across the supply chain is one of the most important problems which influence the effectiveness of its material and information flows. Material and methods: On the basis of demand planning process investigation authors define the main elements affecting the right supply chain performance level and investigate the possible connections between demand information quality and demand planning process accuracy. Later, an overview of some recent developments in the analyzed research area is provided. Results: Based on the literature review, there is described the defined factors impact on the accuracy of demand plan in each echelon for case companies. There are considered three cases. The examples illustrate supply chains of different manufacturing companies. The focus is placed on demand planning across the supply chains. The issue of determining the accuracy of future sales plans in each echelon of supply chains and factors affecting it are raised. Taking into account the case companies demand planning process analyses, there are defined possible quality measures, that are possible to be used when forecasting the customer demand. Conclusions: One of the most important and difficult planning area in the companies is becoming planning demand. Errors in planning are reflected not just in the business resource planning but also in the entire supply chain. Presented cases show that many factors affect the proper demand planning process in the supply chain, like e.g.  information technologies, lead-time, or number of supplied materials. As it can be seen from the case studies, the model of collecting information from the market plays an important role in the demand planning process.

  12. Influencing domain of peripheral sources in the urban heavy pollution process of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Xiangde; ZHOU; Li; ZHOU; Xiuji; YAN; Peng; WENG; Yonghu

    2005-01-01

    The effect of city's peripheral pollution sources is one of the key issues urgent to be solved in the decision-making of Beijing's environmental pollution control. This paper comprehensively analyses the surface observations, and the satellite remote sensing data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) during the Beijing City Atmospheric Pollution Experiment (BECAPEX) from January to March, 2001, presents an "upstream" wind field resultant vector method for tracing peripheral pollution sources, and finds that the features of the urban heavy pollution processes of Beijing are significantly correlated with the impact of the emission sources of southern peripheral cities, and the pollutants transferred northwards from distant upstream sources are retarded by the U-shaped "valley" topography in Beijing's periphery. The two factors are responsible for the formation of the S-N zonal influencing domain of pollutants from the southern peripheral areas to Beijing. The paper also comprehensively analyses the features of flow field in the heavy pollution process in the Beijing region, and compares the heavy pollution process with samples of good air-quality days from January to March, 2001. The experiment of Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT-4) further reveals the diffusion trajectory of pollutants of the cities in Hebei and Shandong provinces and Tianjin city in the heavy pollution process of Beijing, and the simulations of the Regional Atmosphere Model System (RAMS) confirm the possible contribution of peripheral sources to the exceptionally heavy pollution process of the urban area of Beijing, thus revealing that the input of pollutants from southern peripheral cities is one of the important factors responsible for aggravating urban heavy pollution processes.

  13. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-02-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution. PMID:24889119

  14. Processing of food pictures: influence of hunger, gender and calorie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sabine; Laharnar, Naima; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Canova, Carlos; Hegner, Yiwen Li; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2010-09-01

    In most cases obesity, a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and other associated chronic diseases, is generated by excessive eating. For a better understanding of eating behavior, it is necessary to determine how it is modulated by factors such as the calorie content of food, satiety and gender. Twelve healthy normal weighted participants (six female) were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. In order to prevent the influence of social acceptability, an implicit one-back task was chosen for stimulus presentation. We presented food (high- and low-caloric) and non-food pictures in a block design and subjects had to indicate by button press whether two consecutive pictures were the same or not. Each subject performed the task in a hungry and satiated state on two different days. High-caloric pictures compared to low-caloric pictures led to increased activity in food processing and reward related areas, like the orbitofrontal and the insular cortex. In addition, we found activation differences in visual areas (occipital lobe), despite the fact that the stimuli were matched for their physical features. Detailed investigation also revealed gender specific effects in the fusiform gyrus. Women showed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus while viewing high-caloric pictures in the hungry state. This study shows that the calorie content of food pictures modulates the activation of brain areas related to reward processing and even early visual areas. In addition, satiation seems to influence the processing of food pictures differently in men and women. Even though an implicit task was used, activation differences could also be observed in the orbitofrontal cortex, known to be activated during explicit stimulation with food related stimuli.

  15. Influencing adaptation processes on the Australian rangelands for social and ecological resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resource users require the capacity to cope and adapt to climate changes affecting resource condition if they, and their industries, are to remain viable. Understanding individual-scale responses to a changing climate will be an important component of designing well-targeted, broad-scale strategies and policies. Because of the interdependencies between people and ecosystems, understanding and supporting resilience of resource-dependent people may be as important an aspect of effective resource management as managing the resilience of ecological components. We refer to the northern Australian rangelands as an example of a system that is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and look for ways to enhance the resilience of the system. Vulnerability of the social system comprises elements of adaptive capacity and sensitivity to change (resource dependency as well as exposure, which is not examined here. We assessed the adaptive capacity of 240 cattle producers, using four established dimensions, and investigated the association between adaptive capacity and climate sensitivity (or resource dependency as measured through 14 established dimensions. We found that occupational identity, employability, networks, strategic approach, environmental awareness, dynamic resource use, and use of technology were all positively correlated with at least one dimension of adaptive capacity and that place attachment was negatively correlated with adaptive capacity. These results suggest that adaptation processes could be influenced by focusing on adaptive capacity and these aspects of climate sensitivity. Managing the resilience of individuals is critical to processes of adaptation at higher levels and needs greater attention if adaptation processes are to be shaped and influenced.

  16. Influence of manufacturing processes on cell surface properties of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivoliez, Adrien; Veisseire, Philippe; Alaterre, Elina; Dausset, Caroline; Baptiste, Fabrice; Camarès, Olivier; Paquet-Gachinat, Marylise; Bonnet, Muriel; Forestier, Christiane; Bornes, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the industrial process on the properties of probiotics, administered as complex manufactured products, has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we comparatively assessed the cell wall characteristics of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35® together with three of its commercial formulations with intestinal applications. Putative secreted and transmembrane-protein-encoding genes were initially searched in silico in the genome of L. rhamnosus Lcr35®. A total of 369 candidate genes were identified which expressions were followed using a custom Lactobacillus DNA chip. Among them, 60 or 67 genes had their expression either upregulated or downregulated in the Lcr Restituo® packet or capsule formulations, compared to the native Lcr35® strain. Moreover, our data showed that the probiotic formulations (Lcr Lenio®, Lcr restituo® capsule and packet) showed a better capacity to adhere to intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells than the native Lcr35® strain. Microbial (MATS) tests showed that the probiotic was an electron donor and that they were more hydrophilic than the native strain. The enhanced adhesion capacity of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to epithelial Caco-2 cells and their antipathogen effect could be due to this greater surface hydrophilic character. These findings suggest that the manufacturing process influences the protein composition and the chemical properties of the cell wall. It is therefore likely that the antipathogen effect of the formulation is modulated by the industrial process. Screening of the manufactured products' properties would therefore represent an essential step in evaluating the effects of probiotic strains. PMID:25280746

  17. A role for NADPH oxidase in antigen presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail J Gardiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase expressed in phagocytes is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that generates superoxide (O2.-. This radical is an important precursor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS needed for microbicidal activity during innate immune responses. Inherited defects in NADPH oxidase give rise to chronic granulomatous disease (CGD, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and granulomatous inflammation. Interestingly, CGD, CGD carrier status, and oxidase gene polymorphisms have all been associated with autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, suggesting a potential role for NADPH oxidase in regulating adaptive immune responses. Here, NADPH oxidase function in antigen processing and presentation is reviewed. NADPH oxidase influences dendritic cell (DC crosspresentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I through regulation of the phagosomal microenvironment, while in B lymphocytes, NADPH oxidase alters epitope selection by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC-II.

  18. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  19. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  20. Developing Customer Relationship Strategies Via An Analysis Of Buying Center Network Locus Of Influence And Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, W J; Page, T J

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines a method for analyzing buying center locus of influence and information processing. Buying centers in 70 industrial organizations are studied for the impact of organizational structure and specific purchase situation attributes including BUYCLASS. The methodology uses structural equations with multiple measures to test the hypothesized relationships. The results indicate the locus of influence and the information processing of buying center networks in customer organizatio...

  1. Study of the influence of temperature the venting depollution process of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA-ALINA BRUSTUREAN; JEAN CARRÉ; DELIA PERJU; TEODOR TODINCA

    2006-01-01

    Venting is one of the most used in situ remediation methods for unsaturated soils contaiminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC). The development of mathematical models and their validation by means of experimental results allowed the identification of the main parameters which influence the soil depollution process. The influence of temperature on the venting depollution process of soils polluted with volatile organic compounds was studied in this investigation. It was found that the de...

  2. Use of antigenic cartography in vaccine seed strain selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchier, Ron A M; Smith, Derek J

    2010-03-01

    Human influenza A viruses are classic examples of antigenically variable pathogens that have a seemingly endless capacity to evade the host's immune response. The viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins are the main targets of our antibody response to combat infections. HA and NA continuously change to escape from humoral immunity, a process known as antigenic drift. As a result of antigenic drift, the human influenza vaccine is updated frequently. The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates a global influenza surveillance network that, by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, routinely characterizes the antigenic properties of circulating strains in order to select new seed viruses for such vaccine updates. To facilitate a quantitative interpretation and easy visualization of HI data, a new computational technique called "antigenic cartography" was developed. Since its development, antigenic cartography has been applied routinely to assist the WHO with influenza surveillance activities. Until recently, antigenic variation was not considered a serious issue with influenza vaccines for poultry. However, because of the diversification of the Asian H5N1 lineage since 1996 into multiple genetic clades and subclades, and because of the long-term use of poultry vaccines against H5 in some parts of the world, this issue needs to be re-addressed. The antigenic properties of panels of avian H5N1 viruses were characterized by HI assay, using mammalian or avian antisera, and analyzed using antigenic cartography methods. These analyses revealed antigenic differences between circulating H5N1 viruses and the H5 viruses used in poultry vaccines. Considerable antigenic variation was also observed within and between H5N1 clades. These observations have important implications for the efficacy and long-term use of poultry vaccines.

  3. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  4. Influence of the CT calibration process on the dose computation in radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the experimental CT calibration process on the dose computation was investigated. For the studies three different phantoms were used: CIRS Model 62, CIRS Model 002LFC and a phantom from Scanditronix-Wellhofer. The first is a very flexible phantom that consists of a two part arrangement of rings and can simulate either a slice of the head or of the abdomen. The 18 embedded holes can accommodate any of the eight different inhomogeneities provided with the phantom. The second phantom is a thorax phantom consisting of three different materials that are in a fixed arrangement. The cylindric Wellhofer phantom consists of five inhomogeneities that are arranged in a circle. The phantom can be included in the IMRT-phantom 'Easy Cube'. The 'Easy Cube' can be extended to different shapes (abdomen, ring). At first the three phantoms were scanned in a CT (Siemens Somatom Emotion) with the same scan protocol as used in routine for abdominal scans. The Hounsfield Units (HU) were measured for each inhomogeneity and assigned to the corresponding electron densities (ED). To create a calibration curve the data were fitted in two linear parts. The obtained calibration curves for the three phantoms showed a dependency of the CT values on the used phantom. The Wellhofer phantom was also studied in different body shapes and here also an influence on the CT value appeared. These results show that it is problematic to use one calibration curve for all purposes (head, abdomen, ...) because the dimension of the body influences the CT value due to the shifting of the energy spectrum as the depth increases and the CT value resp. the attenuation coefficient changes with the energy. Then the impact of the used reconstruction kernel was evaluated. Therefore the phantoms were scanned with an abdomen and a head protocol. Both protocols use the same voltage but different reconstruction kernels. The obtained HUs were different for both data sets. The analysis process was detected to

  5. Influence of aerosol concentration and multivariate processing on indication of radon progeny concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indication of concentration of radon progeny gauge in air is sensitive to aerosol concentration. Minimum detectable concentration and accuracy of the measurement is determined by random errors of the gauge. Multivariate data processing can be used to decrease random errors. To investigate influence of aerosol concentration on indication of radon progeny concentration in air, measurements of mining radiometer, operating on the principle of alpha radiation detection from radon progeny deposited on air filter, were carried out in radon chamber. Aerosol concentration and radon concentration in radon chamber were controlled and measurements of radon progeny concentration was measured by radon progeny monitor. Additionally count rate from the monitor detector originating from alpha activity deposited on air filter was measured in 1 min. intervals that were later used for three interval, and Principal Component Regression (PCR) data processing. It was found that for aerosol concentration in air from 40 p/cm3 to approx. 9 000 p/cm3 indications of the radon progeny monitor depends considerably on aerosol concentration. Radon daughters concentration normalized to radon concentration against aerosol concentration varied from 0.3-0.9. In mines where the aerosol concentration generally is high, this phenomenon has a little effect on the indication of the radon progeny monitor, but is has to be taken into account where aerosol concentration is low. Comparison of random errors when measured signal of the monitor (count rate against time) was processed employing three interval method and PCR data processing shows that PCR ensures 2-3 times lower random error than three interval data processing. (author)

