WorldWideScience

Sample records for antigen mismatch correlates

  1. Impact of human leukocyte antigen mismatching on outcomes of liver transplantation:A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess the effect of human leukocyte antigen(HLA) mismatching on liver graft outcome and acute rejection from a meta-analysis of available cohort studies.METHODS:Articles in PubMed/MEDLINE,EMBASE and the Cochrane database from January 1970 to June 2009,including non-English literature identified in these databases,were searched.Only studies comparing HLA or sub-phenotype matching with mismatching were extracted.The percentage of graft survival was extracted by "Engauge Digitizer" from survival curves...

  2. Mismatch correction modulates mutation frequency and pilus phase and antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Alison K; Bonney, Kevin M; Chang, Rhoda A; Duffin, Paul M; LeCuyer, Brian E; Seifert, H Steven

    2010-01-01

    The mismatch correction (MMC) system repairs DNA mismatches and single nucleotide insertions or deletions postreplication. To test the functions of MMC in the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae, homologues of the core MMC genes mutS and mutL were inactivated in strain FA1090. No mutH homologue was found in the FA1090 genome, suggesting that gonococcal MMC is not methyl directed. MMC mutants were compared to a mutant in uvrD, the helicase that functions with MMC in Escherichia coli. Inactivation of MMC or uvrD increased spontaneous resistance to rifampin and nalidixic acid, and MMC/uvrD double mutants exhibited higher mutation frequencies than any single mutant. Loss of MMC marginally enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA carrying a single nucleotide mismatch but not that of DNA with a 1-kb insertion. Unlike the exquisite UV sensitivity of the uvrD mutant, inactivating MMC did not affect survival after UV irradiation. MMC and uvrD mutants exhibited increased PilC-dependent pilus phase variation. mutS-deficient gonococci underwent an increased frequency of pilin antigenic variation, whereas uvrD had no effect. Recombination tracts in the mutS pilin variants were longer than in parental gonococci but utilized the same donor pilS loci. These results show that gonococcal MMC repairs mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and also affects the recombination events underlying pilin antigenic variation. The differential effects of MMC and uvrD in gonococci unexpectedly reveal that MMC can function independently of uvrD in this human-specific pathogen. PMID:19854909

  3. Outcomes of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients from human leukocyte antigen matched or mismatched unrelated donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Tingting; Li Yanfen; Wang Quanshun; Li Honghua; Bo Jian; Zhao Yu; Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors (UR-PBSCT) is an alternative treatment for many hematologic diseases due to lack of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donors.This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the degree of the HLA match on the clinical efficacy of UR-PBSCT.Methods Patients who underwent UR-PBSCT from September 2003 to September 2012 were retrospectively investigated.They were divided into three groups according to high-resolution molecular typing.SPSS version 17.0 was used to analysis and compare the statistics of engraftment,incidence of GVHD,other complications and survival among the groups.Results One hundred and eleven patients received UR-PBSCT,60 of them with an HLA matched donor (10/10),36 of them with a one locus mismatched donor (9/10),and 15 of them with a two loci mismatched donor (8/10).Similar basic characteristics were found in the three groups.No differences were found in engraftment of myeloid cells or platelets in the three groups (P>0.05).Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse,overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) among those three groups were similar (P>0.05).The cumulative incidence of 100-day Ⅲ-Ⅳ aGVHD in the HLA matched group and the one HLA locus mismatched group were significantly lower than that in the two HLA loci mismatched group (3.3%,8.6%,and 26.7%,P=0.009).The occurrence rate of new pulmonary infections in the HLA matched group was lower than in the two HLA mismatched groups (26.67%,52.78%,and 41.18%,P=0.035).The cumulative incidence of 100-day and 2-year transplantation related mortality (TRM) in two HLA loci mismatched group was higher than in the HLA matched group and in the one HLA locus mismatched group,(8.4%,11.8% and 33.3%,P=0.016) and (12.3%,18.7% and 47.5%,P=0.002).Conclusions HLA mismatch will not significantly impact the engraftment or 2-year survival after UR-PBSCT,but two mismatched HLA loci may

  4. Mismatch Correction Modulates Mutation Frequency and Pilus Phase and Antigenic Variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Alison K.; Bonney, Kevin M.; Chang, Rhoda A.; Duffin, Paul M.; LeCuyer, Brian E.; Seifert, H. Steven

    2009-01-01

    The mismatch correction (MMC) system repairs DNA mismatches and single nucleotide insertions or deletions postreplication. To test the functions of MMC in the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae, homologues of the core MMC genes mutS and mutL were inactivated in strain FA1090. No mutH homologue was found in the FA1090 genome, suggesting that gonococcal MMC is not methyl directed. MMC mutants were compared to a mutant in uvrD, the helicase that functions with MMC in Escherichia coli....

  5. Symmetry and lattice mismatch induced strain accommodation near and away from correlated perovskite interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailionis, A.; Boschker, H.; Liao, Z.; Smit, J. R. A.; Rijnders, G.; Huijben, M.; Koster, G.

    2014-09-01

    Distinct MnO6 octahedral distortions near and away from the La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3(001) (LSMO/STO) interface are quantified using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dynamical x-ray diffraction simulations. Three structural regions of stress accommodation throughout the film thickness were resolved: near the LSMO/STO interface, intermediate region farther from the interface, and the main layer away from the interface. The results show that within the first two unit cells stress is accommodated by the suppression of octahedral rotations in the film, leading to the expansion of the c-axis lattice parameter. Farther from the interface film structure acquires octahedral tilts similar to thicker perovskite films under tensile stress, leading to a reduced c-axis parameter. We demonstrate that these regions are related to two different strain coupling mechanisms: symmetry mismatch at the interface and lattice mismatch in the rest of the film. The findings suggest new routes for strain engineering in correlated perovskite heterostructures.

  6. Symmetry and lattice mismatch induced strain accommodation near and away from correlated perovskite interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vailionis, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Boschker, H. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Liao, Z.; Smit, J. R. A.; Rijnders, G.; Huijben, M.; Koster, G. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-09-29

    Distinct MnO{sub 6} octahedral distortions near and away from the La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}(001) (LSMO/STO) interface are quantified using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dynamical x-ray diffraction simulations. Three structural regions of stress accommodation throughout the film thickness were resolved: near the LSMO/STO interface, intermediate region farther from the interface, and the main layer away from the interface. The results show that within the first two unit cells stress is accommodated by the suppression of octahedral rotations in the film, leading to the expansion of the c-axis lattice parameter. Farther from the interface film structure acquires octahedral tilts similar to thicker perovskite films under tensile stress, leading to a reduced c-axis parameter. We demonstrate that these regions are related to two different strain coupling mechanisms: symmetry mismatch at the interface and lattice mismatch in the rest of the film. The findings suggest new routes for strain engineering in correlated perovskite heterostructures.

  7. H3N2 Mismatch of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccines and Head-to-head Comparison between Human and Ferret Antisera derived Antigenic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hang; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Ye, Zhiping; Plant, Ewan P.; Zhao, Yangqing; Xu, Yifei; Li, Xing; Finch, Courtney; Zhao, Nan; Kawano, Toshiaki; Zoueva, Olga; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Jing, Xianghong; Lin, Zhengshi; Zhang, Anding; Zhu, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The poor performance of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere (NH) influenza vaccines was attributed to mismatched H3N2 component with circulating epidemic strains. Using human serum samples collected from 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2014-15 NH influenza vaccine trials, we assessed their cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses against recent H3 epidemic isolates. All three populations (children, adults, and older adults) vaccinated with the 2014-15 NH egg- or cell-based vaccine, showed >50% reduction in HAI post-vaccination geometric mean titers against epidemic H3 isolates from those against egg-grown H3 vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 (TX/12e). The 2014-15 NH vaccines, regardless of production type, failed to further extend HAI cross-reactivity against H3 epidemic strains from previous seasonal vaccines. Head-to-head comparison between ferret and human antisera derived antigenic maps revealed different antigenic patterns among representative egg- and cell-grown H3 viruses characterized. Molecular modeling indicated that the mutations of epidemic H3 strains were mainly located in antibody-binding sites A and B as compared with TX/12e. To improve vaccine strain selection, human serologic testing on vaccination-induced cross-reactivity need be emphasized along with virus antigenic characterization by ferret model.

  8. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  9. Effects of mismatched transmissions on two-mode squeezing and EPR correlations with a slow light medium

    OpenAIRE

    Thanvanthri, Sulakshana; Wen, Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically discuss the preservation of squeezing and continuous variable entanglement of two mode squeezed light when the two modes are subjected to unequal transmission. One of the modes is transmitted through a slow light medium while the other is sent through an optical fiber of unit transmission. Balanced homodyne detection is used to check the presence of squeezing. It is found that loss of squeezing occurs when the mismatch in the transmission of the two modes is greater than 40% ...

  10. Composition of inflammatory infiltrate and its correlation with HBV/HCV antigen expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bozena Walewska-Zielecka; Kazimierz Madalinski; Joanna Jablonska; Paulina Godzik; Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk; Bogumila Litwinska

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the composition of liver inflammatory infiltrate in biopsy material from patients chronically infected with hepatotropic viruses and to evaluate the correlation of inflammatory infiltrate with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral antigen expression in chronic B and C hepatitis.METHODS: The phenotype of inflammatory cells was evaluated by the EnVision system, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. HBV and HCV antigens were detected with the use of monoclonal anti-HBs, poly-clonal anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively.RESULTS: The cellular composition of liver inflammatory infiltrate was similar in the patients with B and C hepatitis: ~50%-60% of cells were T helper lymphooltes. Approximately 25% were T cytotoxic lymphocytes; B lymphocytes comprised 15% of inflammatory infiltrate; other cells, including NK, totalled 10%. Expression of HLA antigens paralleled inflammatory activity. Portal lymphadenoplasia was found more often in hepatitis C (54.5%) than in hepatitis B (30.6%). Expression of HB-cAg was found more often in chronic B hepatitis of moderate or severe activity. Overall inflammatory activity in HBV-infected cases did not correlate with the intensity of HBsAg expression in hepatooltes. Inflammatory infiltrates accompanied the focal expression of HCV anti-gens. A direct correlation between antigen expression and inflammatory reaction in situ was noted more often in hepatitis C than B.CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the etiology and activity of hepatitis, components of the inflammatory infiltrate in liver were similar. Overall inflammatory activity did not correlate with the expression of HBsAg and HCVAg; HBcAg expression, however, accompanied chronic hepatitis B of moderate and severe activity.

  11. Antigenic diversification is correlated with increased thermostability in a mammalian virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presloid, John B; Mohammad, Tasneem F; Lauring, Adam S; Novella, Isabel S

    2016-09-01

    The theory of plastogenetic congruence posits that ultimately, the pressure to maintain function in the face of biomolecular destabilization produces robustness. As temperature goes up so does destabilization. Thus, genetic robustness, defined as phenotypic constancy despite mutation, should correlate with survival during thermal challenge. We tested this hypothesis using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). We produced two sets of evolved strains after selection for higher thermostability by either preincubation at 37°C or by incubation at 40°C during infection. These VSV populations became more thermostable and also more fit in the absence of thermal selection, demonstrating an absence of tradeoffs. Eleven out of 12 evolved populations had a fixed, nonsynonymous substitution in the nucleocapsid (N) open reading frame. There was a partial correlation between thermostability and mutational robustness that was observed when the former was measured at 42°C, but not at 37°C. These results are consistent with our earlier work and suggest that the relationship between robustness and thermostability is complex. Surprisingly, many of the thermostable strains also showed increased resistance to monoclonal antibody and polyclonal sera, including sera from natural hosts. These data suggest that evolved thermostability may lead to antigenic diversification and an increased ability to escape immune surveillance in febrile hosts, and potentially to an improved robustness. These relationships have important implications not only in terms of viral pathogenesis, but also for the development of vaccine vectors and oncolytic agents. PMID:27344137

  12. Tumor Expression of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen Correlates with High Mitotic Activity and Cell Pleomorphism Index in Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rancés Blanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, some research efforts are focusing on the evaluation of a variety of tumor associated antigens (TAAs for a better understanding of tumor biology and genetics of lung tumors. For this reason, we evaluated the tissue expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and ior C2 (a cell surface O-linked glycoprotein carbohydrate chain TAA in lung carcinomas, as well as its correlation with a variety of clinicopathological features. The tissue expression of CEA was evidenced in 22/43 (51.16% lung carcinomas and it was correlated with mitotic activity, cell pleomorphism indexes, and age of patients. The expression of ior C2 was observed in 15/43 (34.88% tumors but no correlation with the clinicopathological features mentioned above was obtained. No correlation between both CEA and ior C2 antigens expression and the overall survival (OS of non-small-cell lung cancer patients was also observed. However, CEA-negative patients displayed higher OS rates as compared with positive ones (69.74 versus 58.26 months. Our results seem to be in agreement with the role of CEA expression in tumor cell proliferation, inhibition of cell polarizations and tissue architecture distortion. The significance of ior C2 antigen in these malignancies and it potential use in diagnosis, prognosis, and/or immunotherapy must be reevaluated.

  13. Tissue expression of Squamous Cellular Carcinoma Antigen (SCCA is inversely correlated to tumor size in HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangia Anita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate squamous cellular carcinoma antigen (SCCA in serum and in tumoral and paired peritumoral tissues. We studied 27 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC and 55 with HCC: 20 with a single nodule 3 cm or multifocal (l-HCC. Methods Serum SCCA was measured by the ELISA kit, and in frozen tissues by immunohistochemistry, quantified with appropriate imaging analysis software and expressed in square microns. Continuous variables are reported as means and 95% confidence intervals. Comparisons between independent groups were performed with a generalized linear model and Tukey grouping. Pearson's correlation coefficients were determined to evaluate relations between markers. Qualitative variables were summarized as count and percentage. Statistical significance was set at p-value Results Serum SCCA values in LC patients were 0.41 (0.31–0.55 ng/ml and statistically different from both HCC groups: 1.6 (1.0–2.6 ng/ml in s-HCC, 2.2 (1.28–2.74 ng/ml in l-HCC. SCCA in hepatic tissue was 263.8 (176.6–394.01 μm2 in LC patients, statistically different from values in s-HCC: 1163.2 (863.6–1566.8 μm2 and l-HCC: 625.8 (534.5–732.6. All pairwise comparisons between groups yielded statistically significant differences. Tumoral SCCA resulted linearly related with nodule size, showing a statistically significant inverse relation between the two variables (b = -0.099, p = 0.024. Conclusion There was no statistically significant correlation between tissue and serum levels of SCCA. The significantly stronger expression of SCCA in smaller compared to larger HCC could be important for early HCC detection. However, the increased expression in peritumoral tissue could affect the significance of serological detection.

  14. The expression of mismatched repair genes and their correlation with clinicopathological parameters and response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chintamani,; Jha, Binita P; Bhandari, Vimal; Bansal, Anju; Saxena, Sunita; Bhatnagar, Dinesh

    2007-01-01

    Background The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is an important post-replicative repair process. It is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and MMR genes have therefore been named the proofreaders of replicating DNA. These genes repair the replicative errors of DNA and are thus imperative for genomic stability. The MMR genes have been found to be involved in promoting cytotoxicity, apoptosis, p53 phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest following exposure to exogenous DNA damaging a...

  15. Serological Correlate of Protection in Guinea Pigs for a Recombinant Protective Antigen Anthrax Vaccine Produced from Bacillus brevis

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, On-Jee; Cho, Min-Hee; Hong, Kee-Jong; Seong, Won Keun; Oh, Hee-Bok; Rhie, Gi-eun

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recombinant protective antigen (rPA) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of a second generation anthrax vaccine undergoing clinical trials both in Korea and the USA. By using the rPA produced from Bacillus brevis pNU212 expression system, correlations of serological immune response to anthrax protection efficacy were analyzed in a guinea pig model. Methods Serological responses of rPA anthrax vaccine were investigated in guinea pigs that were given single or two injections (inte...

  16. antigen from irradiated Trypanosoma evansi and its correlation with antibody forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research parasites of T. evansi was weakened by gamma irradiation dose of 300 Gy. This antigen being before being used was coupled/bounded with a carrier (Freund's adjuvant). West star rats of 3 months old were as used as treated animal. These animal were divided into 4 groups contained 5 rats. Group I (Control) was untreated animals, Group II (radiation) the animals were irradiated with a low dose 0.5 Gy. Group III Immunization) the animals were immunized with irradiated antigen, and Group IV (Immunization and radiation) the animal were immunized and then irradiated with a low dose of 0.5 Gy. Immunization were done by intraperitoneal route with irradiated antigen (0.5-1ml). These results were as follows : the polyclonal antibody forming of Group I (control), Group II (Radiation), Group III (Immunization), and Group IV (Immunization and radiation) were 6.34; 5.96; and 5.88 mg/ml, respectively. Group III (Immunization) Yielded polyclonal antibody a little higher than the other treated animals. Even though the antigen was coupled with a carrier, it seemed that it did not influence the parasites variant antigenic types (VTA). (author)

  17. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus core-related antigens and their correlation to virus load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Rokuhara, Akinori; Sakamoto, Yoko; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Maki, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) specific for hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was developed. We designated the precore/core gene products as hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigens (HBcrAg). In order to detect HBcrAg even in anti-HBc/e antibody-positive specimens, the specimens were pretreated in detergents. The antibodies are inactivated by this pretreatment and, simultaneously, the antigens are released and the epitopes are exposed. The assay demonstrated 71 to 112% recovery using HBcrAg-positive sera. We observed no interference from the tested anticoagulants or blood components. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 10(3) U/ml, all healthy control (HBsAg/HBV-DNA negative; n = 108) and anti-HCV antibody-positive (n = 59) sera were identified as negative. The assay showed a detection limit of 4 x 10(2) U/ml using recombinant antigen. Detection limits were compared in four serially diluted HBV high-titer sera. The HBcrAg assay demonstrated higher sensitivity than HBV-DNA transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) or HBeAg radio immunoassay (RIA) in the dilution test. HBcrAg concentrations correlated well with HBV-DNA TMA (r = 0.91, n = 29) and in-house real-time detection-PCR (r = 0.93, n = 47) in hepatitis B patients. On HBeAg/anti-HBe antibody seroconversion panels, the HBcrAg concentration changed in accordance with HBV-DNA levels. HBcrAg concentration provides a reflection of HBV virus load equivalent to HBV-DNA level, and the assay therefore offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients.

  18. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  19. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain-in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- the authors have compared the γ-interferon (IFN-γ) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. They focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggest that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain

  20. Cancer-testis antigens PRAME and NY-ESO-1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-07-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer-testis antigen PRAME was up-regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well-differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well-differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY-ESO-1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round-cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY-ESO-1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high-level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our results support the potential use of PRAME and NY

  1. Hydrophobic mismatch triggering texture defects in membrane gel domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J.; Brewer, J.R.; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2013-01-01

    a lipid-induced transition between vortex and uniform textures in binary phospholipid bilayers. By tuning the lipid composition, the hydrophobic mismatch at the domain boundary can be varied systematically as monitored by AFM. Low hydrophobic mismatch correlates with domains having uniform texture, while...

  2. Strategic Mismatches in Competing Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Kräkel, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic role of mismatching, where players voluntarily form inefficient teams or forego the formation of efficient teams, respectively. Strategic mismatching can be rational when players realize a competitive advantage (e.g. harming other competitors). In addition, the results show that free riding can be beneficial for a team in combination with strategic mismatching and that the loser?s curse may be welfare improving by mitigating the problem of strategic mismatch...

  3. Surface antigen expression and correlation with variable heavy-chain gene mutation status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilpo, Juhani; Tobin, Gerard; Hulkkonen, Janne; Hurme, Mikko; Thunberg, Ulf; Sundström, Christer; Vilpo, Leena; Rosenquist, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consists of two clinical entities with either somatically hypermutated (M-CLL) or unmutated (UM-CLL) immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain (VH) regions. In view of the fact that the cellular biology of these two subsets of disease is currently unexplored, we performed an extensive analysis of the surface antigen expression and correlated this with the VH gene mutation status in a cohort of 32 CLL patients. Using polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing, the VH genes were shown to be mutated in 10 cases (31%) and unmutated in 22 (69%). The expression of 27 surface membrane antigens in peripheral blood leukemic cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, measuring both the percentage of positive cells as well as the geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMF). Most of the surface membrane antigens (CD5, CD11c, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD40, CD45, VD79b, CD80, CD95, CD122, CD124, CD126, CD130, CD154, IgM, and IgD) showed a similar expression pattern in both UM-CLL and M-CLL patients. The similarity of M-CLL and UM-CLL, as demonstrated here for the first time with many protein markers, indicates a considerably homogeneous phenotype in both subsets. Furthermore, CD27 was strongly expressed in all cases, which may suggest a memory cell phenotype for both M-CLL and UM-CLL. More positive cells in the UM-CLL group were observed regarding CD38, but CD38 was not a good predictor of VH gene mutation status. Seventy percent of the M-CLL cases, but only 36% of UM-CLL cases, were Ig-lambda+. The most striking differential expression, however, was observed in the two slicing variants of the common leukocyte antigen CD45, namely CD45RO and CD45RA. CD45RO expression was significantly associated with M-CLL, whereas the GMF intensity of CD45RA tended to be associated with UM-CLL. The role of these CD45 splicing variants in the pathogenesis of CLL deserves further investigation

  4. Protective Antigen-Specific Memory B Cells Persist Years after Anthrax Vaccination and Correlate with Humoral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Garman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA generates short-lived protective antigen (PA specific IgG that correlates with in vitro toxin neutralization and protection from Bacillus anthracis challenge. Animal studies suggest that when PA-specific IgG has waned, survival after spore challenge correlates with an activation of PA-specific memory B cells. Here, we characterize the quantity and the longevity of AVA-induced memory B cell responses in humans. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from individuals vaccinated ≥3 times with AVA (n = 50 were collected early (3–6 months, n = 27 or late after their last vaccination (2–5 years, n = 23, pan-stimulated, and assayed by ELISPOT for total and PA-specific memory B cells differentiated into antibody secreting cells (ASCs. PA-specific ASC percentages ranged from 0.02% to 6.25% (median: 1.57% and did not differ between early and late post-vaccination individuals. PA-specific ASC percentages correlated with plasma PA-specific IgG (r = 0.42, p = 0.03 and toxin neutralization (r = 0.52, p = 0.003 early post vaccination. PA-specific ASC percentages correlated with supernatant anti-PA both early (r = 0.60, p = 0.001 and late post vaccination (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001. These data suggest PA-specific memory B cell responses are long-lived and can be estimated after recent vaccination by the magnitude and neutralization capacity of the humoral response.

  5. Evaluation of Humoral Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Antigens for Correlation with Clinical Status and Effective Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Niki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tuberculosis remains a major global health problem, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG is the only available vaccine. However, BCG has limited applications, and a more effective vaccine is needed. Cellular mediated immunity (CMI is thought to be the most important immune response for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. However, the recent failure of a clinical trial for a booster BCG vaccine and increasing evidence of antibody-mediated immunity prompted us to evaluate humoral immunity to Mtb-specific antigens. Using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, we observed less correlation of both CMI and IgG titers with patient clinical status, including serum concentration of C reactive protein. However, IgA titers against Mtb were significantly correlated with clinical status, suggesting that specific IgA antibodies protect against Mtb proliferation. In addition, in some cases, IgA antibody titers were significantly associated with the serum concentration of total albumin, which supports the idea that humoral immunity can be influenced by the nutritional status. Based on these observations, we propose that the induction of humoral immunity should be included as an option in TB vaccine development strategies.

  6. Evaluation of Humoral Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Antigens for Correlation with Clinical Status and Effective Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Mamiko; Suzukawa, Maho; Akashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hideaki; Ohta, Ken; Inoue, Manabu; Niki, Makoto; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Kozo; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Kitada, Seigo; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Although tuberculosis remains a major global health problem, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine. However, BCG has limited applications, and a more effective vaccine is needed. Cellular mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be the most important immune response for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the recent failure of a clinical trial for a booster BCG vaccine and increasing evidence of antibody-mediated immunity prompted us to evaluate humoral immunity to Mtb-specific antigens. Using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, we observed less correlation of both CMI and IgG titers with patient clinical status, including serum concentration of C reactive protein. However, IgA titers against Mtb were significantly correlated with clinical status, suggesting that specific IgA antibodies protect against Mtb proliferation. In addition, in some cases, IgA antibody titers were significantly associated with the serum concentration of total albumin, which supports the idea that humoral immunity can be influenced by the nutritional status. Based on these observations, we propose that the induction of humoral immunity should be included as an option in TB vaccine development strategies. PMID:26568961

  7. Mammalian mismatch repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation...

  8. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2002-01-01

    bioassay with regards to specificity, sensitivity, detection limit, and reproducibility. We have found the optimal assay conditions to be 1 x 10 (4) CT.h4S cells/well deprived of IL-4 for 24 h and preincubated for 7 h followed by 18 h of incubation with tritiated methyl-thymidine. In this setting the CT.h4...... of IL-4 detection was not due to high amounts of soluble IL-4 receptor. With the use of 1x10(6) responder cells/well in HLA-mismatched MLC, we found limited IL-4 accumulation still increasing at day 12. We conclude that the CT.h4S bioassay is a reliable and specific method for quantification of IL-4......Limiting dilution analysis has been used in the context of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation to determine anti-recipient interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequencies, which in several studies have been predictive of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently...

  9. Immunological Correlates for Protection against Intranasal Challenge of Bacillus anthracis Spores Conferred by a Protective Antigen-Based Vaccine in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Marcus, Hadar; Pass, Avi; Rothschild, Nili; Altboum, Zeev

    2006-01-01

    Correlates between immunological parameters and protection against Bacillus anthracis infection in animals vaccinated with protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines could provide surrogate markers to evaluate the putative protective efficiency of immunization in humans. In previous studies we demonstrated that neutralizing antibody levels serve as correlates for protection in guinea pigs (S. Reuveny et al., Infect. Immun. 69:2888-2893, 2001; H. Marcus et al., Infect. Immun. 72:3471-3477, 2004). ...

  10. Sensitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Virus Core-Related Antigens and Their Correlation to Virus Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Rokuhara, Akinori; Sakamoto, Yoko; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Maki, Noboru

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) specific for hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was developed. We designated the precore/core gene products as hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigens (HBcrAg). In order to detect HBcrAg even in anti-HBc/e antibody-positive specimens, the specimens were pretreated in detergents. The antibodies are inactivated by this pretreatment and, simultaneously, the antigens are released and the epitopes are exposed. The ass...

  11. Correlation of the Serum Level of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Prolactin with Different Stages of Colorectal Carcinoma According to Dukes' Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M R; Sheikh, S H; Lima, I J; Islam, M R; Faisal, M; Islam, M S; Faruk, M O; Jalal, M T

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is well established tumor marker for colorectal cancers worldwide. Recent studies show that serum prolactin level is also raised in colorectal cancers. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the correlation of serum CEA and Prolactin with Dukes' staging of colorectal carcinomas. Between January 2013 and June 2013, Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay from 103 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as colorectal carcinomas. Evaluation of the stages of the colorectal cancers was done on the basis of preoperative investigations and postoperative histopathology and correlated with Preoperative Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin. Results were presented as median value, range and percentage. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with median age of 42.26 years (range 17-78 years). Most of the patients in this series presented with carcinoma rectum (42%). Most of the patients (52%) were found in Dukes' stage C and 27% and 15% cases were found as Dukes' stage B and Dukes' stage D respectively. Stage of the disease is directly proportionate to percentage of the patient with high serum prolactin except early stage (Dukes' A-50%, Dukes' B-28.6%, Dukes' C-33.3% & Dukes' D-46.7%). Similarly serum CEA level is directly proportionate to tumor stage (Dukes' A-0%, Dukes' B-32%, Dukes' C-40.7% & Dukes' D-74.7%). A preoperative high serum CEA value suggests advanced disease either locally or with distant metastasis. In contrast preoperative high serum prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia) did not suggest advanced disease as it can be elevated even in early stage of disease. Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin both are valuable tumor markers but serum CEA could not be replaced by serum Prolactin. Serum Prolactin may be a helpful marker in earlier stages of the colorectal cancer.

  12. DNA Ploidy Measured on Archived Pretreatment Biopsy Material May Correlate With Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence After Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); MacAulay, Calum [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hayes, Malcolm [Department of Pathology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korbelik, Jagoda [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Palcic, Branko [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To explore whether DNA ploidy of prostate cancer cells determined from archived transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens correlates with disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven failures and 47 controls were selected from 1006 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy (July 1998-October 2003). Median follow-up was 7.5 years. Ten-year actuarial disease-free survival was 94.1%. Controls were matched using age, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, use of hormone therapy, and follow-up (all P nonsignificant). Seventy-eight specimens were successfully processed; 27 control and 20 failure specimens contained more than 100 tumor cells were used for the final analysis. The Feulgen-Thionin stained cytology samples from archived paraffin blocks were used to determine the DNA ploidy of each tumor by measuring integrated optical densities. Results: The samples were divided into diploid and aneuploid tumors. Aneuploid tumors were found in 16 of 20 of the failures (80%) and 8 of 27 controls (30%). Diploid DNA patients had a significantly lower rate of disease recurrence (P=.0086) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.256). On multivariable analysis, patients with aneuploid tumors had a higher prostate-specific antigen failure rate (HR 5.13). Additionally, those with “excellent” dosimetry (V100 >90%; D90 >144 Gy) had a significantly lower recurrence rate (HR 0.25). All patients with aneuploid tumors and dosimetry classified as “nonexcellent” (V100 <90%; D90 <144 Gy) (5 of 5) had disease recurrence, compared with 40% of patients with aneuploid tumors and “excellent” dosimetry (8 of 15). In contrast, dosimetry did not affect the outcome for diploid patients. Conclusions: Using core biopsy material from archived paraffin blocks, DNA ploidy correctly classified the majority of failures and nonfailures in this study. The results suggest that DNA ploidy can be used as a

  13. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  14. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-yan Sun; Qiang Li; Xi-ping Chen; Lu-yang Tao

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocogni-tion with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, re-spectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most signiifcant positive correlations were found be-tween mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most signiifcant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positive-ly associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental ifndings suggest that mismatch negativity might efifciently relfect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  15. Protection induced by Plasmodium falciparum MSP1(42 is strain-specific, antigen and adjuvant dependent, and correlates with antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Lyon

    Full Text Available Vaccination with Plasmodium falciparum MSP1(42/complete Freund's adjuvant (FA followed by MSP1(42/incomplete FA is the only known regimen that protects Aotus nancymaae monkeys against infection by erythrocytic stage malaria parasites. The role of adjuvant is not defined; however complete FA cannot be used in humans. In rodent models, immunity is strain-specific. We vaccinated Aotus monkeys with the FVO or 3D7 alleles of MSP1(42 expressed in Escherichia coli or with the FVO allele expressed in baculovirus (bv combined with complete and incomplete FA, Montanide ISA-720 (ISA-720 or AS02A. Challenge with FVO strain P. falciparum showed that suppression of cumulative day 11 parasitemia was strain-specific and could be induced by E. coli expressed MSP1(42 in combination with FA or ISA-720 but not with AS02A. The coli42-FVO antigen induced a stronger protective effect than the bv42-FVO antigen, and FA induced a stronger protective effect than ISA-720. ELISA antibody (Ab responses at day of challenge (DOC were strain-specific and correlated inversely with c-day 11 parasitemia (r = -0.843. ELISA Ab levels at DOC meeting a titer of at least 115,000 ELISA Ab units identified the vaccinees not requiring treatment (noTx with a true positive rate of 83.3% and false positive rate of 14.3 %. Correlation between functional growth inhibitory Ab levels (GIA and cumulative day 11 parasitemia was weaker (r = -0.511, and was not as predictive for a response of noTx. The lowest false positive rate for GIA was 30% when requiring a true positive rate of 83.3%. These inhibition results along with those showing that antigen/FA combinations induced a stronger protective immunity than antigen/ISA-720 or antigen/AS02 combinations are consistent with protection as ascribed to MSP1-specific cytophilic antibodies. Development of an effective MSP1(42 vaccine against erythrocytic stage P. falciparum infection will depend not only on antigen quality, but also upon the selection of

  16. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  17. STUDY OF MISMATCHED FILTERING OF PASSIVE RADAR USING TV SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiaowen; Zhang Linrang; Wu Shunjun

    2006-01-01

    This letter demonstrates the structure of the passive radar using TV signals. Because the TV signal is a kind of pseudoperiodic signal, the matched filtering of color TV signals would yield high sidelobes which cause the range ambiguity. To overcome this problem, the mismatched filter is proposed to suppress the correlation sidelobes of matched filtering of TV signals. By utilizing the iteration process, this method could achieve the required peak sidelobe level. The impacts of the noise and target movement on mismatched filtering are also analysed. Simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Advanced radar detection schemes under mismatched signal models

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive detection of signals embedded in correlated Gaussian noise has been an active field of research in the last decades. This topic is important in many areas of signal processing such as, just to give some examples, radar, sonar, communications, and hyperspectral imaging. Most of the existing adaptive algorithms have been designed following the lead of the derivation of Kelly's detector which assumes perfect knowledge of the target steering vector. However, in realistic scenarios, mismatches are likely to occur due to both environmental and instrumental factors. When a mismatched signal

  19. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    OpenAIRE

    JuanitaTodd

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with it...

  20. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients.

  1. Educational Mismatch and Wait Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Ordine; Giuseppe Rose

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates educational mismatch and its interrelationships with individual unemployment duration. By studying unemployment histories of Italian workers we show that overeducated have longer unemployment spells than well matched workers. Using duration models we show that hazard rates of graduates are higher than those of undergraduates only for transitions toward occupations that require the competencies provided by the universities. This process is strictly related to innate abil...

  2. Bilayer thickness mismatch controls domain size in biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Petruzielo, Robin S.; Pan, Jianjun; Drazba, Paul; Kučerka, Norbert; Standaert, Robert F.; Feigenson, Gerald W.; Katsara, John

    2013-03-01

    In order to promote functionality, cells may alter the spatial organization of membrane lipids and proteins, including separation of liquid phases into distinct domains. In model membranes, domain size and morphology depend strongly on composition and temperature, but the physicochemical mechanisms controlling them are poorly understood. Theoretical work suggests a role for interfacial energy at domain boundaries, which may be driven in part by thickness mismatch between a domain and its surrounding bilayer. However, no direct evidence linking thickness mismatch to domain size in free-standing bilayers has been reported. We describe the use of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) to detect domains in simplified lipid-only models that mimic the composition of plasma membrane. We find that domain size is controlled by the degree of acyl chain unsaturation of low-melting temperature lipids, and that this size transition is correlated to changes in the thickness mismatch between coexisting liquid phases.

  3. The Correlation between the Virus- and Brain Antigen-Specific B Cell Response in the Blood of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Wunsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a largely divergent body of literature regarding the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and brain inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS. Here, we tested MS patients during relapse (n = 11 and in remission (n = 19 in addition to n = 22 healthy controls to study the correlation between the EBV- and brain-specific B cell response in the blood by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Cytomegalovirus (CMV was used as a control antigen tested in n = 16 MS patients during relapse and in n = 35 patients in remission. Over the course of the study, n = 16 patients were untreated, while n = 33 patients received immunomodulatory therapy. The data show that there was a moderate correlation between the frequencies of EBV- and brain-reactive B cells in MS patients in remission. In addition we could detect a correlation between the B cell response to EBV and disease activity. There was no evidence of an EBV reactivation. Interestingly, there was also a correlation between the frequencies of CMV- and brain-specific B cells in MS patients experiencing an acute relapse and an elevated B cell response to CMV was associated with higher disease activity. The trend remained when excluding seronegative subjects but was non-significant. These data underline that viral infections might impact the immunopathology of MS, but the exact link between the two entities remains subject of controversy.

  4. Noncanonical mismatch repair as a source of genomic instability in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Bregenhorn, Stephanie; Ghodgaonkar, Medini;

    2012-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is a key antimutagenic process that increases the fidelity of DNA replication and recombination. Yet genetic experiments showed that MMR is required for antibody maturation, a process during which the immunoglobulin loci of antigen-stimulated B cells undergo extensive mutage...

  5. Tissue expression of squamous cellular carcinoma antigen and Ki67 in hepatocellular carcinoma-correlation with prognosis: A historical prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmilovitz-Weiss Hemda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cellular carcinoma antigen (SCCA is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC tissue and in sera of HCC patients. Our aim was to assess hepatic SCCA immunostaining in a series of HCCs and to correlate its presence with cell proliferation, apoptosis and clinical outcome. Methods Sixty-one HCC patients were included. Liver specimens were obtained either by biopsy (n = 17 or surgically (resection 27, transplantation 17. Immunostaining for AFP, Ki-67, SCCA and TUNEL assay were performed. Results SCCA staining was detected in 83.6% of specimens. A statistical significant correlation was found between negative SCCA staining and mortality (p = 0.026 and a higher immunostaining score for Ki67 (p = 0.017. Positive SCCA staining was associated with well and moderate differentiated tumors (p = 0.022. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, Ki67 and TUNEL assay were found to be significant independent predictors of negative SCCA immunostaining. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.87. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a significant difference between the patient group with positive versus negative SCCA immunostaining relating to survival time (p = 0.0106. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis demonstrated that Ki67 immunostaining and liver transplantation or resection were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions SCCA is overexpressed in HCC. SCCA status is associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and survival. SCCA and Ki67 staining can predict survival. Our study results support a potential association of negative SCCA expression with other markers of poor outcome in HCC. More studies are needed to clarify the role of SCCA in HCC and expand the knowledge of the SCCA antigen in HCC patients.

  6. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Eric W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63. Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50 but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers.

  7. Prevalence of positive Hepatitis Delta Virus in patients with positive Hepatitis B surface Antigen and its correlative factors in Sari

    OpenAIRE

    Torang Taghvaei; Molood Khanlarpoor1; Mohammad Reza Mahdavi; Hafez Tirgar Fakheri1; Iraj Maleki1; Ali Reza Khalilian 3

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose: Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) agent, or HDV, is a defective RNA virus that infects with HBV (Hepatitis B Virus). 15 millions people around the world are infected to HDV. There are different statistics in Iran and other countries about HDV incidence, according to accomplished studies. This study was done for determining HDV incidence in sari and considering its correlative factors.Materials and methods: This study was done in a descriptive procedure on 167 patien...

  8. Current status of the Scandiatransplant acceptable mismatch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, I D; Pedersen, F; Grunnet, N

    2013-04-01

    This article describes the Scandiatransplant Acceptable Mismatch Program (STAMP), which was set into action in 2009. The aim of STAMP is to define human leukocyte antigens (HLA) toward which the potential kidney recipient has not developed antibodies, as "acceptable mismatches" in the Scandiatransplant database. In many cases this may improve the probability for a highly immunized recipient to receive a suitable kidney graft from a deceased donor. Using data extracted from the Scandiatransplant database on the outcomes of the program after the first 3 years, 31/115 recipients included in the program have undergone transplantation. From 2008 to 2011 the mean waiting time for highly immunized patients has decreased from 42 to 37 months. Continuous evaluation and follow-up of the program is essential to improve the procedures and outcomes. Calculation of transplantability based on a given set of acceptable mismatches was added to the program in 2011, based on the historical deceased donor pool providing the possibility of a specific patient to receive a kidney through STAMP. It is still a challenge for the tissue typing laboratories to determine which detected HLA antibodies are clinical relevant. We concluded that STAMP has had the intended effects, however adjustments and improvements is an ongoing process. As an improvment of the program HLA-C was added to the STAMP search algorithm in September 2012.

  9. Loss of Mismatched HLA on the Leukemic Blasts of Patients With Relapsed Lymphoid Malignancies Following Bone Marrow Transplantation From Related Donors With HLA Class II Mismatches in the Graft Versus Host Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Koichi; Kurata, Takashi; Horiuchi, Kazuki; Saito, Shoji; Shigemura, Tomonari; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sakashita, Kazuo; Koike, Kenichi; Nakazawa, Yozo

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remain unclear. We report two children with relapsed ALL after HSCT from related donors with HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 mismatches in the graft versus host direction. One lost HLA-DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 alleles, and the other lost one HLA haplotype of the leukemic blasts at relapse. HLA class II loss may be a triggering event for ALL relapse after partially HLA-mismatched-related HSCT. In addition, HLA typing of relapsed leukemic blasts could be vital in the selection of retransplant donors. PMID:26544669

  10. Prevalence of positive Hepatitis Delta Virus in patients with positive Hepatitis B surface Antigen and its correlative factors in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torang Taghvaei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV agent, or HDV, is a defective RNA virus that infects with HBV (Hepatitis B Virus. 15 millions people around the world are infected to HDV. There are different statistics in Iran and other countries about HDV incidence, according to accomplished studies. This study was done for determining HDV incidence in sari and considering its correlative factors.Materials and methods: This study was done in a descriptive procedure on 167 patients. Correlative factors like demographic data and the ways of receiving disorder, history of tattoo, blood transfusion, were multi partner and IV drug abusers were considered. Diagnosing of blood Anti HDV in patients was by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay way.Results: We couldn’t find any evidences of advantage of HDV in patients. Among 167 HBS-Ag positive subject (63 (%37.7 women and 104 (%62.3 men were included. Average age of participants was 35.52±14.036. 2 subject had an addiction history (%1.7, 15 subject (%9 had a blood transfusion history, 4 (%2.4 were multipart and 1 (%0.6 had tattoo history and 2 (%1.2 were Prisoners previously.Conclusion: There wasn’t any positive Anti-HDV Ab (Anti- Hepatitis Delta Virus Antibody in studied patients. It shows that HDV is not endemic in sari. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(67:102-106 (Persian

  11. Correlation between serum hepatitis B virus core-related antigen and intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Fumitaka; Miyakoshi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2009-01-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues are utilized for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, and HBe seroconversion and HBV DNA levels are commonly used as markers of viral status and as primary treatment endpoints. Recently, a new assay was prepared for the detection of serum HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg), consisting of HBcAg, HBeAg, and p22cr, which is a precore protein from amino acid -28 to at least amino acid 150, by coding the precore/core region. In this study, we examined the correlation between serum HBcrAg concentration and viral status by the analysis of serum HBeAg, HBsAg, peripheral HBV DNA, and intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in 57 chronic hepatitis B patients. Intrahepatic cccDNA was detected in all 57 patients, 42 patients were HBcrAg-positive, and serum HBcrAg concentration level was closely correlated with cccDNA. Additionally, positive HBcrAg concentration level results were observed in 6 out of 13 HBsAg seroclearance patients and 20 out of 31 HBV DNA-negative patients. Moreover, the correlation between HBcrAg and cccDNA in these 31 HBV DNA-negative patients was statistically significant (r = 0.482, P = 0.006). These data suggest that serum HBcrAg concentration is well correlated with intrahepatic cccDNA level, and that the measurement of serum HBcrAg may be clinically useful for monitoring intrahepatic HBV viral status, especially in patients under treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues.

  12. Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with tissues and tumors from the human breast. Immunohistochemical localization of a new antigen and clinicopathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani-Costantini, R; Barbanti, P; Colnaghi, M I; Ménard, S; Clemente, C; Rilke, F

    1984-04-01

    The reactions of a monoclonal antibody to the MCF7 breast cancer cell line were immunohistochemically studied on a variety of breast tumors, primary and metastatic, on mammary epithelium and on nonneoplastic breast lesions. A high proportion of positive reactions was observed in ductal, lobular, and tubular carcinomas as well as in mammary Paget's disease. Mucinous, medullary, and papillary carcinomas showed a low incidence of reactivity. Carcinomas with metaplasia, carcinoids, and nonepithelial breast tumors were unreactive with the antibody. Positive immunostaining was documented also in nodal and extranodal metastatic lesions. The staining of nodal metastases was correlated with the positive reaction of the primary tumor. Reactivity was widely distributed in normal breast epithelial cells and in benign breast lesions. Staining of nonneoplastic mammary epithelial was associated with reactivity of adjacent neoplastic tissues. Staining differences between nonneoplastic and neoplastic mammary tissues were related to the intensity and cytologic distribution of the labeling. Heterogeneous reactivity of morphologically similar cells was documented in nonneoplastic and neoplastic breast epithelial cells as well as in nodal and extranodal breast carcinoma metastases. Immunohistologically detectable antigen was not correlated with prognostic factors such as histologic grade or nodal status. A retrospective study of T1NO cases failed to substantiate any prognostic value for the reactivity of primary breast tumors with this monoclonal antibody.

  13. Metamer mismatching in practice versus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiandou; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Metamer mismatching (the phenomenon that two objects matching in color under one illuminant may not match under a different illuminant) potentially has important consequences for color perception. Logvinenko et al. [PLoS ONE10, e0135029 (2015)] show that in theory the extent of metamer mismatching can be very significant. This paper examines metamer mismatching in practice by computing the volumes of the empirical metamer mismatch bodies and comparing them to the volumes of the theoretical mismatch bodies. A set of more than 25 million unique reflectance spectra is assembled using datasets from several sources. For a given color signal (e.g., CIE XYZ) recorded under a given first illuminant, its empirical metamer mismatch body for a change to a second illuminant is computed as follows: the reflectances having the same color signal when lit by the first illuminant (i.e., reflect metameric light) are computationally relit by the second illuminant, and the convex hull of the resulting color signals then defines the empirical metamer mismatch body. The volume of these bodies is shown to vary systematically with Munsell value and chroma. The empirical mismatch bodies are compared to the theoretical mismatch bodies computed using the algorithm of Logvinenko et al. [IEEE Trans. Image Process.23, 34 (2014)]. There are three key findings: (1) the empirical bodies are found to be substantially smaller than the theoretical ones; (2) the sizes of both the empirical and theoretical bodies show a systematic variation with Munsell value and chroma; and (3) applied to the problem of color-signal prediction, the centroid of the empirical metamer mismatch body is shown to be a better predictor of what a given color signal might become under a specified illuminant than state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26974929

  14. Mismatching Perspectives and Pacific Transculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased critical consciousness and awareness of interculturality in a global and glocal context at the beginning of the twenty-first century has increasingly used the concept of transculturation when discussing modernities. Politically transculturation can be used to describe processes of negotiation in contemporary society that lead to social awareness and solidarity, as well as ensuring the continuity of societies. The fusing of cultural forms leads to a mismatching of perspectives, hence some critics have preferred to use the terms translation and/or transliteracy to describe this concept. Transculturation is related to the “normal processes of artistic borrowing and influence, by which any culture makes part of its contribution to the conversation of mankind,” as Les Murray maintained, and “it engages multiple lines of difference simultaneously” with overlapping boundaries (Rogers 491. Referring to various authors and linking it to cultural appropriation and border crossings, this article examines how the narrative expression of Both Sides of the Moon, to cite the title of Alan Duff’s book, is a key feature of Pacific writing, in an area where centuries of migration from near and far have exposed different cultures to each other on social, political, linguistic and aesthetic levels. These ‘contact zones’, to use Mary Pratt’s words, provide the reader with constantly moving translated identities, cultural hybridity and a use of language that has a highly local significance in a global context.

  15. Establishment of a Murine Model of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Mismatched Bone Marrow Transplantation%miHA不合异基因骨髓移植后慢性移植物抗宿主病小鼠模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欣; 翁建宇; 吴萍; 童嘉琦; 杜欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a murine model of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matched and minor histocompatibility antigen (miHA) mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation,and to provide in vivo research tools for cGVHD.Methods 20 recipients BALB/c (H2d) female mice were included in this study.They were divided into blank control group (n =5),irradiation control group (n =5),transplantation group (n =5) and the cGVHD group (n=5).In addition to the blank control group,the rest of the three groups of mice were irradiated with 700 cGy dose of linear accelerator.Then the irradiation control group were injected with 0.2 ml PPMI 1640; the trarsplantation group were injected with 8 × 106 bone-marrow cells,and cGVHD group were injected with bone-marrow cells and spleen cells (8× 106,1 ∶ 1) from B10.D2(Hc1 H2d H2-T18c) male mice.The observed items post-transplantation included hematopoietic reconstruction,implant,and general condition.Clinical scores were assessed every 3 days after +14 d.At + 50 d,mice were put to death for evaluation target organ pathological changes.Animal Intervention met animal ethical standard.Results Mice in transplantation groups were in hematopoietic reconstruction at +7 d,and all survived to the end point (+ 50 d).Chromosomes of recipient mice were in donor form.Clinical scores of cGVHD group have been more than 0.6 since +20 d.Pathological changes of skin,liver and lung were obviously,and pathological scores were significant higher than those of transplantation control groups (F=88.02,P< 0.05).Conclusions Irradiation dose for 700 cGy,8× 106 of bone marrow and spleen cell number infusion induce a successful cGVHD murine model,which might be an ideal study model of clinical cGVHD after bone marrow transplantation.%目的 通过主要组织相容性复合物(MHC)相合,次要组织相容性抗原(miHA)不合的异基因骨髓移植,建立慢性移植物抗宿主病(cGVHD)小鼠模型,

  16. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    individual buildings and an element of economy of scale. For these three reasons mismatches should be dealt with at the aggregated level and not at the individual level of each building. Instead, this paper suggests to compensate the mismatch of a building by increasing (or decreasing) the capacity...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  17. HLA-DR and -DQ eplet mismatches and transplant glomerulopathy: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir-Pichhadze, R; Tinckam, K; Quach, K; Logan, A G; Laupacis, A; John, R; Beyene, J; Kim, S J

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study from a cohort of adult kidney transplant recipients to assess the risk of transplant glomerulopathy (TG) as a function of donor and recipient HLA-DR and -DQ incompatibility at the eplet level. Cases (n = 52) were defined as patients diagnosed with transplant glomerulopathy based on biopsies showing glomerular basement membrane duplication without immune complex deposition. Controls (n = 104) with a similar follow-up from transplantation were randomly selected from the remaining cohort. HLAMatchmaker was used to ascertain the number of DRB1/3/4/5, DQA1 and DQB1 related eplet mismatches (eplet load). Multivariable conditional logistic regression models demonstrated an increase in the odds of TG (odds ratios [OR] of 2.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 7.84] and 4.62 [95% CI: 1.51, 14.14]) in the presence of 27-43 and >43 HLA-DR + DQ related eplet mismatches versus <27 eplet mismatches, respectively. When the eplet load was modeled as a continuous variable, the OR for TG was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50) for every 10 additional HLA-DR + DQ eplet mismatches. Our study suggests that minimization of HLA-DR + DQ eplet mismatches may decrease the incidence of transplant glomerulopathy diagnosed by indication biopsies. The role of eplet immunogenicity/antigenicity as determinants of allograft outcomes requires further study. PMID:25521856

  18. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch---near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the w...

  19. Detection of cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome using mismatch negativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Wen; Ningyu Wang; Jinfeng Liu; Zhanfeng Yan; Zhonghai Xin

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, 97 patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome were divided into three groups (mild, moderate, severe) according to minimum oxygen saturation, and 35 healthy subjects were examined as controls. Cognitive function was determined using the mismatch negativity paradigm and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The results revealed that as the disease worsened, the mismatch negativity latency was gradually extended, and the amplitude gradually declined in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Importantly, mismatch negativity latency in severe patients with a persistent time of minimum oxygen saturation 60 seconds. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between minimum oxygen saturation latency and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. These findings indicate that intermittent night-time hypoxemia affects mismatch negativity waveforms and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. As indicators for detecting the cognitive functional status of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients, the sensitivity of mismatch negativity is 82.93%, the specificity is 73.33%, the accuracy rate is 81.52%, the positive predictive value is 85.00%, the negative predictive value is 70.21%, the positive likelihood ratio is 3, and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.23. These results indicate that mismatch negativity can be used as an effective tool for diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients.

  20. Phenological mismatch and ontogenetic diet shifts interactively affect offspring condition in a passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Kappers, Elena F; Brands, Stef; Both, Christiaan

    2016-09-01

    Climate change may cause phenological asynchrony between trophic levels, which can lead to mismatched reproduction in animals. Although indirect effects of mismatch on fitness are well described, direct effects on parental prey choice are not. Moreover, direct effects of prey variation on offspring condition throughout their early development are understudied. Here, we used camera trap data collected over 2 years to study the effects of trophic mismatch and nestling age on prey choice in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Furthermore, we studied the effect of mismatch and variation in nestling diet on offspring condition. Both experimentally induced and natural mismatches with the caterpillar peak negatively affected absolute and relative numbers of caterpillars and offspring condition (mass, tarsus and wing length) and positively affected absolute and relative numbers of flying insects in the nestling diet. Feeding more flying insects was negatively correlated with nestling day 12 mass. Both descriptive and experimental data showed preferential feeding of spiders when nestlings were spiders during this phase was positively correlated with tarsus growth. These results highlight the need for a more inclusive framework to study phenological mismatch in nature. The general focus on only one prey type, the rarity of studies that measure environmental abundance of prey, and the lack of timing experiments in dietary studies currently hamper understanding of the actual trophic interactions that affect fitness under climate change. PMID:27263989

  1. Circuit mismatch influence on performance of paralleling silicon carbide MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Pham, Cam;

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on circuit mismatch influence on performance of paralleling SiC MOSFETs. Power circuit mismatch and gate driver mismatch influences are analyzed in detail. Simulation and experiment results show the influence of circuit mismatch and verify the analysis. This paper aims to give...

  2. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantity positively correlates with plasma levels of microRNAs differentially expressed in immunological phases of chronic hepatitis B in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Heiberg, Ida Louise; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner;

    2013-01-01

    Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles are produced in large excess over...

  3. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch-near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  4. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch---near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  5. In vivo infiltration of mononuclear cells in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck correlates with the ability to expand tumour-infiltrating T cells in vitro and with the expression of MHC class I antigens on tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, J; Rasmussen, N; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1994-01-01

    A series of 18 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, 6 primary and 12 recurrent, were investigated for tumour-infiltrating mononuclear cells with monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Our results suggest that the number of T cells at the tumour edge in vivo correlates well with their abi......A series of 18 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, 6 primary and 12 recurrent, were investigated for tumour-infiltrating mononuclear cells with monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Our results suggest that the number of T cells at the tumour edge in vivo correlates well...... with their ability to expand in vitro in the presence of high-dose interleukin-2 (2000 U/ml). High MHC class I antigen expression on tumour cells was found to be positively correlated with p53 overexpression, suggesting that p53-derived peptides, wild-type or mutated ones, presented by MHC class I antigens......, are potential targets for MHC-restricted cytotoxic T cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, lack of correlation between peritumoural T cell infiltration in vivo and T cell expansion in vitro, on the one hand, and p53 overexpression on tumour cells, on the other hand, suggests absence of p53...

  6. Common minor histocompatibility antigen discovery based upon patient clinical outcomes and genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Armistead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA mediate much of the graft vs. leukemia (GvL effect and graft vs. host disease (GvHD in patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT. Therapeutic decision making and treatments based upon mHAs will require the evaluation of multiple candidate mHAs and the selection of those with the potential to have the greatest impact on clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that common, immunodominant mHAs, which are presented by HLA-A, B, and C molecules, can mediate clinically significant GvL and/or GvHD, and that these mHAs can be identified through association of genomic data with clinical outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because most mHAs result from donor/recipient cSNP disparities, we genotyped 57 myeloid leukemia patients and their donors at 13,917 cSNPs. We correlated the frequency of genetically predicted mHA disparities with clinical evidence of an immune response and then computationally screened all peptides mapping to the highly associated cSNPs for their ability to bind to HLA molecules. As proof-of-concept, we analyzed one predicted antigen, T4A, whose mHA mismatch trended towards improved overall and disease free survival in our cohort. T4A mHA mismatches occurred at the maximum theoretical frequency for any given SCT. T4A-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs were detected in 3 of 4 evaluable post-transplant patients predicted to have a T4A mismatch. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our method is the first to combine clinical outcomes data with genomics and bioinformatics methods to predict and confirm a mHA. Refinement of this method should enable the discovery of clinically relevant mHAs in the majority of transplant patients and possibly lead to novel immunotherapeutics.

  7. An analytical study of mismatched complementary media

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lin; Ma, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    Complementary media (CM) interacting with arbitrarily situated obstacles are usually less discussed. In this paper, an analytical framework based on multiple scattering theory is established for analyzing such a mismatched case. As examples, CM-based devices, i.e., a superlens and superscatterer, are discussed. From an analysis, the cancellation mechanism of the mismatched CM is studied. In addition, numerical results are provided for illustration. Moreover, further study shows that such cancellation effects might rely on specific conditions. Actually, the conclusions are not restricted to any specific frequencies; they could be extended to many other areas including applications to active cloaking, antennas, and wireless power transfer.

  8. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  9. Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma (PRAME and Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT 1 Genes Expression in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Prognostic Role and Correlation with Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy El Khateeb

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the expression of PRAME and WT1 genes are indicators of favorable prognosis and can be useful tools for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD in acute leukemia especially in patients without known genetic markers. Differential expression between acute leukemia patients and healthy volunteers suggests that the immunogenic antigens (PRAME and WT1 are potential candidates for immunotherapy in childhood acute leukemia.

  10. Human DNA mismatch repair: coupling of mismatch recognition to strand-specific excision

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Huixian; Hays, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic mismatch-repair (MMR) proteins MutSα and MutLα couple recognition of base mismatches to strand-specific excision, initiated in vivo at growing 3′ ends and 5′ Okazaki-fragment ends or, in human nuclear extracts, at nicks in exogenous circular substrates. We addressed five biochemical questions relevant to coupling models. Excision remained fully efficient at DNA:MutSα ratios of nearly 1 to 1 at various mismatch-nick distances, suggesting a requirement for only one MutSα molecule per...

  11. Distributivity and Agreement mismatches in Serbian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosnic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a truth value judgment study done on two types of numerals in the Serbian numerical system and corresponding verbal agreement mismatch that is characteristic for the numerals in question. Recent work on agreement and distributivity suggests that singular verbal marking promotes d

  12. Correlation of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses of fresh blood samples from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected heifers with responses of day-old samples co-cultured with IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2012-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of the intestine of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Early stage MAP infection can be detected by measuring cell-mediated immune responses using the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay. Whole blood samples are cultured...... to enhance IFN-γ responses of cultures stimulated with Johnin purified protein derivative (PPDj). Here we examined the correlation of IFN-γ production in response to PPDj and 15 recombinant antigens in day-old blood samples from heifers 10–21 months of age from a MAP infected herd with addition of either...

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROSTATIC SPECIFIC ANTIGEN DENSITY AND ITS CORRELATED HISTOPATHOLOGY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF BENIGN AND MALIGNANT PROSTATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Carcinoma of prostate gland is the most common malignancy above 65 yrs of age in men. Most patients with early - stage Ca prostate are asymptomatic. The presence of symptoms often suggests locally advanced or metastatic disease. It is important to detect Ca prostate at an early stage so that mortality due to this malignancy can be minimized. The specific threshold for prostate - specific antigen (PSA to delineate patients who are at the highest risk has been controversial. It is wiser to refine PSA by its derivative parameter like PSAD (PSA/Vol . which can be used as a better diagnostic tool in early detection of Ca Prostate.

  14. Donor-Recipient Size Mismatch in Paediatric Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Donati-Bourne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. End stage renal failure in children is a rare but devastating condition, and kidney transplantation remains the only permanent treatment option. The aim of this review was to elucidate the broad surgical issues surrounding the mismatch in size of adult kidney donors to their paediatric recipients. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken on PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar for all relevant scientific articles published to date in English language. Manual search of the bibliographies was also performed to supplement the original search. Results. Size-matching kidneys for transplantation into children is not feasible due to limited organ availability from paediatric donors, resulting in prolonged waiting list times. Transplanting a comparatively large adult kidney into a child may lead to potential challenges related to the surgical incision and approach, vessel anastomoses, wound closure, postoperative cardiovascular stability, and age-correlated maturation of the graft. Conclusion. The transplantation of an adult kidney into a size mismatched paediatric recipient significantly reduces waiting times for surgery; however, it presents further challenges in terms of both the surgical procedure and the post-operative management of the patient’s physiological parameters.

  15. Education, Social Mobility, and Talent Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki Uchida

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a two-class, overlapping-generation model featuring social mobility inhibited by the mismatch of talents. Mobility decreases as the private education gap between the two classes widens, whereas it increases with an increased public education spending. Within this framework, we consider the redistributive politics of public education and show that the private education gap provides the government with an incentive to increase public education. We also show that social mobil...

  16. Effects of Mismatched Parameter on Chaotic Synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJiang-hua; FANGJin-qing

    2003-01-01

    Chaos-based security communication has become one of the most interesting hot subjects for research of chaotic theory in real world since. In recent years, secure communication via synchronized chaos has been intensely studied. However, in practical application it is difficult to construct two complete identical chaotic systems since there are many reasons to induce parameter mismatch between two systems (response system and drive system).

  17. Research of China’s Credit Currency Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Cui; Weiyi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Large positive current mismatch exists in China at present, and with the continual development of financial reform, the risk of the current mismatch will gradually diffuse from the micro layer to the macro layer, so it is very important to study China’s credit currency mismatch. Based on the theoretical research of the credit currency mismatch, the formula of AECM is used to measure the level of China’s credit currency mismatch, and the causes are analyzed, and corresponding policy advices ar...

  18. Rubberband Effect in Temporal Control of Mismatch Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Zhou, Bin; Pöppel, Ernst; Bao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a difference event-related potential (ERP) wave reflecting the brain's automatic reaction to deviant sensory stimuli, and it has been proven to be a useful tool in research on cognitive functions or clinical disorders. In most MMN studies, amplitude, peak latency, or the integral of the responses, in rare cases also the slopes of the responses, have been employed as parameters of the ERP responses for quantitative analyses. However, little is known about correlations between these parameters. To better understand the relations between different ERP parameters, we extracted and correlated several different parameters characterizing the MMN waves. We found an unexpected correlation which gives new insight into the temporal control of MMN: response amplitudes are positively correlated with downside slopes, whereas barely correlated with upside slopes. This result suggests an efficient feedback mechanism for the MMN to return to the baseline within a predefined time window, contradicting an exponential decay function as one might expect. As a metaphor we suggest a rubberband effect for the MMN responses, i.e., the larger the distance of the response from neural equilibrium, the stronger the return force to equilibrium. PMID:27642285

  19. MutS recognition: Multiple mismatches and sequence context effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amita Joshi; Basuthkar J Rao

    2001-12-01

    Escherichia coli MutS is a versatile repair protein that specifically recognizes not only various types of mismatches but also single stranded loops of up to 4 nucleotides in length. Specific binding, followed by the next step of tracking the DNA helix that locates hemi-methylated sites, is regulated by the conformational state of the protein as a function of ATP binding/hydrolysis. Here, we study how various molecular determinants of a heteroduplex regulate mismatch recognition by MutS, the critical first step of mismatch repair. Using classical DNase I footprinting assays, we demonstrate that the hierarchy of MutS binding to various types of mismatches is identical whether the mismatches are present singly or in multiples. Moreover, this unique hierarchy is indifferent both to the differential level of DNA helical flexibility and to the unpaired status of the mismatched bases in a heteroduplex. Surprisingly, multiple mismatches exhibit reduced affinity of binding to MutS, compared to that of a similar single mismatch. Such a reduction in the affinity might be due to sequence context effects, which we established more directly by studying two identical single mismatches in an altered sequence background. A mismatch, upon simply being flipped at the same location, elicits changes in MutS specific contacts, thereby underscoring the importance of sequence context in modulating MutS binding to mismatches.

  20. Correlation study between ischemic stroke and polymorphism of human leucocyte antigen gene%缺血性脑卒中与人类白细胞抗原基因表达的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维; 冯慧宇; 徐明明; 贾秀萍; 蔡梁凌; 肖露露; 刘卫彬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between ischemic stroke (IS) and the polymorphism of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) gene. Methods Antigen, allele, haplotype of HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQB1 in 94 IS patients and 503 healthy controls were detected by PCR-SBT. Results (1) There were 11 antigens, 17 alleles in HLA-A locus, 20 antigens, 34 alleles in HLA-B locus, 11 antigens, 16 alleles in HLA-C locus, 13 antigens, 26 alleles in HLA-DRB1 locus, 5 antigens, 13 alleles in HLA-DQB1 locus in IS group.(2) The allellic frequency of HLA-A*31∶ 01(P=0.016 9, RR=2.827),HLA-B*37∶ 01(P=0.006 6, RR=4.613)and HLA-DRB1*11∶ 06(P=0.000 2, RR=37.981)in the IS patients was higher than that in healthy controls.(3) The haplotypic frequency of HLA-DRB1*11∶ 06-DQB1*03∶ 01(P=0.001, RR=38.52)in the IS patients was higher than that in healthy controls.Conclusion The susceptibility association of HLA-B*37∶ 01, HLA-DRB1*11∶ 06 and HLA-DRB1*11∶ 06-DQB1*03∶ 01 with IS and HLA gene play a genetic role in the occurrence of.%目的 探讨缺血性脑卒中(IS)与人类白细胞抗原(HLA)基因表达的关联.方法 采用聚合酶链反应-直接测序分型方法(PCR-SBT)对广东医学院附属南山医院2008-2012年94例住院IS患者和503名深圳居住的健康对照人群,进行HLA-A、B、C、DRB1、DQB1抗原、等位基因及单倍型分析.结果 (1)IS组表达出HLA-A抗原11个,等位基因17个;HLA-B抗原20个,等位基因34个; HLA-C抗原11个,等位基因16个;HLA-DRB1抗原13个,等位基因26个;HLA-DQB1抗原5个,等位基因13个.(2)IS组HLA-A*31:01(P=0.016 9,RR=2.827),B*37:01(P=0.006 6,RR=4.613),DRB1*11:06(P=0.000 2,RR=37.981)等位基因频率升高.(3)IS组HLA-DRB1*11:06-DQB1*03:01单倍型频率升高(P=0.001,RR=38.52).结论研究显示HLA- B*37:01,DRB1*11:06,单倍型HLA-DRB1*11:06-DQB1*03:01与IS发生呈易感关联,在IS的发生中HLA基因具有遗传作用.

  1. Efficient and reproducible identification of mismatch repair deficient colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Halvarsson, Britta;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of mismatch-repair (MMR) defective colon cancer is clinically relevant for diagnostic, prognostic and potentially also for treatment predictive purposes. Preselection of tumors for MMR analysis can be obtained with predictive models, which need to demonstrate ease...... of application and favorable reproducibility. METHODS: We validated the MMR index for the identification of prognostically favorable MMR deficient colon cancers and compared performance to 5 other prediction models. In total, 474 colon cancers diagnosed ≥ age 50 were evaluated with correlation between...... and efficiently identifies MMR defective colon cancers with high sensitivity and specificity. The model shows stable performance with low inter-observer variability and favorable performance when compared to other MMR predictive models....

  2. High-Frame-Rate Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Using Mismatched Coded Excitation Waveform Engineering: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Bahman; Zhang, Kaicheng; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Mismatched coded excitation (CE) can be employed to increase the frame rate of synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging. The high autocorrelation and low cross correlation (CC) of transmitted signals enables the identification and separation of signal sources at the receiver. Thus, the method provides B-mode imaging with simultaneous transmission from several elements and capability of spatial decoding of the transmitted signals, which makes the imaging process equivalent to consecutive transmissions. Each transmission generates its own image and the combination of all the images results in an image with a high lateral resolution. In this paper, we introduce two different methods for generating multiple mismatched CEs with an identical frequency bandwidth and code length. Therefore, the proposed families of mismatched CEs are able to generate similar resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. The application of these methods is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, several techniques are suggested that can be used to reduce the CC between the mismatched codes. PMID:27101603

  3. Early CT perfusion mismatch in acute stroke is not time-dependent but relies on collateralization grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarten, Louisa von; Straube, Andreas [University of Munich Hospitals, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Beyer, Sebastian E.; Baumann, Alena B.; Bollwein, Christine; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Sommer, Wieland H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Hendrik [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Factors that determine the extent of the penumbra in the initial diagnostic workup using whole brain CT Perfusion (WB-CTP) remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine a possible dependency of the initial mismatch size between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) from time after symptom onset, leptomeningeal collateralization, and occlusion localization in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions. Out of an existing cohort of 992 consecutive patients receiving multiparametric CT scans including WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we included patients who had (1) a witnessed time of symptom onset, (2) an infarction of the MCA territory as documented by follow-up imaging, and (3) an initial CBF volume of >10 ml. CBF and CBV lesion sizes, collateralization grade, and the site of occlusion were determined. We included 103 patients. Univariate analysis showed that time from symptom onset (168 +/- 91.2 min) did not correlate with relative or absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.458 and p = 0.921). Higher collateralization gradings were associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions were associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis confirmed that ICA occlusion was associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.005), and high collateral grade was associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.017). There is no significant correlation between initial CTP mismatch and time after symptom onset. Predictors of mismatch size include the extent of the collaterals and a proximal location of the occlusion. (orig.)