  6. Co-composting of biowaste and wood ash, influence on a microbially driven-process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado Juárez, Marina; Prähauser, Barbara; Walter, Andreas; Insam, Heribert; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H

    2015-12-01

    A trial at semi-industrial scale was conducted to evaluate the effect of wood ash amendment on communal biowaste in a composting process and on the final composts produced. For this purpose, three treatments including an unamended control (C0) and composts with additions of 6% (C6), and 12% (C12) of wood ash (w/w) were studied, and physico-chemical parameters as well as microbial activity and community composition were investigated. At the end of the process, composts were tested for toxicity and quality, and microbial physiological activity. The influence of ash addition on compost temperature, pH, microbial activity and composition was stronger during the early composting stages and diminished with time, whereby composts became more similar. Using the COMPOCHIP microarray, a reduction in the pathogenic genera Listeria and Clostridium was observed, which together with the temperature increases of the composting process helped in the hygienisation of composts. Lactobacillus species were also affected, such that reduced hybridisation signals were observed with increased ash addition, due to the increased pH values in amended composts. Organic matter mineralisation was also increased through ash addition, and no negative effects on the composting process were observed. The nutrient content of the final products was increased through the addition of ash, and no toxic effects were observed. Nonetheless, greater concentrations of heavy metals were found in composts amended with more ash, which resulted in a downgrading of the compost quality according to the Austrian Compost Ordinance. Thus, regulation of both input materials and end-product quality is essential in optimising composting processes. PMID:26394680

  7. Influence of processing variables on the mechanical behavior of HDPE/clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites were processed using the technique of melt intercalation, starting from a concentrated polar compatibilizer/organoclay (PE-g-MA/organoclay prepared in an internal mixer. The concentrate was incorporated into the matrix of HDPE by two methods: I counter-rotating twin-screw extruder and II co-rotating twin-screw extruder, using two screw profiles (ROS and 2KB90. After extrusion, the specimens of the extruded composites were injection molded. The X-ray diffraction (XRD technique was used to analyze the degree of expansion of the prepared clays. To analyze the degree of exfoliation of obtained nanocomposites, XRD and TEM (transmission electron microscopy were used. The influence of processing variables on mechanical properties was studied through the behavior of the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite systems. By XRD and TEM, it was seen that the clay was well dispersed in the matrix and the presence of intercalated and partially exfoliated hybrid structure for nanocomposites was observed when the systems were prepared in counter-rotating twin-screw extruder. A similar behavior was observed in the use of screws (2KB90 or ROS of the nanocomposites, with a reduction in modulus and tensile strength. Although the mixing process by extruding be the most common industrial practice, and also it is the preferred strategy for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites, much of the literature was directed to the study of chemical modification of clay, type and level of compatibilizer, in order to maximize the compatibility between clay and the polymeric matrix. On the other hand, studies about the role of the processing and configurations of screws are relatively scarce. The main motivation of this work was to expand and to contribute to spread a better understanding of the effects of processing to obtain polymer nanocomposites.

  8. Influence of cloud processing on CCN activation behaviour in the Thuringian Forest, Germany during HCCT-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the international cloud experiment "Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010" (HCCT-2010, the influence of cloud processing on the activation properties of ambient aerosol particles was investigated. Particles were probed up- and downwind of an orographic cap cloud on Mt. Schmücke, which is part of a large mountain ridge in Thuringia, Germany. The activation properties of the particles were investigated by means of size-segregated Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN measurements at 3 to 4 different supersaturations. The observed CCN spectra together with the total particle spectra were used to calculate the hygroscopicity parameter κ for the up- and the downwind stations. The up- and downwind critical diameters and κ values were then compared for defined Cloud Events and Non Cloud Events. Cloud processing was found to significantly increase the hygroscopicity of the aerosol particles, with an average increase in κ of 50%. Mass spectrometry analysis and isotopic analysis of the particles show that the observed increase in hygroscopicity of the cloud-processed particles is due to an enrichment of nitrate and sulfate in the particle phase.

  9. The influence of process parameters on the laser-induced coloring of titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Stępak, Bogusz; Kozioł, Paweł E.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the measurements and analysis of the influence of laser process parameters on the color obtained. The study was conducted for titanium (Grade 2) using a commercially available industrial pulsed fiber laser. It was determined how a variety of different laser process parameters, such as laser power, the scanning speed of the material, the temperature of the material, the size of the marked area, and the position of the sample, relative to both the focal plane and the center of the working field of the system, affect the repeatability of the colors created. For an objective assessment of color changes, an optical spectrometer and the CIE color difference parameter were used. Our paper explains why the tolerance of process parameters highly depends on the specific color. Additionally, a comparison of the results for titanium with those obtained for stainless steel in a previous study is presented. Based on this analysis, a number of necessary modifications are proposed to laser systems commonly used for monochrome marking in order to improve repeatability in color marking.

  10. The holistic rhizosphere: integrating zones, processes, and semantics in the soil influenced by roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Larry M; Carminati, Andrea; Mooney, Sacha J; Ritz, Karl; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2016-06-01

    Despite often being conceptualized as a thin layer of soil around roots, the rhizosphere is actually a dynamic system of interacting processes. Hiltner originally defined the rhizosphere as the soil influenced by plant roots. However, soil physicists, chemists, microbiologists, and plant physiologists have studied the rhizosphere independently, and therefore conceptualized the rhizosphere in different ways and using contrasting terminology. Rather than research-specific conceptions of the rhizosphere, the authors propose a holistic rhizosphere encapsulating the following components: microbial community gradients, macroorganisms, mucigel, volumes of soil structure modification, and depletion or accumulation zones of nutrients, water, root exudates, volatiles, and gases. These rhizosphere components are the result of dynamic processes and understanding the integration of these processes will be necessary for future contributions to rhizosphere science based upon interdisciplinary collaborations. In this review, current knowledge of the rhizosphere is synthesized using this holistic perspective with a focus on integrating traditionally separated rhizosphere studies. The temporal dynamics of rhizosphere activities will also be considered, from annual fine root turnover to diurnal fluctuations of water and nutrient uptake. The latest empirical and computational methods are discussed in the context of rhizosphere integration. Clarification of rhizosphere semantics, a holistic model of the rhizosphere, examples of integration of rhizosphere studies across disciplines, and review of the latest rhizosphere methods will empower rhizosphere scientists from different disciplines to engage in the interdisciplinary collaborations needed to break new ground in truly understanding the rhizosphere and to apply this knowledge for practical guidance. PMID:26980751

  11. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation: different signal processing methods without influence on results and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommer, Erik D; Shijaku, Eri; Mess, Werner H; Reulen, Jos P H

    2010-12-01

    Cerebral autoregulation controls cerebral blood flow under changing cerebral perfusion pressure. Standards for measurement and analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) are lacking. In this study, dCA reproducibility, quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient, is evaluated for different methodological approaches of transfer function analysis (TFA) and compared with multimodal pressure flow analysis (MMPF). dCA parameters were determined in 19 healthy volunteers during three 15-min lasting epochs of spontaneous breathing. Every spontaneous breathing epoch was followed by 5 min of paced breathing at 6 cycles/min. These six measurements were performed in both a morning and an afternoon session. Analysis compared raw data pre-processing by mean subtraction versus smoothness priors detrending. The estimation of spectral density was either performed by averaging of subsequent time windows or by smoothing the spectrum of the whole recording. No significant influence of pre-processing and spectral estimation on dCA parameters was found. Therefore, there seems to be no need to prescribe a specific signal-processing regime. Poor reproducibility of gain and phase was found for TFA as well as for MMPF. Based on reproducibility, no preference can be made for morning versus afternoon measurements, neither for spontaneous versus paced breathing. Finally, reproducibility results are not in favour of TFA or MMPF.

  12. Analysis of the cutting fluid influence on the deep grinding process with a CBN grinding wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Yoshinobu Fusse

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of cutting fluid in a deep grinding process is becoming more and more important, mainly where the cutting fluids are used as an "external" agent to the grinding conditions. The role of the fluid in grinding operations is in refrigeration of the workpiece, removal of the shavings, lubrication of the grinding zone, and refrigeration and cleaning of the wheel. The efficiency of a cutting fluid will depend mainly of the type of fluid that will be used. In this work, the influences of the type of cutting fluid used in a deep grinding process of the steel VC131 using CBN grinding wheel are analyzed. Three different types of cutting fluids were used: a vegetable emulsion, a synthetic solution and a integral oil. The variables analyzed during and after the grinding process were the grinding force, the superficial roughness, the acoustic emission (EA, the temperature of the piece and the G ratio (relationship between the volume of material removed from the piece and the volume worn off the grinding wheel. The integral oil showed the best performance relative to the following output variables: EA, cutting force and G ratio. The vegetal emulsion was the fluid that best dissipated heat from the cutting region.

  13. Influence of deposition process and substrate on the phase transition of vanadium dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abrupt changes in structural, electronic and optical properties that accompany the vanadium dioxide (VO2) phase transition make it a promising material for a wide range of thin-film applications in electronics,photonics and plasmonics. Several physical vapor-deposition techniques are used by various research groups, but until now there has been no systematic comparison of the three most common methods – electron beam evaporation, pulsed-laser deposition and sputtering – covering the most common substrates. Here we explore the influence of substrate, deposition process and annealing time at 450 °C on the phase transition properties and morphology of thin VO2 films. Films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering have the same structure on glass, silicon and sapphire substrates and are stable for 90 min of annealing. In contrast, the structure of films deposited by electron beam evaporation and pulsed laser deposition depends heavily on the substrate. Dewetting plays a prominent role in the evolution of film structure and the phase transition properties for films deposited on silicon and glass are unstable for 90 min annealing. The epitaxial relationship between VO2 and sapphire stabilizes the phase transition contrast for all deposition processes and annealing times. Performance as measured by switching contrast is maximized for all deposition processes with 10 min of annealing

  14. Influence of the steel scrap classes on the liquid steel output molten in electric steel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This is why we have analysed in the paper, using statistical analysing methods, the influence of use in the electric arc furnace charges of steel scrap of different qualities on the index of liquid steel output from a melt.Design/methodology/approach: The used research methodology consists in analytical simulation of variations in mass of liquid steel obtained from melts differing in steel scrap content in the metallic charge and statistical analyses of industrial results acquired from the corresponding process documentation (so called melt cards.Findings: Basing on the analytical and statistical analyses carried out we have determine resulting variations in the liquid steel per melt ratios depending on the content of steel scrap in the metallic charge.Research limitations/implications: The research results obtained can be utilized in each steelmaking facility, which employs the Electric Steelmaking process, in order to “design” the metallic charge compositions, having in view the quality and economic aspects.Practical implications: The research results presented in the paper can be used for steel production of high purity steels.Originality/value: The results presented in this paper are directed to the steelmakers employing the Electric Steelmaking process and constitute the authors’ original study.

  15. Influences of laser in low power YAG laser-MAG hybrid welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruisheng Huang; Liming Liu; Fan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The influences of laser defocusing amount △z, laser power P, space distance DLA between laser and arc on weld penetration, arc modality and stability are investigated in low power YAG laser and metal active gas (laser-MAG) hybrid welding process. The experimental results indicate that the effects of laser-induced attraction and contraction of MAG arc are emerged in hybrid welding process, which result in the augmentation of hybrid welding energy. When DLA = -0.5 - 2 mm, △z = -2 - 2 mm and P ≥ 73 W, the synergic efficiency between laser and MAG arc is obvious, the cross section at the root of hybrid arc is contracted and the hybrid weld penetration is increased. The maximal ratio of hybrid/MAG weld penetration is 1.5 and the lowest YAG laser power that augments MAG arc is 73 W. The input of YAG laser makes the stabilities of arc ignition and combustion prominent in hybrid welding process.