  4. Early CT perfusion mismatch in acute stroke is not time-dependent but relies on collateralization grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors that determine the extent of the penumbra in the initial diagnostic workup using whole brain CT Perfusion (WB-CTP) remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine a possible dependency of the initial mismatch size between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) from time after symptom onset, leptomeningeal collateralization, and occlusion localization in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions. Out of an existing cohort of 992 consecutive patients receiving multiparametric CT scans including WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we included patients who had (1) a witnessed time of symptom onset, (2) an infarction of the MCA territory as documented by follow-up imaging, and (3) an initial CBF volume of >10 ml. CBF and CBV lesion sizes, collateralization grade, and the site of occlusion were determined. We included 103 patients. Univariate analysis showed that time from symptom onset (168 +/- 91.2 min) did not correlate with relative or absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.458 and p = 0.921). Higher collateralization gradings were associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions were associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis confirmed that ICA occlusion was associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.005), and high collateral grade was associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.017). There is no significant correlation between initial CTP mismatch and time after symptom onset. Predictors of mismatch size include the extent of the collaterals and a proximal location of the occlusion. (orig.)

  5. Visual mismatch negativity: A predictive coding view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor eStefanics

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies investigate the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN or use the vMMN as a tool to probe various aspects of human cognition. This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of vMMN in the light of methodological considerations and provides recommendations for measuring and interpreting the vMMN. The following key issues are discussed from the experimentalist’s point of view in a predictive coding framework: 1 experimental protocols and procedures to control ‘refractoriness’ effects; 2 methods to control attention; 3 vMMN and veridical perception.

  6. Barbed Congruence of Asymmetry and Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ju Dong; Yu-Xi Fu

    2007-01-01

    The X calculus is a model of concurrent and mobile systems. It emphasizes that communications are information exchanges. In the paper, two constructions are incorporated into the framework of the chi calculus, which are asymmetric communication and mismatch condition widely used in applications. Since the barbed bisimilarity has proved its generality and gained its popularity as an effective approach to generating a reasonable observational equivalence, we study both the operational and algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity in this enriched calculus. The investigation supports an improved understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model. It also gives a general picture of how the two constructions affect the observational theory.

  7. What Do Educational Mismatches Tell Us About Skill Mismatches? A Cross-country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Jim; Weert, de Egbert

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between higher education and employment is commonly interpreted in terms of the extent to which the higher education sector is providing graduates with the knowledge and skills to match employment needs. It is assumed that a mismatch between working in a job and level or field of ed

  8. How relevant is job mismatch for German graduates?

    OpenAIRE

    Berlingieri, Francesco; Erdsiek, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the incidence and direct consequences of job mismatch for German graduates. Beyond measuring job mismatch by the comparison of qualification obtained by employees and required for a job, we employ self-reported skill mismatch variables concerning overall skills and more detailed information about the surplus or deficit in specific competences. The results indicate that a substantial share of graduates underutilizes own skills in the job. The rate of overqualification...

  9. A Review for Model Plant Mismatch Measures in Process Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 谢磊; 宋执环

    2012-01-01

    Model is usually necessary for the design of a control loop. Due to simplification and unknown dynamics, model plant mismatch is inevitable in the control loop. In process monitoring, detection of mismatch and evaluation of its influences are demanded. In this paper several mismatch measures are presented based on different model descriptions. They are categorized into different groups from different perspectives and their potential in detection and diagnosis is evaluated. Two case studies on mixing process and distillation process demonstrate the efficacy of the framework of mismatch monitoring.

  10. 甲型流感病毒血凝素基因变异与抗原变异关系研究%Study for the correlation between genetic diversity and antigenic variation of hemagglutinin in influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施强; 陈蓓; 居丽雯; 杨忠东; 杨吉星; 蒋露芳; 吕锡宏; 姜庆五

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解甲型流感病毒流行株的血凝素基因变异和抗原变异及两者间的关系,结合流行病学资料分析基因变异和抗原变异的吻合情况.方法 从2005-2007年上海市季节性流感样病例分离到的甲型流感病毒株中,选取H1N1、H3N2两个亚型中部分有代表性的病毒株,并同WHO北半球流感疫苗推荐株一起,进行血凝素全基因序列测定后做基因进化树分析.同时用灭活的全病毒抗原免疫金黄地鼠,通过血凝抑制试验测定病毒的血凝效价,对血凝抑制结果进行聚类分析,绘制病毒的抗原变异图.结果 H3N2分离株与WHO北半球疫苗推荐株A/Sydney/5/97、A/Fujian/411/2002处于不同的基因进化分枝上,时间间隔越久,进化距离越远,同样的结果也出现在抗原变异分析中.而H1N1分离株的基因变异情况和抗原变异情况则不一致,在基因变异中,与疫苗推荐株A/New Caledonia/20/1999的距离远近受到分离时间的影响,抗原变异还与病毒是否从散发病例或聚集性病例分离有关.结论 流感病毒血凝素的基因变异和抗原变异的结果基本吻合,采用流行株免疫血清的血凝抑制试验能更好地反映病毒的变异和进化情况.%Objective To study the correlation between genetic diversity and antigenic variation of hemagglutinin in influenza A viruses and analyze the coincidence of these two variations with epidemiological data. MethodsA/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from flu-like cases in Shanghai and surrounding areas during 2005-2007 influenza seasons as well as some vaccine strains for northern hemisphere recommended by WHO were used. The correlation between genetic diversity and antigenic variation of hemagglutinin in influenza A viruses was studied. Full-length sequence encoding hemagglutinin was determined and analyzed by phylogenetic tree analysis. Golden hamsters were immunized with inactivated influenza viruses, and their sera were titrated

  11. Mismatch-Shaped Pseudo-Passive Two-Capacitor DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, Un-Ku; Temes, Gabor C.

    1999-01-01

    A simple mismatch-shaping scheme is proposed for a two-capacitor DAC. Unlike in other mismatch-shaping systems, the shaped error is generated by direct filtering of a well-defined bounded signal, which can be generated as white noise. The operation is closely related to a specific digital interpo...

  12. Mismatch-Shaping Serial Digital-to-Analog Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, Un-Ku; Temes, Gabor C.

    1999-01-01

    A simple but accurate pseudo-passive mismatch-shaping D/A converter is described. A digital state machine is used to control the switching sequence of a symmetric two-capacitor network that performs the D/A conversion. The error caused by capacitor mismatch is uncorrelated with the input signal a...

  13. Mechanisms in E. coli and Human Mismatch Repair (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrich, Paul

    2016-07-18

    DNA molecules are not completely stable, they are subject to chemical or photochemical damage and errors that occur during DNA replication resulting in mismatched base pairs. Through mechanistic studies Paul Modrich showed how replication errors are corrected by strand-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli and human cells. PMID:27198632

  14. The mismatch between job openings and job seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Canon, Maria E.; Mingyu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Today's high unemployment rate is often linked to a structural imbalance—a mismatch between the skills and location required to fill vacant jobs and the skills and geographical preferences of the unemployed. But the evidence downplays the role of this mismatch.

  15. Design and analysis of mismatch probes for long oligonucleotide microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-08-15

    Nonspecific hybridization is currently a major concern with microarray technology. One of most effective approaches to estimating nonspecific hybridizations in oligonucleotide microarrays is the utilization of mismatch probes; however, this approach has not been used for longer oligonucleotide probes. Here, an oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to evaluate and optimize parameters for 50-mer mismatch probe design. A perfect match (PM) and 28 mismatch (MM) probes were designed for each of ten target genes selected from three microorganisms. The microarrays were hybridized with synthesized complementary oligonucleotide targets at different temperatures (e.g., 42, 45 and 50 C). In general, the probes with evenly distributed mismatches were more distinguishable than those with randomly distributed mismatches. MM probes with 3, 4 and 5 mismatched nucleotides were differentiated for 50-mer oligonucleotide probes hybridized at 50, 45 and 42 C, respectively. Based on the experimental data generated from this study, a modified positional dependent nearest neighbor (MPDNN) model was constructed to adjust the thermodynamic parameters of matched and mismatched dimer nucleotides in the microarray environment. The MM probes with four flexible positional mismatches were designed using the newly established MPDNN model and the experimental results demonstrated that the redesigned MM probes could yield more consistent hybridizations. Conclusions: This study provides guidance on the design of MM probes for long oligonucleotides (e.g., 50 mers). The novel MPDNN model has improved the consistency for long MM probes, and this modeling method can potentially be used for the prediction of oligonucleotide microarray hybridizations.

  16. Mechanisms in E. coli and Human Mismatch Repair (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrich, Paul

    2016-07-18

    DNA molecules are not completely stable, they are subject to chemical or photochemical damage and errors that occur during DNA replication resulting in mismatched base pairs. Through mechanistic studies Paul Modrich showed how replication errors are corrected by strand-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli and human cells.

  17. Interictal lack of habituation of mismatch negativity in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, M; Guido, M; Libro, G; Losito, L; Difruscolo, O; Sardaro, M; Puca, F M

    2004-08-01

    The aim was to study mismatch negativity features and habituation during the interictal phase of migraine. In migraine patients, a strong negative correlation has been found between the initial amplitude of long latency auditory-evoked potentials and their amplitude increase during subsequent averaging. We studied 12 outpatients with a diagnosis of migraine without aura recorded in a headache-free interval and 10 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers not suffering from any recurrent headache. The experiment consisted of two sequential blocks of 2000 stimulations, during which 1800 (90%) recordings for standard tones and 200 (10%) for target tones were selected for averaging. The latency of the N1 component was significantly increased in migraine patients in respect of controls in both the first and second repetitions; the MMN latency was increased in the second repetition. In the control group the MMN amplitude decreased on average by 3.2 +/- 1.4 microV in the second trial, whereas in migraine patients it showed a slight increase of 0.21 +/- 0.11 microV in the second repetition. The MMN latency relieved in the second trial was significantly correlated with the duration of illness in the migraine patients (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.69; P < 0.05). The increases in N1 latency and MMN latency and amplitude, the latter correlated with duration of illness, seemed to be due to a reduced anticipatory effect of stimulus repetition in migraine patients. This suggests that such hypo-activity of automatic cortical processes, subtending the discrimination of acoustic stimuli, may be a basic abnormality in migraine, developing in the course of the disease.

  18. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  19. Heterogenous mismatch-repair status in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Veurink, Nynke; Holck, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins is efficient and widely used to identify mismatch repair defective tumors. The tumors typically show uniform and widespread loss of MMR protein staining. We identified and characterized colorectal cancers with alternative......, heterogenous mismatch repair protein staining in order to delineate expression patterns and underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Heterogenous staining patterns that affected at least one of the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 were identified in 14 colorectal cancers. Based on alternative...... expression patterns macro-dissected and micro-dissected tumor areas were separately analyzed for microsatellite instability and MLH1 promoter methylation. RESULTS: Heterogenous retained/lost mismatch repair protein expression could be classified as intraglandular (within or in-between glandular formations...

  20. The contrasting structures of mismatched DNA sequences containing looped-out bases (bulges) and multiple mismatches (bubbles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, A; Lilley, D M

    1989-09-12

    We have studied the structure and reactivities of two kinds of mismatched DNA sequences--unopposed bases, or bulges, and multiple mismatched pairs of bases. These were generated in a constant sequence environment, in relatively long DNA fragments, using a technique based on heteroduplex formation between sequences cloned into single-stranded M13 phage. The mismatched sequences were studied from two points of view, viz 1. The mobility of the fragments on gel electrophoresis in polyacrylamide was studied in order to examine possible bending of the DNA due to the presence of the mismatch defect. Such bending would constitute a global effect on the conformation of the molecule. 2. Sequences in and around the mismatches were studied using enzyme and chemical probes of DNA structure. This would reveal more local structural effects of the mismatched sequences. We observed that the structures of the bulges and the multiple mismatches appear to be fundamentally different. The bulged sequences exhibited a large gel retardation, consistent with a significant bending of the DNA at the bulge, and whose magnitude depends on the number of mismatched bases. The larger bulges were sensitive to cleavage by single-strand specific nucleases, and modified by diethyl pyrocarbonate (adenines) or osmium tetroxide (thymines) in a non-uniform way, suggesting that the bulges have a precise structure that leads to exposure of some, but not all, of the bases. In contrast the multiple mismatches ('bubbles') cause very much less bending of the DNA fragment in which they occur, and uniform patterns of chemical reactivity along the length of the mismatched sequences, suggesting a less well defined, and possibly flexible, structure. The precise structure of the bulges suggests that such features may be especially significant for recognition by proteins.

  1. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  2. Expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins in transformed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: relationship to smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandi, S; Yu, J; Reinert, Line;

    2006-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that defects in DNA-mismatch repair are associated with smoking in certain types of transformed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We have analyzed biopsy samples from two indolent B-cell lymphomas, follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic...... leukemia (CLL/SLL), that have transformed to diffuse-large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We correlated the presence or absence of DNA-mismatch repair enzymes by immunostaining as well as the p53 status to smoking history. Of all patients (n = 30), 37% showed negative immunostaining of MLH1, 16% showed negative...... immunostaining of MSH2 and 63% had p53 mutations and/or protein expression. Eighteen out of 20 transformed follicular lymphomas and seven out of 10 CLL/SLL that have transformed to DLBCL (Richter's syndrome) were informative for smoking histories. We found that the relative risk of negative immunostaining...

  3. Test Mismatch in Switched-Current Circuits Using Wavelet Analysis"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jierong; HE Yigang; LIU Meirong; TANG Shengxue; LI Hongmin

    2007-01-01

    Errors of mismatch and currents calibration caused by channel geometrical variety in switched-current are investigated in this paper. The relation and computing of mismatch and sensitivity are discussed also, and then a measure method of switched current mismatch using wavelet decomposition is proposed. A selected group of same transconductance is choosing as a cohort firstly, and the sensitivities of cohort in relation to the variation of transconductance are computed. Compared with the nominal deviation and tolerance borderline, the optimization and testing can be performed. As an example, a sixth order chebyshev low-pass filter is simulated and tested. The results have justified the reliability and feasibility of the method.

  4. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Cai

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses and reference antisera (antibodies. Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS. In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses, we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  5. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-10-07

    Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses) and reference antisera (antibodies). Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS). In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses), we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  6. Mismatch response to polysyllabic nonwords: a neurophysiological signature of language learning capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G Barry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to repeat polysyllabic nonwords such as "blonterstaping" has frequently been shown to correlate with language learning ability but it is not clear why such a correlation should exist. Three alternative explanations have been offered, stated in terms of differences in: (a perceptual ability; (b efficiency of phonological loop functioning; (c pre-existing vocabulary knowledge and/or articulatory skills. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to assess the contributions from these three factors to explaining individual variation in nonword repetition ability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 59 adults who were subdivided according to whether they were good or poor nonword-repeaters participated. Electrophysiologically measured mismatch responses were recorded to changes in consonants as participants passively listened to a repeating four syllable CV-string. The consonant change could occur in one of four positions along the CV-string and we predicted that: (a if nonword repetition depended purely on auditory discrimination ability, then reduced mismatch responses to all four consonant changes would be observed in the poor nonword-repeaters, (b if it depended on encoding or decay of information in a capacity-limited phonological store, then a position specific decrease in mismatch response would be observed, (c if neither cognitive capacity was involved, then the two groups of participants would provide equivalent mismatch responses. Consistent with our second hypothesis, a position specific difference located on the third syllable was observed in the late discriminative negativity (LDN window (230-630 ms post-syllable onset. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data thus confirm that people who are poorer at nonword repetition are less efficient in early processing of polysyllabic speech materials, but this impairment is not attributable to deficits in low level auditory discrimination. We conclude by discussing the

  7. Oblique effect in visual mismatch negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre eTakács

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether visual orientation anisotropies (known as oblique effect exist in non-attended visual changes using event-related potentials (ERP. We recorded visual mismatch negativity (vMMN which signals violation of sequential regularities. In the visual periphery unattended, task-irrelevant Gábor patches were displayed in an oddball sequence while subjects performed a tracking task in the central field. A moderate change (50° in the orientation of stimuli revealed no consistent change-related components. However we found orientation-related differences around 170 ms in occipito-temporal areas in the amplitude of the ERPs evoked by standard stimuli. In a supplementary experiment we determined the amount of orientation difference that is needed for change detection in an active, attended paradigm. Results exhibited the classical oblique effect; subjects detected 10° deviations from cardinal directions, while threshold from oblique directions was 17°. These results provide evidence that perception of change could be accomplished at significantly smaller thresholds, than what elicits vMMN. In Experiment2 we increased the orientation change to 90°. Deviant-minus-standard difference was negative in occipito-parietal areas, between 120-200 ms after stimulus onset. VMMNs to changes from cardinal angles were larger and more sustained than vMMNs evoked by changes from oblique angles. Changes from cardinal orientations represent a more detectable signal for the automatic change detection system than changes from oblique angles, thus increased vMMN to these larger deviances might be considered a variant of the magnitude of deviance effect rarely observed in vMMN studies.

  8. Dimensionality Controlled Octahedral Symmetry-Mismatch and Functionalities in Epitaxial LaCoO₃/SrTiO₃ Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Jang, Jae Hyuck; Singh, David J; Gai, Zheng; Xiao, Haiyan; Mehta, Apurva; Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Feng, Zhenxing; Zhou, Hua; Li, Sean; Prellier, Wilfrid; Zu, Xiaotao; Liu, Zijiang; Borisevich, Albina; Baddorf, Arthur P; Biegalski, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    Epitaxial strain provides a powerful approach to manipulate physical properties of materials through rigid compression or extension of their chemical bonds via lattice-mismatch. Although symmetry-mismatch can lead to new physics by stabilizing novel interfacial structures, challenges in obtaining atomic-level structural information as well as lack of a suitable approach to separate it from the parasitical lattice-mismatch have limited the development of this field. Here, we present unambiguous experimental evidence that the symmetry-mismatch can be strongly controlled by dimensionality and significantly impact the collective electronic and magnetic functionalities in ultrathin perovskite LaCoO3/SrTiO3 heterojunctions. State-of-art diffraction and microscopy reveal that symmetry breaking dramatically modifies the interfacial structure of CoO6 octahedral building-blocks, resulting in expanded octahedron volume, reduced covalent screening, and stronger electron correlations. Such phenomena fundamentally alter the electronic and magnetic behaviors of LaCoO3 thin-films. We conclude that for epitaxial systems, correlation strength can be tuned by changing orbital hybridization, thus affecting the Coulomb repulsion, U, instead of by changing the band structure as the common paradigm in bulks. These results clarify the origin of magnetic ordering for epitaxial LaCoO3 and provide a route to manipulate electron correlation and magnetic functionality by orbital engineering at oxide heterojunctions.

  9. Genomic analysis identifies class II mismatches in serologically DR-compatible human renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, A; Wood, K J; Morris, P J

    1988-11-01

    Many studies, including those from our own center, have shown that matching the donor and recipient for HLA-DR antigens has a beneficial effect on the outcome of cadaveric renal transplantation. However, cases of irreversible graft rejection are sometimes seen in patients who have received an HLA-DR-compatible kidney, suggesting that serologic compatibility for HLA-DR may not always ensure reduced alloreactivity toward the graft. We have examined a number of recipients and their serologically DR-compatible cadaveric donors by Southern blotting and hybridization with locus specific HLA class II probes in order to determine whether in these patients there were class II mismatches that had been undetected by serology. The results show that the analysis of DR beta restriction fragment patterns does little more than complement and confirm the serologic identification of HLA-DR. Hybridization with DQ alpha and DQ beta probes, however, significantly extends the number of DQ specificities that can be detected and suggests that DQ mismatches in DR-compatible donor-recipient pairs may be more common than previously supposed, although it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the influence of DQ incompatibilities in the presence of DR compatibility on graft outcome.

  10. Heterodyne detection with mismatch correction base on array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhou, Dong; Guoqiang, Li; Ruofu, Yang; Chunping, Yang; Mingwu, Ao

    2016-07-01

    Based on an array detector, a new heterodyne detection system, which can correct the mismatches of amplitude and phase between signal and local oscillation (LO) beams, is presented in this paper. In the light of the fact that, for a heterodyne signal, there is a certain phase difference between the adjacent two samples of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), we propose to correct the spatial phase mismatch by use of the time-domain phase difference. The corrections can be realized by shifting the output sequences acquired from the detector elements in the array, and the steps of the shifting depend on the quantity of spatial phase mismatch. Numerical calculations of heterodyne efficiency are conducted to confirm the excellent performance of our system. Being different from previous works, our system needs not extra optical devices, so it provides probably an effective means to ease the problem resulted from the mismatches.

  11. Heterodyne detection with mismatch correction based on array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Guoqiang; Yang, Ruofu; Yang, Chunping; Ao, Mingwu

    2016-07-01

    Based on an array detector, a new heterodyne detection system, which can correct the mismatches of amplitude and phase between signal and local oscillation (LO) beams, is presented in this paper. In the light of the fact that, for a heterodyne signal, there is a certain phase difference between the adjacent two samples of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), we propose to correct the spatial phase mismatch by use of the time-domain phase difference. The corrections can be realized by shifting the output sequences acquired from the detector elements in the array, and the steps of the shifting depend on the quantity of spatial phase mismatch. Numerical calculations of heterodyne efficiency are conducted to confirm the excellent performance of our system. Being different from previous works, our system needs not extra optical devices, so it provides probably an effective means to ease the problem resulted from the mismatches.

  12. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics of strength-mismatching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, D.M.; Ganti, S.; McClintock, F.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Approximate solutions to stress-fields are provided for a strength-mismatched interface crack in small-scale yielding (SSY) for non-hardening and low hardening materials. Variations of local deformation intensities, characterized by a J-type contour integral, are proposed. The softer material experiences a higher deformation intensity level, J{sub S}, while the harder material sees a much lower deformation intensity level, J{sub H}, compared to that obtained from the applied J near the respective homogeneous crack-tips. For a low hardening material, the stress fields are obtained by scaling from an elastic/perfectly-plastic problem, based on an effective mismatch, M{sub eff}, which is a function of mismatch, M, and the hardening exponent, n. Triaxial stress build-up is discussed quantitatively in terms of M. The influence of strength-mismatch on cleavage fracture is discussed using Weibull statistics.

  13. Protein-protein interactions in DNA mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedhoff, Peter; Li, Pingping; Gotthardt, Julia

    2016-02-01

    The principal DNA mismatch repair proteins MutS and MutL are versatile enzymes that couple DNA mismatch or damage recognition to other cellular processes. Besides interaction with their DNA substrates this involves transient interactions with other proteins which is triggered by the DNA mismatch or damage and controlled by conformational changes. Both MutS and MutL proteins have ATPase activity, which adds another level to control their activity and interactions with DNA substrates and other proteins. Here we focus on the protein-protein interactions, protein interaction sites and the different levels of structural knowledge about the protein complexes formed with MutS and MutL during the mismatch repair reaction. PMID:26725162

  14. A Trainable Neuromorphic Integrated Circuit that Exploits Device Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Chetan Singh; Wang, Runchun; Hamilton, Tara Julia; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Random device mismatch that arises as a result of scaling of the CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semi-conductor) technology into the deep submicron regime degrades the accuracy of analogue circuits. Methods to combat this increase the complexity of design. We have developed a novel neuromorphic system called a Trainable Analogue Block (TAB), which exploits device mismatch as a means for random projections of the input to a higher dimensional space. The TAB framework is inspired by the princip...

  15. Rhabdomyosarcoma in patients with constitutional mismatch-repair-deficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kratz, Christian P; Holter, Spring; Etzler, Julia; Lauten, Melchior; Pollett, Aaron; Charlotte M. Niemeyer; Gallinger, Steven; Wimmer, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Biallelic germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 cause a recessive childhood cancer syndrome characterized by early-onset malignancies and signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Alluding to the underlying genetic defect we refer to this syndrome as constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome. The tumor spectrum of CMMR-D syndrome includes hematological neoplasias, brain tumors and Lynch syndrome as...

  16. Construction of heteroduplex DNA and in vitro model for functional analysis of mismatch repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; Clark Alan; WANG Jiaxun; SUN Menghong; SHI Daren

    2004-01-01

    Functional deficiency of mismatch repair (MMR) system is one of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. With the development of the investigation and the requirement from the clinical diagnosis and treatment it is necessary to build up a method to evaluate the functional status of the whole MMR system in the concerned tumors. The original ssDNA and dsDNA from wild type (wt) bacteriophage M13mp2 and its three derivates with mutation points in the lacZα Gene have been used to construct two kinds of heteroduplex DNA molecules. One named del(2) has two bases deleted in the negative strand, the other has a G·G mismatch base pair in the negative strand too. Introducing this heteroduplex DNA into E. Coli NR9162 (mutS-) without the MMR ability on the indicator plate with x-gal and IPTG, there are three kinds of plaques, mixture plaque as the characteristic phenotype of heteroduplex DNA, blue and clear plaques. If the cell extract is mismatch repair competent the percentage of the mixture plaque will decrease after incubation with these heteroduplex DNA, the repair efficiency is expressed in percentage as 100× (1 minus the ratio of percentages of mixture plaque obtained from the extract-treated sample and untreated samples), which can imply the functional status of MMR system of certain samples. After large T-antigen-dependent SV-40 DNA replication assay cell extract from TK6, a human lymphoblastoid B-cell lymphoma cell line with MMR ability, and Lovo, a human colonic carcinoma cell line with MMR deficiency have incubated with these heteroduplex DNA. The repair efficiency of TK6 to del(2) is more than 60%, to G·G is more than 50%. The Lovo efficiency to del(2) is less than 10%, to G·G is less than 20%. Therefore, in this in vitro model used for functional analysis of mismatch repair of heteroduplex DNA as the repair target, TK6 can serve as the control for MMR proficiency and Lovo as the control for MMR deficiency. Using this model the tumor tissue from a case of hereditary

  17. Chimeric Proteins to Detect DNA Damage and Mismatches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutchen-Maloney, S; Malfatti, M; Robbins, K M

    2002-01-14

    The goal of this project was to develop chimeric proteins composed of a DNA mismatch or damage binding protein and a nuclease, as well as methods to detect DNA mismatches and damage. We accomplished this through protein engineering based on using polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to create chimeras with novel functions for damage and mismatch detection. This project addressed fundamental questions relating to disease susceptibility and radiation-induced damage in cells. It also supported and enhanced LLNL's competency in the emerging field of proteomics. In nature, DNA is constantly being subjected to damaging agents such as exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various environmental and dietary carcinogens. If DNA damage is not repaired however, mutations in DNA result that can eventually manifest in cancer and other diseases. In addition to damage-induced DNA mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are variations in the genetic sequence between individuals, may predispose some to disease. As a result of the Human Genome Project, the integrity of a person's DNA can now be monitored. Therefore, methods to detect DNA damage, mutations, and SNPs are useful not only in basic research but also in the health and biotechnology industries. Current methods of detection often use radioactive labeling and rely on expensive instrumentation that is not readily available in many research settings. Our methods to detect DNA damage and mismatches employ simple gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry, thereby alleviating the need for radioactive labeling and expensive equipment. In FY2001, we explored SNP detection by developing methods based on the ability of the chimeric proteins to detect mismatches. Using multiplex assays with flow cytometry and fluorescent beads to which the DNA substrates where attached, we showed that several of the chimeras possess greater affinity for damaged and mismatched DNA than for native DNA. This affinity was

  18. Mapping epitopes and antigenicity by site-directed masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, Didrik; Winter, Greg

    2006-06-01

    Here we describe a method for mapping the binding of antibodies to the surface of a folded antigen. We first created a panel of mutant antigens (-lactamase) in which single surface-exposed residues were mutated to cysteine. We then chemically tethered the cysteine residues to a solid phase, thereby masking a surface patch centered on each cysteine residue and blocking the binding of antibodies to this region of the surface. By these means we mapped the epitopes of several mAbs directed to -lactamase. Furthermore, by depleting samples of polyclonal antisera to the masked antigens and measuring the binding of each depleted sample of antisera to unmasked antigen, we mapped the antigenicity of 23 different epitopes. After immunization of mice and rabbits with -lactamase in Freund's adjuvant, we found that the antisera reacted with both native and denatured antigen and that the antibody response was mainly directed to an exposed and flexible loop region of the native antigen. By contrast, after immunization in PBS, we found that the antisera reacted only weakly with denatured antigen and that the antibody response was more evenly distributed over the antigenic surface. We suggest that denatured antigen (created during emulsification in Freund's adjuvant) elicits antibodies that bind mainly to the flexible regions of the native protein and that this explains the correlation between antigenicity and backbone flexibility. Denaturation of antigen during vaccination or natural infections would therefore be expected to focus the antibody response to the flexible loops. backbone flexibility | Freund's adjuvant | conformational epitope | antisera

  19. Mismatch-mediated error prone repair at the immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahwan, Richard; Edelmann, Winfried; Scharff, Matthew D; Roa, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    The generation of effective antibodies depends upon somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of antibody genes by activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and the subsequent recruitment of error prone base excision and mismatch repair. While AID initiates and is required for SHM, more than half of the base changes that accumulate in V regions are not due to the direct deamination of dC to dU by AID, but rather arise through the recruitment of the mismatch repair complex (MMR) to the U:G mismatch created by AID and the subsequent perversion of mismatch repair from a high fidelity process to one that is very error prone. In addition, the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential during CSR, and the resolution of AID-generated mismatches by MMR to promote such DSBs is critical for the efficiency of the process. While a great deal has been learned about how AID and MMR cause hypermutations and DSBs, it is still unclear how the error prone aspect of these processes is largely restricted to antibody genes. The use of knockout models and mice expressing mismatch repair proteins with separation-of-function point mutations have been decisive in gaining a better understanding of the roles of each of the major MMR proteins and providing further insight into how mutation and repair are coordinated. Here, we review the cascade of MMR factors and repair signals that are diverted from their canonical error free role and hijacked by B cells to promote genetic diversification of the Ig locus. This error prone process involves AID as the inducer of enzymatically-mediated DNA mismatches, and a plethora of downstream MMR factors acting as sensors, adaptors and effectors of a complex and tightly regulated process from much of which is not yet well understood.

  20. Effect of aripiprazole on mismatch negativity (MMN in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of the schizophrenia. Cognitive function has been found to be a better predictor of functional outcome than symptom levels. Changed mismatch negativity (MMN reflects abnormalities of early auditory processing in schizophrenia. Up to now, no studies for the effects of aripiprazole on MMN in schizophrenia have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects included 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 26 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS at baseline, after 4- and 8-week treatments with aripiprazole. Auditory stimuli for ERP consisted of 100 millisecond/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 millisecond/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 millisecond/1000 Hz duration deviants. EEG was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from waveforms elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli. Aripiprazole decreased all PANSS. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure ANOVA with sessions (i.e., baseline, 4- and 8-week treatments and MMN type (frequency vs. duration as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes. Session main effect was significant. LSD tests demonstrated significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline and 4 weeks. There was significant negative correlation between changes in amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN and changes in PANSS total scores at baseline and follow-up periods. CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole improved the amplitudes of MMN. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the aripiprazole may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia.

  1. Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

  2. 错配修复系统hMutS、hMutL的变异与结直肠癌的相关性研究进展%Recent Advances of Correlation of Mismatch Repair System hMutS, hMutL Variation and Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段典榕; 汪旭; 周滔; 吴暇玉; 梁子卿; 倪娟

    2016-01-01

    DNA错配修复系统(mismatch repair system,MMR)是重要的复制后修复机制,修复各种类型的碱基错配和插入/缺失环.hMutS、hMutL是MMR中重要的两个子系统,它们的功能缺陷与多种肿瘤,尤其结直肠癌密切相关.hMutS、hMutL系统关键基因SNPs、启动子甲基化水平的变化,都会直接或间接影响MMR的功能,以及由此引起微卫星不稳定性增加,进而影响结直肠癌的发生、发展和预后.本文主要从hMutS、hMutL系统关键基因的SNPs、启动子甲基化和微卫星不稳定三个方面综述了hMutS、hMutL系统关键基因变异与结直肠癌相关性研究的进展.

  3. Direct Mismatch Characterization of femto-Farad Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2015-08-17

    Reducing the capacitance of programmable capacitor arrays, commonly used in analog integrated circuits, is necessary for low-energy applications. However, limited mismatch data is available for small capacitors. We report mismatch measurement for a 2fF poly-insulator-poly (PIP) capacitor, which is the smallest reported PIP capacitor to the best of the authors’ knowledge. Instead of using complicated custom onchip circuitry, direct mismatch measurement is demonstrated and verified using Monte Carlo Simulations and experimental measurements. Capacitive test structures composed of 9 bit programmable capacitor arrays (PCAs) are implemented in a low-cost 0:35m CMOS process. Measured data is compared to mismatch of large PIP capacitors, theoretical models, and recently published data. Measurement results indicate an estimated average relative standard deviation of 0.43% for the 2fF unit capacitor, which is better than the reported mismatch of metal-oxide-metal (MOM) fringing capacitors implemented in an advanced 32nm CMOS process.

  4. High fitness costs of climate change-induced camouflage mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L Scott; Nowak, J Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has created myriad stressors that threaten to cause local extinctions if wild populations fail to adapt to novel conditions. We studied individual and population-level fitness costs of a climate change-induced stressor: camouflage mismatch in seasonally colour molting species confronting decreasing snow cover duration. Based on field measurements of radiocollared snowshoe hares, we found strong selection on coat colour molt phenology, such that animals mismatched with the colour of their background experienced weekly survival decreases up to 7%. In the absence of adaptive response, we show that these mortality costs would result in strong population-level declines by the end of the century. However, natural selection acting on wide individual variation in molt phenology might enable evolutionary adaptation to camouflage mismatch. We conclude that evolutionary rescue will be critical for hares and other colour molting species to keep up with climate change. PMID:26799459

  5. Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dragomir; Honigmann, Alf; Koike, Seiichi; Göttfert, Fabian; Pähler, Gesa; Junius, Meike; Müllar, Stefan; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas; Grubmüller, Helmut; Risselada, Herre J.; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; van den Bogaart, Geert; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of proteins and lipids in distinct microdomains is emerging as an important principle for the spatial patterning of biological membranes. Such domain formation can be the result of hydrophobic and ionic interactions with membrane lipids as well as of specific protein-protein interactions. Here using plasma membrane-resident SNARE proteins as model, we show that hydrophobic mismatch between the length of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the thickness of the lipid membrane suffices to induce clustering of proteins. Even when the TMDs differ in length by only a single residue, hydrophobic mismatch can segregate structurally closely homologous membrane proteins in distinct membrane domains. Domain formation is further fine-tuned by interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositides and homo and heterotypic protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch contributes to the structural organization of membranes.

  6. Interobserver variability in the evaluation of mismatch repair protein immunostaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise Laurberg; Ladelund, Steen; Holck, Susanne;

    2010-01-01

    reliability are lacking. We therefore evaluated interobserver variability among 6 pathologists, 3 experienced gastrointestinal pathologists and 3 residents. In total, 225 immunohistochemically stained colorectal cancers were evaluated as having normal, weak, loss of, or nonevaluable mismatch repair protein...... variability was considerable, though experienced pathologists and residents reached the same level of consensus. Because results from immunohistochemical mismatch repair protein stainings are used for decisions on mutation analysis and as an aid in the interpretation of gene variants of unknown significance...... in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the interobserver variability identified highlights the need for quality assessment programs, including guidelines for classification of different expression patterns....

  7. The Presence of Anti-HLA Antibodies before and after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplantation from HLA-Mismatched Unrelated Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koclega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (anti-HLA Abs are important factors responsible for graft rejection in solid organ transplantation and play a role in post-transfusion complications, their role in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT has not been finally defined. Enormous polymorphism of HLA-genes, their immunogenicity and heterogeneity of antibodies, as well as the growing number of allo-HSCTs from partially HLA-mismatched donors, increase the probability that anti-HLA antibodies could be important factors responsible for the treatment outcomes. We have examined the incidence of anti-HLA antibodies in a group of 30 allo-HSCT recipients from HLA-mismatched unrelated donors. Anti-HLA Abs were identified in sera collected before and after allo-HSCT. We have used automated DynaChip assay utilizing microchips bearing purified class I and II HLA antigens for detection of anti-HLA Abs. We have detected anit-HLA antibodies against HLA-A, B, C, DR, DQ and DP, but no donor or recipient-specific anti-HLA Abs were detected in the studied group. The preliminary results indicate that anti-HLA antibodies are present before and after allo-HSCT in HLA-mismatched recipients.

  8. Responses of Transmembrane Peptide and Lipid Chains to Hydrophobic Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; LI Jian-tao; QI Hai-yan; LI Fei

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic mismatch between the hydrophobic length of membrane proteins and hydrophobic thickness of membranes is a crucial factor in controlling protein function and assembly.We combined fluorescence with circular dichroism(CD) and attenuated total reflection infrared(ATR-IR) spectroscopic methods to investigate the behaviors of the peptide and lipids under hydrophobic mismatch using a model peptide from the fourth transmembrane domain of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp 1),the phosphatidylcholines(PCs) and phosphatidylglycerols(PGs) with different lengths of acyl chains(14:0,16:0 and 18:0).In all PG lipid membranes,the peptide forms stable α-helix structure,and the helix axis is parallel to lipid chains.The helical span and orientation hardly change in varying thickness of PG membranes,while the lipid chains can deform to accommodate to the hydrophobic surface of embedded peptide.By comparison,the helical structures of the model peptide in PC lipid membranes are less stable.Upon incorporation with PC lipid membranes,the peptide can deform itself to accommodate to the hydrophobic thickness of lipid membranes in response to hydrophobic mismatch.In addition,hydrophobic mismatch can increase the aggregation propensity of the peptide in both PC and PG lipid membranes and the peptide in PC membranes has more aggregation tendency than that in PG membranes.

  9. Highly tunable mismatched twin-core fibre filters

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, B.; Dong, L.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrated a reproducible and accurate way for adjusting wavelength of mismatched twin-core filters over few hundred nanometres from the same fibre design. The wavelength control together with strength control by fibre length adjustment allows complex filter profiles to be implemented by cascading. These filters are highly stable to changes in temperature and strain.

  10. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina;

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  11. Mismatch-shaping switching for two-capacitor DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, U.; Temes, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    A mismatch-shaping scheme is proposed for a two-capacitor digital-to-analogue converter (DAC). It uses a delta-sigma loop for finding the optimal switching sequence for each input word. Simulations indicate that the scheme can be used for the realisation of DACs with 16 bit linearity and SNR...

  12. Discriminating DNA mismatches by electrochemical and gravimetric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouz, Zouhour; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Ommezine, Asma; Rebhi, Lamia; Yaakoubi, Nourdin; Kalfat, Rafik; Othmane, Ali

    2013-10-15

    A silicon nitride functionalized electrode and a 104 MHz lithium tantalate (LiTaO₃) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor have been used to investigate target-probe recognition processes. Electrochemical and gravimetric measurements have been considered to monitor hybridization of single base mismatch (SBM) in synthetic oligonucleotides and single-nucleotide polymorphisms ApoE in real clinical genotypes. Obvious discrimination of SBM in nucleotides has been shown by both gravimetric and electrochemical techniques, without labeling nor amplification. Investigations on mismatches nature and position have also been considered. For guanine-adenine (GA), guanine-thymine (GT) and guanine-guanine (GG) mismatches, the sensors responses present a dependence upon positions. Considering the capacitance variations and hybridization rates, results showed that gravimetric transduction is more sensitive than electrochemical one. Moreover, the highest value of GT hybridization rate (in the middle position) was found in accordance with the nearest-neighbor model, where the considered configuration appears as the most thermodynamically stable. For the real samples, where the electrochemical transduction, by combining capacitance and flat-band potential measurements, were found more sensitive, the results show that the realized sensor permits an unambiguous discrimination of recognition between fully complementary, non-complementary and single base mismatched targets, and even between the combination of differently matched strands.

  13. Mismatched feature detection with finer granularity for emotional speaker recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHEN; Ying-chun YANG; Zhao-hui WU

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of speakers’ vocal organs change under their different emotional states, which leads to the deviation of the emotional acoustic space of short-time features from the neutral acoustic space and thereby the degradation of the speaker recognition performance. Features deviating greatly from the neutral acoustic space are considered as mismatched features, and they negatively affect speaker recognition systems. Emotion variation produces different feature deformations for different phonemes, so it is reasonable to build a fi ner model to detect mismatched features under each phoneme. However, given the difficulty of phoneme recognition, three sorts of acoustic class recognition- phoneme classes, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) tokenizer, and probabilistic GMM tokenizer- are proposed to replace phoneme recognition. We propose feature pruning and feature regulation methods to process the mismatched features to improve speaker recognition performance. As for the feature regulation method, a strategy of maximizing the between-class distance and minimizing the within-class distance is adopted to train the transformation matrix to regulate the mismatched features. Experiments conducted on the Mandarin affective speech corpus (MASC) show that our feature pruning and feature regulation methods increase the identifi cation rate (IR) by 3.64% and 6.77%, compared with the baseline GMM-UBM (universal background model) algorithm. Also, corresponding IR increases of 2.09% and 3.32% can be obtained with our methods when applied to the state-of-the-art algorithm i-vector.

  14. Educational Mismatch and Spatial Flexibility in Italian Local Labour Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Giuseppe; Ghignoni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    According to recent literature, this paper highlights the relevance of spatial mobility as an explanatory factor of the individual risk of job-education mismatch. To investigate this causal link, we use individual information about daily home-to-work commuting time and choices to relocate in a different local area to get a job. Our model takes…

  15. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  16. Expectations and Outcomes of Vocational Education: Match or Mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Linda S.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides an initial look at the matches and mismatches between expectations held for vocational education programs and empirically observed outcomes. Three types of claims for vocational education were compared with recent research. The article concludes with recommendations for improving the alignment between expectations and…

  17. Bisimulation Lattice of Asymmetric Chi Calculus with Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xiaoju(董笑菊); Zhong Farong; Fu Yuxi

    2003-01-01

    This paper carries out a systematic investigation into the bisimulation lattice of asymmetric chi calculus with a mismatch combinator. It is shown that all the sixty three L-bisimilarities collapse to twelve distinct relations and they form a bisimulation lattice with respect to set inclusion. The top of the lattice coincides with the barbed bisimilarity.

  18. Investigating Interaural Frequency-Place Mismatches via Bimodal Vowel Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Santurette, Sébastien; Chalupper, Josef;

    2014-01-01

    For patients having residual hearing in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, interaural place-pitch mismatches might be partly responsible for the large variability in individual benefit. Behavioral pitch-matching between the two ears has been suggested as a way to individuali...

  19. SKILLS MISMATCH OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatos Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a main issue with many fields of study. Studies on transition from school to work, have highlight the importance of two categories of factors at the level of the individual formal proceedings which may affect how easy it is to graduate to integrate into the labor market: 1 so far as the educational systems are transmitting specific competences as compared with those general and 2 so far as there are direct links between employers and the education system. In this way, are reduced the costs of selection and allocation for employers. A poor articulation between educational institutions and the labor market produce a high level of unmatched competences of assimilated by formal education and competencies required of the labor market (skill mismatch (Parodi et al., 2012. The surveys with European employers reflect particular difficulties that they are experiencing in employment vacancies. Investigation on the European companies in the spring of 2013 found that 40% of the firms in the EU have difficulty in finding employees with suitable qualification (CEDEFOP-European Center for the Development of the Vocational Training, 2014. Skills mismatch is a generic term that refers to various types of imbalances between skills and competences offered and those required in the labor market. Concept has become one intensely discussed and submitted to measurement in international research on the background concerns the under-utilization human resource. Numerous opinion polls with employers come to the same unexpected conclusion - that despite high unemployment many posts can't find occupants satisfactorily prepared and identify the causes: most of them criticized the lack of skills of the candidates or the absence of skills specific to the workplace. Based on the latest studies on international databases have built a set of questions that, through secondary analysis, we tried to find answers. Questions that we try to give answer

  20. Antigenic characterization of influenza viruses produced using synthetic DNA and novel backbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Whittaker, Lynne; De Souza, Ivna; Daniels, Rodney S; Dormitzer, Philip R; McCauley, John W; Settembre, Ethan C

    2016-07-12

    The global system for manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccines has been developed to respond to the natural evolution of influenza viruses, but the problem of antigenic mismatch continues to be a challenge in certain years. In some years, mismatches arise naturally due to the antigenic drift of circulating viruses after vaccine strain selection has already been made. In other years, antigenic differences between the vaccine virus and circulating viruses are introduced as part of the current system, which relies on the use of egg-adapted isolates as a starting material for candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). Improving the current process for making vaccine viruses can provide great value. We have previously established a synthetic approach for rapidly generating influenza viruses in a vaccine-approved Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line using novel, high-growth backbones that increase virus rescue efficiency and antigen yield. This technology also has the potential to produce viruses that maintain antigenic similarity to the intended reference viruses, depending on the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences used for gene synthesis. To demonstrate this utility, we generated a panel of synthetic viruses using HA and NA sequences from recent isolates and showed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests that all synthetic viruses were antigenically-like their conventional egg- or cell-propagated reference strains and there was no impact of the novel backbones on antigenicity. This synthetic approach can be used for the efficient production of CVVs that may be more representative of circulating viruses and may be used for both egg- and cell-based vaccine manufacturing platforms. When combined with mammalian cell culture technology for antigen production, synthetic viruses generated using HA and NA sequences from a non-egg-adapted prototype can help to reduce the potential impact of antigenic differences between vaccine virus and circulating viruses on

  1. Expression of the T1 (CD5, p67) surface antigen in B-CLL and B-NHL and its correlation with other B-cell differentiation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, D; Bonati, A; Giardini, R; Villa, S; De Braud, F; Cattoretti, G; Rilke, F

    1986-01-01

    The T1 surface antigen (CD5,p67) expression on blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymphoid cells from lymph node biopsies (LN) from 31 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and 79 with B non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), was detected in 25 B-CLL (80 per cent) and in 11 B-NHL (13 per cent) belonging to the following histologic subtypes: lymphocytic of CLL type (DLWD) one case, lymphoplasmacytoid (DLWD) four cases, centrocytic (DLPD) five cases, immunoblastic (DH) one case. All B-CLL and the T1 + B-NHL were also tested with monoclonal antibodies against the Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Antigen, B cells (FMC7, FMC8, BA1, Y29-55), T cells (OKT11a), HLA-DR and HLA-DQ monomorphic determinants. All the B-CLL and the T1+ B-NHL were CALLA-, BA1+, Y29.55+. FMC7+ cells were detected in large numbers six B-CLL (three T1+ and three T1-) and in four centrocytic lymphomas. FMC8 reacted with 70 per cent of leukemias (where it stained 30 per cent of neoplastic cells) and with 8/9 T+ B-NHL. HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecules were detected in 100 per cent and 90 per cent of cases respectively. In vitro treatment of HLA-DQ- or T1- B-CLL with phorbol ester TPA led to the expression of these antigens as well as of the receptors for Interleukin 2 and MLR3 activation antigen. Surface membrane Ig (SIg) was detected in 79 per cent of cases, its density measured by FACS analysis varied, even markedly, from case to case. Among the B-CLL, cells with high SIg content were either T1+ or T1- and more likely FMC7+. The SIg- cases were seven B-CLL (five T1+ and two T1-) and two B-NHL, in which, however, cytoplasmic IgM was detected. This study reveals the existence of four major B-CLL subgroups: T1- SIg-, T1+ SIg+, T1+ SIg+, T1- SIg+. It also indicates that the T1 antigen may be transitionally present during B-cell differentiation and that its expression may precede that of SIg as supported by the in vitro studies. In addition, the finding that some B-NHL are T1+ suggests that they derive

  2. Achieving good environmental status in the Black Sea: scale mismatches in environmental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O'Higgins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea has suffered severe environmental degradation. Governance of the Black Sea region is complex and results in a series of scale mismatches which constrain management. This paper develops a simple classification of spatial scale mismatches incorporating the driver, pressure, state, welfare, response (DPSWR framework. The scale mismatch classification is applied to two major environmental problems of the Black Sea, eutrophication and small pelagic fisheries. A number of scale mismatches are described and classified and potential solutions are identified.

  3. Reactivity of potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride with mismatched bases and a simple mutation detection protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrinakos, A; Humphrey, K E; Babon, J J; Ellis, T P; Cotton, R G

    1999-01-01

    Many mutation detection techniques rely upon recognition of mismatched base pairs in DNA hetero-duplexes. Potassium permanganate in combination with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) is capable of chemically modifying mismatched thymidine residues. The DNA strand can then be cleaved at that point by treatment with piperidine. The reactivity of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in TEAC toward mismatches was investigated in 29 different mutations, representing 58 mismatched base pairs and 116 mis...

  4. Noise and mismatch optimization for capacitive MEMS readout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chong; Wu Qisong; Yin Tao; Yang Haigang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a high precision CMOS readout circuit for a capacitive MEMS gyroscope. A continuous time topology is employed as well as the chopper noise cancelling technique. A detailed analysis of the noise and mismatch of the capacitive readout circuit is given. The analysis and measurement results have shown that thermal noise dominates in the proposed circuit, and several approaches should be used for both noise and mismatch optimization. The circuit chip operates under a single 5 V supply, and has a measured capacitance resolution of 0.2 aF/√Hz. With such a readout circuit, the gyroscope can accurately measure the angular rate with a sensitivity of 15.3 mV/°/s.

  5. Graduate Labour Market Mismatches: New Features Of An Older Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai KORKA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society progress depends on innovation, on the knowledge acquired through education, on the science put in practice with the purpose of improving the natural, economic, technical and social condition of human life. Universities are in that favoured position of keeping and creating science, of training through and for science. But, universities face today a series of challenges originated in their relation with the state, with the actors from the national and international extra-university environment, in particular with those active in the labour market. The article explores a variety of education mismatches in the graduate labour market: from over-education to skill mismatches and their impact on the employability. It also focuses on the expected improvement of quality management and of the shared responsibilities for the employability of graduates in the interaction between universities and employers.

  6. A Calibrated Charge Pump for Mismatch Reduction in PLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved charge pump (CP for phase locked loop (PLL applications is presented. The proposed charge pump circuitry employs a variable current source in its sink path, which realizes feedback network for calibration. This scheme of charge pump minimizes mismatch between the sourcing current and the sinking current efficiently. The circuit is simulated in 0.18um CMOS technology and the simulation results show that good current matching characteristics can be achieved. The mismatch between the sourcing current and the sinking current can be reduced to less than 0.01% and the range of charge pump output voltage varies from 0.3V to 1.5V.

  7. Experimental study of proton beam halo in mismatched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of transverse beam-halo formation in mismatched proton beams in a 52-quadrupole FODO-transport channel following the 6.7 MeV RFQ at the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos. Beam profiles in both transverse planes were measured using a new diagnostic device that consists of a movable carbon filament for measurement of the beam core, and scraper plates for measurement of the outer part of the distributions. The initial results indicate a surprisingly strong growth rate of the rms emittance even for the modest space-charge tune depressions of the experiment. Our results are consistent with the complete transfer of free energy of the mismatched beams into emittance growth within 10 envelope oscillations for both the breathing and the quadrupole modes.

  8. Fuzzy Backstepping Sliding Mode Control for Mismatched Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Hou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mode controllers have succeeded in many control problems that the conventional control theories have difficulties to deal with; however it is practically impossible to achieve high-speed switching control. Therefore, in this paper an adaptive fuzzy backstepping sliding mode control scheme is derived for mismatched uncertain systems. Firstly fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using backstepping method based on the Lyapunov function approach, which is capable of handling mismatched problem. Then fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using T-S fuzzy model method, it can improve the performance of the control systems and their robustness. Finally this method of control is applied to nonlinear system as a case study; simulation results are also provided the performance of the proposed controller.

  9. Noise and mismatch optimization for capacitive MEMS readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Chong; Wu Qisong; Yin Tao; Yang Haigang, E-mail: yanghg@mail.ie.ac.c [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a high precision CMOS readout circuit for a capacitive MEMS gyroscope. A continuous time topology is employed as well as the chopper noise cancelling technique. A detailed analysis of the noise and mismatch of the capacitive readout circuit is given. The analysis and measurement results have shown that thermal noise dominates in the proposed circuit, and several approaches should be used for both noise and mismatch optimization. The circuit chip operates under a single 5 V supply, and has a measured capacitance resolution of 0.2 aF/sq rootHz. With such a readout circuit, the gyroscope can accurately measure the angular rate with a sensitivity of 15.3 mV/{sup 0}/s. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Performance of Mismatched PV Systems With Submodule Integrated Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olalla, C; Deline, C; Maksimovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Mismatch power losses in photovoltaic (PV) systems can be reduced by the use of distributed power electronics at the module or submodule level. This paper presents an experimentally validated numerical model that can be used to predict power production with distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) down to the cell level. The model allows the investigations of different DMPPT architectures, as well as the impact of conversion efficiencies and power constraints. Results are presented for annual simulations of three representative partial shading scenarios and two scenarios where mismatches are due to aging over a period of 25 years. It is shown that DMPPT solutions that are based on submodule integrated converters offer 6.9-11.1% improvements in annual energy yield relative to a baseline centralized MPPT scenario.

  11. Interplay between quantum confinement and dielectric mismatch for ultrashallow dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, J. A.; Salfi, J.; Miwa, J. A.; Simmons, M. Y.; Rogge, S.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the electronic properties of dopants near an interface is a critical challenge for nanoscale devices. We have determined the effect of dielectric mismatch and quantum confinement on the ionization energy of individual acceptors beneath a hydrogen passivated silicon (100) surface. While dielectric mismatch between the vacuum and the silicon at the interface results in an image charge which enhances the binding energy of subsurface acceptors, quantum confinement is shown to reduce the binding energy. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we measure resonant transport through the localized states of individual acceptors. Thermal broadening of the conductance peaks provides a direct measure for the absolute energy scale. Our data unambiguously demonstrates that these two independent effects compete with the result that the ionization energy is less than 5 meV lower than the bulk value for acceptors less than a Bohr radius from the interface.

  12. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Miyanishi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J. RESULTS: Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  13. Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Hanifin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts and predator traits (tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes to assess the degree of phenotypic mismatch across the range of their coevolutionary interaction. Geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration were similar in prey and predators, with most phenotypically elevated localities occurring along the central Oregon coast and central California. Contrary to expectations, however, these areas of elevated traits did not coincide with the most intense coevolutionary selection. Measures of functional trait mismatch revealed that over one-third of sampled localities were so mismatched that reciprocal selection could not occur given current trait distributions. Estimates of current locality-specific interaction selection gradients confirmed this interpretation. In every case of mismatch, predators were "ahead" of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed. The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction. This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race.

  14. Induced Diffraction in Phase-Mismatched Second-Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wen-Hua; QIAN Lie-Jia; FU Xi-Quan; YANG Hua; ZHU He-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    We show analytically that in phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation,an effective diffraction is induced at the second-harmonic (SH) frequency.Numerical simulation results agree with the analytical predictions.Compared to the case of linear propagation,the effect of the overall diffraction at the SH frequency becomes doubled due to the induced diffraction,which causes an interesting result that the SH beam width will be larger than that of the fundamental field.

  15. SKILL MISMATCH OF GRADUATES IN A LOCAL LABOUR MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Marelli; Dario Sciulli; Marcello Signorelli

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we first review the (potential and actual) role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education) in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial) labour market in order to...

  16. Unconscious learning of auditory discrimination using mismatch negativity (MMN) neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Chang; Hiroyuki Iizuka; Yasushi Naruse; Hideyuki Ando; Taro Maeda

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a strong direct training method for brain function, wherein brain activity patterns are measured and displayed as feedback, and trainees try to stabilize the feedback signal onto certain desirable states to regulate their own mental states. Here, we introduce a novel neurofeedback method, using the mismatch negativity (MMN) responses elicited by similar sounds that cannot be consciously discriminated. Through neurofeedback training, without participants' attention to the audi...

  17. Energy Detection of Multilevel PAM Signals with Systematic Threshold Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Anttonen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address a symbol decision problem with spectrally efficient energy detected multilevel pulse amplitude modulated (PAM signals. First, we analytically quantify the relationship between a systematic threshold mismatch and the required increase of the average signal-to-noise ratio to preserve a desired symbol error rate. For the case in which such an increase is not tolerable, we present a novel near-optimal multilevel threshold selection scheme, which is accurate for a wide range of system parameters.

  18. Race, Segregation, and Postal Employment: New Evidence on Spatial Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Platt Boustan; Margo, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial mismatch hypothesis posits that employment decentralization isolated urban blacks from work opportunities. This paper focuses on one large employer that has remained in the central city over the twentieth century - the U.S. Postal Service. We find that blacks substitute towards postal work as other employment opportunities leave the city circa 1960. The response is particularly strong in segregated areas, where black neighborhoods are clustered near the central business district. ...

  19. Education Policy, Occupation-Mismatch and the Skill Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Francesc Obiols-Homs; Virginia Sánchez-Marcos

    2015-01-01

    A relatively low tertiary education wage premium and a large occupational mismatch are two salient features of the Spanish labor market that distinguish it with respect to the labor markets in other developed countries. In this paper we provide an equilibrium model of the labor market with frictions in which workers are heterogeneous in terms of ability and education. We specifically model an education policy as delivering either a particular selection of individuals into the tertiary educati...

  20. Studies on mechanism of Sialy Lewis-X antigen in liver metastases of human colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Wei Li; Yan Qing Ding; Jun Jie Cai; Shao Qing Yang; Lian Bing An; Dong Fang Qiao

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION Sialyl Lewis-X antigen ,correlated with carcinoma, is a group of carbohydrate antigen containing oligosaccharide expressed of embryonic tisue and glycoproteins on cell surface of embryonic tissue[1].The SLeX antigen located on cell surface is synthesized principally by two enzymes ,al ,3fucosyltransfrease and a2, 3sialyctransferase.In adults ,SLeX antigen is expressed principally on the surfaces of granulocytic cells and some tumor cells .

  1. Towards automatic identification of mismatched image pairs through loop constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibol, Armagan; Kim, Jinwhan; Gracias, Nuno; Garcia, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining image sequences has become easier and easier thanks to the rapid progress on optical sensors and robotic platforms. Processing of image sequences (e.g., mapping, 3D reconstruction, Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM)) usually requires 2D image registration. Recently, image registration is accomplished by detecting salient points in two images and nextmatching their descriptors. To eliminate outliers and to compute a planar transformation (homography) between the coordinate frames of images, robust methods (such as Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) and Least Median of Squares (LMedS)) are employed. However, image registration pipeline can sometimes provide sufficient number of inliers within the error bounds even when images do not overlap. Such mismatches occur especially when the scene has repetitive texture and shows structural similarity. In this study, we present a method to identify the mismatches using closed-loop (cycle) constraints. The method exploits the fact that images forming a cycle should have identity mapping when all the homographies between images in the cycle multiplied. Cycles appear when the camera revisits an area that was imaged before, which is a common practice especially for mapping purposes. Our proposal extracts several cycles to obtain error statistics for each matched image pair. Then, it searches for image pairs that have extreme error histogram comparing to the other pairs. We present experimental results with artificially added mismatched image pairs on real underwater image sequences.

  2. Semiblind Hyperspectral Unmixing in the Presence of Spectral Library Mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Ma, Wing-Kin; Bioucas-Dias, Jose M.; Chan, Tsung-Han

    2016-09-01

    The dictionary-aided sparse regression (SR) approach has recently emerged as a promising alternative to hyperspectral unmixing (HU) in remote sensing. By using an available spectral library as a dictionary, the SR approach identifies the underlying materials in a given hyperspectral image by selecting a small subset of spectral samples in the dictionary to represent the whole image. A drawback with the current SR developments is that an actual spectral signature in the scene is often assumed to have zero mismatch with its corresponding dictionary sample, and such an assumption is considered too ideal in practice. In this paper, we tackle the spectral signature mismatch problem by proposing a dictionary-adjusted nonconvex sparsity-encouraging regression (DANSER) framework. The main idea is to incorporate dictionary correcting variables in an SR formulation. A simple and low per-iteration complexity algorithm is tailor-designed for practical realization of DANSER. Using the same dictionary correcting idea, we also propose a robust subspace solution for dictionary pruning. Extensive simulations and real-data experiments show that the proposed method is effective in mitigating the undesirable spectral signature mismatch effects.

  3. Infra-red parametric generation: Phase mismatch condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Dubey, Swati; Jain, Kamal, E-mail: Jainrupam1987@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain (M.P.) India-456010 (India)

    2015-07-31

    An analytical investigation is made for the Infrared parametric generation in doped semiconductor plasma under phase mismatch condition. Theoretical formulations are undertaken to determine induced polarization and threshold pump field for the onset of parametric generation in semiconductor plasma medium. The origin of this nonlinear interaction lies in the second order optical susceptibility arising due to the induced nonlinear current density in piezoelectric medium. Numerical estimations are made for n- type InSb at 77 K duly irradiated by a pulsed 10.6µm CO{sub 2} laser. It is very difficult to attain exact phase matching in experimental frame so we have considered a tolerable small phase mismatch in order to attain a new result. Its effect on the Infrared parametric generation in compound semiconductor is examined through induced polarization. Transmitted intensity is determined to have an idea about conversion efficiency of the said process. Phase mismatch tends to raise the required pump field to stimulate the parametric generation. Transmitted intensity is found to decrease with coherence length lc and increase carrier concentration n{sub 0}, which is favorable for improved conversion efficiency.

  4. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijmons, Rolf H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2016-02-01

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome. Both conditions are important to recognize clinically as their identification has direct consequences for clinical management and allows targeted preventive actions in mutation carriers. Lynch syndrome is one of the more common adult-onset hereditary tumor syndromes, with thousands of patients reported to date. Its tumor spectrum is well established and includes colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and a range of other cancer types. However, surveillance for cancers other than colorectal cancer is still of uncertain value. Prophylactic surgery, especially for the uterus and its adnexa is an option in female mutation carriers. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin is actively being investigated in this syndrome and shows promising results. In contrast, the Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome is rare, features a wide spectrum of childhood onset cancers, many of which are brain tumors with high mortality rates. Future studies are very much needed to improve the care for patients with this severe disorder. PMID:26746812

  5. Infra-red parametric generation: Phase mismatch condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical investigation is made for the Infrared parametric generation in doped semiconductor plasma under phase mismatch condition. Theoretical formulations are undertaken to determine induced polarization and threshold pump field for the onset of parametric generation in semiconductor plasma medium. The origin of this nonlinear interaction lies in the second order optical susceptibility arising due to the induced nonlinear current density in piezoelectric medium. Numerical estimations are made for n- type InSb at 77 K duly irradiated by a pulsed 10.6µm CO2 laser. It is very difficult to attain exact phase matching in experimental frame so we have considered a tolerable small phase mismatch in order to attain a new result. Its effect on the Infrared parametric generation in compound semiconductor is examined through induced polarization. Transmitted intensity is determined to have an idea about conversion efficiency of the said process. Phase mismatch tends to raise the required pump field to stimulate the parametric generation. Transmitted intensity is found to decrease with coherence length lc and increase carrier concentration n0, which is favorable for improved conversion efficiency

  6. Passenger lymphocyte syndrome in ABO and Rhesus D minor mismatched liver and kidney transplantation: A prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAnsary, Mervat; Hanna, Mariam Onsy F; Saadi, Gamal; ElShazly, Mostafa; Fadel, Fatina I; Ahmed, Hanan AbdElAziz; Aziz, Amr Mostafa; ElSharnouby, Amal; Kandeel, Mona MohiElDin T

    2015-06-01

    The increasing demand for solid organs has necessitated the use of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) D minor mismatched transplants. The passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) occurs when donor lymphocytes produce antibodies that react with host red blood cell (RBC) antigens and result in hemolysis. Our aim was to evaluate prospectively the role of PLS in post transplant anemia and hemolysis in ABO and RhD minor mismatched recipients of liver and kidney grafts and to study the association of PLS with donor lymphocyte microchimerism. We examined 11 liver and 10 kidney recipients at Day +15 for anemia, markers of hemolysis, direct antiglobulin test and eluates, and serum RBC antibodies. Microchimerism was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes by genotyping of simple sequence length polymorphisms encoding short tandem repeats. Immune hemolytic anemia and anti-recipient RBC antibodies were observed in 2 out of 11 liver (18.2%) and 2 out of 10 kidney (20%) transplants. RBC antibody specificity reflected the donor to recipient transplant, with anti-blood group B antibodies identified in 2 cases of O to B and 1 case of A to AB transplants while anti-D antibodies were detected in 1 case of RhD-negative to RhD-positive transplant. Donor microchimerism was found in only 1 patient. In conclusion, passenger lymphocyte mediated hemolysis is frequent in minor mismatched liver and kidney transplantation. Recognizing PLS as a potential cause of post transplant anemia may allow for early diagnosis and management to decrease the morbidity and mortality in some patients. PMID:25842056

  7. Numerical simulations of material mismatch and ductile crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestby, Erling

    2002-07-01

    Both the global geometry and inhomogeneities in material properties will influence the fracture behaviour of structures in presence of cracks. In this thesis numerical simulations have been used to investigate how some aspects of both these issues affect the conditions at the crack-tip. The thesis is organised in an introduction chapter, summarising the major findings and conclusions, a review chapter, presenting the main aspects of the developments in the field of fracture mechanics, and three research papers. Paper I considers the effect of mismatch in hardening exponent on the local near-tip stress field for stationary interface cracks in bi-materials under small scale yielding conditions. It is demonstrated that the stress level in the weaker material increases compared to what is found in the homogeneous material for the same globally applied load level, with the effect being of increasing importance as the crack-tip is approached. Although a coupling between the radial and angular dependence of the stress fields exists, the evolving stress field can still be normalised with the applied J. The effect on the increase in stress level can closely be characterised by the difference in hardening exponent, {delta}n, termed the hardening mismatch, and is more or less independent of the absolute level of hardening in the two materials. Paper II and Ill deal with the effects of geometry, specimen size, hardening level and yield stress mismatch in relation to ductile crack growth. The ductile crack growth is simulated through use of the Gurson model. In Paper H the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is investigated for deep cracked bend and shallow cracked tensile specimens. At small amounts of crack growth the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is small, but a more significant effect is found for larger amounts of crack growth. The crack growth resistance decreases in smaller specimens loaded in tension, whereas the opposite is

  8. HE4与Lewis在卵巢上皮性肿瘤中的表达及相关性研究%The expression and correlation of human epididymis protein 4(HE4)and Lewis y anti-gen in ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄慧宇; 胡珍华; 刘娟娟; 刘大我; 高娜; 齐跃; 张淑兰; 林蓓

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究HE4与Lewis y抗原在卵巢上皮性肿瘤中的表达、相关性及临床意义。方法:免疫组化法检测卵巢上皮性恶性肿瘤、卵巢上皮性交界性肿瘤、卵巢上皮性良性肿瘤及正常卵巢组织中HE4与Lewis y抗原的表达。应用免疫荧光双标记方法检测卵巢上皮性肿瘤中HE4与Lewis y的结构关系。结果:HE4在卵巢恶性肿瘤组的阳性率最高,明显高于良性及正常卵巢组( p均﹤0.05)。Lewis y表达与HE4相似,在卵巢恶性上皮性肿瘤中,Lewis y抗原的阳性表达率明显高于交界性、良性及正常卵巢组。相关性分析显示:HE4与Lewis y呈直线相关( r=0.813,p﹤0.05)。在激光共聚焦显微镜下可见HE4与Lewis y抗原有空间位置上的重叠。结论:HE4与Lewis y抗原在卵巢恶性肿瘤中均呈现明显高表达,且两者在卵巢上皮性肿瘤中的表达呈正相关。%Objective:To investigate the expression and the clinical significance of HE4 and Lewis y in ovarian epithelial carcinoma,then evaluate the association between them. Methods:HE4 and Lewis y antigen expression were detectd on tissues from malignant,borderline,and benign ovarian tumors and normal tissues. Their expression and re-lationship were assessed in paraffin sections using immunohistochemistry method. The structure relationship between HE4 and Lewis y antigen was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results:The results of the immunohis-tochemistry displayed that positive expression rates of HE4 in malignant and boundary ovarian tissues were significant-ly higher than those in benign tumor,similar to Lewis y antigen levels in ovarian cancer. The positive expression rates in malignant ovarian cancer were markedly higher than those in the borderline,benign tumor and normal tissue groups. The correlation analysis showed that tissues displaying marked expression of HE4 simultaneously express high levels of Lewis y antigen. Overall

  9. Identification of Hemagglutinin Residues Responsible for H3N2 Antigenic Drift during the 2014-2015 Influenza Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Benjamin S; Parkhouse, Kaela; Ross, Ted M; Alby, Kevin; Hensley, Scott E

    2015-07-01

    Influenza vaccines must be updated regularly because influenza viruses continuously acquire mutations in antibody binding sites of hemagglutinin (HA). The majority of H3N2 strains circulating in the Northern Hemisphere during the 2014-2015 season are antigenically mismatched to the A/Texas/50/2012 H3N2 vaccine strain. Recent H3N2 strains possess several new HA mutations, and it is unknown which of these mutations contribute to the 2014-2015 vaccine mismatch. Here, we use reverse genetics to demonstrate that mutations in HA antigenic site B are primarily responsible for the current mismatch. Sera isolated from vaccinated humans and infected ferrets and sheep had reduced hemagglutination inhibition and in vitro neutralization titers against reverse-genetics-derived viruses possessing mutations in the HA antigenic site B. These data provide an antigenic explanation for the low influenza vaccine efficacy observed during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Furthermore, our data support the World Health Organization's decision to update the H3N2 component of future vaccine formulations.