  16. Study of the Influence of Key Process Parameters on Furfural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fele Žilnik, Ljudmila; Grilc, Viktor; Mirt, Ivan; Cerovečki, Željko

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the influence of key process variables on the furfural formation from leached chestnut-wood chips in a pressurized reactor. Effect of temperature, pressure, type and concentration of the catalyst solution, the steam flow rate or stripping module, the moisture content of the wood particles and geometric characteristics such as size and type of the reactor, particle size and bed height were considered systematically. One stage process was only taken into consideration. Lab-scale and pilot-scale studies were performed. The results of the non-catalysed laboratory experiments were compared with an actual non-catalysed (auto-catalysed) industrial process and with experiments on the pilot scale, the latter with 28% higher furfural yield compared to the others. Application of sulphuric acid as catalyst, in an amount of 0.03-0.05 g (H2SO4 100%)/g d.m. (dry material), enables a higher production of furfural at lower temperature and pressure of steam in a shorter reaction time. Pilot scale catalysed experiments have revealed very good performance for furfural formation under less severe operating conditions, with a maximum furfural yield as much as 88% of the theoretical value.

  17. Influence of Processing Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of a Plasma Radical Nitrided SCM440 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok-Hwan Ahn; Insup Lee

    2008-01-01

    Plasma radical nitriding was performed to harden the surface of SCM440 steel for 1-10 h at temperature range of 450-550℃. This process involved the use of NH3 gas instead of N2 gas employed for the well-established plasma nitriding method. No compound layer was formed during this process except the experiment carried out at 500℃ for 10 h. The main phase produced in the diffusion zone was identified to be γ'-Fe4(N, C). A diffusion depth increased with increasing treatment temperature and time (up to about 250 μm). The surface hardness of radical nitrided layer was about two times higher than that of the untreated surface. The tensile test was carried out to estimate the mechanical properties of surface-hardened SCM440 steel prepared at various plasma radical nitriding treatment time and temperature. The influence of radical nitriding treatment on the tensile strength of the specimen was found to be insignificant. The highest value of the ultimate tensile strength was obtained in the experiment carried out at 500℃ for 1 h. However, the elongation was greatly affected by the radical nitriding processing parameters. The maximum value of elongation, which is equal to about 18.1%, was also obtained under the condition of 500℃ for 1 h.

  18. Geometrical modulus of a casting and its influence on solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Havlicek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Object: The work analyses the importance of the known criterion for evaluating the controlled solidification of castings, so called geometrical modulus defined by N. Chvorinov as the first one. Geometrical modulus influences the solidification process. The modulus has such specificity that during the process of casting formation it is not a constant but its initial value decreases with the solidification progress because the remaining melt volume can decrease faster than its cooling surface.Methodology: The modulus is determined by a simple calculation from the ratio of the casting volume after pouring the metal in the mould to the cooled mould surface. The solidified metal volume and the cooled surface too are changed during solidification. That calculation is much more complicated. Results were checked up experimentally by measuring the temperatures in the cross-section of heavy steel castings during cooling them.Results: The given experimental results have completed the original theoretical calculations by Chvorinov and recent researches done with use of numerical calculations. The contribution explains how the geometrical modulus together with the thermal process in the casting causes the higher solidification rate in the axial part of the casting cross-section and shortening of solidification time. Practical implications: Change of the geometrical modulus negatively affects the casting internal quality. Melt feeding by capillary filtration in the dendritic network in the casting central part decreases and in such a way the shrinkage porosity volume increases. State of stress character in the casting is changed too and it increases.

  19. Solid lipid nanoparticle preparation by a warm microemulsion based process: influence of microemulsion microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, P; Monduzzi, M; Caboi, F; Piras, S; Lazzari, P

    2013-03-25

    Warm microemulsions (WME) containing lipids are used as starting systems to obtain solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) in alternative processes to those based on high pressure homogenization technique. SLN characteristics can be influenced by the microemulsion composition and the specific conditions adopted in the quenching process related to the transformation of WME into nanoparticles. To establish optimized conditions for the production of SLN starting from WME, in a first step of this work we have defined the microstructure of warm microemulsions highlighted in the lecithin (LCT)/water (W)/tripalmitin (TP)/1-butanol (B)/taurocholate sodium salt (ST) phase behavior at 70°C. Moreover, we have further studied the LCT/W/TP/B system by evaluating the effect on the microemulsion area due to the LCT/B weight ratio, the replacement of 1-butanol with different alcohols (ROH), and the addition of taurocholate sodium salt (ST) at different LCT/ST weight ratios. The microstructure of the isotropic phase region obtained in the presence of ST has been characterized by both (1)H NMR PGSE measurements and electrical conductivity. The characteristics of final nanoparticles are discussed taking into account both the microstructure of the parent WME and the conditions of the quenching process leading to SLN. The present results highlight the relevance of the microstructural characteristic of WME to assure the obtainment of SLN with average diameter in the order of 100-2000 nm and narrow size distribution. PMID:23422277

  20. The Influence of Leaf Angle and Leaf Surface Characteristics on the Process of Rainfall Interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, C.; Ginebra, R.; Webb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Individual choice in plant selection for household landscaping influences differences in runoff from urban watersheds because the variation in plant canopy architecture results in rainfall interception differences. Understanding the variables that influence rainfall interception and understanding the mechanism of rainfall interception are important concepts for sustainable watershed management. The broad objective of this study was to explore the influence of leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle on the mechanism and process of rainfall interception and raindrop impaction on leaf surfaces of common tree species from the semi-arid regions of the western United States. Leaf hydrophobicity is determined by the cohesive forces of the water molecules among themselves and the adhesive forces that result from the molecular interactions between the water droplet and the leaf surface. Water droplet retention is a measure of how easily a water droplet drains off a leaf surface. The specific hypotheses examined were 1) larger raindrops falling on leaf surfaces will deflect the leaf to an angle greater than the water droplet retention angle; 2) an increased leaf angle, whether from natural position or deflection due to droplet impact and retention, reduces interception from raindrop impaction on hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces; and 3) increased droplet size and frequency decrease rainfall interception more significantly in the hydrophilic case. These hypotheses were addressed in a laboratory experiment by 1) measuring leaf hydrophobicity and water droplet retention using a goniometer with a tilting base; 2) measuring leaf traits such as leaf area, leaf surface roughness, trichome density, and specific storage capacity; 3) examining raindrop splash on leaf surfaces with varying leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle with a raindrop generator and high-speed video camera; and 4) modeling the impact of raindrop splash on leaf

  1. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  2. Influence of Magnetic Field on the Rectification Process of Binary Heterogeneous Azeotrope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Shaoyi; WU Songhai; LI Zhen; JIA Liang

    2005-01-01

    To improve separate effect of binary heterogeneous azeotrope in the magnetic field with different magnetic induction intensity, the influence of magnetic field on the rectification process of binary heterogeneous azeotrope was investigated with 1-butanol-water system. The results show that the composition of liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of 1-butanol-water system has definitely changed, the composition of 1-butanol in light phase (1-butanol layer) increases by 1.17%-1.63% and the composition of water in heavy phase (water layer) increases by 1.21%-1.58% under the influence of magnetic field. By separation of magnetization, the composition of 1-butanol increases by 0.8%-1.2% and the recovery ratio of 1-butanol increases by 1.6%-2.5%. Magnetic field has positive effect, however, the magnetized effect is not in proportion to magnetic induction intensity and has an optimum condition, in the range of 0.25 T-0.3 T.

  3. Suppression of savanna ants alters invertebrate composition and influences key ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C L; Eggleton, P; Davies, A B; Evans, T A; Holdsworth, S

    2016-06-01

    In almost every ecosystem, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are the dominant terrestrial invertebrate group. Their functional value was highlighted by Wilson (1987) who famously declared that invertebrates are the "little things that run the world." However, while it is generally accepted that ants fulfil important functions, few studies have tested these assumptions and demonstrated what happens in their absence. We report on a novel large-scale field experiment in undisturbed savanna habitat where we examined how ants influence the abundance of other invertebrate taxa in the system, and affect the key processes of decomposition and herbivory. Our experiment demonstrated that ants suppressed the abundance and activity of beetles, millipedes, and termites, and also influenced decomposition rates and levels of herbivory. Our study is the first to show that top-down control of termites by ants can have important ecosystem consequences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects ant communities have on other aspects of the ecosystem (e.g., soils, nutrient cycling, the microbial community) and how their relative importance for ecosystem function varies among ecosystem types (e.g., savanna vs. forest). PMID:27459790

  4. Influence of cast surface finishing process on metal-ceramic bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Vojvodić,

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the influence of different cast surface finishingprocess on metal-ceramics bond strength.Methods Six Co-Cr alloy sample groups were cast (Wirobond C,BEGO, Bremen, Germany and randomly selected for use in oneof the six different final processing of the casting surface (oxidation,sandblasting with 110 and 250 µm Al2O3, bonding agent,hydrochloric acid solution prior to application of feldspathic ceramic(Duceram Kiss, DeguDent, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany.The testing was carried out with a tensile testing machine (LRXwith Nexygen software, Lloyd Instr., Fareham, UK (ISO 9693.Results The highest force (66.902 N for the separation of ceramicsmeasured with the sample sandblasted with 250µm Al2O3,oxidised and repeatedly sandblasted with 250 µm, and the lowestforce (36.260 N with the sample treated with hydrochloric acidsolution. With all sample groups except the group with the bondingagent (cohesive fracture, an adhesive fracture of the mediumand an adhesive-cohesive fracture of the peripheral part of thefracture surface were observed. The oxidation, prolonged oxidationand the bonding agent do not influence the bond strength ofthe tested metal-ceramic system.Conclusion Different casting surface treatments have an importantrole on the bond strength of the ceramic-metal interface.

  5. Influence of Atmospheric Processes on the Solubility and Composition of Iron in Saharan Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Amelia F; Feng, Yan; Lai, Barry; Landing, William M; Shelley, Rachel U; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Violaki, Kalliopi; Ingall, Ellery D

    2016-07-01

    Aerosol iron was examined in Saharan dust plumes using a combination of iron near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical techniques. Aerosol samples were collected at three sites located in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and Bermuda to characterize iron at different atmospheric transport lengths and time scales. Iron(III) oxides were a component of aerosols at all sampling sites and dominated the aerosol iron in Mediterranean samples. In Atlantic samples, iron(II and III) sulfate, iron(III) phosphate, and iron(II) silicates were also contributors to aerosol composition. With increased atmospheric transport time, iron(II) sulfates are found to become more abundant, aerosol iron oxidation state became more reduced, and aerosol acidity increased. Atmospheric processing including acidic reactions and photoreduction likely influence the form of iron minerals and oxidation state in Saharan dust aerosols and contribute to increases in aerosol-iron solubility. PMID:27286140

  6. Influence of renormalization shielding on the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-Dong, Gunsan-City, Jeollabuk-Do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization of hydrogen atom are investigated in dense partially ionized plasmas. The effective projectile-target interaction Hamiltonian and the semiclassical trajectory method are employed to obtain the transition amplitude as well as the ionization probability as functions of the impact parameter, the collision energy, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization shielding effect suppresses the transition amplitude for the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization effect suppresses the differential ionization cross section in the peak impact parameter region. In addition, it is found that the influence of renormalization shielding on the ionization cross section decreases with an increase of the relative collision energy. The variations of the renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization cross section are also discussed.

  7. Internationalization process of a company in Brazil northeastern: influence of external agents and choices of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Magalhães Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the main characteristics of the international strategy formation process of an exporter fruit company, located in the São Francisco Valley (VCF, Northeastern of Brazil, regarding the influence of external agents and managerial choices of the firm. First, a brief contextualization of how this industry takes place in Brazil and abroad is presented. Seccondly, we discuss the theoretical concepts of strategies and then set up internationalization in the light of theories used as the basis for analysis, and these: Theory of Uppsala, Diamond Model Resource-based View (RBV, Product Lifecycle, Eclectic Paradigm Choice and Adaptive. The segment of empirical research is developed through an exploratory study involving company directors, through the application of semi-structured interviews. The analysis of data was performed by using the software Atlas.ti 6.0. Are apparent associations between models of internationalization and the way which the dimensions of analysis are mutually reinforced

  8. Influence of Dog-Bone Apex on Shape During Slab Horizontal Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; LI Chang-sheng; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    The deformation of slab with dog-bone shape during the horizontal rolling process was simulated using FEM, and the influences of apical dislocation of dog-bone on the slab spread as well as the minimum crop end loss and the lost width at slab head and tail were analyzed. The results show that with the increase in the apical dislocation of dog-bone (LA), the slab spread and the minimum crop end loss at slab head and tail decrease, while the lost width at slab head and tail increases. Meanwhile, the relationships of S/LA-LA, LH/LA-LA, WH/LA-LA, LT/LA-LA, and WT/LA-LA were obtained.