  10. Gene expression of the mismatch repair gene MSH2 in primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Kuramochi, Hidekazu; Crüger, Dorthe Gylling;

    2011-01-01

    and lymphnode metastases were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, methylation and MSI analyses, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The median gene expression of MSH2 was 1.00 (range 0.16-11.2, quartiles 0.70-1.51) and there was good agreement between the gene expression in primary tumor and lymph......Microsatellite instability (MSI) is caused by defective mismatch repair (MMR) and is one of the very few molecular markers with proven clinical importance in colorectal cancer with respect to heredity, prognosis, and treatment effect. The gene expression of the MMR gene MSH2 may be a quantitative...... marker for the level of MMR and a potential molecular marker with clinical relevance. The aim was to investigate the gene expression of MSH2 in primary operable colorectal cancer in correlation with MSI, protein expression, and promoter hypermethylation. In a cohort of 210 patients, the primary tumor...

  11. DIGITAL BACKGROUND CALIBRATION OF CAPACITOR MISMATCHES AND HARMONIC DISTORTION IN PIPELINED ADC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chubin; Zhang Zhang; Gao Shanqing; Yu Changhu; Xie Guangjun

    2013-01-01

    A correlation-based digital background calibration algorithm for pipelined Analog-toDigital Converters (ADCs) is presented in this paper.The merit of the calibration algorithm is that the main errors information,which include the capacitor mismatches and residue amplifier distortion,are extracted integrally.A modified 1st pipelined stage is adopted to solve the signal overflow caused by the Pseudo-random Noise (PN) sequences.Behavioral simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.It improves the Signal-to-Noise-plus-Distortion Ratio (SNDR) and Spurious-Free-Dynamic-Range (SFDR) of the pipelined ADC from 41.8 dB to 78.3 dB and 55.6 dB to 98.6 dB,respectively,which is comparable to the prior arts.

  12. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Chiara; Esaulova, Yulia; Öttl, Anton; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she) which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith) or for women (e.g., beautician), the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer). Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in early stages in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed. PMID:26579003

  13. Murine antigen-induced arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; Joosten, L.A.B.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Antigen induced arthritis is a unilateral T-cell driven model caused by direct injection of an antigen into the knee joint of a FCA preimmunized animal. The chronicity is determined by antigen retention in avascular structures of the joint through charge mediated binding or antibody mediated trappin

  14. Identity Management Mismatch Challenges in the Danish Municipality Administration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2010-01-01

    Integrating a COTS product in a company’s product portfolio is appealing from a business perspective but highly challenging from the perspective of the software architecture. In this paper we outline research challenges regarding authorization in the identity management part of the Danish...... municipality administration system, called Opus BRS, a system that integrates SAP, legacy mainframe systems, and other systems present in the individual municipalities. Each of these systems defines their own access control model and architecture, which leads to architectural mismatch that impacts security...

  15. Single-mismatch 2LSB embedding method of steganography

    OpenAIRE

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of 2LSB embedding steganography in still images. The proposed method considers a single mismatch in each 2LSB embedding between the 2LSB of the pixel value and the 2-bits of the secret message, while the 2LSB replacement overwrites the 2LSB of the image’s pixel value with 2-bits of the secret message. The number of bit-changes needed for the proposed method is 0.375 bits from the 2LSBs of the cover image, and is much less than the 2LSB replacement which is 0.5...

  16. Triple helix structures: sequence dependence, flexibility and mismatch effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J S; Mergny, J L; Lavery, R; Montenay-Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    1991-12-01

    By means of molecular modelling, electrostatic interactions are shown to play an important role in the sequence-dependent structure of triple helices formed by a homopyrimidine oligonucleotide bound to a homopurine. homopyrimidine sequence on DNA. This is caused by the presence of positive charges due to the protonation of cytosines in the Hoogsteen-bonded strand, required in order to form C.GxC+ triplets. Energetic and conformational characteristics of triple helices with different sequences are analyzed and discussed. The effects of duplex mismatches on the triple helix stability are investigated via thermal dissociation using UV absorption. PMID:1815635

  17. A Role For Mitochondria In Antigen Processing And Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Lc; Cervantes-Silva, Mp; Ontiveros-Dotor, E; López-Villegas, Eo; Sánchez-García, Fj

    2014-09-23

    Immune synapse formation is critical for T lymphocyte activation, and mitochondria have a role in this process, by localizing close to the immune synapse, regulating intracellular calcium concentration, and providing locally required ATP. The interaction between antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes is a two-way signaling process. However, the role of mitochondria in antigen presenting cells during this process remains unknown. For APCs to be able to activate T lymphocytes, they must first engage in an antigen-uptake, -processing, and -presentation process. Here we show that HEL-loaded B lymphocytes, as a type of APCs, undergo a small but significant mitochondrial depolarization by 1-2 h following antigen exposure thus suggesting an increase in their metabolic demands. Inhibition of ATP synthase (oligomycin) or mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) (Ruthenium red) had no effect on antigen uptake. Therefore, antigen processing and antigen presentation were further analyzed. Oligomycin treatment reduced the amount of specific MHC-peptide complexes but not total MHC II on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes which correlated with a decrease in antigen presentation. However, oligomycin also reduced antigen presentation by B lymphocytes that endogenously express HEL and by B lymphocytes loaded with the HEL48-62 peptide, although to a lesser extent. ATP synthase inhibition and MCU inhibition had a clear inhibitory effect on antigen processing (DQ-OVA). Taking together these results suggest that ATP synthase and MCU are relevant for antigen processing and presentation. Finally, APCs mitochondria were found to re-organize towards the APC-T immune synapse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence spectroscopy reveals directional MutS binding to mismatched bases in DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Cristovao (Michele); E. Sisamakis (Evangelos); M.M. Hingorani (Manju); A.D. Marx (Andreas); C.P. Jung (Caroline); P.J. Rothwell (Paul); C.A.M. Seidel (Claus A.); P. Friedhoff (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMismatch repair (MMR) corrects replication errors such as mismatched bases and loops in DNA. The evolutionarily conserved dimeric MMR protein MutS recognizes mismatches by stacking a phenylalanine of one subunit against one base of the mismatched pair. In all crystal structures of G:T mi

  19. Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is influenced by time and the angular matching of the input beams. We derived the Gaussian dependence of the monochromatic signal gain on the small mismatch between the signal and pump beams. Gain characteristics were also calculated for polychromatic amplification and the impact of different beam mismatches and interaction geometries was explained. The asymmetry of the energy gain, and the square root dependence of the phase matched wavelength on beam angles were found. The predicted dependences were verified in a noncollinear OPCPA system with LBO and KDP crystal amplifying pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser around a central wavelength of 800 nm, pumped by the third harmonic frequency of an iodine gas laser at a wavelength of 438 nm. The widths of the gain curves in the dependence on both the pump–signal or the phase matching angles varied from several tenths to a few milliradians. The gain curve widths dependent on the pump–signal pulse delay were about two thirds of the pump pulse width for moderate pumping and about a half of the pump pulse width for pumping on the order of GW cm−2. A stable gain output is achieved if angular and temporal fluctuations are fractions of the measured gain curve widths, and when the signal direction is between the pump and the crystal principal axis (i.e. in the psz geometry). (letter)

  20. Mismatch Calibration in LINC Power Amplifiers Using Modified Gradient Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Miar-Naimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the power amplifiers linearization technique is linear amplification with nonlinear components (LINC.The effects of phase and gain imbalances between two signal branches in LINC transmitters have been analyzed in this paper. Then a feedback path has been added to compensate this mismatches, using two complex gain in each path.This complex gains are controlled in a way to calibrate any gain and phase mismatches between two path using Modified Gradient Algorithm (MGA adaptively. The main advantages of this algorithm over other algorithms are zero residual error and fast convergence time. In the proposedarchitecture power amplifiers in each path are modeled as a complex gain which its phase and amplitude depend on input signal level. Many simulations have been performed to validate the proposed self calibrating LINC transmitter. Simulation results have confirmed the analyticalpredictions. According to simulation results the proposed structure has around 40 dB/Hz improvement in the first adjacent channel of the output signal spectrum.

  1. Counting the mismatches - lung ventilation/perfusion subtraction index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is potential for interobserver variability in interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans. Objective quantification of V/Q mismatch could be useful. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the validity of image subtraction in a group of 27 patients (11 men, 8 women; mean age 59.4 years [range 21-81 years])investigated by V/Q scans for suspected pulmonary emboli. A standard 6 view V/Q scan was obtained with two cobalt markers used on the anterior and posterior surfaces for image alignment. Ventilation images were normalised to the perfusion using an area of normal ventilation and perfusion. With the use of automated, and if required, manual alignment, perfusion images were subtracted from ventilation, with a median filter applied. A summed index of mismatch for each lung scan was calculated from the difference. This index was then retrospectively compared to the result reported by one of four experienced physicians. Two patients with chronic obstructive airways disease were excluded from analysis. We conclude that high probability V/Q scans can be differentiated from low probability studies using this index; further prospective investigation in a larger cohort is warranted

  2. Visualization of mismatch repair complexes using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias T; Hombauer, Hans

    2016-02-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a surveillance mechanism present in most living organisms, which repairs errors introduced by DNA polymerases. Importantly, loss of MMR function due to inactivating mutations and/or epigenetic silencing results in the accumulation of mutations and as consequence increased cancer susceptibility, as observed in Lynch syndrome patients. During the past decades important progress has been made in the MMR field resulting in the identification and characterization of essential MMR components, culminating in the in vitro reconstitution of 5' and 3' nick-directed MMR. However, several mechanistic aspects of the MMR reaction remain not fully understood, therefore alternative approaches and further investigations are needed. Recently, the use of imaging techniques and, more specifically, visualization of MMR components in living cells, has broadened our mechanistic understanding of the repair reaction providing more detailed information about the spatio-temporal organization of MMR in vivo. In this review we would like to comment on mechanistic aspects of the MMR reaction in light of these and other recent findings. Moreover, we will discuss the current limitations and provide future perspectives regarding imaging of mismatch repair components in diverse organisms. PMID:26725956

  3. Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, O.; Turčičová, H.; Divoký, M.; Huynh, J.; Straka, P.

    2014-02-01

    The stability of an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is influenced by time and the angular matching of the input beams. We derived the Gaussian dependence of the monochromatic signal gain on the small mismatch between the signal and pump beams. Gain characteristics were also calculated for polychromatic amplification and the impact of different beam mismatches and interaction geometries was explained. The asymmetry of the energy gain, and the square root dependence of the phase matched wavelength on beam angles were found. The predicted dependences were verified in a noncollinear OPCPA system with LBO and KDP crystal amplifying pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser around a central wavelength of 800 nm, pumped by the third harmonic frequency of an iodine gas laser at a wavelength of 438 nm. The widths of the gain curves in the dependence on both the pump-signal or the phase matching angles varied from several tenths to a few milliradians. The gain curve widths dependent on the pump-signal pulse delay were about two thirds of the pump pulse width for moderate pumping and about a half of the pump pulse width for pumping on the order of GW cm-2. A stable gain output is achieved if angular and temporal fluctuations are fractions of the measured gain curve widths, and when the signal direction is between the pump and the crystal principal axis (i.e. in the psz geometry).

  4. Halo Formation of a Mismatched Beam in an Induction LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chun Fai

    1996-11-01

    Beam halo formation and emittance growth due to initial envelope mismatch are studied with particle-in-cell simulation for a planned high current experiment with a 2 MeV, 0.8 amp K^+ beam. Transport over 15 m is provided by 55 sets of electrostatic quadrupoles and acceleration could be incorporated with induction modules at drift spaces. The tool used in the study is a (2+1)d code HIBEAM. Clearly visible beam halos are formed in the phase space and real space plots beyond 6 m, if the beam is initially mismatched in the envelope radius and angle by about 20% or more. Furthermore, we present the argument that the physical reason for the effect is due to successive aberration, described earlier by J.D. Lawson.(J.D. Lawson, The Physics of Charged-Particle Beams, p. 200, 1977.) Existing experimental data(M.G. Tiefenback, Proceedings of the 1987 Particle Accelerator Conference, p.1046, 1987.) of halo formation supports this interpretation.

  5. Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho M. Strömmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.

  6. FRAGILE HISTIDINE TRIAD GENE EXPRESSION AND ITS CORRALATION WITH MISMATCH REPAIR PROTEIN IN HUMAN SPORADIC COLORECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚成才; 林从尧

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and its correlation with clinicopathological features and correlation with mismatch repair protein (mainly MLH1 and MSH2) in human sporadic colorectal carcinoma (SCC). Methods:Immunohistochemistry SP method was used to determine the expression of FHIT, MLH1 and MSH2 protein in surgically resected specimens of 84 human SCC. Results:The positive rates of FHIT, MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression were 48.81%, 92.86% and 100% respectively.Loss or reduced expression of FHIT protein was not related with tumors clinicopathological features such as age, gender,tumors site and histological type (P>0.05), but was correlated with tumors invade depth, degree of the differentiation, Ducks' stage and metastasis (P<0.05). There was no relationship between FHIT gene expression and MLH1 protein (r=0.0991, P>0.05) and MSH2 protein (r=0.0000, P=l.00) expression in human SCC. Conclusion:Absent or reduction of FHIT gene expression consists of high proportion and is a frequent event in SCC. FHIT gene is involved in the development and progression of human SCC and may be a candidate tumors suppressor gene. The relationship between alteration of FHIT gene expression and mismatch repair protein (mainly MLH1 and MSH2)deserved further study in human SCC.

  7. Impact of Time-interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converter Mismatch on Digital Receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Soudan, Michael; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the impact that gain, offset and timing mismatch in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) have on digital receiver systems. An analysis of the mismatch errors shows the dependency of the different errors from the spectrum of the input signal. A discrete-time TIADC model is derived allowing to simulate the mismatch effects of the individual ADCs. Finally, simulations results present the performance degradation that can be expected by the usage of non-id...

  8. Creep Rupture of Mismatched Welded Joints of Steels with Dissimilar Creep Strengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The finite element analysis of mismatched welded joints with a 30°groove angle was performed to study the mechanical behavior of DMWJs (dissimilar metal welded joints). It is concluded that the distribution of stress triaxiality in the DMWJs is uneven, especially near the fusion lines. The degree of creep strength mismatch has remarkable effect on the distribution. The higher the level of mismatch is, the more uneven the distribution is and the easier for premature failure to occur in the joint.

  9. Strong Asymmetric Effect of Lattice Mismatch on Epilayer Structure in Metal Thin Film Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Pai-Yi; Tsai, Zhuo-Han; Huang, Jia-Hong; Yu, Ge-Ping

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the hetero-epitaxial growth of thin film deposited on a (001) substrate via molecular dynamics simulations, using six fcc transition metals as our modeling systems. By studying the radial distribution function in the film layers, we demonstrate the importance of the sign of lattice mismatch on the layer structure. For positive lattice mismatches, the film favors pseudomorphic growth, whereas for negative mismatches, a sharp transition happens within the first few monolayers of ...

  10. Clinical predictors of prosthesis-patient mismatch after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luis M Astudillo; Orlando Santana; Urbandt, Pablo A.; Benjo, Alexandre M.; Lior U Elkayam; Nascimento, Francisco O.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Joseph Lamelas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to ascertain predictors of Patient Prosthesis Mismatch, an independent predictor of mortality, in patients with aortic stenosis using bioprosthetic valves. METHOD: We analyzed 2,107 sequential surgeries. Patient Prosthesis Mismatch was calculated using the effective orifice area of the prosthesis divided by the patient's body surface area. We defined nonsignificant, moderate, and severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch as effective orifice area indexes of >0.85 cm2/m, 0.85-0.6...

  11. Single-base mismatch detection based on charge transduction through DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, S O; Boon, E M; Barton, J K; Jackson, N M; Hill, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sensors capable of detecting single-base mismatches are required for the routine screening of genetic mutations and disease. A new strategy for the electrochemical detection of single-base mismatches in DNA has been developed based upon charge transport through DNA films. Double-helical DNA films on gold surfaces have been prepared and used to detect DNA mismatches electrochemically. The signals obtained from redox-active intercalators bound to DNA-modified gold surfaces d...

  12. Kinetics and binding of the thymine-DNA mismatch glycosylase, Mig-Mth, with mismatch-containing DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Thomas J; Haas, Brian J; Morales, Juan C; Kool, Eric T; Cunningham, Richard P

    2003-01-01

    We have examined the removal of thymine residues from T-G mismatches in DNA by the thymine-DNA mismatch glycosylase from Methanobacterium thermoautrophicum (Mig-Mth), within the context of the base excision repair (BER) pathway, to investigate why this glycosylase has such low activity in vitro. Using single-turnover kinetics and steady-state kinetics, we calculated the catalytic and product dissociation rate constants for Mig-Mth, and determined that Mig-Mth is inhibited by product apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) provide evidence that the specificity of product binding is dependent upon the base opposite the AP site. The binding of Mig-Mth to DNA containing the non-cleavable substrate analogue difluorotoluene (F) was also analyzed to determine the effect of the opposite base on Mig-Mth binding specificity for substrate-like duplex DNA. The results of these experiments support the idea that opposite strand interactions play roles in determining substrate specificity. Endonuclease IV, which cleaves AP sites in the next step of the BER pathway, was used to analyze the effect of product removal on the overall rate of thymine hydrolysis by Mig-Mth. Our results support the hypothesis that endonuclease IV increases the apparent activity of Mig-Mth significantly under steady-state conditions by preventing reassociation of enzyme to product. PMID:12509271

  13. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. Material/Methods The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins – MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 – using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Results A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusions In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  14. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins - MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 - using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  15. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wojciechowski

    Full Text Available Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI. However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  16. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  17. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  18. Typing for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P;

    1980-01-01

    of DP-antigen assignment was analyzed. The DP-antigen assignments could be done solely according the NMR-values in approximately two thirds of the individuals. In the remaining individuals, further interpretation of the experimental data had to be done for the assignment of DP-antigens. The correlation...... coefficients were estimated between the HLA-D assignments and (i) the individual PLT-cell NMR-values with a fixed cut-off for positive reactions and (ii) the DP-antigen assignments. These coefficients were 0.79 and 0.92, respectively. The correlations between HLA-D, -DR and DP-antigen assignments...... assignments, which does not agree with other studies. The DP-antigen frequencies among the controls were calculated and the estimated sum of gene frequency corresponding to definable DP-antigens was 0.94 indicating that about 12% of random individuals possess as yet undefined DP-antigens....

  19. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  20. Is it time to move mismatch negativity into the clinic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Since its inception in the 1970s, the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential has improved our understanding of pre-attentive detection of rule violations, which is a fundamental cognitive process considered by some a form of "primitive intelligence". The body of research to date ranges from animal studies (i.e. when investigating the neural mechanisms and pharmacological properties of MMN generation) to researching the psychophysiological nature of human consciousness. MMN therefore offers the possibility to detect abnormal functioning in the neural system involved in MMN generation, such as it occurs in some neurodevelopmental disorders or patients in vegetative state. While the clinical research data holds considerable promise for translation into clinical practice, standardization and normative data of an optimized (i.e. disorder-specific) MMN recording algorithm is needed in order for MMN to become a valuable clinical investigation tool. PMID:26342995

  1. ADAPTIVE CALIBRATION OF I AND Q MISMATCH IN QUADRATURE RECEIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuexian; Hou Zifeng; Zhang Qunying; Ning Yanqing

    2002-01-01

    The mismatch of in-phase and quadrature channels in quadrature receiver affects and constrains radar detection performance in coherent radar. It is necessary to keep the in-phase and quadrature branches symmetrical. In this letter, an adaptive method to detect imbalance parameters is derived by means of evaluating channel errors from the received signal sequences.No matter how the bias degree of the gain and phase errors in I/Q channels are, the proposed adaptive scheme can obtain good calibration results. And the required calculations are only a few multiplications and additions. No need of a special test signal, the introduced method is simple to implement and easy to operate.

  2. Automated effective band structures for defective and mismatched supercells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Peter; Quigley, David

    2014-12-01

    In plane-wave density functional theory codes, defects and incommensurate structures are usually represented in supercells. However, interpretation of E versus k band structures is most effective within the primitive cell, where comparison to ideal structures and spectroscopy experiments are most natural. Popescu and Zunger recently described a method to derive effective band structures (EBS) from supercell calculations in the context of random alloys. In this paper, we present bs_sc2pc, an implementation of this method in the CASTEP code, which generates an EBS using the structural data of the supercell and the underlying primitive cell with symmetry considerations handled automatically. We demonstrate the functionality of our implementation in three test cases illustrating the efficacy of this scheme for capturing the effect of vacancies, substitutions and lattice mismatch on effective primitive cell band structures. PMID:25388668

  3. Diagnostic criteria for constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Katharina; Kratz, Christian P; Vasen, Hans F A;

    2014-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a distinct childhood cancer predisposition syndrome that results from biallelic germline mutations in one of the four MMR genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The tumour spectrum is very broad, including mainly haematological, brain and...... intestinal tract tumours. Patients show a variety of non-malignant features that are indicative of CMMRD. However, currently no criteria that should entail diagnostic evaluation of CMMRD exist. We present a three-point scoring system for the suspected diagnosis CMMRD in a paediatric/young adult cancer....... They include multiple hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin areas, brain malformations, pilomatricomas, a second childhoodmalignancy, a Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated tumour in a relative and parental consanguinity. According to the scoring system, CMMRD should be suspected in any cancer patient who...

  4. Skill Mismatch of Graduates in a Local Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first review the (potential and actual role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial labour market in order to reconstruct the characteristics of the university-to-work transitions of graduates. Our results have important policy implications, since for local development it is crucial, among other things, to make the best use of all human resources and especially those with the highest educational level.

  5. Is it time to move mismatch negativity into the clinic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Since its inception in the 1970s, the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential has improved our understanding of pre-attentive detection of rule violations, which is a fundamental cognitive process considered by some a form of "primitive intelligence". The body of research to date ranges from animal studies (i.e. when investigating the neural mechanisms and pharmacological properties of MMN generation) to researching the psychophysiological nature of human consciousness. MMN therefore offers the possibility to detect abnormal functioning in the neural system involved in MMN generation, such as it occurs in some neurodevelopmental disorders or patients in vegetative state. While the clinical research data holds considerable promise for translation into clinical practice, standardization and normative data of an optimized (i.e. disorder-specific) MMN recording algorithm is needed in order for MMN to become a valuable clinical investigation tool.

  6. Concentrative meditation enhances preattentive processing: a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Baijal, Shruti

    2007-10-29

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm that is an indicator of preattentive processing was used to study the effects of concentrative meditation. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga meditation is a yogic exercise practiced in an ordered sequence beginning with breathing exercises, and ending with concentrative (Sahaj Samadhi) meditation. Auditory MMN waveforms were recorded at the beginning and after each of these practices for meditators, and equivalently after relaxation sessions for the nonmeditators. Overall meditators were found to have larger MMN amplitudes than nonmeditators. The meditators also exhibited significantly increased MMN amplitudes immediately after meditation suggesting transient state changes owing to meditation. The results indicate that concentrative meditation practice enhances preattentive perceptual processes, enabling better change detection in auditory sensory memory.

  7. The mismatch between the cultures of journalism and science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbspan, R.

    2000-06-01

    This presentation provided some insight into the journalist's perspective on climate change with particular consideration to the way the U.S. media portrays the issue. The author draws on thirty years of experience in journalism when he portrays the economic and political aspects of climate change along with the critical issues of journalism ethics as they relate to the coverage of the climate crisis. This paper also highlighted the campaign of deception by the fossil fuel lobby in the United States. The objective of this presentation is to address the link between inadequate media coverage and the lack of a political constituency in the United States regarding this issue. It was emphasized that there is a communication mismatch between science and journalism. Some suggestions were presented which would help scientists communicate their ideas to the press more effectively.

  8. Reducing measurement scale mismatch to improve surface energy flux estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwema, Joost; Rosolem, Rafael; Rahman, Mostaquimur; Blyth, Eleanor; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture importantly controls land surface processes such as energy and water partitioning. A good understanding of these controls is needed especially when recognizing the challenges in providing accurate hyper-resolution hydrometeorological simulations at sub-kilometre scales. Soil moisture controlling factors can, however, differ at distinct scales. In addition, some parameters in land surface models are still often prescribed based on observations obtained at another scale not necessarily employed by such models (e.g., soil properties obtained from lab samples used in regional simulations). To minimize such effects, parameters can be constrained with local data from Eddy-Covariance (EC) towers (i.e., latent and sensible heat fluxes) and Point Scale (PS) soil moisture observations (e.g., TDR). However, measurement scales represented by EC and PS still differ substantially. Here we use the fact that Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) estimate soil moisture at horizontal footprint similar to that of EC fluxes to help answer the following question: Does reduced observation scale mismatch yield better soil moisture - surface fluxes representation in land surface models? To answer this question we analysed soil moisture and surface fluxes measurements from twelve COSMOS-Ameriflux sites in the USA characterized by distinct climate, soils and vegetation types. We calibrated model parameters of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) against PS and CRNS soil moisture data, respectively. We analysed the improvement in soil moisture estimation compared to uncalibrated model simulations and then evaluated the degree of improvement in surface fluxes before and after calibration experiments. Preliminary results suggest that a more accurate representation of soil moisture dynamics is achieved when calibrating against observed soil moisture and further improvement obtained with CRNS relative to PS. However, our results also suggest that a more accurate

  9. Study of the Correlation between TCID50 and p27 Antigen of Subgroup B Avian Leukosis Virus%B亚群禽白血病病毒SDAU09C2株的TCID50与p27抗原之间的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薛; 董宣; 赵鹏; 牛星; 崔治中

    2013-01-01

    为了研究B亚群禽白血病病毒(ALV-B)的半数细胞培养物感染量(TCID50)与p27抗原的酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)的S/P值之间的相关性,本试验将ALV-B SDAU09C2株接种鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF细胞),换维持液后连续10 d取样,检测10d的TCID50值与p27抗原的S/P值之间的相关性;同时,将该毒株在DF-1细胞系上传代至20代,取其中的第1、5、10、15和20代分别进行TCID50滴度的测定和p27抗原检测.结果表明,在CEF细胞上接种的ALV-B SDAU09C2株连续10 d的TCID50值与p27抗原之间存在显著的正相关(r=0.94002;P<0.0001);在DF-1细胞系上传的不同代数之间也呈显著正相关(r=0.96449;P=0.0080).由此可推测ALV-B的TCID50与p27抗原呈显著正相关,可以用ELISA法测得的p27抗原的S/P值来估测病毒的TCID50值.%To study the correlation between 50% tissue-culture infective dose (TCID50) value and p27 antigen's S/P value of subgroup B avian leukosis virus and discuss their significance, chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells were inoculated with subgroup B avian leukosis virus strain SDAU09C2 and samples were taken continuously for ten days after changing maintenance media. The correlations between TCID50 value and p27 antigen's S/P value of ten days were then detected. Simultaneously, DF-1 cells were inoculated with it and passed to 20 generations. Samples taken from 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th generation were received the TCID50 titer determination and the p27 antigen examination separately. A significant Pearson correlation was found between them in CEF cells (r=0. 85277;P<0. 0001) and in DF-1 cells 0=0. 93000; P = 0. 0220). This study provided an important parameter for predicting TCID50 by detecting the p27 antigen's S/P value.

  10. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    which represent secondary gene products. They are synthesized in a stepwise fashion from a precursor by the action of different glycosyltransferases. In non-keratinized oral mucosa, a sequential elongation of the carbohydrates is associated with differentiation of epithelial cells, resulting...... in expression of precursors on basal cells and A/B antigens on spinous cells. Reduction or complete deletion of A/B antigen expression in oral carcinomas has been reported, a phenotypic change that is correlated with invasive and metastatic potential of the tumours and with the mortality rates of the patients....... Disappearance of the antigens is ascribed to the absence of A or B transferase gene expression. Several studies have shown that loss of A and B antigen expression is associated with increased cell motility, invasion in matrigel, and tumourigenecity in syngenic animals. In vivo studies of human oral wound...

  11. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical grading in relation to ventilation/perfusion mismatch measured by single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Malin; Björkman, Karin; Rohdin, Malin; Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Jonsson, Baldvin

    2013-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a significant cause of morbidity in the preterm population. Clinical severity grading based on the need for supplemental oxygen and/or need for positive airway pressure at 36 weeks postmenstrual age does not yield reproducible predictive values for later pulmonary morbidity. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to measure the distribution of lung ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) in 30 BPD preterm infants at a median age of 37 weeks postmenstrual age. The V and Q were traced with 5 MBq Technegas and Technetium-labeled albumin macro aggregates, respectively, and the V/Q match-mismatch was used to quantify the extent of lung function impairment. The latter was then compared with the clinical severity grading at 36 weeks, and time spent on mechanical ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and supplemental oxygen. Of those with mild and moderate BPD 3/9 and 3/11 patients, respectively, showed significant V/Q mismatches. By contrast, 4/10 patients with severe BPD showed a satisfactory V/Q matching distribution. An unsatisfactory V/Q match was not correlated with time spent on supplemental oxygen or CPAP, but was significantly negatively correlated with time spent on mechanical ventilation. SPECT provides unique additional information about regional lung function. The results suggest that the current clinical severity grading can be improved and/or complemented with SPECT. PMID:23359534

  12. Job mismatches and their labour-market effects among school-leavers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the determinants of job mismatches with regard to the field of education among school-leavers in Europe. We also examine the effects of job mismatches on the labour-market position of school-leavers. Special attention is paid to cross-national differences in this resp

  13. Capacitor Mismatch Error Cancellation Technique for a Successive Approximation A/D Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zhiliang; Moon, Un-Ku; Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper;

    1999-01-01

    An error cancellation technique is described for suppressing capacitor mismatch in a successive approximation A/D converter. At the cost of a 50% increase in conversion time, the first-order capacitor mismatch error is cancelled. Methods for achieving top-plate parasitic insensitive operation...

  14. Educational Mismatch between Graduates' Possessed Skills and Market Demands in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair-ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Noreen, Zahida

    2013-01-01

    Educational mismatch in skills that graduates possess and market requires creates barriers for organizations as well as for job seekers. The study was conducted to find out the educational mismatch between graduates possessed skills and market demands. Convenient sampling was carried out and data were collected from 200 graduates of economics…

  15. Magnesium coordination controls the molecular switch function of DNA mismatch repair protein MutS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce); A. Fish (Alexander); A. Reumer (Annet); G. Natrajan; H.H.K. Winterwerp (Herrie); T.K. Sixma (Titia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe DNA mismatch repair protein MutS acts as a molecular switch. It toggles between ADP and ATP states and is regulated by mismatched DNA. This is analogous to G-protein switches and the regulation of their "on" and "off" states by guanine exchange factors. Although GDP release in monome

  16. Educational mismatches for second generation migrants. An analysis of applied science graduates in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, Swantje; Meng, Christoph; Nollen, Romy

    2016-01-01

    Educational mismatches, i.e. diferences between the education attained and required for a job have been found to negatively affect earnings and job satisfaction and thus lead to a lower return to education. In this paper we aim to see whether immigrants are more prone to educational mismatches and u

  17. Suboptimal Detection of Influenza Virus in Adults by the Directigen Flu A+B Enzyme Immunoassay and Correlation of Results with the Number of Antigen-Positive Cells Detected by Cytospin Immunofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie L.; Ferguson, David

    2003-01-01

    To provide 24-h influenza diagnosis for adults presenting to the emergency department, the Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed in the chemistry laboratory during the night shift. Nasopharyngeal swabs were retested by cytospin-enhanced direct immunofluorescence (DFA; SimulFluor respiratory screen) when the virology laboratory opened. The influenza EIA detected 16 influenza A virus infections, whereas cytospin-enhanced DFA detected 31 influenza A virus infections as well as 3 respiratory syncytial virus, 2 adenovirus, and 1 parainfluenza virus infections. A positive EIA result usually correlated with 50 or more influenza virus cells positive by DFA. PMID:12843105

  18. 349 Detection of Anti-nucclear Antibodies (ana) Used for Diagnostic Approach of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases. Correlation with Double Stranded DNA (DSDNA) and Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, Ekarerini; Vakaloudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Mavridou, Styliani; Koteli, Asimoula

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the correlation between the titer of ANA and anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibodies and the contribution of ANA detection to the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTD). Methods Our samples consisted of 516 specimens, from Rheumatology Department, collected during January 2010 – July 2010. The detection of ANA was performed using indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and the detection of anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA using ELISA. Results Of the 364 (70.54%) samples with negati...

  19. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  20. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Gemma; Rashid, Sukaina; Martin, Sarah A., E-mail: sarah.martin@qmul.ac.uk [Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-05

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting.