  9. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%).

  10. A REVIEW ON INFLUENCE OF MUSIC ON BRAIN ACTIVITY USING SIGNAL PROCESSING AND IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. ADALARASU,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As per clinical neuroscience, listening to music involves many brain activities and its study has advanced greatly in the last thirty years. Research shows that music has significant effect on our body and mind. Music has a positive effect on the hormone system and allows the brain to concentrate more easily and assimilate more information in less time, thereby boosting learning and information intake and thus augmenting cognitive skills. Studies have found that the silence between two musical notes triggers brain cells and neurons which are responsible for the development of sharp memory. Music at different pitches (for example, Madhyamavati, Sankarabarnam raga and so on elicits exceptionally emotions and is capable ofreliably affecting the mood of individuals, which in turn changes the brain activity. This article provides a brief overview of currently available signal processing and imaging techniques to study the influence of different music on human brain activity.

  11. Influence of the cordierite lining on the lost foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trumbulović Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the influence of the refractory cordierite lining on the structure and mechanical properties of Al-Si and Al-Cu casings obtained from the Lost foam casting process. So far there has not been any report of the research on cordierite lining in the literature and moreover the cordierite ceramics have never been used in foundries. In the light of these facts this paper investigates the possibility of using cordierite for manufacturing evaporable model refractory linings. Our results indicate that the application of cordierite ceramics is comparable to talc-based refractory linings in both Al-Cu and Al-Si castings, while cordierites are favorable in Al-Cu case due to their higher melting temperature.

  12. The influence of punctuation and word class on distributed processing in normal reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pynte, Joël; Kennedy, Alan

    2007-04-01

    A series of multiple regression analyses was conducted on a corpus of eye movement data to examine whether the influence of properties of words n-1 and n+1 on the time spent fixating word n changes as a function of whether word n is associated with a punctuation mark (i.e., whether or not a punctuation mark separates word n from either word n-1 or word n+1). The results suggest that distributed processing is not significantly impaired. However, punctuation marks also carry word class information and word classes are not evenly distributed across positions relative to punctuation marks. Word class probability does modulate parafoveal-on-foveal effects. PMID:17275060

  13. Influence of renormalization shielding on the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-04-01

    The renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization of hydrogen atom are investigated in dense partially ionized plasmas. The effective projectile-target interaction Hamiltonian and the semiclassical trajectory method are employed to obtain the transition amplitude as well as the ionization probability as functions of the impact parameter, the collision energy, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization shielding effect suppresses the transition amplitude for the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization effect suppresses the differential ionization cross section in the peak impact parameter region. In addition, it is found that the influence of renormalization shielding on the ionization cross section decreases with an increase of the relative collision energy. The variations of the renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization cross section are also discussed.

  14. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, all restorations showed a clinically acceptable marginal accuracy; however, the results suggest that the CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs. PMID:20495937

  15. Influence of hydrothermal alteration on phreatic eruption processes in Solfatara (Campi Flegrei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Montanaro, C.; Isaia, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    The strong hydrothermal activity exhibited at Campi Flegrei by the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles points to a significant risk for phreatic eruptions in this densely populated area. Phreatic eruptions, triggered by various processes are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size. Despite their hazard potential, these eruptions, as well as the influence of hydrothermal alteration on their likelihood, magnitude and style, have so far been largely overlooked in experimental volcanology. The physical properties and the mechanical behavior of volcanic rocks are highly dependent on their original magmatic microstructure and on any eventual alteration of those microstructures due to hydrothermal reactions. We have therefore investigated the potential effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock microstructure and, as a consequence, on fragmentation dynamics. Rock samples from the vicinity of the Solfatara fumaroles have been characterized 1) geochemically (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction), 2) physically (density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity) and 3) mechanically (uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength). We have investigated the effects of hydrothermal alteration on fragmentation processes using a shock-tube apparatus, operating with Argon gas, water vapor and superheated water at temperatures up to 400°C and maximum pressures of 20 MPa. The three different energy sources within the pores initiating fragmentation, have been investigated: overpressure by 1) Argon gas; or 2) water vapor and due to 3) steam flashing of water. Fragmentation speed, fragmentation efficiency and fragmented particle ejection velocity were measured. Our results indicate, that steam flashing provides the highest energy - resulting in increased particle ejection velocity and higher fragmentation efficiency. Based on our results, we aim to constrain the influence of hydrothermal alteration on the dynamics of phreatic explosions and the effect on the amount of

  16. Influence of the process parameters on the replication of microstructured freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgsteiner, M.; Müller, F.; Lucyshyn, T.; Kukla, C.; Holzer, C.

    2014-05-01

    Surfaces of technical parts are getting more and more attention in terms of functionalization. By modification, additional functionality is given to the part, e.g. self-cleaning effect or antireflection behavior. Nowadays mainly flat surfaces are structured which is a consequence of the available production methods. However, the demand of micro structured free form surfaces is increasing, enabling novel products. A major problem in the mass production (e.g. injection molding) of structured freeform surfaces is to demold these structures without ripping or deforming them due to occurring undercuts. Recently a novel concept was developed which overcomes this limitation. A nickel substrate containing a structure composed of lines orientated in two different directions, one orientated in melt flow direction, the other one perpendicular to that, but both with a cross-section of approximately 45 μm × 55 μm (w × h) was used as a premaster to cast a flexible master. This master made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was mounted on a bending edge in an injection mold cavity. Within this paper the influence of process parameters on the replication grade of the structure lines depending on the structure orientation was evaluated, varying the holding pressure, melt and mold temperature using statistical design of experiment methods. The replication grade was evaluated by characterizing the shape of the structure lines along the entire process chain, using an infinite focus system. The results show, that the melt temperature has the biggest influence on the dimensions of the structures, the mold temperature only a slight one.

  17. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  18. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutellier D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1–4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5–7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two

  19. Influence of domestic processing on the bioaccessibility of selenium from selected food grains and composite meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Anjum; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-03-01

    Selenium, an ultra trace element with several health beneficial attributes, should be mainly derived from dietary sources. Since food processing is likely to alter the bioavailability of micronutrients, the influence of such processing such as germination and fermentation on selenium content and bioaccessibility, information on which is lacking, was examined in this study. Bioaccessibility of selenium from four cereal-based composite meals was also studied. Chickpea, green gram and finger millet were employed to study the effect of germination, and for effect of fermentation, batters used in preparation dosa, idli and dhokla were used. Soaking the grains in water as a part of germination and fermentation brought about a decrease in selenium content, while its bioaccessibility was not affected. The information on the loss of selenium during soaking and heat processing of the germinated grains is novel. Fermentation resulted in a further decrease in selenium content, the percent decrease ranging from 26 to 47 in the batters. Similar decreases were seen in the bioaccessible selenium content as a result of soaking and fermentation. Cooking of the fermented batters, however, significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of selenium from dosa and dhokla by 44 and 71 %, respectively. Selenium content of the four meals ranged from 150 to 228.8 ng/g. Bioaccessible selenium was highest in the finger millet-based meal (32.8 ng/g), followed by sorghum, wheat and rice-based meals. The present investigation thus provides vital and novel information on selenium content and bioaccessibility from foods subjected to processing as is commonly practiced in Indian households. PMID:27570288

  20. Understanding of the influence of process parameters on the heat transfer behavior at the metal/die inter-face in high pressure die casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO ZhiPeng; XIONG ShouMei; LIU BaiCheng; LI Mei; Allison John

    2009-01-01

    The current paper focuses on the influence of the process parameters on the peak values of the inter-facial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. A "step shape" casting and AM50 alloy were used during the experiment. The IHTC was de-termined by solving the inverse thermal problem based on the measured temperature inside the die. Results show that the initial die surface temperature (IDST, TDI) has a dominant influence while the casting pressure and fast shot velocity have a secondary influence on the IHTC peak values. By curve fitting, it was found that the IHTC peak value (hmax) changes as a function of the IDST in a manner of hmax=eαTγDI. Such relationship between the IHTC peak value and the IDST can also be found when the casting alloy is ADC12, indicating that this phenomenon is a common characteristic in the HPDC process.

  1. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  2. Influence of patellofemoral pain syndrome on plantar pressure in the foot rollover process during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aliberti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is one of the most common knee disorders among physically active young women. Despite its high incidence, the multifactorial etiology of this disorder is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome on plantar pressure distribution during the foot rollover process (i.e., the initial heel contact, midstance and propulsion phases of the gait. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven young adults, including 22 subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (30 ± 7 years, 165 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 12 kg and 35 control subjects (29 ± 7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 60 ± 11 kg, volunteered for the study. The contact area and peak pressure were evaluated using the Pedar-X system (Novel, Germany synchronized with ankle sagittal kinematics. RESULTS: Subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome showed a larger contact area over the medial (p = 0.004 and central (p = 0.002 rearfoot at the initial contact phase and a lower peak pressure over the medial forefoot (p = 0.033 during propulsion when compared with control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is related to a foot rollover pattern that is medially directed at the rearfoot during initial heel contact and laterally directed at the forefoot during propulsion. These detected alterations in the foot rollover process during gait may be used to develop clinical interventions using insoles, taping and therapeutic exercise to rehabilitate this dysfunction.

  3. The influence of dimension on the relaxation process of East-like models: Rigorous results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chleboun, P.; Faggionato, A.; Martinelli, F.

    2014-08-01

    We study facilitated models which extend to arbitrary dimensions the one-dimensional East process and which are supposed to catch some of the main features of the complex dynamics of fragile glasses. We focus on the low-temperature regime (small density c\\approx e^{-\\beta} of the facilitating sites). In the literature the relaxation process has been assumed to be quasi-one-dimensional and the equilibration time has been computed using the relaxation time of the East model (d=1) on the equilibrium length scale L_c=(1/c)^{1/d} in d-dimension. This led to a super-Arrhenius scaling for the relaxation time of the form T_{\\text{rel}}\\asymp \\exp(\\beta^2/dlog 2) . In a companion paper, using renormalization group ideas and electrical networks methods, we rigorously establish that instead T_{\\text{rel}}\\asymp \\exp(\\beta^2/2dlog 2) , contradicting the quasi-one-dimensional assumption. The above scaling confirms previous MCAMC simulations. Next we compute the relaxation time at finite and mesoscopic length scales, and show a dramatic dependence on the boundary conditions. Our final result is related to the out-of-equilibrium dynamics. Starting with a single facilitating site at the origin we show that, up to length scales L=O(L_c) , its influence propagates much faster (on a logarithmic scale) along the diagonal direction than along the axes directions.

  4. Influence of different treatment condition on biopolymer yield production for coagulation-flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, I. S.; Murshed, M. F.; Norli, I.

    2016-06-01

    Two different agro wastes (banana pseudostem and rice straw) were utilized in order to extract biopolymer (pectin) known as coagulant aid in water and wastewater treatment. Factors such as pH, temperature and time were chosen due to the critical role in hot acid extraction process. The yield of biopolymer extraction from banana pseudostem was found to be higher at 28% meanwhile only 18% from rice straw was manage to produce from the dry weight 10 g, respectively. It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the most important factors influencing the biopolymer yield which increased with temperature and time or decreasing pH. Based on two level factorial design, the same condition of pH 1.5, temperature 90 oC and 4 hours extraction time can produce high amount of extracted biopolymer. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect the existence of functional group which helps in the coagulation-flocculation process. Result indicates a similar functional group of biopolymer were detected for both difference agro wastes.

  5. The Influence of Segregation Phenomena on Quality of Product in Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Skorulski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The segregation phenomena and formation of agglomerate have the basic influence on structure of the final product. The aim of this workis analyzing the phenomena of segregation in semi-solid extrusion process, using several kind of substitute materials, which can simulate the thixotrophic fluid behavior and displacement of solid particles. The experimental researches are made to investigation of segregation in the near-wall layers and the formation of agglomerate. Especially, the distribution of the solid particles at the end of extrusion process have been taken into consideration. Theoretical criteria describe the critical value of the energy liberated at the surfaces by the action of forces depends on the temperature, the pressure, the yield stress and the physical state and degree of intimacy of the contacting surfaces. The theory has been tested experimentally using a silicon polymer as a substitute material. Experimental stand with a Plexiglass die was prepared, such that the velocity fields at the surfaces could be observed and measured during plastic flow, allowing the empirical coefficients in the mathematical formulation to be estimated. On the basis of the theory and experiment an optimal die chamber was designed for a die with a complex shape.