  1. Electrochemical Investigation of Interaction between a Bifunctional Probe and GG Mismatch Duplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; He, Hanping; Peng, Xiaoqian; Huang, Min; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-01-01

    A bifunctional probe (FecNC), containing a recognition part and an electrochemical active center, was applied to electrochemical detection of GG mismatch duplexes. The preparation of gold electrodes modified by mismatch and complementatry duplexes was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and optimized for better detection in terms of self-assembly time, hybridization time, and incubation time. The interaction between FecNC and DNA duplexes modified on the surface of a gold electrode was explored by square wave voltammetry (SWV) and EIS. The results showed that the DNA duplexes with GG mismatch on the surface of a gold electrode was easily detected by the largest electrochemical signal of the bifunctional probe because of its selective binding to GG mismatches. The bifunctional probe could offer a simple, effective electrochemical detection of GG mismatches, and theoretical bases for development of electrochemical biosensors. Further, the method would be favorable for diagnosis of genetic diseases.

  2. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting

  3. Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon

    2010-10-01

    The performance enhancements based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) for compensating IQ mismatch in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems are investigated. We analytically explore IQ mismatch in optical OFDM systems and investigate the impacts of phase and amplitude IQ mismatch on required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for the different values of data mapping and polarization multiplexing. The impacts of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution and the number of samples in GSOP are also evaluated. The results show that the GSOP operation efficiently compensate IQ mismatch induced performance degradations regardless of the amount of IQ phase mismatch, density of data mapping, and polarization multiplexing.

  4. Scale Mismatches in Social-Ecological Systems: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Redman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a concept that transcends disciplinary boundaries. In ecology and geography, scale is usually defined in terms of spatial and temporal dimensions. Sociological scale also incorporates space and time, but adds ideas about representation and organization. Although spatial and temporal location determine the context for social and ecological dynamics, social-ecological interactions can create dynamic feedback loops in which humans both influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. We hypothesize that many of the problems encountered by societies in managing natural resources arise because of a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale(s of the ecological processes being managed. We use examples from southern Africa and the southern United States to address four main questions: (1 What is a “scale mismatch?” (2 How are scale mismatches generated? (3 What are the consequences of scale mismatches? (4 How can scale mismatches be resolved? Scale mismatches occur when the scale of environmental variation and the scale of social organization in which the responsibility for management resides are aligned in such a way that one or more functions of the social-ecological system are disrupted, inefficiencies occur, and/or important components of the system are lost. They are generated by a wide range of social, ecological, and linked social-ecological processes. Mismatches between the scales of ecological processes and the institutions that are responsible for managing them can contribute to a decrease in social-ecological resilience, including the mismanagement of natural resources and a decrease in human well-being. Solutions to scale mismatches usually require institutional changes at more than one hierarchical level. Long-term solutions to scale mismatch problems will depend on social learning and the development of flexible institutions that can adjust and reorganize in response to changes in ecosystems. Further research

  5. Correlation of human leucocyte antigen matching to acute rejection and allograft survival after renal allograft%肾移植患者抗人类白细胞抗体配型与术后急性排斥反应及移植肾存活的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李留洋; 赵明; 陈剑荣; 钱俊; 李民; 孙尔维; 郭颖; 岳良升; 范礼佩; 陈桦

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Panel reactive antibody (PRA) can mediate hyperacute rejection, and lead to decrease in success rate of transplantation and survival rate of renal graft in highly sensitized recipients compared to non-sensitized recipients.OBJECTIVE: According to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) cross-matching standards to select suitable donors for sensitized recipients and to evaluate the incidence of acute rejection and survival rate of renal allografts.DESIGN: Case observation.SETTING: Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: 136 sensitized recipients with positive PRA underwent renal transplantation in Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University between January 1997 and December 2003 were selected, including 41 males and 95 females, aged (45±9) years. Recipients of first, second, third, and fourth transplant were 115, 18, 2 and 1 case, respectively. The informed consent was obtained from all patients. The protocol was approved by Hospital Ethics Committee. Lambda antigen tray (LAT) and LAT-Mix were purchased from One Lambda, Inc, USA. Special monoclonal tray -Asian HLA class Ⅰ (SMT72R) and Micro SSP Generic HLA Class Ⅱ (DRB/DQB) were also purchased from One Lambda, Inc, USA.METHODS: Pre-operative PRA levels and specificity of recipients were detected by ELISA test with Lambda antigen tray (LAT). Donor and recipient HLA class Ⅰ typing was performed with special tray - Asian HLA class Ⅰ (SMT72R), and HLA class Ⅱ gene typing with Micro SSP Generic HLA Class Ⅱ (DRB/DQB) (Micro-SSP). HLA-matching between donor and recipient was performed according to HLA cross-reactive group (CREG) standards by UNOS and class Ⅱ antigen permissible mismatch. The incidence of acute rejection and survival rate of renal allografts were evaluated within 1, 3 and 5 years.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①PRA levels and specificity of sensitized recipients before and after transplantation; ②HLA-matching between donor and

  6. 349 Detection of Anti-nucclear Antibodies (ana) Used for Diagnostic Approach of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases. Correlation with Double Stranded DNA (DSDNA) and Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Ekarerini; Vakaloudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Mavridou, Styliani; Koteli, Asimoula

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the correlation between the titer of ANA and anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibodies and the contribution of ANA detection to the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTD). Methods Our samples consisted of 516 specimens, from Rheumatology Department, collected during January 2010 – July 2010. The detection of ANA was performed using indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and the detection of anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA using ELISA. Results Of the 364 (70.54%) samples with negative ANA 4 (1%) had positive anti-ENA and 2 (0.5%) had positive anti-dsDNA while positive anti-ENA and anti-dsDNA were detected in the 44.73% (n = 68) and 21% (n = 32) of the specimens with positive ANA respectively. The probability of detecting positive anti-ENA and anti-dsDNA rises proportionately to the titer of ANA. Specifically, the correlation between the probability of detecting positive anti-ENA and the titer of ANA is 0.577 (P anti-ENA. The receiver operating (ROC) curves of the ANA titer for anti-ENA had a larger under the curve area compared to the ROC curve for anti-dsDNA, indicating that ANA titer is better for predicting anti-ENA than anti-dsDNA. The sensitivity of positive ANA in the prediction of the anti-ENA and anti-dsDNA was 94.40% and 94.10%, the specificity was 81% and 75.10%, the positive prognostic value was 44.70% and 21.10% and negative prognostic value was 98.90 and 99.50%. Conclusions The detection of ANA using indirect IFA has high sensitivity in predicting the presence of specialized antibodies and may be used as a screening method for the diagnosis of CTD. It is cost and time effective too. Our study also shows that the ANA titer is useful in predicting anti-ENA. Samples with low titer ANAs (1:160 or less) may not need a further test for anti-ENA unless an ANA-associated disease is highly suspected. However a test for anti-dsDNA should be considered in positive ANA samples at any titer including low titers.

  7. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  8. HLA-mismatched cord blood transplantation: immunological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, E; Quelvennec, E; Plouvier, E; Denamur, E; Rohrlich, P; Elion, J; Sterkers, G

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of HLA partially matched related cord blood transplantation were reported. The first patient remains healthy more than 4 years after graft. The second patient died from acute GVHD. In the first case, the immune reconstitution was studied over a 2 year period after graft: the alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursor (CTLp) frequencies were comparable between the donor and the recipient. Indirect evidence suggested that the resolution of GVHD was not due to a specific deletion of CTLp against the HLA antigens unshared between donor and recipient.

  9. Anterior insula coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile mismatch responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Fardo, Francesca; Dietz, Martin J; Hillebrandt, Hauke; Friston, Karl J; Rees, Geraint; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-02-15

    The body underlies our sense of self, emotion, and agency. Signals arising from the skin convey warmth, social touch, and the physical characteristics of external stimuli. Surprising or unexpected tactile sensations can herald events of motivational salience, including imminent threats (e.g., an insect bite) and hedonic rewards (e.g., a caressing touch). Awareness of such events is thought to depend upon the hierarchical integration of body-related mismatch responses by the anterior insula. To investigate this possibility, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while healthy participants performed a roving tactile oddball task. Mass-univariate analysis demonstrated robust activations in limbic, somatosensory, and prefrontal cortical areas previously implicated in tactile deviancy, body awareness, and cognitive control. Dynamic Causal Modelling revealed that unexpected stimuli increased the strength of forward connections along a caudal to rostral hierarchy-projecting from thalamic and somatosensory regions towards insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices. Within this ascending flow of sensory information, the AIC was the only region to show increased backwards connectivity to the somatosensory cortex, augmenting a reciprocal exchange of neuronal signals. Further, participants who rated stimulus changes as easier to detect showed stronger modulation of descending PFC to AIC connections by deviance. These results suggest that the AIC coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile prediction error. They are interpreted in support of an embodied predictive coding model where AIC mediated body awareness is involved in anchoring a global neuronal workspace. PMID:26584870

  10. MCM9 Is Required for Mammalian DNA Mismatch Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Sabine; Coulombe, Philippe; Peiffer, Isabelle; Hutchins, James R A; Kitzmann, Magali; Latreille, Daniel; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that corrects DNA polymerase errors during replication to maintain genomic integrity. In E. coli, the DNA helicase UvrD is implicated in MMR, yet an analogous helicase activity has not been identified in eukaryotes. Here, we show that mammalian MCM9, a protein involved in replication and homologous recombination, forms a complex with MMR initiation proteins (MSH2, MSH3, MLH1, PMS1, and the clamp loader RFC) and is essential for MMR. Mcm9-/- cells display microsatellite instability and MMR deficiency. The MCM9 complex has a helicase activity that is required for efficient MMR since wild-type but not helicase-dead MCM9 restores MMR activity in Mcm9-/- cells. Moreover, MCM9 loading onto chromatin is MSH2-dependent, and in turn MCM9 stimulates the recruitment of MLH1 to chromatin. Our results reveal a role for MCM9 and its helicase activity in mammalian MMR. PMID:26300262

  11. Integrated analysis of mismatch repair system in malignant astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rodríguez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.

  12. Anterior insula coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile mismatch responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Fardo, Francesca; Dietz, Martin J; Hillebrandt, Hauke; Friston, Karl J; Rees, Geraint; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-02-15

    The body underlies our sense of self, emotion, and agency. Signals arising from the skin convey warmth, social touch, and the physical characteristics of external stimuli. Surprising or unexpected tactile sensations can herald events of motivational salience, including imminent threats (e.g., an insect bite) and hedonic rewards (e.g., a caressing touch). Awareness of such events is thought to depend upon the hierarchical integration of body-related mismatch responses by the anterior insula. To investigate this possibility, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while healthy participants performed a roving tactile oddball task. Mass-univariate analysis demonstrated robust activations in limbic, somatosensory, and prefrontal cortical areas previously implicated in tactile deviancy, body awareness, and cognitive control. Dynamic Causal Modelling revealed that unexpected stimuli increased the strength of forward connections along a caudal to rostral hierarchy-projecting from thalamic and somatosensory regions towards insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices. Within this ascending flow of sensory information, the AIC was the only region to show increased backwards connectivity to the somatosensory cortex, augmenting a reciprocal exchange of neuronal signals. Further, participants who rated stimulus changes as easier to detect showed stronger modulation of descending PFC to AIC connections by deviance. These results suggest that the AIC coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile prediction error. They are interpreted in support of an embodied predictive coding model where AIC mediated body awareness is involved in anchoring a global neuronal workspace.

  13. Parametric Adaptive Radar Detector with Enhanced Mismatched Signals Rejection Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of adaptive signal detection in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrix. We propose a parametric radar detector by introducing a design parameter to trade off the target sensitivity with sidelobes energy rejection. The resulting detector merges the statistics of Kelly's GLRT and of the Rao test and so covers Kelly's GLRT and the Rao test as special cases. Both invariance properties and constant false alarm rate (CFAR behavior for this detector are studied. At the analysis stage, the performance of the new receiver is assessed and compared with several traditional adaptive detectors. The results highlight better rejection capabilities of this proposed detector for mismatched signals. Further, we develop two two-stage detectors, one of which consists of an adaptive matched filter (AMF followed by the aforementioned detector, and the other is obtained by cascading a GLRT-based Subspace Detector (SD and the proposed adaptive detector. We show that the former two-stage detector outperforms traditional two-stage detectors in terms of selectivity, and the latter yields more robustness.

  14. A frontal attention mechanism in the visual mismatch negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Craig; Stothart, George; Todd Jones, Jenna; Rojas Frías, Priscila; Magee, Kristopher Lundy; Brooks, Jonathan C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Automatic detection of environmental change is a core component of attention. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological marker of this mechanism, has been studied prominently in the auditory domain, with cortical generators identified in temporal and frontal regions. Here, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether the underlying frontal regions associated with auditory change detection also play a role in visual change detection. Twenty healthy young adults completed a visual MMN task in separate EEG and fMRI sessions. Region of interest analyses were conducted on left and right middle frontal (MFG) and inferior frontal (IFG) gyri, i.e., the frontal areas identified as potential auditory MMN generators. A significant increase in activation was observed in the left IFG and MFG in response to blocks containing deviant stimuli. These findings suggest that a frontal mechanism is involved in the detection of change in the visual MMN. Our results support the notion that frontal mechanisms underlie attention switching, as measured via MMN, across multiple modalities. PMID:26183650

  15. Anterior insula coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile mismatch responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Fardo, Francesca; Dietz, Martin J.; Hillebrandt, Hauke; Friston, Karl J.; Rees, Geraint; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The body underlies our sense of self, emotion, and agency. Signals arising from the skin convey warmth, social touch, and the physical characteristics of external stimuli. Surprising or unexpected tactile sensations can herald events of motivational salience, including imminent threats (e.g., an insect bite) and hedonic rewards (e.g., a caressing touch). Awareness of such events is thought to depend upon the hierarchical integration of body-related mismatch responses by the anterior insula. To investigate this possibility, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while healthy participants performed a roving tactile oddball task. Mass-univariate analysis demonstrated robust activations in limbic, somatosensory, and prefrontal cortical areas previously implicated in tactile deviancy, body awareness, and cognitive control. Dynamic Causal Modelling revealed that unexpected stimuli increased the strength of forward connections along a caudal to rostral hierarchy—projecting from thalamic and somatosensory regions towards insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices. Within this ascending flow of sensory information, the AIC was the only region to show increased backwards connectivity to the somatosensory cortex, augmenting a reciprocal exchange of neuronal signals. Further, participants who rated stimulus changes as easier to detect showed stronger modulation of descending PFC to AIC connections by deviance. These results suggest that the AIC coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile prediction error. They are interpreted in support of an embodied predictive coding model where AIC mediated body awareness is involved in anchoring a global neuronal workspace. PMID:26584870

  16. Mismatch negativity of ERP in cross-modal attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗跃嘉; 魏景汉

    1997-01-01

    Event-related potentials were measured in 12 healthy youth subjects aged 19-22 using the paradigm "cross-modal and delayed response" which is able to improve unattended purity and to avoid the effect of task target on the deviant components of ERP. The experiment included two conditions: (i) Attend visual modality, ignore auditory modality; (ii) attend auditory modality, ignore visual modality. The stimuli under the two conditions were the same. The difference wave was obtained by subtracting ERPs of the standard stimuli from that of the deviant stim-uli. The present results showed that mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b and P3 components can be produced in the auditory and visual modalities under attention condition. However, only MMN was observed in the two modalities un-der inattention condition. Auditory and visual MMN have some features in common: their largest MMN wave peaks were distributed respectively over their primary sensory projection areas of the scalp under attention condition, but over front

  17. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  18. Snowshoe hares display limited phenotypic plasticity to mismatch in seasonal camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L. Scott; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was largely fixed within study sites with only minimal plasticity to snow conditions during the spring white-to-brown moult. We also found no evidence that hares modify their behaviour in response to colour mismatch. Hiding and fleeing behaviours and resting spot preference of hares were more affected by variables related to season, site and concealment by vegetation, than by colour mismatch. We conclude that plasticity in moult phenology and behaviours in snowshoe hares is insufficient for adaptation to camouflage mismatch, suggesting that any future adaptation to climate change will require natural selection on moult phenology or behaviour.

  19. Measurement errors in multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzers with and without impedance electrode mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to compare measurement errors in two commercially available multi-frequency bioimpedance analyzers, a Xitron 4000B and an ImpediMed SFB7, including electrode impedance mismatch. The comparison was made using resistive electrical models and in ten human volunteers. We used three different electrical models simulating three different body segments: the right-side, leg and thorax. In the electrical models, we tested the effect of the capacitive coupling of the patient to ground and the skin–electrode impedance mismatch. Results showed that both sets of equipment are optimized for right-side measurements and for moderate skin–electrode impedance mismatch. In right-side measurements with mismatch electrode, 4000B is more accurate than SFB7. When an electrode impedance mismatch was simulated, errors increased in both bioimpedance analyzers and the effect of the mismatch in the voltage detection leads was greater than that in current injection leads. For segments with lower impedance as the leg and thorax, SFB7 is more accurate than 4000B and also shows less dependence on electrode mismatch. In both devices, impedance measurements were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the capacitive coupling to ground

  20. Mechanisms of HIV non-progression; robust and sustained CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses to p24 antigen correlate with control of viraemia and lack of disease progression after long-term transfusion-acquired HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Andrew F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elite non-progressors (plasma viral load Results A survival advantage was conferred on 12 of 13 subjects, who had at least one host genetic factor (HLA, chemokine receptor or TLR polymorphisms or viral attenuating factor (defective nef associated with slow progression. However, antiviral immune responses differentiated the course of disease into and beyond the second decade of infection. A stable p24-specific proliferative response was associated with control of viraemia and retention of non-progressor status, but this p24 response was absent or declined in viraemic subjects. Strong Gag-dominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses were identified in most LTNP, or Pol dominant-CTL in those with nef-defective HIV infection. CTL were associated with control of viraemia when combined with p24 proliferative responses. However, CTL did not prevent late disease progression. Individuals with sustained viral suppression had CTL recognising numerous Gag epitopes, while strong but restricted responses to one or two immunodominant epitopes was effective for some time, but failed to contain viraemia over the course of this study. Viral escape mutants at a HLA B27-restricted Gag-p24 epitope were detected in only 1 of 3 individuals, whereas declining or negative p24 proliferative responses occurred in all 3 concurrent with an increase in viraemia. Conclusion Detectable viraemia at study entry was predictive of loss of LTNP status and/or disease progression in 6 of 8, and differentiated slow progressors from elite LTNP who retained potent virological control. Sustained immunological suppression of viraemia was independently associated with preserved p24 proliferative responses, regardless of the strength and breadth of the CTL response. A decline in this protective p24 response preceded or correlated with loss of non-progressor status and/or signs of disease progression.

  1. Urine antigen detection for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yesenia; Rodriguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Brandt, Jef; Van Hul, Anke; Silva, Maria; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Portocarrero, Mylagritos; Melendez, D Paolo; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of seizures and epilepsy. Diagnosis is based on brain imaging, supported by immunodiagnosis in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lumbar puncture is invasive and painful. Blood sampling is slightly painful and poorly accepted. Urine antigen detection has been used for other parasites and tried in NCC with suboptimal performance. We used a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to detect Taenia solium antigens in urine from 87 Peruvian neurocysticercosis patients (viable cysts, N = 34; subarachnoid cysticercosis, N = 10; degenerating parasites, N = 7; calcified lesions, N = 36) and 32 volunteers from a non-endemic area of Peru. Overall sensitivity of urine antigen detection for viable parasites was 92%, which decreased to 62.5% in patients with a single cyst. Most patients (30/36, 83%) with only calcified cysticercosis were urine antigen negative. Antigen levels in paired serum/urine samples (evaluated in 19 patients) were strongly correlated. Non-invasive urine testing for T. solium antigens provides a useful alternative for NCC diagnosis.

  2. Double-antibody radioimmunoassay for factor VIII-related antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma protein required for the support of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was isolated from antihemophilic factor concentrate and radiolabeled with 125I. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed, with use of specific rabbit anti-VIII related antigen serum and goat anti-rabbit globulin. The assay is sensitive, reproducible, and technically simple to perform. Values obtained in normal subjects ranged from 0.65 to 1.53 units, similar to our normal range for VIII coagulant activity (0.67 to 1.43 units). However, normal or increased values of VIII-related antigen were observed in VIII coagulant-deficient hemophiliacs. Also, concentrations of VIII-related antigen significantly exceeded coagulant concentrations in several patients with liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation, or both. Of a broad selection of congenital coagulation disorders examined, only patients with von Willebrand's disease had decreased VIII-related antigen concentrations, and these corresponded to the lowered concentration of ristocetin cofactor in the patients. In three transfused patients, VIII-related antigen values correlated with the concentration of the cofactor. Our results suggest that the radioimmunoassay of VIII-related antigen is a simple and valuable adjunct in the study of patients with clotting abnormalities

  3. Optical signature of multicellular tumor spheroid using index-mismatch-induced spherical aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, G.; Weiss, P.; Ducommun, B.; Lorenzo, C.

    2014-02-01

    The development of new cancer treatments and the early prediction of their therapeutic potential are often made difficult by the lack of predictive pharmacological models. The 3D multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model offers a level of complexity that recapitulates the three-dimensional organization of a tumor and appears to be fairly predictive of therapeutic efficiency. The use of spheroids in large-scale automated screening was recently reported to link the power of a high throughput analysis to the predictability of a 3D cell model. The spheroid has a radial symmetry; this simple geometry allows establishing a direct correlation between structure and function. The outmost layers of MCTS are composed of proliferating cells and form structurally uniform domain with an approximate thickness of 100 microns. The innermost layers are composed of quiescent cells. Finally, cells in the center of the spheroid can form a necrotic core. This latest region is structurally heterogeneous and is poorly characterized. These features make the spheroid a model of choice and a paradigm to study the optical properties of various epithelial tissues. In this study, we used an in-vitro optical technique for label-free characterization of multicellular systems based on the index- mismatch induced spherical aberrations. We achieve to monitor and characterize the optical properties of MCTS. This new and original approach might be of major interest for the development of innovative screening strategies dedicated to the identification of anticancer drugs.

  4. Determination of Mismatch Negativity in 4 to 9-Year-Old Children by Tonal Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Mismatch negativity (MMN is one of the auditory evoked potentials that occurs about 100-250 ms after stimulus onset. The MMN waveform is elicited by a discriminable change in a sequence of repetitive homogenous stimuli. This change can be in intensity level, frequency, or duration of auditory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to obtain MMN waveform using tonal stimuli and to investigate its changes during changes in age. Materials and Methods: The study was prescriptive-analytic cross-sectional. The participants were sixty children aged 4 to 9 year. The stimuli were at 80 dB pe SPL. A 1000Hz tone and a 1500Hz tone were used as standard and deviant stimuli, respectively. Probability of deviant stimuli was 20%. Trials were recorded using surface electrode placed at four locations on the head. Results: The MMN waveform does not exist in 22.5% of the children. Also, determining of MMN peak in 22.5% was not exactly possible. In other subjects, a significant negative correlation was observed between latency of MMN and age, but not for age and amplitude for this negativity. Conclusion: This study confirms that the MMN may not be seen in normal people. Also there are maturational changes in MMN waveform.

  5. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eReali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith or for women (e.g., beautician, the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer. Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in an early measure in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed.

  6. The UvrD helicase and its modulation by the mismatch repair protein MutL

    OpenAIRE

    Matson, Steven W.; Robertson, Adam B.

    2006-01-01

    UvrD is a superfamily I DNA helicase with well documented roles in excision repair and methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) in addition to poorly understood roles in replication and recombination. The MutL protein is a homodimeric DNA-stimulated ATPase that plays a central role in MMR in Escherichia coli. This protein has been characterized as the master regulator of mismatch repair since it interacts with and modulates the activity of several other proteins involved in the mismatch repair p...

  7. Blind Decorrelating Detection Based on Particle Swarm Optimization under Spreading Code Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jhih-Chung Chang; Chih-Chang Shen

    2014-01-01

    A way of resolving spreading code mismatches in blind multiuser detection with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is proposed. It has been shown that the PSO algorithm incorporating the linear system of the decorrelating detector, which is termed as decorrelating PSO (DPSO), can significantly improve the bit error rate (BER) and the system capacity. As the code mismatch occurs, the output BER performance is vulnerable to degradation for DPSO. With a blind decorrelating scheme, the proposed blind DPSO (BDPSO) offers more robust capabilities over existing DPSO under code mismatch scenarios.

  8. Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antigen using immunofiltration and antigen-competition ELISA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, G Dhinakar; Rajanathan, T M C; Kumar, C Senthil; Ramathilagam, G; Hiremath, Geetha; Shaila, M S

    2008-06-22

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sheep and goats in India. An immunofiltration-based test has been developed using either mono-specific serum/monoclonal antibodies (mAb) prepared against a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus (RPV) cross-reactive with PPR virus. This method consists of coating ocular swab eluate from suspected animals onto a nitrocellulose membrane housed in a plastic module, which is allowed to react with suitable dilutions of a mAb or a mono-specific polyclonal antibody. The antigen-antibody complex formed on the membrane is then detected by protein A-colloidal gold conjugate, which forms a pink colour. In the immunofiltration test, concordant results were obtained using either PPRV mAb or mono-specific serum. Another test, an antigen-competition ELISA which relies on the competition between plate-coated recombinant truncated 'N' protein of RPV and the PPRV 'N' protein present in ocular swab eluates (sample) for binding to the mono-specific antibody against N protein of RPV (in liquid phase) was developed. The cut-off value for this test was established using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive and negative oculo-nasal swab samples. Linear correlation between percent inhibition (PI) values in antigen-competition ELISA and virus infectivity titres was 0.992. Comparison of the immunofiltration test with the antigen-competition ELISA yielded a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. These two tests can serve as a screening (immunofiltration) and confirmatory (antigen-competition ELISA) test, respectively, in the diagnosis of PPR in sheep or goats. PMID:18182256

  9. Assessing the Mismatch Between Incubation and Latent Periods for Vector-Borne Diseases: The Case of Sharka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Dallot, Sylvie; Delaunay, Agnès; Borron, Sonia; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    The relative durations of the incubation period (the time between inoculation and symptom expression) and of the latent period (the time between inoculation and infectiousness of the host) are poorly documented for plant diseases. However, the extent of asynchrony between the ends of these two periods (i.e., their mismatch) can be a key determinant of the epidemic dynamics for many diseases and consequently it is of primary interest in the design of disease management strategies. In order to assess this mismatch, an experimental approach was developed and applied using sharka, a severe disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) affecting trees belonging to the genus Prunus. Leaves of infected young peach trees were used individually as viral sources in aphid-mediated transmission tests carried out at different time points postinoculation in order to bracket symptom onset. By fitting a nonlinear logistic model to the obtained transmission rates, we demonstrated that the first symptoms appear on leaves 1 day before they rapidly become infectious. In addition, among symptomatic leaves, symptom intensity and transmission rate are positively correlated. These results strengthen the conclusion that, under our experimental conditions, incubation and latent periods of PPV infection are almost synchronous. PMID:26512749

  10. Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junqiao

    2002-09-09

    The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and GaP{sub 1-x}N{sub x} with x {approx}< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also occurs between

  11. Approaches to diagnose DNA mismatch repair gene defects in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Diaz, Javier; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2016-02-01

    The DNA repair pathway mismatch repair (MMR) is responsible for the recognition and correction of DNA biosynthetic errors caused by inaccurate nucleotide incorporation during replication. Faulty MMR leads to failure to address the mispairs or insertion deletion loops (IDLs) left behind by the replicative polymerases and results in increased mutation load at the genome. The realization that defective MMR leads to a hypermutation phenotype and increased risk of tumorigenesis highlights the relevance of this pathway for human disease. The association of MMR defects with increased risk of cancer development was first observed in colorectal cancer patients that carried inactivating germline mutations in MMR genes and the disease was named as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Currently, a growing list of cancers is found to be MMR defective and HNPCC has been renamed Lynch syndrome (LS) partly to include the associated risk of developing extra-colonic cancers. In addition, a number of non-hereditary, mostly epigenetic, alterations of MMR genes have been described in sporadic tumors. Besides conferring a strong cancer predisposition, genetic or epigenetic inactivation of MMR genes also renders cells resistant to some chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, diagnosis of MMR deficiency has important implications for the management of the patients, the surveillance of their relatives in the case of LS and for the choice of treatment. Some of the alterations found in MMR genes have already been well defined and their pathogenicity assessed. Despite this substantial wealth of knowledge, the effects of a large number of alterations remain uncharacterized (variants of uncertain significance, VUSs). The advent of personalized genomics is likely to increase the list of VUSs found in MMR genes and anticipates the need of diagnostic tools for rapid assessment of their pathogenicity. This review describes current tools and future strategies for addressing the relevance

  12. The mechanisms and meaning of the mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I

    2014-07-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a pre-attentive auditory event-related potential (ERP) component that is elicited by a change in a repetitive acoustic pattern. It is obtained by subtracting responses evoked by frequent 'standard' sounds from responses evoked by infrequent 'deviant' sounds that differ from the standards along some acoustic dimension, e.g., frequency, intensity, or duration, or abstract feature. The MMN has been attributed to neural generators within the temporal and frontal lobes. The mechanisms and meaning of the MMN continue to be debated. Two dominant explanations for the MMN have been proposed. According to the "neural adaptation" hypothesis, repeated presentation of the standards results in adapted (i.e., attenuated) responses of feature-selective neurons in auditory cortex. Rare deviant sounds activate neurons that are less adapted than those stimulated by the frequent standard sounds, and thus elicit a larger 'obligatory' response, which yields the MMN following the subtraction procedure. In contrast, according to the "sensory memory" hypothesis, the MMN is a 'novel' (non-obligatory) ERP component that reflects a deviation between properties of an incoming sound and those of a neural 'memory trace' established by the preceding standard sounds. Here, we provide a selective review of studies which are relevant to the controversy between proponents of these two interpretations of the MMN. We also present preliminary neurophysiological data from monkey auditory cortex with potential implications for the debate. We conclude that the mechanisms and meaning of the MMN are still unresolved and offer remarks on how to make progress on these important issues. PMID:24276221

  13. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch during lung aeration at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Justin A R; Pearson, James T; te Pas, Arjan B; Wallace, Megan J; Siew, Melissa L; Kitchen, Marcus J; Fouras, Andreas; Lewis, Robert A; Wheeler, Kevin I; Polglase, Graeme R; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Sonobe, Takashi; Hooper, Stuart B

    2014-09-01

    At birth, the transition to newborn life is triggered by lung aeration, which stimulates a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). Current theories predict that the increase in PBF is spatially related to ventilated lung regions as they aerate after birth. Using simultaneous phase-contrast X-ray imaging and angiography we investigated the spatial relationships between lung aeration and the increase in PBF after birth. Six near-term (30-day gestation) rabbits were delivered by caesarean section, intubated and an intravenous catheter inserted, before they were positioned for X-ray imaging. During imaging, iodine was injected before ventilation onset, after ventilation of the right lung only, and after ventilation of both lungs. Unilateral ventilation increased iodine levels entering both left and right pulmonary arteries (PAs) and significantly increased heart rate, iodine ejection per beat, diameters of both left and right PAs, and number of visible vessels in both lungs. Within the 6th intercostal space, the mean gray level (relative measure of iodine level) increased from 68.3 ± 11.6 and 70.3 ± 7.5%·s to 136.3 ± 22.6 and 136.3 ± 23.7%·s in the left and right PAs, respectively. No differences were observed between vessels in the left and right lungs, despite the left lung not initially being ventilated. The increase in PBF at birth is not spatially related to lung aeration allowing a large ventilation/perfusion mismatch, or pulmonary shunting, to occur in the partially aerated lung at birth. PMID:24994883

  14. Unusual Mismatch Repair Immunohistochemical Patterns in Endometrial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jaclyn C; Nucci, Marisa R; Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Howitt, Brooke E; Sholl, Lynette M

    2016-07-01

    Universal screening for Lynch syndrome through mismatch repair (MMR) immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tumor samples has brought to light several heterogenous MMR staining patterns. At our institution, a prospective study of universal Lynch syndrome screening using MMR IHC on 125 endometrial cancers (EC) led to the identification of subclonal loss of MMR protein expression within the tumor (n=9). We also interrogated the MMR staining patterns in MMR-deficient EC with concurrent endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN; n=14) and all mixed-type ECs (n=14) to look for concordant or discordant profiles between the various components. MLH1 promoter methylation and microsatellite instability testing was performed on discordant subclones. Abrupt and complete subclonal loss of MMR expression was identified in 9 cases (7.2%; 7 subclonal MLH1/PMS2 loss, 1 subclonal loss of MLH1 and complete loss of PMS2, and 1 subclonal MSH6 loss). All subclonal MLH1 losses were associated with epigenetic silencing. In cases with concomitant EIN (n=14), 7 cases showed concordant MMR IHC between EC and EIN, and 4 cases showed MMR protein loss confined to the EC. The remaining 3 cases demonstrated subclonal staining in the EIN. In mixed tumors (n=14), subclonal or total MMR IHC deficiency was confined to endometrioid components. In summary, discrete subclonal loss of MMR protein expression occurs in up to 7.2% of EC and, in our experience, only in endometrioid components. Importantly, subclonal MLH1 MMR defects appear to be a biological phenomenon that can be explained by methylation and somatic events, without evidence of underlying germline alterations. PMID:27186853

  15. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI) as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26), MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA) and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR) in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation), SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression) and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes). Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response). The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation

  16. Antibodies to early EBV, CMV, and HHV6 antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N S; Draborg, A H; Nielsen, C T;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the antibody levels against early antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls, and further correlated these antibodies to haematology...

  17. Mismatch repair protein deficient endometrioid adenocarcinomas, metastasizing to adrenal gland and lymph nodes: Unusual cases with diagnostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, certain endometrial carcinomas have been found to be associated with mismatch repair (MMR protein defects/deficiency. A 39-year-old female presented with cough, decreased appetite and significant weight loss since 2 months. Earlier, she had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Imaging disclosed an 8 cm-sized adrenal mass that was surgically excised. Histopathology of the adrenal tumor, endocervical tumor, and endometrial biopsy revealed Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO Grade II to III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, PAX8, MLH1 and PMS2 while negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A 34-year-old lady presented with vaginal bleeding since 9 months. She underwent TAH-BSO, reported as FIGO Grade III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for ER, PR, MLH1, and PMS2 while positive for MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, she developed multiple nodal and pericardial metastases and succumbed to the disease within a year post-diagnosis. Certain high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas occurring in younger women are MMR protein deficient and display an aggressive clinical course. Adrenal metastasis in endometrial carcinomas is rare.

  18. DNA mismatch repair related gene expression as potential biomarkers to assess cadmium exposure in Arabidopsis seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, Arabidopsis seedlings were hydroponically grown on MS media containing cadmium (Cd) of 0-2.0 mg L-1 for 60 h of treatment. Gene expression profiles were used to relate exposure to Cd with some altered biological responses and/or specific growth effects. RT-PCR analysis was used to quantitate mRNA expression for seven genes known to be involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system and cell division. Results indicated that Cd concentrations of 0.25-2.0 mg L-1 cause increased total soluble protein levels in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings in an inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. Exposure to 0.25 and 0.5 mg L-1 of Cd dramatically induced expression of four genes (i.e. proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2 (atPCNA 2), MutL1 homolog (atMLH1), MutS 2 homolog (atMSH2) and atMSH3) and five genes (i.e. atPCNA1,2, atMLH1 and atMSH2,7), respectively, in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings; Exposure to 1.0 mg L-1 of Cd significantly elevated expression of only two genes (atMSH6,7), but caused prominent inhibition in expression of three genes (atPCNA2, atMLH1 and atMSH3) in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings. The expression alterations of the above genes were independent of any biological effects such as survival, fresh weight and chlorophyll level of shoots. However, shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to 2.0 mg L-1 of Cd exhibited statistically prominent repression in expression of these seven genes, and showed incipient reduction of fresh weight and chlorophyll level. This research provides data concerning sensitivity of expression profiles of atMLH1, atMSH2,3,6,7 and atPCNA1,2 genes in Arabidopsis seedlings to Cd exposure, as well as the potential use of these gene expression patterns as representative molecular biomarkers indicative of Cd exposure and related biological effects.

  19. Patient-prosthesis mismatch and reduction in left ventricular mass after aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, Kristian; Møller, Christian H; Hassager, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The presence of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement may influence patient survival. We examined the relationship between PPM and changes in left ventricular mass index at 3 months follow-up and also overall survival....

  20. Velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters via sampled position data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Huang, Chunli; Lü, Jinhu; Li, Xiong; Chen, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    Power systems are special multi-agent systems with nonlinear coupling function and symmetric structures. This paper extends these systems to a class of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters, linear coupling function, and asymmetric structures and investigates their velocity synchronization via sampled position data. The dynamics of the agents is adopted as that of generators with mismatched parameters, while the system structures are supposed to be complex. Two distributed linear consensus protocols are designed, respectively, for multi-agent systems without or with communication delay. Necessary and sufficient conditions based on the sampling period, the mismatched parameters, the delay, and the nonzero eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix are established. It is shown that velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters can be achieved if the sampled period is chosen appropriately. Simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  1. Influences of Device and Circuit Mismatches on Paralleling Silicon Carbide MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the influences of device and circuit mismatches on paralleling the Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs. Comprehensive theoretical analysis and experimental validation from paralleled discrete devices to paralleled dies in multichip power modules are first presented. Then......, the influence of circuit mismatch on paralleling SiC MOSFETs is investigated and experimentally evaluated for the first time. It is found that the mismatch of the switching loop stray inductance can also lead to on-state current unbalance with inductive output current, in addition to the on-state resistance...... of the device. It further reveals that circuit mismatches and a current coupling among the paralleled dies exist in a SiC MOSFET multichip power module, which is critical for the transient current distribution in the power module. Thus, a power module layout with an auxiliary source connection is developed...

  2. Analytical Expressions for Harmonic Distortion at Low Frequencies due to Device Mismatch in CMOS Current Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    One of the origins of harmonic distortion in current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the mirror transistors. In this brief we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop analytical expressions for the mismatch induced harmonic distortion....... The expressions are verified through simulations and are used for a discussion of the impact of mismatch on harmonic distortion properties of CMOS current mirrors. The distortion model is combined with well known statistical models for the device mismatch in order to establish a relation between geometrical...... parameters, distortion and production yield. It is found that distortion levels somewhat below 1% can be attained by carefully matching the mirror transistors but ultra low distortion is not achievable....

  3. New Spectral Method for Halo Particle Definition in Intense Mis-matched Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced spectral analysis of a mis-matched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

  4. Role of Energy-Level Mismatches in a Multi-Pathway Complex of Photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, James; Lee, Changhyoup; Yoo, Seokwon; Jeong, Hyunseok; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2013-01-01

    Considering a multi-pathway structure in a light-harvesting complex of photosynthesis, we investigate the role of energy-level mismatches between antenna molecules in transferring the absorbed energy to a reaction center. We find a condition in which the antenna molecules faithfully play their roles: Their effective absorption ratios are larger than those of the receiver molecule directly coupled to the reaction center. In the absence of energy-level mismatches and dephasing noise, there arises quantum destructive interference between multiple paths that restricts the energy transfer. On the other hand, the destructive interference diminishes as asymmetrically biasing the energy-level mismatches and/or introducing quantum noise of dephasing for the antenna molecules, so that the transfer efficiency is greatly enhanced to near unity. Remarkably, the near-unity efficiency can be achieved at a wide range of asymmetric energy-level mismatches. Temporal characteristics are also optimized at the energy-level mismat...

  5. Do anticodons of misacylated tRNAs preferentially mismatch codons coding for the misloaded amino acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seligmann Hervé

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate amino acid insertion during peptide elongation requires tRNAs loaded by cognate amino acids and that anticodons match codons. However, tRNA misloading does not necessarily cause misinsertions: misinsertion is avoided when anticodons mismatch codons coding for misloaded amino acids. Presentation of the hypothesis Occasional compensation of misacylation by codon-anticodon mismatch necessarily occurs. Putatively, occasional error compensation may be enhanced beyond the random combination of independent errors in tRNA loading and codon-anticodon interactions: tRNA misacylation might alter potentials for codon-anticodon mismatches, perhaps specifically increasing potentials for mismatching those codons coding for the misacylated non-cognate amino acid. This hypothetical phenomenon is called 'error coordination', in distinction from 'error compensation' that assumes independence between misacylation and mismatch. Testing the hypothesis Eventually, the hypothesis should be tested for each combination of amino acid misacylation and codon-anticodon mismatch, by comparing stabilities or frequencies of mismatched codon-anticodon duplexes formed by tRNAs loaded by their cognate amino acid with stabilities formed by that tRNA when misloaded with the amino acid coded by the mismatched codon. Competitive mismatching experiments between misloaded and correctly loaded tRNAs could also be useful, yet more sophisticated experiments. Implications of the hypothesis Detecting error coordination implies estimating error compensation, which also promotes protein synthesis accuracy. Hence even in the absence of evidence for error coordination, experiments would yield very useful insights into misacylation and mismatch processes. In case experiments consider post-transcriptional RNA modifications (especially at wobble positions, results on codon-anticodon mismatches would enable significant improvements and sophistications of secondary

  6. Increasing efficiency of cold rolling of corrosion resistant steel at mismatching roll velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the example of 12Kh18N10T steel rolling it is shown that 7-10% mismatching roll velocities raise the rolling efficiency, increase productivity and technological abilities of four-high mills at production of cold-rolled sheets. Scheme of the system of roll velocities mismatching control at asymmetrical rolling is presented. The comparative conditions of symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling of 0.8 x 1030 mm sheets from 12Kh18N10T steel are given

  7. Cernunnos/XLF promotes the ligation of mismatched and noncohesive DNA ends

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Chun J.; Kim, Sunny A.; Chu, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repairs DNA double-strand breaks created by ionizing radiation or V(D)J recombination of the immunoglobulin genes. The breaks often leave mismatched or nonligatable ends, and NHEJ must repair the breaks with high efficiency and minimal nucleotide loss. Here, the NHEJ proteins Ku, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, XRCC4/Ligase IV, and Cernunnos/XRCC4-like factor joined mismatched and noncohesive DNA ends in the absence of processing factors. Depen...

  8. “Job Accessibility, Employment and Job-Education Mismatch in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona”

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Di Paolo; Anna Matas; Josep Lluís Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of job accessibility by public and private transport on labour market outcomes in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Beyond employment, we consider the effect of job accessibility on job-education mismatch, which represents a relevant aspect of job quality. We adopt a recursive system of equations that models car availability, employment and mismatch. Public transport accessibility appears as an exogenous variable in the three equations. Even though it may refl...

  9. Are manufacturing I-V Mismatch and Reverse Currents Key Factors in Large Photovoltaic Arrays?

    OpenAIRE

    Spertino, Filippo; Sumaili Akilimali, Jean

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two factors typical of large photovoltaic (PV) arrays are investigated: one is the current-voltage (I-V) mismatch consequent to the production tolerance; the other is the impact of reverse currents in different operating conditions. Concerning the manufacturing I-V mismatch, the parameters of the equivalent circuit of the solar cell are computed for several PV modules from flash reports provided by the manufacturers. The corresponding I-V characteristic of every module is used ...

  10. DNA mismatch repair deficiency in sporadic colorectal cancer and Lynch Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Poulogiannis, George; Frayling, Ian; Arends, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Abstract DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is one of the best understood forms of genetic instability in colorectal cancer (CRC), and is characterised by the loss of function of the MMR pathway. Failure to repair replication-associated errors due to a defective MMR system allows persistence of mismatch mutations all over the genome, but especially in regions of repetitive DNA known as microsatellites, giving rise to the phenomenon of microsatellite instability (MSI). A high freq...

  11. Mismatch repair causes the dynamic release of an essential DNA polymerase from the replication fork

    OpenAIRE

    Klocko, Andrew D.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Walsh, Brian W.; Lenhart, Justin S.; Evans, Margery L.; Simmons, Lyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects DNA polymerase errors occurring during genome replication. MMR is critical for genome maintenance, and its loss increases mutation rates several hundredfold. Recent work has shown that the interaction between the mismatch recognition protein MutS and the replication processivity clamp is important for MMR in Bacillus subtilis. To further understand how MMR is coupled to DNA replication, we examined the subcellular localization of MMR and DNA replication proteins...

  12. The incidence and etiology of the ventilation/perfusion reverse mismatch defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kr-81m ventilation and Tc-99m perfusion images of 392 patients were examined retrospectively for the incidence and etiology of the reverse mismatch defect, which is characterized by a region of lung where the perfusion defect exceeds the ventilation defect. Forty-six patients (11.7%) showed such defects. The most frequent causes were pneumonia (15%), atelactasis (15%), pleural effusions (15%), chronic obstructive airway disease (24%), and bronchial obstruction (31%). The significance of the reverse mismatch defect is discussed

  13. Wage effects of job-worker mismatches: Heterogeneous skills or institutional effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen J.P.; Velden R.K.W. van der; Badillo-Amador L.

    2013-01-01

    The strong wage effects related to mismatches between a workers education and that required in the job are usually attributed to assignment theory. This theory asserts that productivity and wages depend on the education-job match, which determines the utilization of skills. However, recent research shows that educational mismatches are only weakly related to skill utilization, which in any case fails to account for the bulk of the wage effects. Two alternative theories have been put forward t...

  14. Education, educational mismatch, and wage inequality: evidence for different european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Marcelo Serra

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we study the relationship of mismatch between workers’ education and labor market requirements throughout different European countries. We found evidence in several countries that overeducated people tend to have a wage penalty and undereducated people tend to have a wage premium. This evidence contradicts the few existing evidence on the issue. However, despite the typical effects of education, tenure, experience, and gender in wages, the effects of mismatch between edu...

  15. Influence of group—velocity mismatch on soliton switching in a nonlinear fibre coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHong; HuangDe-Xiu; WangDong-Ning

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the influence of group-velocity mismatch on soliton self-routing pulse switching in a nonlinear fibre coupler is discussed in detail by the use of both variational approach and numerical simulation. The results obtained show that the group-velocity mismatch leads to the relative displacement between the two orthogonal polarization modes, increase of the critical power, and reduction of the elimination-light ratio. For sub-ps pulse, the influence cannot be neglected.

  16. Influence of group-velocity mismatch on soliton switching in a nonlinear fibre coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 黄德修; 王东宁

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the influence of group-velocity mismatch on soliton self-routing pulse switching in a nonlinear fibrecoupler is discussed in detail by the use of both variational approach and numerical simulation. The results obtainedshow that the group-velocity mismatch leads to the relative displacement between the two orthogonal polarizationmodes, increase of the critical power, and reduction of the elimination-light ratio. For sub-ps pulse, the influence cannot be neglected.

  17. The selective recognition of mismatched d(GCGAGC)2 by the cobalt(III) complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Huili; YANG; Pin

    2005-01-01

    We studied the binding of [Co(phen)2(HPIP)]Cl3 to mismatched d(GCGAGC)2 containing two sheared G:A mispairs by NMR. The result shows that the complex was intercalated into G:A region from the minor groove and extended to the major groove, and could selectively recognize the mispairs. 31P NMR indicates that the complex binding induced the change of the phosphate backbone in the mismatched base pairs region.

  18. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and...

  19. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on survival after mitral valve replacement: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-feng; WU Yi-cheng; SHEN Wei-feng; KONG Ye

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the prosthesis-patient mismatch has a deleterious impact on survival after mitral valve replacement.Data sources A comprehensive literature search of PubMed,Embase,and ScienceDirect was carried out.References and cited papers of relevant articles were also checked.Study selection All articles published after January 1980 was initially considered.Non-English and non-human studies,case reports,and reviews were excluded from the initial search.References and cited papers of relevant articles were also checked.Results A total of 8 retrospective cohort studies were identified for this review.The overall incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (<1.3 to <1.2 cm2/m2) after mitral valve replacement ranged from 3.7% to 85.9% (moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (0.9 to 1.2 cm2/m2) in 37.4% to 69.5%,severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (<0.9 cm2/m2) in 8.7% to 16.4%).Four studies demonstrated an association of prosthesis-patient mismatch with reduced long-term survival,but the other four studies found no significant deleterious impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement.No definite conclusion could be derived from these conflicting results.Conclusions Current evidence is insufficient to derive a definite conclusion whether mitral prosthesis-patient mismatch affects long-term survival because of the biases and confounding factors that interfere with late clinical outcomes.Good-quality prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of mitral prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement in the future.

  20. Camouflage mismatch in seasonal coat color due to decreased snow duration

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, L. Scott; Zimova, Marketa; Oyler, Jared; Running, Steven; Abatzoglou, John T; Lukacs, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Most examples of seasonal mismatches in phenology span multiple trophic levels, with timing of animal reproduction, hibernation, or migration becoming detached from peak food supply. The consequences of such mismatches are difficult to link to specific future climate change scenarios because the responses across trophic levels have complex underlying climate drivers often confounded by other stressors. In contrast, seasonal coat color polyphenism creating camouflage against snow is a direct a...

  1. Detecting mismatches of bird migration stopover and tree phenology in response to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; Van Riper, Charles, III

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.

  2. Experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge-dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) at LBL, we have measured the emittance of a well-matched 4.6-mA beam of 122-keV Cs+ to be conserved from injection into through exit from an 80-lens segment of the AG focussing channel. We then mismatched the beam into the same channel such that the maximum (minimum) radius of the beam at the midplane between lenses was about 1.5 (0.5) times the former value. We caused mismatches in the envelope of the beam in both transverse dimensions (labeled a and b) in modes both symmetric (δa = δb) and antisymmetric (δa = -δb). We found the mismatch amplitude to decay during the beam transit through the channel for both modes of mismatch, although more so for the antisymmetric mode. We also found the emittance of the symmetrically mismatched beam to be the same as for the matched beam, while the emittance of the antisymmetrically mismatched beam grew by as much as a factor of four over that for the matched beam

  3. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  4. O-antigen modulates infection-induced pain states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    Full Text Available The molecular initiators of infection-associated pain are not understood. We recently found that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC elicited acute pelvic pain in murine urinary tract infection (UTI. UTI pain was due to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS and its receptor, TLR4, but pain was not correlated with inflammation. LPS is known to drive inflammation by interactions between the acylated lipid A component and TLR4, but the function of the O-antigen polysaccharide in host responses is unknown. Here, we examined the role of O-antigen in pain using cutaneous hypersensitivity (allodynia to quantify pelvic pain behavior and using sacral spinal cord excitability to quantify central nervous system manifestations in murine UTI. A UPEC mutant defective for O-antigen biosynthesis induced chronic allodynia that persisted long after clearance of transient infections, but wild type UPEC evoked only acute pain. E. coli strains lacking O-antigen gene clusters had a chronic pain phenotype, and expressing cloned O-antigen gene clusters altered the pain phenotype in a predictable manner. Chronic allodynia was abrogated in TLR4-deficient mice, but inflammatory responses in wild type mice were similar among E. coli strains spanning a wide range of pain phenotypes, suggesting that O-antigen modulates pain independent of inflammation. Spinal cords of mice with chronic allodynia exhibited increased spontaneous firing and compromised short-term depression, consistent with centralized pain. Taken together, these findings suggest that O-antigen functions as a rheostat to modulate LPS-associated pain. These observations have implications for an infectious etiology of chronic pain and evolutionary modification of pathogens to alter host behaviors.

  5. Influence of BBO temperature distribution on phase mismatching distribution in fourth harmonic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Miao; Chen, Xin-yu; Tan, Xue-chun; Yu, Yong-ji; Jin, Guang-yong; Wan, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    266nm UV laser has a wide range of applications in various fields by its advantages in high single photon energy and high resolution, which also has a development gradually moving in the direction of high power and high conversion efficiency. In the process of high-power laser frequency doubling, BBO crystal inevitably absorbs part of fundamental light power and frequency doubled light power, it induced the temperature rise along the direction of radiation in crystal and destroyed the phase-matching conditions of BBO crystal that lead to phase mismatching. In order to improve harmonic conversion efficiency as well as reduce the influence of output power and beam quality caused by phase mismatching, in this paper we analyzed the process of phase mismatching, established the thermal-induced phase mismatching model by using analytical expression of the nonlinear crystal temperature field equation which has been given, and the three-dimensional phase mismatching distribution were obtained. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the working process of the nonlinear crystal was analyzed, and the physical and mathematical models of temperature distributions were established, and the BBO crystal three-dimensional temperature distributions were also obtained. Secondly, a variety of factors that affect the temperature distributions within the BBO crystal were summarized. For different 532nm waist radius and 532nm input power, they were numerical simulated use of MATLAB. Finally, combined with the above analysis, the physical and mathematical models of phase mismatching caused by energy absorption of BBO in forth harmonics generation were established, the phase mismatching distributions in the crystal were simulated as well, especially the changes to phase mismatching distributions with different parameter were analyzed. Combination of the multiplier theory, the influence of phase mismatching on frequency doubling conversion efficiency was analyzed. The

  6. 3D-2D image registration for target localization in spine surgery: investigation of similarity metrics providing robustness to content mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Ketcha, M. D.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Aygun, N.; Lo, S.-F.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    In image-guided spine surgery, robust three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D-2D) registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative radiographs can be challenged by the image content mismatch associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation and implants as well as soft-tissue resection or deformation. This work investigates image similarity metrics in 3D-2D registration offering improved robustness against mismatch, thereby improving performance and reducing or eliminating the need for manual masking. The performance of four gradient-based image similarity metrics (gradient information (GI), gradient correlation (GC), gradient information with linear scaling (GS), and gradient orientation (GO)) with a multi-start optimization strategy was evaluated in an institutional review board-approved retrospective clinical study using 51 preoperative CT images and 115 intraoperative mobile radiographs. Registrations were tested with and without polygonal masks as a function of the number of multistarts employed during optimization. Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) and assessment of failure modes (PDE  >  30 mm) that could impede reliable vertebral level localization. With manual polygonal masking and 200 multistarts, the GC and GO metrics exhibited robust performance with 0% gross failures and median PDE  14% however, GO maintained robustness with a 0% gross failure rate. Overall, the GI, GC, and GS metrics were susceptible to registration errors associated with content mismatch, but GO provided robust registration (median PDE  =  5.5 mm, 2.6 mm IQR) without manual masking and with an improved runtime (29.3 s). The GO metric improved the registration accuracy and robustness in the presence of strong image content mismatch. This capability could offer valuable assistance and decision support in spine level localization in a manner consistent with clinical workflow.

  7. The Eukaryotic Mismatch Recognition Complexes Track with the Replisome during DNA Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna E Haye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During replication, mismatch repair proteins recognize and repair mispaired bases that escape the proofreading activity of DNA polymerase. In this work, we tested the model that the eukaryotic mismatch recognition complex tracks with the advancing replisome. Using yeast, we examined the dynamics during replication of the leading strand polymerase Polε using Pol2 and the eukaryotic mismatch recognition complex using Msh2, the invariant protein involved in mismatch recognition. Specifically, we synchronized cells and processed samples using chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with custom DNA tiling arrays (ChIP-chip. The Polε signal was not detectable in G1, but was observed at active origins and replicating DNA throughout S-phase. The Polε signal provided the resolution to track origin firing timing and efficiencies as well as replisome progression rates. By detecting Polε and Msh2 dynamics within the same strain, we established that the mismatch recognition complex binds origins and spreads to adjacent regions with the replisome. In mismatch repair defective PCNA mutants, we observed that Msh2 binds to regions of replicating DNA, but the distribution and dynamics are altered, suggesting that PCNA is not the sole determinant for the mismatch recognition complex association with replicating regions, but may influence the dynamics of movement. Using biochemical and genomic methods, we provide evidence that both MutS complexes are in the vicinity of the replisome to efficiently repair the entire spectrum of mutations during replication. Our data supports the model that the proximity of MutSα/β to the replisome for the efficient repair of the newly synthesized strand before chromatin reassembles.

  8. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  9. SPONGIOTIC DERMATITIS WITH A MIXED INFLAMMATORY INFILTRATE OF LYMPHOCYTES, ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS, IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND COMPLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Velez Ana Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical and histological presentation of spongiotic dermatitis and its inflammatory infiltrates warrant further investigation. In this case documentation of a patient with cutaneous spongiotic reactivity, we aim to characterize antigen presenting cells, as well as the skin-specific cutaneous lymphocyte antigen population by multiple techniques. Case report: A 30 year old Caucasian female presented with a two week history of blistering and erosions around the vaginal, rectal and axillary areas. Material and Methods: We utilized hematoxylin and eosin histology, direct immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy methods to evaluate the immune reaction patterns of the cutaneous inflammatory cells. Results: In the primary histologic areas of spongiotic dermatitis, a mixed population of B and T lymphocytes was seen. Ki-67 antigen proliferative index staining was accentuated in these areas, correlating with the presence of large numbers of epidermal and dermal antigen presenting cells. Among the antigen presenting cell population, we detected strong positivities with CD1a, Factor XIIIa, myeloid/hystoid antigen, S100, HAM-56, and CD68. Interestingly, immunoglobulins G, D and M and Complement factors C1q and C3 were also strongly expressed in antigen presenting cell areas, including positivity within the spongiotic epidermis and around dermal vessels. Conclusions: We document a heterogeneous population of B and T lymphocytes and the presence of multiple classes of antigen presenting cells, immunoglobulins and complement in and surrounding histologically spongiotic areas; these findings further correlated with increased levels of expression of Ki-67.

  10. Mapping the antigenicity of the parasites in Leishmania donovani infection by proteome serology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Forgber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis defines a cluster of protozoal diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. The visceral form caused by Leishmania donovani is the most severe. So far, no vaccines exist for visceral leishmaniasis despite indications of naturally developing immunity, and sensitive immunodiagnostics are still at early stages of development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Establishing a proteome-serological methodology, we mapped the antigenicity of the parasites and the specificities of the immune responses in human leishmaniasis. Using 2-dimensional Western blot analyses with sera and parasites isolated from patients in India, we detected immune responses with widely divergent specificities for up to 330 different leishmanial antigens. 68 antigens were assigned to proteins in silver- and fluorochrome-stained gels. The antigenicity of these proteins did not correlate with the expression levels of the proteins. Although some antigens are shared among different parasite isolates, there are extensive differences and no immunodominant antigens, but indications of antigenic drift in the parasites. Six antigens were identified by mass spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomics-based dissection of the serospecificities of leishmaniasis patients provides a comprehensive inventory of the complexity and interindividual heterogeneity of the host-responses to and variations in the antigenicity of the Leishmania parasites. This information can be instrumental in the development of vaccines and new immune monitoring and diagnostic devices.

  11. Complementary analysis of microsatellite tumor profile and mismatch repair defects in colorectal carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo Blanes; Salvador J Diaz-Cano

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a prognostic factor and a marker of deficient mismatch repair (MMR) in colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC). However, a proper application of this marker requires understanding the following: (1)The MSI concept: The PCR approach must amplify the correct locus and accurately identify the microsatellite pattern in the patient's normal tissue. MSI is demonstrated when the length of DNA sequences in a tumor differs from that of nontumor tissue. Any anomalous expansion or reduction of tandem repeats results in extra-bands normally located in the expected size range (100 bp,above or below the expected product), differ from the germline pattern by some multiple of the repeating unit,and must show appropriate stutter. (2) MSI mechanisms:MMR gene inactivation (by either mutation or protein down-regulation as frequently present in deep CRC compartments) leads to mutation accumulation in a cell with every cellular division, resulting in malignant transformation. These mechanisms can express tumor progression and result in a decreased prevalence of aneuploid cells and loss of the physiologic cell kinetic correlations in the deep CRC compartments. MSI molecular mechanisms are not necessarily independent from chromosomal instability and may coexist in a given CRC. (3) Because of intratumoural heterogeneity, at least two samples from each CRC should be screened, preferably from the superficial (tumor cells above the muscularis propria) and deep (tumor cells infiltrating the muscularis propria) CRC compartments to cover the topographic tumor heterogeneity. (4) Pathologists play a critical role in identifying microsatellite-unstable CRC, such as occur in young patients with synchronous or metachronous tumors or with tumors showing classic histologic features. In these cases, MSI testing and/or MMR immunohistochemistry are advisable, along with gene sequencing and genetic counseling if appropriate. MSI is an excellent functional and prognostically

  12. Distinct Clinicopathological Patterns of Mismatch Repair Status in Colorectal Cancer Stratified by KRAS Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Li

    Full Text Available In sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC, the BRAFV600E mutation is associated with deficient mismatch repair (MMR status and inversely associated with to KRAS mutations. In contrast to deficient MMR (dMMR CRC, data on the presence of KRAS oncogenic mutations in proficient MMR (pMMR CRC and their relationship with tumor progression are scarce. We therefore examined the MMR status in combination with KRAS mutations in 913 Chinese patients and correlated the findings obtained with clinical and pathological features. The MMR status was determined based on detection of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 expression. KRAS mutation and dMMR status were detected in 36.9% and 7.5% of cases, respectively. Four subtypes were determined by MMR and KRAS mutation status: KRAS (+/pMMR (34.0%, KRAS (+/dMMR (2.9%, KRAS (-/pMMR (58.5% and KRAS (-/dMMR (4.6%. A higher percentage of pMMR tumors with KRAS mutation were most likely to be female (49.0%, proximal located (45.5%, a mucinous histology (38.4%, and to have increased lymph node metastasis (60.3%, compared with pMMR tumors without BRAFV600E and KRAS mutations (36.0%, 29.3%, 29.4% and 50.7%, respectively; all P < 0.01. To the contrary, compared with those with KRAS(-/dMMR tumors, patients with KRAS(+/dMMR tumors demonstrated no statistically significant differences in gender, tumor location, pT depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, pTNM stage, and histologic grade. This study revealed that specific epidemiologic and clinicopathologic characteristics are associated with MMR status stratified by KRAS mutation. Knowledge of MMR and KRAS mutation status may enhance molecular pathologic staging of CRC patients and metastatic progression in CRC can be estimated based on the combination of these biomarkers.

  13. The γ/γ ' mismatch in Ni based superalloys: In situ measurements during a creep test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diologent, F.; Caron, P.; d'Almeida, T.; Jacques, A.; Bastie, P.

    2003-01-01

    The lattice mismatch between the fcc γ matrix and the ordered γ ' cuboı̈dal precipitates in superalloys induces large internal stresses within the material. These stresses have a major effect on its mechanical behaviour and on the anisotropic evolution of the microstructure (rafting…) during its lifetime. The evolution of the effective lattice mismatch of the AM1 and MCNG superalloys was measured continuously during high temperature creep tests (1100 °C, 150 MPa) at the ID 15 (high energy) beamline of the ESRF. The bulk profiles of the 200 reflection (parallel to the tensile axis) were recorded using the triple crystal diffractometer. Both materials have a negative mismatch, and exhibit a transition between the initial wide γ ' peak to a two peaks profile during stage I of the creep curve, as rafting takes place. During stage II, the 200 mismatch decreases in magnitude. During stage III, as a microstructural transition (coalescence) occurs and the strain rate increases, the mismatch changes in the same direction, but at a faster rate, while the thickness of both peaks increases. Evolution of the MCNG specimen was the same as AM1 ones, but rafting and transition to stage II take place at a different rate.

  14. Antiviral activity of Small interfering RNAs: Specificity testing using heterologous virus reveals interferon-related effects overlooked by conventional mismatch controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is considered to be a highly specific method for knockdown of gene expression in eukaryotic cells via degradation of target mRNA. Mutated siRNA molecules with 1–4 mismatching nucleotides compared to the target mRNA are regularly used as specific...... a heterologous virus. Further analyses revealed that the siRNAs induced a non-target-specific anti-viral effect correlating with upregulation of the interferon induced Mx gene....

  15. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  16. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    /testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...

  17. Proposta para estadiamento do câncer colorretal baseada em critérios morfofuncionais: correlação com níveis séricos do antígeno carcinoembrionário Proposal for colorectal cancer stages based on morphofunctional criteria: correlation with carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçalves Priolli

    2007-12-01

    tempo de sobrevida, a classificação morfofuncional e o nível sérico de antígeno carcinoembrionário. CONCLUSÃO: O estadiamento morfofuncional é válido para a avaliação prognóstica dos pacientes com adenocarcinoma colorretal, e relaciona-se com os níveis séricos do CEA.The analysis of morphofunctions characteristics can be useful in the colorectal cancer evolution, especially if related to the serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels. The research of chromosomes and genes instability, as well as the alterations of tissue protein codified, makes attractive the possibility to use potentially valid functional factors as variables for the understanding of colorectal carcinoma prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To consider classes based on morphologic and functional colorectal carcinoma characteristics, valuing serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels prognostic power. METHOD: Third-five patients in different stages of colorectal carcinoma underwent operations from 2001 to 2007. Serum CEA levels, histological grade, tissue CEA cell polarization capacity were analyzed. Colorectal carcinoma was classified according to TNM stages. The morphofunctional classification was determined by the combination between histological grade and antigen polarization, morphofunctional stages have been based in association between morphofunctional classification and stages TNM, by punctuation attributed to each one classification. The results had been analyzed by variance analysis, correlation test and survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier and Cox Model Regression, adopting p<0.05. RESULTS: Morphofunctional stages survival curve resulted similar to the joined ones in stages TNM. It had relation between new classification proposed and patient survival time. They had observed relation among survival time, morphofunctional classification and serum carcinoembryonic antigen. CONCLUSION: Morphofunctional classification is valid for colorectal cancer patient's prognostic evaluation and is related with the serum CEA

  18. 血管内皮生长因子和Ki-67在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达及相关性%Expression and correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor and Ki-67 antigen in human brain astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志东; 谢寿城; 匡亚玲

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)和Ki-67抗原在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达及二者的相关性.方法 应用免疫组化S-P法检测30例正常脑组织和60例人脑星形细胞瘤(Ⅰ~Ⅱ级28例,Ⅲ级20例,Ⅳ级12例)中VEGF和Ki-67的表达.结果 VEGF和Ki-67在正常脑组织中均不表达,而在各级别的人脑星形细胞瘤中均有表达,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).VEGF和Ki-67的表达在高级别星形细胞瘤中均明显高于低级别星形细胞瘤,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),且VEGF与Ki-67的表达呈正相关(r=0.310,P<0.05).结论 VEGF和Ki-67的表达可为人脑星形细胞瘤的恶性程度和临床病理分级提供重要的依据.%Objective To study the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ki-67 antigen and their correlation in human brain astrocytorna. Methods Immunohistochemistry with SP method was employed to detect the expressions of VEGF and Ki-67 in 60 human brain astrocytoma tissue (grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ 28 cases, grade Ⅲ 20 cases, grade Ⅳ 12 cases) and 30 normal tissues adjacent to the tumors. Results VEGF and Ki-67 were not expressed in the normal brain tissues adjacent to the astrocytoma, but their expressions were detected in all the astroeytoma tissues of different grades (P<0.05). High-grade astrocytomas showed significantly higher VEGF and Ki-67 expression than low-grade astrocytomas (P<0.05), and a positive correlation was noted between VEGF and Ki-67 expressions (r=0.310, P<0.05). Conclusion VEGF and Ki-67 expressions can provide important evidence for evaluating the malignancy and clinicopathologieal grading of human astrocytoma.

  19. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  20. The relative effects of age and learning style mismatch on adult students' academic achievement and perception of instructors

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Clayton W.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between students' age, achievement, evaluation of the instructors and the match-mismatch of students' and instructors' learning styles. Seventeen (17) business instructors and 302 business students comprised the population. The students were selected as an intact group enrolled in the participating faculty members' class. The relationship between age and learning style mismatch and evaluation and age and learning style mismatch an...

  1. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  2. Efficient induction of CD25- iTreg by co-immunization requires strongly antigenic epitopes for T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinyao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously showed that co-immunization with a protein antigen and a DNA vaccine coding for the same antigen induces CD40low IL-10high tolerogenic DCs, which in turn stimulates the expansion of antigen-specific CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (CD25- iTreg. However, it was unclear how to choose the antigen sequence to maximize tolerogenic antigen presentation and, consequently, CD25- iTreg induction. Results In the present study, we demonstrated the requirement of highly antigenic epitopes for CD25- iTreg induction. Firstly, we showed that the induction of CD25- iTreg by tolerogenic DC can be blocked by anti-MHC-II antibody. Next, both the number and the suppressive activity of CD25- iTreg correlated positively with the overt antigenicity of an epitope to activate T cells. Finally, in a mouse model of dermatitis, highly antigenic epitopes derived from a flea allergen not only induced more CD25- iTreg, but also more effectively prevented allergenic reaction to the allergen than did weakly antigenic epitopes. Conclusions Our data thus indicate that efficient induction of CD25- iTreg requires highly antigenic peptide epitopes. This finding suggests that highly antigenic epitopes should be used for efficient induction of CD25- iTreg for clinical applications such as flea allergic dermatitis.