  6. Influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the phase evolution during Bi-2212 wire melt processing

    CERN Document Server

    C. Scheuerlein; M.O. Rikel; J. Kadar; C. Doerrer; M. Di Michiel; A. Ballarino; L. Bottura; J. Jiang; F. Kametani; E.E. Hellstrom; D.C. Larbalestier; 10.1109/TASC.2016.2533574

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the oxygen partial pressure pO2 up to 5.5 bar on the phase changes that occur during melt processing of a state-of-the-art Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire. Phase changes have been monitored in situ by high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that the stability of Bi-2212 phase is reduced with increasing pO2. For pO2>1 bar a significant amount of Bi-2212 phase decomposes upon heating in the range 400 to 650 °C. The extent of decomposition strongly increases with increasing pO2, and at pO2=5.5 bar Bi-2212 decomposes completely in the solid state. Textured Bi-2212 can be formed during solidification when pO2 is reduced to 0.45 bar when the precursor is molten. Since the formation of current limiting second phases is very sensitive to pO2 when it exceeds 1 bar, we recommend to reduce the oxygen partial pressure below the commonly used pO2=1 bar, in order to increase the pO2 margins and to make the overpressure process more robust.

  7. Influence of processing on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of Mo-Si-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, M [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Saage, H [University of Applied Sciences Landshut, Mechanical Engineering, D- 84036 Landshut (Germany); Heilmaier, M [Technical University Darmstadt, Department Materials Science, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Boening, M; Kestler, H, E-mail: m.heilmaier@phm.tu-darmstadt.d [Plansee SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte in Tyrol (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Mo-Si-B materials consisting of a Mo(Si) solid solution and the intermetallic phases Mo{sub 3}Si and Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} (T2) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) as the crucial step of a powdermetallurgical process. After consolidation via an industrial processing route (cold isostatic pressing, sintering, hot isostatic pressing) the resulting microstructures of Mo-Si-B alloys up to 45% of intermetallic phases reveal a continuous {alpha}-Mo matrix with embedded, homogeneously distributed intermetallic particles. Clearly, increasing the amount of Mo solid solution reduces the BDTT (demonstrated by three point bending tests between room temperature and 1200{sup 0}C), however, values below 900{sup 0}C could not be obtained due to grain boundary embrittlement caused by Si segregation. Alloying with Zr was proven by Auger analysis in Mo-Si solid solutions to reduce this segregation. Therefore, in a second trial Zr as a (micro-) alloying element was added. The influence of microalloying on ductility and strength is comparatively discussed with reference compositions Mo-6Si-5B and Mo-9Si-8B.

  8. Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. PMID:22749720

  9. Red laser attenuation in biological tissues: study of the inflammatory process and pigmentation influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Caetano P.; Meneguzzo, Daiane T.; Benetti, Endi; Kato, Ilka T.; Prates, Renato A.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2012-03-01

    Several studies indicate that low level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates the healing process, however, for a determined pathology, dosimetry remains difficult to be established. To understand the tissue optical properties under different conditions is extremely relevant since the dose delivered to the target tissue is known to be critical. The skin pigmentation influence on the laser attenuation is not yet well established on different mice lineages or human ethnical groups, making the dose problematic. Along the same line, inflammatory processes may cause similar problems since the tissues in this condition change their optical properties due to inflammatory cell accumulation. This work evaluated the attenuation pattern of a HeNe laser (λ=632.8 nm) using ex vivo skin samples from Balb/C and C57BL/6 mice under inflammatory stages induced in their paw by local carrageenan inoculation. The samples were placed between two microscope slides, and a CCD camera was placed orthogonal to the beam path. The intensity distribution of the scattered light was photographed in grayscale and analyzed by ImageJ software. Our findings suggest that even slight differences of the epithelial pigmentation could result in a relevant dose loss delivered to the deeper tissues. The increase of the inflammatory cell density in the connective tissue indicated a highly scattering area also resulting in a dose loss for the deeper tissues when compared to control group.

  10. The Influence of the Chemical Structures of Chitosan and Acid Dye on the Adsorption Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Ben Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the study of the influence of the chemical structures of adsorbent and adsorbate on the adsorption process. By using of crab shell chitosan (CC and deep-pink shrimp chitosan (CP for removal of acid 183 and AR114 from aqueous solutions, it is shown that CP, which corresponds to the highest molecular weight, is the most efficient adsorbent material. In addition, the best extent of decolorization is obtained for AR 183 that is the smallest molecule. Langmuir model represents the best fit of the experimental data, indicating monolayer coverage of chitosan outer surface. Pseudo-second order kinetic model describes accurately the adsorption processes, suggesting chemical rate limiting steps. The positive values of the enthalpy changes indicated endothermic attachment of dyes to the biomaterials. CP/AR183 system corresponds to the most energetically favorable phenomenon. Besides, desorption of AR from chitosan was found to be very low in acidic aqueous medium for all couples.

  11. Influence of Delay Period Duration on Inhibitory Processes for Response Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Florent; Greenhouse, Ian; Labruna, Ludovica; Vanderschelden, Benjamin; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Ivry, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined the dynamics of inhibitory preparatory processes, using a delayed response task in which a cue signaled a left or right index finger (Experiment 1) or hand (Experiment 2) movement in advance of an imperative signal. In Experiment 1, we varied the duration of the delay period (200, 500, and 900 ms). When transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied 100 ms before the imperative, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited in the first dorsal interosseous were strongly inhibited. For delays of 500 ms or longer, this inhibition was greater when the targeted muscle was selected compared with when it was not selected. In contrast, the magnitude of inhibition just after the cue was inversely related to the duration of the delay period, and the difference between the selected and nonselected conditions was attenuated. In Experiment 2, TMS and peripheral nerve stimulation procedures were used during a 300-ms delay period. MEPs in the flexor carpi radialis for both selected and nonselected conditions were inhibited, but without any change in the H-reflex. Taken together, these results reveal the dual influence of temporal constraints associated with anticipation and urgency on inhibitory processes recruited during response preparation. PMID:25882038

  12. Influence of reservoir parameters and steam rate on SAGD process in a reservoir with gas cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillas, J.L.M.; Dutra, T.V.Jr. [Rio Grande do Norte Federal Univ., Natal (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Mata, W. [Rio Grande do Norte Federal Univ., Natal (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The process of steam injection in heavy oil reservoirs involves heating the reservoir to reduce oil viscosity and increase oil-phase mobility. Steam assisted gravity drainage is one of the most promising thermal recovery methods that has been used in countries such as Canada, the United States and Venezuela, but not in Brazil. This study verified if the process could be applied in Brazilian reservoirs. In particular, a reservoir with northeast Brazilian characteristics was studied in a homogeneous model with a gas cap. The STARS software from CMG was used for all cases. The steam requirement was optimized based on an economical study in which a simplified calculation for net present value (NPV) was obtained. The calculation depended on factors such as cumulative oil, steam injected volume, steam/oil cost ratio, net production cost and, oil price and internal return rate. This function made it possible to perform a steam optimization for different systems with maximal NPV. It was determined that optimal steam rate depends on reservoir characteristics. The thickness of the gas cap was found to have little influence on oil recovery. It was concluded that the optimal steam injection rate can be determined for maximal NPV depending on the physical characteristics of the reservoir. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Electrophysiological correlates of processing facial attractiveness and its influence on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhong, Jun; Zhang, Youxue; Li, Peng; Zhang, Aiqun; Tan, Qianbao; Li, Hong

    2012-05-31

    The present study investigated the temporal features of processing facial attractiveness, and its influence on the subsequent cooperative behavior. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for both face stimuli (attractive or unattractive faces) and feedback stimuli (loss or gain) while participants performed a modified trust game task, in which participants decided whether to cooperate with fictional partners (attractive or unattractive faces) for a chance to earn monetary rewards; feedback (loss or gain) were presented after their decisions. The behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to cooperate with the attractive partners than with the unattractive partners. The ERP analysis for face stimuli showed that a smaller P2 amplitude was elicited by attractive faces compared to unattractive faces. In addition, attractive faces elicited larger N2 and smaller late positive component (LPC) amplitudes than unattractive faces. More interestingly, a larger feedback related negativity (FRN) was elicited within the attractive face condition compared with the unattractive face condition. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that the discrimination of attractive and unattractive faces occurs at the early P2 stage, reflecting automatic processing of facial attractiveness. Moreover, the present study further demonstrates that facial attractiveness facilitates cooperative behavior, and that FRN elicited by outcome stimuli might be used as an index of how people judge and predict another's behavior in a social game. PMID:22410307

  14. Influence of photochemical processes on traffic-related airborne pollutants in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střižík, Michal; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Civiš, Svatopluk; Bestová, Iva; Nevrlý, Václav; Kadeřábek, Petr; Čadil, Jan; Berger, Pavel; Černý, Alexandr; Engst, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The urban street canyon of Legerova Street is part of the north-south trunk road that passes through the centre of Prague and remains an unresolved environmental issue for the capital of the Czech Republic. As many as one hundred thousand cars move through this region per day, and mortality has increased as a result of dust, NOx and other exhaust pollutants. The spatial distribution of pollutants (i.e., NO2, NO, and O3) during a day was measured by combined DIAL/SODAR techniques and spot analyzers that were appropriately located near the bottom of the street canyon. The measurements were performed under different meteorological conditions (autumn versus summer period). A purely physical approach does not provide a true description of reality due to photochemical processes that take place in the street canyon atmosphere. Sunlight in the summer triggers the production of ozone and thereby influences the concentration of NO2. The formation of an inverse non-diffuse vertical concentration distribution of NO2 in the morning hours was found to be related to the direct emission of O3 in the street and its background concentration. Rapid changes of NO2 concentrations were observed over time and in the vertical profile. An approach using a photochemical reactor to describe processes in a street canyon atmosphere was developed and verified as a useful tool for prediction purposes.

  15. Mathematical Model of Solid Food Pasteurization by Ohmic Heating: Influence of Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace’s equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  16. Mathematical model of solid food pasteurization by ohmic heating: influence of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  17. Recent Strategy of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil and Process Influencing Parameters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanaprakasam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost of biodiesel produced from virgin vegetable oil through transesterification is higher than that of fossil fuel, because of high raw material cost. To minimize the biofuel cost, in recent days waste cooking oil was used as feedstock. Catalysts used in this process are usually acids, base, and lipase. Since lipase catalysts are much expensive, the usage of lipase in biodiesel production is limited. In most cases, NaOH is used as alkaline catalyst, because of its low cost and higher reaction rate. In the case of waste cooking oil containing high percentage of free fatty acid, alkaline catalyst reacts with free fatty acid and forms soap by saponification reaction. Also, it reduces the biodiesel conversions. In order to reduce the level of fatty acid content, waste cooking oil is pretreated with acid catalyst to undergo esterification reaction, which also requires high operating conditions. In this review paper, various parameters influencing the process of biofuel production such as reaction rate, catalyst concentration, temperature, stirrer speed, catalyst type, alcohol used, alcohol to oil ratio, free fatty acid content, and water content have been summarized.

  18. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  19. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  20. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  1. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature

  2. Influence of HCl on oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by dielectric barrier discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Bo; Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Namkung, Won; Shin, Dong Nam; Koh, Dong Jun; Kim, Kyoung Tae

    2008-04-01

    The influence of HCl on the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) has been investigated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma process, where the temperature of the plasma reactor and the composition of gas mixtures of HCl, H2O, NO, and O2 in N2 balance have been varied. We observe that Cl atoms and Cl2 molecules, created by the DBD process, play important roles in the oxidation of Hg0 to HgCl2. The addition of H2O to the gas mixture of HCl in N2 accelerates the oxidation of Hg0, although no appreciable effect of H2O alone on the oxidation of Hg0 has been observed. The increase of the reaction temperature in the presence of HCl results in the reduction of Hg0 oxidation efficiency probably due to the deterioration of the heterogeneous chemical reaction of Hg0 with chlorinated species on the reactor wall. The presence of NO shows an inhibitory effect on the oxidation of Hg0 under DBD of 16% O2 in N2, indicating that NO acts as an O and O3 scavenger. At the composition of Hg0 (280 microg m(-3)), HCl (25 ppm), NO (204 ppm), O2 (16%) and N2 (balance) and temperature 90 degrees C, we obtain the nearly complete oxidation of Hg0 at a specific energy density of 8 J l(-1). These results lead us to suggest that the DBD process can be viable for the treatment of mercury released from coal-fired power plants. PMID:18313101

  3. The Influence of the RF PACVD MS Process Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedzielska A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroksyapatite (HAp as the coating, is produced using different methods of deposition, among others: laser ablation method, sol-gel, electrophoresis, thermal sputtering or magnetron spraying with the usage of high frequency. Attempts to benefit from such a wide spectrum of existing methods are related to the fact that this material possesses many advantages. We have to distinguish, among others, proper biological properties, i.e. both - high bio-tolerance and high osteo-inductivity [1,2]. However, it is worth mentioning that the material also presents disadvantages, i.e. it indicates too quick resorption within the biological environment, depending on its obtained form. In case when HAp is in the amorphous form, it undergoes a very rapid process of dissolving in the tissue environment. [3] In order to prevent the above, it is important to produce the coatings with a regulative level of cristallinity. In the presented research the hydroxyapatite coating produced using RF PACVD MS plasma method (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Magnetron Sputtering possesses the above mentioned amorphous form. Nevertheless, due to the usage of ‘bubbler’, allowing for delivery of hydroxyl groups into the operating chamber, it was possible to receive the Hap coatings in a crystalline form. Changing the operating pressure (the amount of bonds - OH, during sputtering, it was checked what is the influence of that parameter on the physicochemical properties of obtained coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for the founding research as well as the Roentgen Apparatus Analyser (EDS. The Phase composition of a created coating was researched using the Roentgen diffract-meter (XRD. The measures of thickness were conducted using contact-profilometry. Nano-indentation technique was used to assess the mechanical properties. Obtained results of research encourage for further researches related to the influence of hydroxyl groups on the

  4. Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion is a Sterile Inflammatory Process Influenced by Commensal Microbiota in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Arun; Sundar, Shirin V; Zhu, Ying-Gang; Tran, Alphonso; Lee, Jae-Woo; Lowell, Clifford; Hellman, Judith

    2015-09-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) complicates numerous clinical processes, such as cardiac arrest, transplantation, and major trauma. These conditions generate sterile inflammation, which can cause or worsen acute lung injury. We previously reported that lung and systemic inflammation in a mouse model of ventilated lung IR depends on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signaling and the presence of alveolar macrophages. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the intestinal microbiome has a role in influencing the inflammatory response to lung IR. Lung IR was created in intubated mechanically ventilated mice via reversible left pulmonary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Inflammatory markers and histology were tracked during varying periods of reperfusion (from 1 to 24 h). Separate groups of mice were given intestinally localized antibiotics for 8 to 10 weeks and then were subjected to left lung IR and analysis of lungs and plasma for markers of inflammation. Alveolar macrophages from antibiotic-treated or control mice were tested ex vivo for inflammatory responses to bacterial TLR agonists, namely, lipopolysaccharide and Pam3Cys. We found that inflammation generated by left lung IR was rapid in onset and dissipated within 12 to 24 h. Treatment of mice with intestinally localized antibiotics was associated with a marked attenuation of circulating and lung inflammatory markers as well as reduced histologic evidence of infiltrating cells and edema in the lung after IR. Alveolar macrophages from antibiotic-treated mice produced less cytokines ex vivo when stimulated with TLR agonists as compared with those from control mice. Our data indicate that the inflammatory response induced by nonhypoxic lung IR is transient and is strongly influenced by intestinal microbiota. Furthermore, these data suggest that the intestinal microbiome could potentially be manipulated to attenuate the post-IR pulmonary inflammatory response. PMID:26196836

  5. Influence of Humic Acid on 1-Aminopyrene Ecotoxicity During Solar Photolysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Min Hwang

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: 1-Aminopyrene (1-AP, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, is a major metabolite during biotransformation of 1-nitropyrene by microflora in natural environment and in the guts of animals and humans. Under UV-A irradiation, 1-AP has been shown to cause light-induced DNA single strand cleavage. Humic acids (HA in aquatic ecosystems can influence the bioavailability, toxicity, and fate of organic xenobiotics. Therefore, photochemical fate and effect of PAH in natural aquatic environment may differ significantly across sites. The objectives of this study are to assess the time course (TC; 18 and 90 minutes influence of HA (0, 20, and 60 ppm on microbial ecotoxicity of 1-AP (0 and 10 μM during solar photolysis process (PP. Microbial ecotoxicity of 1-AP during different time courses in the presence and absence of HA was measured with spread plate counting and microbial mineralization of 14C-D-glucose. The experimental results were analyzed as factorial arrangements of treatment in a complete randomized design using General Linear Model by SAS. LSMEANS was used to separate means or combination of means. Significant effect on glucose mineralization was found by the following treatment interactions 1-AP*TC, 1-AP*PP, TC*PP, HA*1-AP*TC, HA*1-AP*PP, and HA*1-AP*TC*PP. The treatment interaction HA*1-AP was the only one affecting spread plate counting. In the groups exposed to 1-AP (10 μM, microbial heterotrophic mineralization of 14C-D-glucose was significantly inhibited in the presence of HA in light and in darkness. Exposure to HA in light and darkness, however, did not necessarily inhibit bacterial viability at the HA concentration range assayed. Therefore, inhibition on microbial activity could have been caused by multiple factors, instead of toxicity of HA alone.

  6. Dynamic Multi-Relational Chinese Restaurant Process for Analyzing Influences on Users in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkaraju, Himabindu; Bhattacharya, Indrajit; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of analyzing influence of various factors affecting individual messages posted in social media. The problem is challenging because of various types of influences propagating through the social media network that act simultaneously on any user. Additionally, the topic composition of the influencing factors and the susceptibility of users to these influences evolve over time. This problem has not studied before, and off-the-shelf models are unsuitable for this purpose. To c...

  7. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docters, E. H.; Smolko, E. E.; Suarez, C. E.

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All this grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA).

  8. Influence of core box vents distribution on flow dynamics of core shooting process based on experiment and numerical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-jiang Ni; Gao-chun Lu; Qing-dong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Core shooting process plays a decisive role in the quality of sand cores, and core box vents distribution is one of the most important factor determining the effectiveness of core shooting process. In this paper, the influence of core box vents distribution on the flow dynamics of core shooting process was investigated based on in situ experimental observations with transparent core box, high-speed camera and pressure measuring system. Attention was focused on the variation of both the flow b...

  9. The Influence of the Early Retirement Process on Satisfaction with Early Retirement and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiro, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group norms about early retirement as antecedents of the early retirement process and subsequent satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-bei...

  10. Transformative Influence of Business Processes on the Business Model : Classifying the State of the Practice in the Software Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bonakdar, Amir; Weiblen, Tobias; Di Valentin, Christina; Zeißner, Theresa; Pussep, Anton; Schief, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Fast changing business environments often force companies to rethink and renew their established business model. Often though, decisions to make changes to the current business model are made too late, when the current business is already struggling. One way to overcome this challenge is to continuously monitor business processes in operations and to adjust the business model according to changes in business processes. This paper clarifies the influence of business processes on the business m...

  11. “Failures of the State”: Factors of Formation and Mechanisms of Influence on Economic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Nikolay Vladimirovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of genesis and influence on real economic processes of “failures of the state”. The article designates the objective functions inherent in the state the realization of which can increase the efficiency of economic interactions reducing transaction expenses. Besides, the key factors of non-optimal activity of the state as well as actual “failures of the state” are considered. The approaches to the definition of “failures of the state” are analyzed. Taking into account functional approach the author proposes the model definition allowing to separate “failures of the state” from factors and conditions of their emergence. Among the emergence factors of “failures of the state” the author analyzes in detail the key division of economy subjects to net-payers and net-recipients of the income, the fact of distribution of consequences of state regulation to the sectors which are not direct objects of regulation as well as the influence of short-term decisions for long-term prospects are designated. The author also analyzes the range of “failures of the state”, including such as formation of monopolies, tax discouraging, failures of social security, nature of “state business”, derivation of resources and workers from economy, formation of an inequality and calculational (price chaos in economy. The key consequences and volume of the economic damage formed by “failures of the state” are considered, the corresponding quantitative estimates are given. The most important vectors of optimization of activity of the state which provide minimization of “failures of the state” and the related economic damage are designated. According to the author, such vectors include the priority of market self-regulation under the condition of refusal from substitutes in the form of “approach” of public sector to market standards. The minimization of public sector activity aimed at the exclusion of

  12. Similarities and Differences in Adolescent Siblings’ Alcohol-Related Attitudes, Use, and Delinquency: Evidence for Convergent and Divergent Influence Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Jensen, Alexander C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings influence each other’s risky and deviant behaviors during adolescence. Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study examined the operation and implications of three different influence processes--social learning, shared friends, and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included one parent and two adolescent siblings (earlier born age: M = 17.17 years, SD = 0.94; later born age: M = 14....

  13. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF MOLD ROTATIONAL SPEED ON THE CAST WALL THICKNESS IN THE ROTATIONAL MOLDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jachowicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the rotational molding process. The general principles of this polymer processing technology have been described. The main applications have been introduced and leading advantages and typical disadvantages of rotational molding process have been discussed. Based on the conducted experimental tests, the influence of changing one selected technological parameter, which characterized rotational molding process, on selected geometrical features of the polymer cast has been determined. Rotational mold’s speed around axes was changed and a thickness of cast walls has been measured. Laboratory test stand, processing properties of polymer, also test program and experimental test methodology have been described.

  15. The hows and whys of face processing: Level of construal influences the holistic processing of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Natalie A; Hollins, Timothy J; Pahl, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition and identification are optimized by holistic processing. Various visual-spatial manipulations appear to have transfer effects on holistic face processing. The present experiment tests the effects of a semantic manipulation--of construal level--on holistic processing as measured by composite congruency effects. Participants completed two blocks of trials. The first served as a baseline, whereas the second included a manipulation of construal level. High-level construal resulted in stronger congruency effects, indicative of greater holistic processing (relative to baseline and to low-level construal). These results have implications for conceptualizations of both construal level and holistic processing. PMID:26436426

  16. Influence of processing parameters on microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → This paper highlights the relationships among processing parameters, microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 high temperature titanium alloy. → The microstructural evolutions under different processing parameters were studied by the quantitative metallography, and the effects of microstructure on room and high temperature tensile properties of TG6 alloy were analysed by SEM and TEM. → Linear relationships of elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase and ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of lamellar α phase were determined. - Abstract: Near-isothermal forging of the TG6 titanium alloy was conducted on microprocessor-controlled 630 ton hydraulic press at the deformation temperatures ranging from 850 deg. C to 1045 deg. C, the strain rates of 0.0008 s-1, 0.003 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and the deformation degree from 10% to 70%, and then different double heat treatments were applied to the forged specimens. The microstructural evolutions were researched by optical microscope and the microstructural features, i.e. volume fraction of primary α phase and thickness of lamellar α phase, were measured by means of the image analysis software. The room and high temperature tensile properties were obtained for all the specimens. Effects of microstructure on the properties were analysed by scanning electronic microscope. It was found that tenslie properties depended on microstructural features strongly. The plots of ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of α lamellae and elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase produced straight lines. The liner equations were determined by fitting the experimental date, respectively. Compared to other parameters, heat treatment had more influence on the tensile strength and the tensile plasticity was more sensitive to the forging temperature.

  17. Influence of thermomechanical processing on the structure and properties of Cu-Ag alloy in situ composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING; Yuan-tao; ZHANG; Xiao-hui; ZHANG; Jie

    2005-01-01

    The influences of the thermomechanical processing, including the solidification conditions, the cold deformation and the intermediate annealing treatment, on the structure and properties of the Cu-10Ag alloy in situ composite were studied in this paper. The cast structure and the structural changes in the cold deformation and intermediate annealing process were observed. The properties including the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the electrical conductivity were determined. A two-stage strain strengthening effect for the Cu-10Ag alloy in situ filamentary composite was observed. The factors influencing the UTS and conductivity were discussed. The solidification conditions in the range of 10-1000 K/s cooling rates and the intermediate heat treatment showed obviously influence on the structure and properties on the Cu-10Ag alloy in situ filamentary composite. The typical properties of the Cu-Ag alloy in situ filamentary composites through thermomechanical processing were reported.

  18. The influence of hot-working processing on plasticity and structure of duplex steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Radwanski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are numerous branches of industry where the (α+γ duplex steels have not yet been sufficiently popularised due to problems with their forming, resulting from different properties of the both phases which make up the material. This paper analyses the influence of temperature and tension rate on the superplastic flow of the (α+γ duplex steel.Design/methodology/approach: Steel specimens were cold deformed with a 70% rolling reduction. After a solution head treatment (1350°C, the specimens were tensioned in temperatures ranging from 800 to 950°C at a rate of vr=15×10-3÷3×10-1mm/s in a 0.005Pa vacuum. Structural examination was carried out using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A quantitative analysis of structural changes was performed using the „MetIlo” image analysis programme.Findings: This paper has shown the cooperation of structure reconstruction mechanisms during deformation of the investigated steel and attempet the changes that take place in the steel structure during superplastic flow.Practical implications: The research carried out enabled the understanding of the phenomena taking place during deformation and annealing of the investigated alloy. The results will constitute the basis for modelling the structural changes.Originality/value: The results will be used to design the basis for a thermo-mechanical processing technology via rolling and inter-operational annealing of the investigated steel.

  19. Influence of preferred orientation of minerals in the mineralogical identification process by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda Luzia da; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Fernandes, Maria Lourdes Souza, E-mail: lourdesfernandes@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de GeoCiencias. Centro de Pesquisa Professor Manoel Teixeira da Costa

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray diffraction corresponds to one of the main techniques for characterization of microstructures in crystalline materials, widely used in the identification of minerals in samples of geological materials. Some minerals have a property called preferred orientation which corresponds to the orientation tendency of the crystals of ground minerals to orient themselves in certain directions according to a preferred crystallographic plane. This property affects the analysis by X-ray diffraction and this fact can generates erroneous results in the characterization. The purpose of this study is to identify the negative influence of the preferred orientation of a mineral in the generation of diffraction patterns obtained in the X-ray diffraction analysis. For this, a sample of muscovite, a mineral of mica group, was prepared by two different methods: the frontal method and the back loading method. In the analysis using the frontal method there was displacement of the XRD pattern in the abscissa axis, where it was observed changes in interplanar distance and angle 2{theta} values, which are essential information for characterization and identification of a mineral. In the analysis using the back loading method, the generated XRD pattern showed no displacement in the axis of abscissas and showed interplanar distance and angle 2{theta} values closer to the real values for the muscovite. The results showed that one can only make improvements to the process of sample preparation minimizing the effect of preferred orientation in the analysis. There is no need to change conditions of diffractometer measurements. (author)

  20. Influence of gas pressure and substrate temperature on PIII nitrocarburizing process of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Rahman, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag Branch, Sohag (Egypt) and Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: ahmedphys96@hotmail.com; El-Hossary, F.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag Branch, Sohag (Egypt); Negm, N.Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag Branch, Sohag (Egypt); Prokert, F. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Richter, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Moeller, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been used to modify the surface properties of 304 austenitic stainless steel (AISI). The influence of working gas pressure, 0.2-1.0 Pa, and substrate temperature, 300-500 deg. C, on the microstructure, treating rate, nitrogen/carbon concentration depth profile, and surface microhardness was investigated. A gas composition of 25% C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, 75% N{sub 2}, r.f. plasma power input of 350 W, and a negatively biased potential of 30 kV were fixed during the experiment. The experimental results show that the substrate temperature and the diffusion process of nitrogen and carbon depend on the gas pressure inside the plasma chamber. The thickness of the modified layer has been found to be more than 30 {mu}m for samples were treated in the plasma for 60 min. The results show also that the values of diffusion coefficient and surface microhardness of the treated samples are high to be 3.4 x 10{sup -1} {mu}m{sup 2}/s and 1880 kg/mm{sup 2}, respectively.

  1. Influence of gas pressure and substrate temperature on PIII nitrocarburizing process of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, A. M.; El-Hossary, F. M.; Negm, N. Z.; Prokert, F.; Richter, E.; Möller, W.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been used to modify the surface properties of 304 austenitic stainless steel (AISI). The influence of working gas pressure, 0.2-1.0 Pa, and substrate temperature, 300-500 °C, on the microstructure, treating rate, nitrogen/carbon concentration depth profile, and surface microhardness was investigated. A gas composition of 25% C2H2, 75% N2, r.f. plasma power input of 350 W, and a negatively biased potential of 30 kV were fixed during the experiment. The experimental results show that the substrate temperature and the diffusion process of nitrogen and carbon depend on the gas pressure inside the plasma chamber. The thickness of the modified layer has been found to be more than 30 μm for samples were treated in the plasma for 60 min. The results show also that the values of diffusion coefficient and surface microhardness of the treated samples are high to be 3.4 × 10-1 μm2/s and 1880 kg/mm2, respectively.

  2. Influence of macromolecular architecture on necking in polymer extrusion film casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extrusion film casting (EFC) is an important polymer processing technique that is used to produce several thousand tons of polymer films/coatings on an industrial scale. In this research, we are interested in understanding quantitatively how macromolecular chain architecture (for example long chain branching (LCB) or molecular weight distribution (MWD or PDI)) influences the necking and thickness distribution of extrusion cast films. We have used different polymer resins of linear and branched molecular architecture to produce extrusion cast films under controlled experimental conditions. The necking profiles of the films were imaged and the velocity profiles during EFC were monitored using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) technique. Additionally, the temperature profiles were captured using an IR thermography and thickness profiles were calculated. The experimental results are compared with predictions of one-dimensional flow model of Silagy et al1 wherein the polymer resin rheology is modeled using molecular constitutive equations such as the Rolie-Poly (RP) and extended Pom Pom (XPP). We demonstrate that the 1-D flow model containing the molecular constitutive equations provides new insights into the role of macromolecular chain architecture on film necking.1D. Silagy, Y. Demay, and J-F. Agassant, Polym. Eng. Sci., 36, 2614 (1996)

  3. Influence of Process Parameters on the Production of Metabolites in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation (SSF involves the growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free water. This low moisture content makes the SSF different from submerged fermentation. Unlike the situation in submerged fermentation there is no systematic study guiding the design and operation of large scale SSF with propercontrols. The understanding and modeling of microbial growth kinetics and transport phenomena play important roles in the SSF. The design of bioreactors from tray type to stirred tank is discussed. The packed bed, rotating drum, rocking drum, fluidized bed and stirred tank reactors are used in SSF with and without modifications. The parameters like pH, temperature, agitation and aeration also need to be controlled. There is a large gradient of temperature throughout thetrays. By manipulating the nitrogen source requirement, the pH of the system is generally controlled. The different factors that control the agitation and aeration in the SSF are discussed. Finally the advantages and disadvantages of SSF compared to submerged fermentation were mentioned. Moreover, such understanding is very much required in the design, scale up and process control in SSF. This paper deals with the influence of environmental parameters such as airflow rate, temperature, pH, substrate concentration and other physico-chemical parameters on the production of specific metabolites.

  4. The influence of various solute additions on the process of vacancy clustering in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with thin foils of binary aluminium-based alloys containing various amounts of magnesium, silver, germanium, silicon and zinc in solid solution, prepared from quenced bulk specimens. The influence of the various solute additions on the process of vacancy clustering in aluminium has been investigated, primarily with the aid of the transmission electron microscope. In the first chapter the purpose of the project is explained and placed in proper perspective. A brief introduction to transmission electron microscopy is presented in the second chapter. The third and fourth chapters comprise a literature survey to summarize the present state of development of the field of vacancy clustering covered by this disseration, including an introduction to some basic concepts needed for a full appreciation of the results. The following chapter describes the experimental procedure, where a detailed description is presented of concepts such as annealing and minimum annealing time, specimen preparation, quenching rate measurement, thickness measurement of the foil, and the calculation methods for the vacancy concentration and vacancy-solute binding energy. The results and discussion are presented in chapter six, where three main aspects of the vacancy cluster observed in this study examined, viz. (1) Classification of the various vacancy cluster observed according to their incidence and structural relationship. (2) Measurements are made of the vacancy concentration and of the binding energies between vancancies and solute atoms in aluminium-based alloys. (3) Finally, the experimentally observed size distribution of vacancy clusters in the various alloys are presented

  5. Influence of macromolecular architecture on necking in polymer extrusion film casting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, Harshawardhan; Banik, Sourya; Azad, Lal Busher; Doshi, Pankaj; Lele, Ashish [CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, Maharashtra (India); Thete, Sumeet [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Extrusion film casting (EFC) is an important polymer processing technique that is used to produce several thousand tons of polymer films/coatings on an industrial scale. In this research, we are interested in understanding quantitatively how macromolecular chain architecture (for example long chain branching (LCB) or molecular weight distribution (MWD or PDI)) influences the necking and thickness distribution of extrusion cast films. We have used different polymer resins of linear and branched molecular architecture to produce extrusion cast films under controlled experimental conditions. The necking profiles of the films were imaged and the velocity profiles during EFC were monitored using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) technique. Additionally, the temperature profiles were captured using an IR thermography and thickness profiles were calculated. The experimental results are compared with predictions of one-dimensional flow model of Silagy et al{sup 1} wherein the polymer resin rheology is modeled using molecular constitutive equations such as the Rolie-Poly (RP) and extended Pom Pom (XPP). We demonstrate that the 1-D flow model containing the molecular constitutive equations provides new insights into the role of macromolecular chain architecture on film necking.{sup 1}D. Silagy, Y. Demay, and J-F. Agassant, Polym. Eng. Sci., 36, 2614 (1996)

  6. Electron-phonon scattering dynamics in ferromagnetic metals and their influence on ultrafast demagnetization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essert, Sven; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2011-12-01

    We theoretically investigate spin-dependent carrier dynamics due to the electron-phonon interaction after ultrafast optical excitation in ferromagnetic metals. We calculate the electron-phonon matrix elements including the spin-orbit interaction in the electronic wave functions and the interaction potential. Using the matrix elements in Boltzmann scattering integrals, the momentum-resolved carrier distributions are obtained by solving their equation of motion numerically. We find that the optical excitation with realistic laser intensities alone leads to a negligible magnetization change, and that the demagnetization due to electron-phonon interaction is mostly due to hole scattering. Importantly, the calculated demagnetization quenching due to this Elliot-Yafet-type depolarization mechanism is not large enough to explain the experimentally observed result. We argue that the ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnets does not occur exclusively via an Elliott-Yafet type process, i.e., scattering in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction, but is influenced to a large degree by a dynamical change of the band structure, i.e., the exchange splitting.

  7. Prestimulus default mode activity influences depth of processing and recognition in an emotional memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Witmer, Joëlle S; Schwab, Simon; Nakataki, Masahito; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Henke, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2016-03-01

    Low self-referential thoughts are associated with better concentration, which leads to deeper encoding and increases learning and subsequent retrieval. There is evidence that being engaged in externally rather than internally focused tasks is related to low neural activity in the default mode network (DMN) promoting open mind and the deep elaboration of new information. Thus, reduced DMN activity should lead to enhanced concentration, comprehensive stimulus evaluation including emotional categorization, deeper stimulus processing, and better long-term retention over one whole week. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain activation preceding and during incidental encoding of emotional pictures and on subsequent recognition performance. During fMRI, 24 subjects were exposed to 80 pictures of different emotional valence and subsequently asked to complete an online recognition task one week later. Results indicate that neural activity within the medial temporal lobes during encoding predicts subsequent memory performance. Moreover, a low activity of the default mode network preceding incidental encoding leads to slightly better recognition performance independent of the emotional perception of a picture. The findings indicate that the suppression of internally-oriented thoughts leads to a more comprehensive and thorough evaluation of a stimulus and its emotional valence. Reduced activation of the DMN prior to stimulus onset is associated with deeper encoding and enhanced consolidation and retrieval performance even one week later. Even small prestimulus lapses of attention influence consolidation and subsequent recognition performance. PMID:26663662

  8. Influence of thermally activated processes on the deformation behavior during low temperature ECAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, S.; Scholze, M.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    High strength aluminum alloys are generally hard to deform. Therefore, the application of conventional severe plastic deformation methods to generate ultrafine-grained microstructures and to further increase strength is considerably limited. In this study, we consider low temperature deformation in a custom-built, cooled equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) tool (internal angle 90°) as an alternative approach to severely plastically deform a 7075 aluminum alloy. To document the maximum improvement of mechanical properties, these alloys are initially deformed from a solid solution heat-treated condition. We characterize the mechanical behavior and the microstructure of the coarse grained initial material at different low temperatures, and we analyze how a tendency for the PLC effect and the strain-hardening rate affect the formability during subsequent severe plastic deformation at low temperatures. We then discuss how the deformation temperature and velocity influence the occurrence of PLC effects and the homogeneity of the deformed ECAP billets. Besides the mechanical properties and these microstructural changes, we discuss technologically relevant processing parameters (such as pressing forces) and practical limitations, as well as changes in fracture behavior of the low temperature deformed materials as a function of deformation temperature.

  9. Influence of carbon source and temperature on the denitrifying phosphorus removal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yayi; WANG Shuying; PENG Yongzhen; Zhu Guibing; LING Yunfang

    2007-01-01

    To supply the valuable operating parameters for the popular usage of the new denitrifying phosphors removal process,it is essential to study the dominant biochemical reactions and the characteristics of denitriflying phosphorus removing bacteria(DPB).Thus,parallel batch experiments using DPB sludge were carried out to assess the effect of substrates(sewage,HAc,and endogenous carbon source)on denitriflying dephosphorus removal efficiency in this study.The results showed that the initial specific phosphorus release rate increased with the high concentration of the short-chain volatile fatty acids ratio in the influent,and sufficient phosphorus was released by DPB.This improved the subsequent denitrification and phosphorus uptake efficiency.The specific endogenous denitrification mainly relies on the internal carbon source(PHB)stored by poly-P bacteria.Denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria were very hungry when the internal PHB was consumed.Consequently,the specific endogenous denitrification rate was low and the phosphorus uptake did not happen.On the other hand,in the experiment,the denitrifying phosphorus removal performance under two temperature conditions(8-10℃ and 25-26℃)was also investigated and analyzed.It was found that the lower temperature decreased the specific phosphorus release and uptake rate,but did not inhibit the denitrifying phosphorus removal completely.Therefore,the negative influence of the low temperature on the overall phosphorus removal was not significant.

  10. Characteristics and influence factors of mold filling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Qingming; Chen Xia; Chen Changjun; Bao Siqian; David Schwam

    2009-01-01

    The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold filling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum flowing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented gating systems. The investigation discovers that there are many influencing factors on the mold filling process. This paper focuses its research on some of the factors, such as the dimensions of the vertical riser and slot thickness, as well as roughness of the coating layer. The results indicate that molten metal can smoothly fill into casting cavity with a proper slot gating system. A bigger vertical riser, proper slot thickness and rougher coating can provide not only a better mold filling pattern, but also hot melt into the top of the cavity. A proper temperature gradient is obtainable, higher at the bottom and lower at the top of the casting cavity, which is in favor of feeding during casting solidification.

  11. Influence of process parameters on band gap of AI-doped ZnO film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu HUANG; Xiangbin ZENG; Yajuan ZHENG; Xiaojin WANG; Yanyan YANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of process parameters, such as argon (Ar) flow rate, sputtering power and substrate temperature on the band gap of Al-doped ZnO film, Al-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technology and deposited on polyimide and glass substrates. Under different Ar flow rates varied from 30 to 70 sccm, the band gap of thin films were changed from 3.56 to 3.67 eV. As sputtering power ranged from 125 to 200 W, the band gap was varied from 3.28 to 3.82 eV; the band gap was between 3.41 and 3.88 eV as substrate temperature increases from 150℃ to 300℃. Furthermore, the correlation between carrier concentration and band gap was investigated by HALL. These results demonstrate that the band gap of the Al-doped ZnO thin film can be adjusted by changing the Ar flow rate, sputtering power and substrate temperature, which can improve the performance of semiconductor devices related to Al-doped ZnO thin film.

  12. Does taste matter? How anticipation of cola brands influences gustatory processing in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available Brands surround us everywhere in daily life. Here we investigate the influences of brand cues on gustatory processing of the same beverage. Participants were led to believe that the brand that announced the administration of a Cola mixture provided correct information about the drink to come. We found stronger fMRI signal in right mOFC during weak compared to strong brand cues in a contrast of parametric modulation with subjective liking. When directly comparing the two strong brands cues, more activation in the right amygdala was found for Coca Cola cues compared with Pepsi Cola cues. During the taste phase the same beverage elicited stronger activation in left ventral striatum when it was previously announced by a strong compared with a weak brand. This effect was stronger in participants who drink Cola infrequently and might therefore point to a stronger reliance on brand cues in less experienced consumers. The present results reveal strong effects of brand labels on neural responses signalling reward.

  13. Influence of deep cryogenic treatment on internal friction behavior in the process of tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The secondary-hardening effect of the DCT treated samples was lower because of the elimination of retained austenite. → The mobile dislocations are reduced after same tempering both in the DCT treated sample and the non-DCT treated sample which indicates the DCT treating made more carbon atoms formatting carbides during the tempering. → An indirect evidence was made on more carbides precipitated after DCT to improve wear resistance. - Abstract: This paper investigated the influence of deep cryogenic treatment on the internal friction behaviors in the process of tempering. The internal friction indicates the carbon atoms segregated to nearby dislocations and produced strong interactions, including interstitial carbon atoms themselves and between the interstitial carbon atoms with time-dependent strain field of dislocations. It is made clear that the cluster of carbon atoms nearby the dislocations in the DCT either acts as or grows into nuclei for the formation of carbide on subsequent during tempering. Thus the improvement of wear resistance due to more carbides precipitation after DCT treating has been observed indirectly by using internal friction.

  14. Selection of organic process and source indicator substances for the anthropogenically influenced water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Martin; Dott, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Axel; Dünnbier, Uwe; Gnirß, Regina; Haist-Gulde, Brigitte; Hamscher, Gerd; Letzel, Marion; Licha, Tobias; Lyko, Sven; Miehe, Ulf; Sacher, Frank; Scheurer, Marco; Schmidt, Carsten K; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of organic micropollutants (OMP) is detected in anthropogenically influenced water cycles. Source control and effective natural and technical barriers are essential to maintain a high quality of drinking water resources under these circumstances. Based on the literature and our own research this study proposes a limited number of OMP that can serve as indicator substances for the major sources of OMP, such as wastewater treatment plants, agriculture and surface runoff. Furthermore functional indicators are proposed that allow assessment of the proper function of natural and technical barriers in the aquatic environment, namely conventional municipal wastewater treatment, advanced treatment (ozonation, activated carbon), bank filtration and soil aquifer treatment as well as self-purification in surface water. These indicator substances include the artificial sweetener acesulfame, the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole and the herbicide mecoprop among others. The chemical indicator substances are intended to support comparisons between watersheds and technical and natural processes independent of specific water cycles and to reduce efforts and costs of chemical analyses without losing essential information. PMID:25563167

  15. The Influence of Crushed Concrete Demolition Waste Aggregates on the Hardening Process of Concrete Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga FINOŽENOK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete – complex structure composite material consisting of the components with various structure and size. Not only coarse and fine aggregates are used in concrete production, but also filler aggregates. Aggregates of natural, man-made origin or aggregates, produced from recycled materials, can be utilised in concrete production. Aggregates can be produced from recycled materials by reprocessing of concrete and reinforced concrete waste. The influence of the filler aggregates produced from the crushed concrete waste on the characteristics of binder’s paste, when part of the binder (5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 % is replaced by such filler aggregate, is analysed in the research. Concrete mixtures with natural aggregates and crushed concrete waste were selected and concrete mixtures of required consistence were produced during the research. Exothermic reactions take place during the hardening of concrete mixture, at that time the heat is dissipated, which increases the temperature of the concrete sample. Thus the exothermic processes were investigated during the concrete’s mixture hardening period and the temperatures of exothermic reactions were determined.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3833

  16. Influence of tides and gravity waves on layering processes in the polar summer mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE have been studied at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, Norway, using VHF radar observations since 1994. One remarkable feature of these observations is the fact that {during 50% of the time,} the radar echoes occur in the form of two or more distinct layers. In the case of multiple PMSE layers, statistical analysis shows that the lower layer occurs at a mean height of ~83.4 km, which is almost identical to the mean height of noctilucent clouds (NLC derived from observation with the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at the same site. To investigate the layering processes microphysical model simulations under the influence of tidal and gravity waves were performed. In the presence of long period gravity waves, these model investigations predict an enhanced formation of multiple PMSE layer structures, where the lower layer is a consequence of the occurrence of the largest particles at the bottom of the ice cloud. This explains the coincidence of the lowermost PMSE layers and NLC. During periods with enhanced amplitudes of the semidiurnal tide, the observed NLC and PMSE show pronounced tidal structures comparable to the results of corresponding microphysical simulations. At periods with short period gravity waves there is a tendency for a decreasing occurrence of NLC and for variable weak PMSE structures.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майрамгуль Зайнабидиновна Ташиева

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

  18. Antigenic variation with a twist--the Borrelia story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Steven J

    2006-06-01

    A common mechanism of immune evasion in pathogenic bacteria and protozoa is antigenic variation, in which genetic or epigenetic changes result in rapid, sequential shifts in a surface-exposed antigen. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Dai et al. provide the most complete description to date of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing fever spirochaete, Borrelia hermsii. This elaborate, plasmid-encoded system involves an expression site that can acquire either variable large protein (vlp) or variable small protein (vsp) surface lipoprotein genes from 59 different archival copies. The archival vlp and vsp genes are arranged in clusters on at least five different plasmids. Gene conversion occurs through recombination events at upstream homology sequences (UHS) found in each gene copy, and at downstream homology sequences (DHS) found periodically among the vlp/vsp archival genes. Previous studies have shown that antigenic variation in relapsing fever Borrelia not only permits the evasion of host antibody responses, but can also result in changes in neurotropism and other pathogenic properties. The vlsE antigenic variation locus of Lyme disease spirochaetes, although similar in sequence to the relapsing fever vlp genes, has evolved a completely different antigenic variation mechanism involving segmental recombination from a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes. These two systems thus appear to represent divergence from a common precursor followed by functional convergence to create two distinct antigenic variation processes. PMID:16796669

  19. Comparable quality attributes of hepatitis E vaccine antigen with and without adjuvant adsorption-dissolution treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Min; Yang, Fan; Li, Yufang; Zheng, Zizheng; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Qingshan; Wang, Ying; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian

    2015-01-01

    Most vaccines require adjuvants for antigen stabilization and immune potentiation. Aluminum-based adjuvants are the most widely used adjuvants for human vaccines. Previous reports demonstrated the preservation of antigen conformation and other antigen characteristics after recovery from adjuvanted Hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccines. In this study, we used a combination of various physiochemical and immunochemical methods to analyze hepatitis E vaccine antigen quality attributes after recovery from adjuvants. All biochemical and biophysical methods showed similar characteristics of the p239 protein after recovery from adjuvanted vaccine formulation compared to the antigen in solution which never experienced adsorption/desorption process. Most importantly, we demonstrated full preservation of key antigen epitopes post-recovery from adjuvanted vaccine using a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies as exquisite probes. Antigenicity of p239 was probed with a panel of 9 mAbs using competition/blocking ELISA, surface plasmon resonance and sandwich ELISA methods. These multifaceted analyses demonstrated the preservation of antigen key epitopes and comparable protein thermal stability when adsorbed on adjuvants or of the recovered antigen post-dissolution treatment. A better understanding of the antigen conformation in adjuvanted vaccine will enhanced our knowledge of antigen-adjuvant interactions and facilitate an improved process control and development of stable vaccine formulation.

  20. Processing and cross-presentation of individual HLA-A, -B, or -C epitopes from NY-ESO-1 or an HLA-A epitope for Melan-A differ according to the mode of antigen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Neil C; McAlpine, Tristan; Knights, Ashley J; Schnurr, Max; Shin, Amanda; Chen, Weisan; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Cebon, Jonathan

    2010-07-15

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present protein tumor antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) underpins the success of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We studied cross-presentation of the cancer/testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, and the melanoma differentiation antigen, Melan-A by human DC subsets. Monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) efficiently cross-presented human leukocyte associated (HLA)-A2-restricted epitopes from either a formulated NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX vaccine or when either antigen was mixed with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant. HLA-A2 epitope generation required endosomal acidification and was proteasome-independent for NY-ESO-1 and proteasome-dependent for Melan-A. Both MoDCs and CD1c(+) blood DCs cross-presented NY-ESO-1-specific HLA-A2(157-165)-, HLA-B7(60-72)-, and HLA-Cw3(92-100)-restricted epitopes when formulated as an NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX vaccine, but this was limited when NY-ESO-1 and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant were added separately to the DC cultures. Finally, cross-presentation of NY-ESO-1(157-165)/HLA-A2, NY-ESO-1(60-72)/HLA-B7, and NY-ESO-1(92-100)/HLA-Cw3 epitopes was proteasome-dependent when formulated as immune complexes (ICs) but only proteasome-dependent for NY-ESO-1(60-72)/HLA-B7-restricted cross-presentation facilitated by ISCOMATRIX adjuvant. We demonstrate, for the first time, proteasome-dependent and independent cross-presentation of HLA-A-, B-, and C-restricted epitopes within the same full-length tumor antigen by human DCs. Our findings identify important differences in the capacities of human DC subsets to cross-present clinically relevant, full-length tumor antigens and how vaccine formulation impacts CTL responses in vivo.