  3. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Liguo, Zhou; Heng, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Zhi, Fang; Yin, Shi

    2014-08-01

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression.

  4. Characterization of PolyA and PolyC mismatches by Raman spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yubo Liao; Yaoyong Meng; Haodong Lei; Ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    A.C mismatches are studied by Raman spectral characterization of PolyA, PolyC, and their equimolar complex in solution of 0.14 mol/L Na+,pH7.0.Experimental results show that A·C mismatches occur to be A/B (mainly A) conformers, and unlike Watson-Crick base pairing, this kind of mismatches is stabilized by only one hydrogen bond involving cytosine N4H2 and adenine N7.The formation of A·C complex makes the base stacking interactions much stronger, and conformation of the backbone more ordered, which leads to obvious Raman hypochromic effect with some shifts in corresponding bands.

  5. Cognitive mismatches in the cockpit: will they ever be a thing of the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gordon; Besnard, Denis; Riley, Dominic

    2007-07-01

    Changes in aviation over the last 30 years have dramatically affected the way that flight crews fly aircraft. The implementation and evolution of the glass cockpit, however, has happened in an almost ad hoc fashion, meaning that it does not always properly support the flight crew in carrying out their tasks. In such situations, the crew's mental model of what is happening does not always match the real state of affairs. In other words, there is a cognitive mismatch. An initial taxonomy of cognitive mismatches is defined, and the problem illustrated using an example from an aviation accident. Consideration is then given to how cognitive mismatches can be managed. A call is made for the development of an integrated cockpit architecture that takes better account of human capabilities and allows for new developments to be added to the cockpit in a more seamless manner.

  6. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Clinicopathogenomic analysis of mismatch repair proficient colorectal adenocarcinoma uncovers novel prognostic subgroups with differing patterns of genetic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, David R; Zhang, Ray; Morrissette, Jennifer D; Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Furth, Emma E

    2016-10-01

    Cancer somatic genetic evolution is a direct contributor to heterogeneity at the clonal and molecular level in colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD). We sought to determine the extent to which genetic evolution may be detected in COAD in routinely obtained single clinical specimens and establish clinical significance with regard to clinicopathologic and outcome data. One hundred and twenty three cases of routinely collected mismatch repair proficient COAD were sequenced on the Illumina Truseq Amplicon assay. Measures of intratumoral heterogeneity and the preferential timing of mutational events were assessed and compared to clinicopathologic data. Survival subanalysis was performed on 55 patients. Patient age (p = 0.013) and specimen percent tumor (p = 0.033) was associated with clonal diversity, and biopsy (p = 0.044) and metastasis (p = 0.044) returned fewer mutations per case. APC and TP53 mutations preferentially occurred early while alterations in FBXW7, FLT3, SMAD4, GNAS and PTEN preferentially occurred as late events. Temporal heterogeneity was evident in KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. Hierarchical clustering revealed a TP53 mutant subtype and a MAPK-PIK3CA subtype with differing patterns of late mutational events. Survival subanalysis showed a decreased median progression free survival for the MAPK-PIK3CA subtype (8 months vs. 13 months; univariate logrank p = 0.0380, cox model p= 0.018). Neoadjuvant therapy associated mutations were found for ERBB2 (p = 0.0481) and FBXW7 (p = 0.015). Our data indicate novel molecular subtypes of mismatch repair proficient COAD display differing patterns of genetic evolution which correlate with clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we report treatment acquired and/or selected mutations in ERBB2 and FBXW7. PMID:27194209

  8. Genome Scale Identification of Treponema pallidum Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    McKevitt, Matthew; Brinkman, Mary Beth; McLoughlin, Melanie; Perez, Carla; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Weinstock, George M.; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Antibody responses for 882 of the 1,039 proteins in the proteome of Treponema pallidum were examined. Sera collected from infected rabbits were used to systematically identify 106 antigenic proteins, including 22 previously identified antigens and 84 novel antigens. Additionally, sera collected from rabbits throughout the course of infection demonstrated a progression in the breadth and intensity of humoral immunoreactivity against a representative panel of T. pallidum antigens.

  9. [Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Ewa; Waśniowska, Kazimiera

    2016-01-01

    Duffy (Fy) blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1) and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fy(a) and Fy(b), encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fy(a) and Fy(b) antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fy(a) and/or Fy(b) on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-), Fy(a-b+) and Fy(a+b+), identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-), frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fy(b) antigen. Fy(x) antigen differs from the native Fy(b) by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. PMID:26943312

  10. Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łukasik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Duffy (Fy blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1 and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fya and Fyb, encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fya and Fyb antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fya and/or Fyb on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-, Fy(a-b+ and Fy(a+b+, identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-, frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fyb antigen. Fyx antigen differs from the native Fyb by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. Tytuł główny Tak

  11. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, H S; Lam, D M; Arntzen, C J

    1992-01-01

    Tobacco plants were genetically transformed with the gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) linked to a nominally constitutive promoter. Enzyme-linked immunoassays using a monoclonal antibody directed against human serum-derived HBsAg revealed the presence of HBsAg in extracts of transformed leaves at levels that correlated with mRNA abundance. This suggests that there were no major inherent limitations of transcription or translation of this foreign gene in plants. Recombinant HBs...

  12. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A rare cause of scintigraphic ventilation-perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with multiple areas of mismatch on ventilation-perfusion lung imaging in the absence of pulmonary embolism is presented. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of the few nonembolic diseases producing a pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In this condition, chest radiographs may not detect the full extent of disease, and xenon-133 ventilation imaging may be relatively insensitive to morbid changes in small airways. Thus, when examining patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, one should be aware that abnormal perfusion imaging patterns without matching ventilation abnormalities are not always due to embolism. In this setting, contrast pulmonary angiography is often needed for accurate differential diagnosis

  13. Dynamical Allosterism in the Mechanism of Action of DNA Mismatch Repair Protein MutS

    OpenAIRE

    Pieniazek, Susan N.; Hingorani, Manju M.; Beveridge, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The multidomain protein Thermus aquaticus MutS and its prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologs recognize DNA replication errors and initiate mismatch repair. MutS actions are fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis, which modulate its interactions with DNA and other proteins in the mismatch-repair pathway. The DNA binding and ATPase activities are allosterically coupled over a distance of ∼70 Å, and the molecular mechanism of coupling has not been clarified. To address this problem, all-atom molecul...

  14. Mouth reversal extinguishes mismatch negativity induced by the McGurk illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Andersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    cortex. Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is a component in the auditory Event-Related Potential (ERP) that is elicited by a change in the auditory percept. It has been shown that the McGurk illusion can induce a MMN. We conducted an experiment in which the MMN could be elicited by the McGurk illusion induced by...... visual speech with either upright (unaltered) or vertically reversed mouth area. In a preliminary analysis, we found a Mismatch Negativity component induced by the McGurk illusion for 6 of 17 participants at electrode Cz when the mouth area was upright. In comparison, these participants produced no...

  15. New functional sites in MutS affect DNA mismatch repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The MutS protein plays an important role in the DNA mismatch repair system. Mutations in the mutS gene can lead to genome instability and ultimately cell malfunction. Here we have established a method for identifying functional defective mutants of MutS by random mutation and rifampicin screening. Some novel functional sites in MutS were identified. The MutS mutant strains were analyzed using surface plasmon resonance, gel filtration and far-western methods to determine the molecular mechanisms behind the DNA mismatch repair function of MutS.

  16. Structure Transformation and Coherent Interface in Large Lattice-Mismatched Nanoscale Multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale Al/W multilayers were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. Despite the large lattice mismatch and significantly different lattice structures between Al and W, a structural transition from face-centered cubic to body-centered cubic in Al layers was observed when the individual layer thickness was reduced from 5 nm to 1 nm, forming coherent Al/W interfaces. For potential mechanisms underlying the observed structure transition and forming of coherent interfaces, it was suggested that the reduction of interfacial energy and high stresses induced by large lattice-mismatch play a crucial role.

  17. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion.

  18. Impact of human leukocyte antigen matching and recipients' panel reactive antibodies on two-year outcome in presensitized renal allograft recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hui-lin; JIN Xun-bo; LI Xiang-tie; WANG Hong-wei; L(U) Jia-ju

    2009-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation in sensitized candidates remains a highly significant challenge worldwide. The production of panel reactive antibody (PRA) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a major risk factor in presensitized recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of HLA matching and recipients' PRA on two-year outcome in presensitized renal allograft recipients.Methods We determined the percentage of panel reactivity and specificity of anti-HLA immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies in 73 presensitized renal allograft recipients compared with 81 unsensitized recipients (control group). HLA genotyping of both recipients and corresponding donors was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). We analyzed the factors influencing the early graft outcome (two-year rejection rates and survival rates of the grafts), including HLA mismatching, class and degree of panel reactivity, and target antigen of donors.Results Presensitized recipients had a worse two-year outcome than unsensitized recipients (P=0.019 for rejection rate, P=0.01 for survival rate). The difference in number of HLA-mismatched alleles with either 6-antigen matching (Ag M) standard or amino acid residue matching (Res M) standard was not significant between the rejection and non-rejection groups of presensitized recipients or between the graft survival group and graft loss group. Compared with the control group, recipients with both PRA-Ⅰ and PRA-Ⅱ antibodies had a significantly worse two-year outcome (P=0.001 for rejection rate, P=0.002 for survival rate). The two-year outcomes of the peak PRA ≥50% group and its subgroup, at-transplant PRA ≥50% group, were significantly worse compared with the control group (P=0.025 and P=0.001 for rejection rate, P=0.043 and P=0.024 for survival rate). The rejection rates of the at-transplant target antigen positive group and its subgroup, HLA-Ⅰ target antigen positive group, were significantly higher than the control

  19. Tracking the Antigenic Evolution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Reeve

    Full Text Available Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution. For serotype SAT1, we validate our antigenic phylogeny against monoclonal antibody escape mutants, which match all of the predicted antigenic sites. For serotype O, we validate it against known sites where available, and otherwise directly evaluate the impact on antigenic phenotype of substitutions in predicted sites using reverse genetics and serology. We also highlight a critical and poorly understood problem for vaccine selection by revealing qualitative differences between assays that are often used interchangeably to determine antigenic match between field viruses and vaccine strains. Our approach provides a tool to identify naturally occurring antigenic substitutions, allowing us to track the genetic diversification and associated antigenic evolution of the virus. Despite the hugely important role vaccines have played in enhancing human and animal health, vaccinology remains a conspicuously empirical science. This study advances the field by providing guidance for tuning vaccine strains via site-directed mutagenesis through this high-resolution tracking of antigenic evolution of the virus between rare major shifts in phenotype.

  20. Tracking the Antigenic Evolution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Richard; Borley, Daryl W; Maree, Francois F; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Lukhwareni, Azwidowi; Esterhuysen, Jan J; Harvey, William T; Blignaut, Belinda; Fry, Elizabeth E; Parida, Satya; Paton, David J; Mahapatra, Mana

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution. For serotype SAT1, we validate our antigenic phylogeny against monoclonal antibody escape mutants, which match all of the predicted antigenic sites. For serotype O, we validate it against known sites where available, and otherwise directly evaluate the impact on antigenic phenotype of substitutions in predicted sites using reverse genetics and serology. We also highlight a critical and poorly understood problem for vaccine selection by revealing qualitative differences between assays that are often used interchangeably to determine antigenic match between field viruses and vaccine strains. Our approach provides a tool to identify naturally occurring antigenic substitutions, allowing us to track the genetic diversification and associated antigenic evolution of the virus. Despite the hugely important role vaccines have played in enhancing human and animal health, vaccinology remains a conspicuously empirical science. This study advances the field by providing guidance for tuning vaccine strains via site-directed mutagenesis through this high-resolution tracking of antigenic evolution of the virus between rare major shifts in phenotype. PMID:27448206

  1. Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, Michaela; Duffy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite that causes most malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in humans with over 500,000 deaths annually. The disease symptoms are associated with repeated cycles of invasion and asexual multiplication inside red blood cells of the parasite. Partial, non-sterile immunity to P. falciparum malaria develops only after repeated infections and continuous exposure. The successful evasion of the human immune system relies on the large repertoire of antigenically diverse parasite proteins displayed on the red blood cell surface and on the merozoite membrane where they are exposed to the human immune system. Expression switching of these polymorphic proteins between asexual parasite generations provides an efficient mechanism to adapt to the changing environment in the host and to maintain chronic infection. This chapter discusses antigenic diversity and variation in the malaria parasite and our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that direct the expression of these proteins. PMID:26537377

  2. Double-mismatched siRNAs enhance selective gene silencing of a mutant ALS-causing allele

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ming GENG; Hong-liu DING

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Our previous study demonstrated an siRNA-mediated, allele-specific silenc-ing of mutant genes that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To improve siRNA design for better therapeutic use of RNA interference, we systematically tested the base-pairing mismatch strategy in the design of asymmetric siRNA. Methods: A naturally symmetric siRNA that targets the human Cu Zn superoxide dismutase G85R mutant allele was modified by placing either 1 or 2 mismatches at the end of the siRNA from position 1 to 4 at each time. The target preference and silencing efficacy of modified siRNA were measured using a modified dual luciferase system. Results: The modification of single base-pairing mismatch successfully achieved the conversion of the siRNA that was originally favored to the antisense of the mutant allele to the one that was favored to the sense strand of the gene. Com-pared to the single-mismatched siRNA, those with double-mismatch at one end demonstrated an increased asymmetry, and thus, an enhanced specificity and efficacy of gene silencing. In addition, the siRNA with double-mismatch at both ends remained in symmetry. Conclusion: Our results suggest the effectiveness of converting a symmetric siRNA to an asymmetric one by introducing mismatches into its structure, and the superiority of double-mismatched siRNA to single-mismatched siRNA in producing selective gene silencing resulting from the dis-ruption of siRNA symmetry. The double-mismatch strategy is an improvement of the single-mismatch method and could be useful in the design of effective siRNAs for the treatment of diseases caused by dominant, gain-of-function gene mutations, such as ALS.

  3. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  4. Relationship between the downregulation of HLA class I antigen and clinicopathological significance in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Shen; Jian-Qiong Zhang; Feng-Qing Miao; Jian-Min Zhang; Qin Jiang; Hao Chen; Xiang-Nian Shan; Wei Xie

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens in gastric cancer and correlate these with pathologic type and TNM stage.METHODS: The expression of HLA class I antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in 185 specimens of gastric cancer, 20 gastric cancer specimens with lymphatic metastasis and 22 controls of normal gastric mucosa using four monoclonal antibodies.RESULTS: The expression of HLA class I antigen (B/C locus) was significantly downregulated in gastric cancer and in lymphatic metastasis than that in normal gastricmucosa (x2 = 7.712, P<0.05). The expression of other HLA class I antigens was also downregulated, but the change was slight. There was no relationship betweenthe downregulation of HLA class I antigen and that ofβ2m and LMP2. The expression of HLA class I (B/C locus) was statistically correlated with pathologic stage in gastric adenocarcinoma (x2= 4.164, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The expression of HLA class I antigen (B/Clocus) was obviously downregulated in gastric cancer andin lymphatic metastasis. This abnormal expression wouldprovide the tumor cells with a way to avoid immunologicalrecognition.

  5. СAPSULAR ANTIGEN OF YERSINIA PESTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kadnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonosis caused by gram-negative bacteria Yersinia pestis, which, as a rule, is transmitted to humans from septicemic rodents by the bites of infected fleas. This microbe killed more people than all of the wars in the human history. Y. pestis circulation in the natural plague foci is ensured by the whole number of pathogenicity factors with differing functional orientation. This review is devoted to one of them, Y. pestis capsular antigen (F1 or Caf1. The history of its discovery and studying of its genetic control, biosynthesis, isolation and purification, and physicochemical properties are reviewed. Its roles in plague pathogenesis and its application as a main component of plague vaccines are also discussed. Y. pestis capsule under light microscopy is visually amorphous, while high-resolution electron microscopy displays the structure formed from separate fimbria-like cords up to 200 nm long, diverging from the bacterial surface in different directions. At 37°C Y. pestis produce 800–1000 times more capsular antigen than at 28°C. Genes coding for 17.6-kD Caf1 protein, which contains 170 amino acids, are located in caf1 operon of pFra plasmid. Analysis of caf1 operon nucleotide sequence testified its close phylogenetic relationship with the gene clusters coding for pilus adhesins that were secreted with the help of chaperone/usher systems in enterobacteria including six additional adhesins in Y. pestis. Y. pestis multiplication within macrophages is the obligatory stage of plague pathogenesis, and the plague pathogen virulence correlates not with resistance to phagocyte ingesting but with bacterial ability to survive and multiply within phagolysosomes of phagocytes due to neutralization of antibacterial functions of eukaryotic cells. The capsule formed out of the Caf1 aggregates protects Y. pestis from ingestion by naïve host’s phagocytes and prevents from initiation of the alternative pathway of the complement system

  6. THE SEARCH OF OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF ANTIGENS FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Vasilyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The four chimeric recombinant antigens CBD-CFP10, CBD-ESAT6, ESAT6-CFP10 and CBD-P38 contained aminoacid sequences of full-size proteins ESAT6, CFP10 and matured protein P38 of M. tuberculosis, joined with aminoacid sequences of cellulose bind domain of endogluconase A (CBD from Cellumonas fimi have been obtained by gene engineering methods. Recombinant proteins were purified by affine chromatography in column with Ni-NTA-sepharose 6В-CL and as PPDN-3 were used for detection of their antigenic activity in indirect ELISA for TB serological diagnostics. The sera from patients with lung tuberculosis (n = 321, from persons who had professional contacts with TB patients (n = 42, from healthy blood donors (n = 366 and from patients with lung diseases of non-TB etiology were tested. It was detected that there was positive correlation between antibodies level for all studied antigens compared by pair. It has been demonstrated that although antigens were different by antigenic and immunobiological characteristics they add each other in the content of antigenic diagnostics compositions. Thus, all these antigens can be used in the test kits for serological diagnostics of TB. Using of these antigens will allow to detect persons infected by TB and patients with active tuberculosis. 

  7. Correlation between Chinese Population Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Associated Antigen-4 Gene Exon-1 & Promoter Polymorphisms and Graves' Disease:A Meta-Analysis%中国人群CTLA-4基因外显子1及启动子-318的多态性与Graves病相关性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓雯; 李玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate correlation between exon-1 (locus 49, A/G) and promoter (locus -318, C/T) polymorphisms of Chinese population cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene and Graves' Disease (GD). Methods Relevant studies were electronically searched in CNKI, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase and The Cochrane Library from 1980.1 to 2011.12. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected and screened all case-control studies on the correlation between CTLA-4 exon -1 (locus 49, A/G) and promoter (locus -318, C/T) polymorphisms of Chinese population and GD. Then we extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0 and STATA 12.0 software. Results (1) Ten studies on exon-1 were included. Results of meta-analyses showed that Chinese population with genotype G/G had a higher GD risk than those with genotype A/A (OR=3.38, 95%CI 2.07 to 5.51) and A/G (OR=1.72, 95%CI 1.31 to 2.25). Also, the allele G showed significant association with increased GD risk compared to the allele A (OR=1.87, 95%CI 1.44 to 2.41). (2) Five studies on promoter-318 were included. Results of meta-analyses showed that Chinese population with genotype T/T presented no increased relative risk compared to those with genotype C/C (OR=0.75, 95%CI 0.26 to 2.12) or C/T (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.31 to 2.73). Meanwhile, the allele T showed no increased relative risk compared to the allele C (OR=0.83, 95%CI 0.61 to 1.12). Conclusion The allele G at the locus 49 of exon -1 of Chinese population is significantly associated with increased GD risks, yet the correlation between promoter -318 C/T polymorphism and GD hasn't been demonstrated. Due to the limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies are needed to test the above conclusion.%目的 系统评价中国人细胞毒性T淋巴细胞相关抗原4(cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated antigen-4,CTLA-4)

  8. Stable solid-phase Rh antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, M A; Moise, K J; Rodkey, L S

    1997-12-01

    Numerous investigators have attempted to isolate the Rh antigens in a stable, immunologically reactive form since the discovery of the Rh system over 56 years ago. We report here a successful and reproducible approach to solubilizing and adsorbing the human Rh antigen(s) to a solid-phase matrix in an antigenically active form. Similar results were obtained with rabbit A/D/F red blood cell antigens. The antigen preparation was made by dissolution of the red blood cell membrane lipid followed by fragmentation of the residual cytoskeleton in an EDTA solution at low ionic strength. The antigenic activity of the soluble preparations was labile in standard buffers but was stable in zwitterionic buffers for extended periods of time. Further studies showed that the antigenic activity of these preparations was enhanced, as was their affinity for plastic surfaces, in the presence of acidic zwitterionic buffers. Adherence to plastic surfaces at low pH maintained antigenic reactivity and specificity for antibody was retained. The data show that this approach yields a stable form of antigenically active human Rh D antigen that could be used in a red blood cell-free assay for quantitative analysis of Rh D antibody and for Rh D antibody immunoadsorption and purification.

  9. Antigen-binding radioimmunoassays for human IgG antibodies to bovine ν-lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double antibody antigen-binding assay for the detection of human IgG antibodies to the bovine milk allergen ν-lactoglobulin is described. The levels of such antibodies in patients with established cows' milk protein intolerance were significantly higher than the levels observed in a healthy control group (P<0.01). The assay showed excellent correlation with a solid phase antigen binding assay (rsub(s) = 0.8, P<0.001). (Auth.)

  10. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  11. Optimization of single-base-pair mismatch discrimination in oligonucleotide microarrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urakawa, H.; Fantroussi, El S.; Smidt, H.; Smoot, J.C.; Tribou, E.H.; Kelly, J.J.; Noble, P.A.; Stahl, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The discrimination between perfect-match and single-base-pair-mismatched nucleic acid duplexes was investigated by using oligonucleotide DNA microarrays and nonequilibrium dissociation rates (melting profiles). DNA and RNA versions of two synthetic targets corresponding to the 16S rRNA sequences of

  12. Magnetostatic-Wave-Based Magneto-Optic Pulse Compression by Control of Phase Mismatching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bao-Jian; GAO Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Microwave magnetostatic waves (MSWs) as moving gratings in magneto-optic (MO) film can lead to the Bragg diffraction of guided optical waves (GOWs). The MO coupling characteristics are responsible for the amplitude and phase frequency spectra of diffracted pulses and even result in the compression of chirped optical pulses in time domain. We theoretically investigate the noncollinear diffraction of linearly chirped Gaussian optical pulses by continuous magnetostatic forward volume waves in detail. For a given chirped optical pulse, with the increase of phase-mismatching slopes, the compression efficiency (CE) is gradually improved up to the maximum followed by the transition of diffracted pulses from single peak to multi peaks. The larger the chirp parameter is,the smaller the required phase-mismatching slope to achieve the maximal CE is. However, the rise of the chirp parameter or phase-mismatching slope reduces the relative peak intensity of the diffracted pulse. Lastly, it is pointed out that the phase-mismatching slope can be greatly increased by using the high-order modes of MSWs and GOWs.

  13. A match-mismatch test of a stage model of behaviour change in tobacco smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Conijn, B; De Vries, H

    2006-01-01

    Aims An innovation offered by stage models of behaviour change is that of stage-matched interventions. Match-mismatch studies are the primary test of this idea but also the primary test of the validity of stage models. This study aimed at conducting such a test among tobacco smokers using the Social

  14. Evaluating the Competency Mismatch between Master of Engineering Graduates and Industry Needs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lijun; Zhang, Shulin; Gu, Jibao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the mismatch between the educational attainment of a graduate with a Master of Engineering (MEng) degree and the industry needs in China. A competency list for MEng graduates from the perspective of industry needs was constructed. And a survey was conducted among MEng graduate students, alumni, and employers to assess the…

  15. The match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies in fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Ooijen-van der Linden, L. van; Lumley, M.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Middendorp, H. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Individuals differ in their style of processing emotions (e.g., experiencing affects intensely or being alexithymic) and their strategy of regulating emotions (e.g., expressing or reappraising). A match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies is propo

  16. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on early and late mortality after aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bart M.; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Bouma, Wobbe; Mariani, Massimo A.; Peels, Kathinka C.; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; van Straten, Albert H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The influence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains controversial. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of PPM on early (30 days) after AVR or AVR combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR with CABG). Methods: B

  17. Optimizing the Face Paradigm of BCI System by Modified Mismatch Negative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on improving the performance of event-related potential (ERP) based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The use of a face pattern has been shown to obtain high classification accuracies and information transfer rates (ITRs) by evoking discriminative ERPs (N200 and N400) in addition to P300 potentials. Recently, it has been proved that the performance of traditional P300-based BCIs could be improved through a modification of the mismatch pattern. In this paper, a mismatch inverted face pattern (MIF-pattern) was presented to improve the performance of the inverted face pattern (IF-pattern), one of the state of the art patterns used in visual-based BCI systems. Ten subjects attended in this experiment. The result showed that the mismatch inverted face pattern could evoke significantly larger vertex positive potentials (p < 0.05) and N400s (p < 0.05) compared to the inverted face pattern. The classification accuracy (mean accuracy is 99.58%) and ITRs (mean bit rate is 27.88 bit/min) of the mismatch inverted face pattern was significantly higher than that of the inverted face pattern (p < 0.05). PMID:27774046

  18. The Extent of Skills Mismatch among Childhood Education Graduates of Princess Alia University College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashash, Hyam M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the extent of skill mismatch between the skills the childhood education graduates at Al-Balqa Applied University--Princess Alia University College acquired during their studies and those demanded in the labor market. The descriptive survey design was adopted and the purposive sampling technique was employed to…

  19. Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India: Targeting, Catch Up, and Mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Veronica; Krishna, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed data on the 2008 graduating class from an elite engineering institution in India, we evaluate the impact of affirmative action policies in higher education focusing on three issues: targeting, catch up, and mismatch. We find that admission preferences effectively target minority students who are poorer than average displaced…

  20. Regional Differences in the Listener's Phonemic Inventory Affect Semantic Processing: A Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelliere, Angele; Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Using the mismatch negativity (MMN) response, we examined how Standard French and Southern French speakers access the meaning of words ending in /e/ or /[epsilon]/ vowels which are contrastive in Standard French but not in Southern French. In Standard French speakers, there was a significant difference in the amplitude of the brain response after…

  1. High performance, high bandgap, lattice-mismatched, GaInP solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.; Steiner, Myles A.

    2014-07-08

    High performance, high bandgap, lattice-mismatched, photovoltaic cells (10), both transparent and non-transparent to sub-bandgap light, are provided as devices for use alone or in combination with other cells in split spectrum apparatus or other applications.

  2. Influence of donor-recipient sex mismatch on long-term survival of pancreatic grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Mei, Shengmin; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Qijun; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Hu, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    To assess the role of sex mismatch on graft survival after pancreas transplantation. We evaluated 24,195 pancreas-transplant recipients reported in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients over a 25-year period. Pancreatic graft survival (PGS) was analyzed according to donor-recipient sex pairing using Kaplan-Meier estimations. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 14,187 male and 10,008 female recipients were included in final analyses. Mean follow-up was 8.3 ± 5.7 years. In multivariate analyses, neither recipient sex nor donor sex was associated with pancreatic graft failure (PGF), but donor-recipient sex mismatch (regardless of recipient sex) was an independent predictor of PGS (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14; p donor factors eliminated the association between F → M sex mismatch and PGF (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93-1.10; p = 0.752), but not M → F (1.09; 1.02-1.17; 0.020). Stratified analyses suggested that the negative effect of donor-recipient sex mismatch could be neutralized in older patients. These findings suggest that donor-recipient sex pairing should be taken into consideration in organ-allocation strategies. PMID:27403718

  3. The role of the bacterial mismatch repair system in SOS-induced mutagenesis: a theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study is performed of the possible role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair system in the ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis of Escherichia coli bacterial cells. For this purpose, a mathematical model of the bacterial mismatch repair system is developed. Within this model, the key pathways of this type of repair are simulated on the basis of modern experimental data related to its mechanisms. Here we have modelled in detail five main pathways of DNA misincorporation removal with different DNA exonucleases. Using our calculations, we have tested the hypothesis that the bacterial mismatch repair system is responsible for the removal of the nucleotides misincorporated by DNA polymerase V (the UmuD'2C complex) during ultraviolet-induced SOS response. For the theoretical analysis of the mutation frequency, we have combined the proposed mathematical approach with the model of SOS-induced mutagenesis in the E.coli bacterial cell developed earlier. Our calculations support the hypothesis that methyl-directed mismatch repair influences the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation

  4. Mismatch responses in the awake rat: evidence from epidural recordings of auditory cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Jung

    Full Text Available Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs, reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for clinical applications, establishing valid animal models that allow for detailed investigation of its neurophysiological mechanisms is important. Rodent studies, so far almost exclusively under anesthesia, have not provided decisive evidence whether an MMN analogue exists in rats. This may be due to several factors, including the effect of anesthesia. We therefore used epidural recordings in awake black hooded rats, from two auditory cortical areas in both hemispheres, and with bandpass filtered noise stimuli that were optimized in frequency and duration for eliciting MMN in rats. Using a classical oddball paradigm with frequency deviants, we detected mismatch responses at all four electrodes in primary and secondary auditory cortex, with morphological and functional properties similar to those known in humans, i.e., large amplitude biphasic differences that increased in amplitude with decreasing deviant probability. These mismatch responses significantly diminished in a control condition that removed the predictive context while controlling for presentation rate of the deviants. While our present study does not allow for disambiguating precisely the relative contribution of adaptation and prediction error processing to the observed mismatch responses, it demonstrates that MMN-like potentials can be obtained in awake and unrestrained rats.

  5. Free-energy formula for emittance-growth estimation in intense mismatched beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Kazuya; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2015-09-01

    We construct a theoretical model that allows a quick estimate of emittance growth in an intense charged-particle beam initially mismatched to an external linear focusing potential. The present theory is a natural generalization of Reiser's free-energy model for coasting round beams in a uniform focusing channel. The free energy generated by a spatial mismatch, i.e. a discrepancy between the ideal beam size and an actual beam size, is calculated for an ellipsoidal bunch with an arbitrary aspect ratio. Following Reiser's prescription, we assume that the excess free energy is converted into root-mean-squared emittance growth. Multi-particle simulations are performed for comparison with theoretical predictions, which indicates that an initially mismatched bunch eventually settles into a sort of thermally anisotropic state when the mismatch is large. It is shown that the free-energy formula can explain simulation results over a wide range of parameters if the degree of the temperature anisotropy in the final state is properly incorporated into the theory.

  6. Can Mismatch Negativity Be Linked to Synaptic Processes? A Glutamatergic Approach to Deviance Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretical framework to elucidate the neurophysiological underpinnings of deviance detection as reflected by mismatch negativity. A six-step model of the information processing necessary for deviance detection is proposed. In this model, predictive coding of learned regularities is realized by means of long-term…

  7. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  8. A polymerization-based method to construct a plasmid containing clustered DNA damage and a mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Akamatsu, Ken; Shikazono, Naoya

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of biological materials to ionizing radiation often induces clustered DNA damage. The mutagenicity of clustered DNA damage can be analyzed with plasmids carrying a clustered DNA damage site, in which the strand bias of a replicating plasmid (i.e., the degree to which each of the two strands of the plasmid are used as the template for replication of the plasmid) can help to clarify how clustered DNA damage enhances the mutagenic potential of comprising lesions. Placement of a mismatch near a clustered DNA damage site can help to determine the strand bias, but present plasmid-based methods do not allow insertion of a mismatch at a given site in the plasmid. Here, we describe a polymerization-based method for constructing a plasmid containing clustered DNA lesions and a mismatch. The presence of a DNA lesion and a mismatch in the plasmid was verified by enzymatic treatment and by determining the relative abundance of the progeny plasmids derived from each of the two strands of the plasmid. PMID:27449134

  9. Influence of donor–recipient sex mismatch on long-term survival of pancreatic grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Mei, Shengmin; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Qijun; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Hu, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    To assess the role of sex mismatch on graft survival after pancreas transplantation. We evaluated 24,195 pancreas-transplant recipients reported in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients over a 25-year period. Pancreatic graft survival (PGS) was analyzed according to donor–recipient sex pairing using Kaplan–Meier estimations. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 14,187 male and 10,008 female recipients were included in final analyses. Mean follow-up was 8.3 ± 5.7 years. In multivariate analyses, neither recipient sex nor donor sex was associated with pancreatic graft failure (PGF), but donor–recipient sex mismatch (regardless of recipient sex) was an independent predictor of PGS (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.14; p donor factors eliminated the association between F → M sex mismatch and PGF (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93–1.10; p = 0.752), but not M → F (1.09; 1.02–1.17; 0.020). Stratified analyses suggested that the negative effect of donor–recipient sex mismatch could be neutralized in older patients. These findings suggest that donor–recipient sex pairing should be taken into consideration in organ-allocation strategies. PMID:27403718

  10. Developmental changes in mismatch responses to mandarin consonants and lexical tones from early to middle childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Liu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use mismatch responses (MMRs to explore the dynamic changes of Mandarin speech perception abilities from early to middle childhood. Twenty preschoolers, 18 school-aged children, and 26 adults participated in this study. Two sets of synthesized speech stimuli varying in Mandarin consonant (alveolo-palatal affricate vs. fricative and lexical tone features (rising vs. contour tone were used to examine the developmental course of speech perception abilities. The results indicated that only the adult group demonstrated typical early mismatch negativity (MMN responses, suggesting that the ability to discriminate specific speech cues in Mandarin consonant and lexical tone is a continuing process in preschool- and school-aged children. Additionally, distinct MMR patterns provided evidence indicating diverse developmental courses to different speech characteristics. By incorporating data from the two speech conditions, we propose using MMR profiles consisting of mismatch negativity (MMN, positive mismatch response (p-MMR, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as possible brain indices to investigate speech perception development.

  11. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  12. A rare case mimicking positron emission tomography/computed tomography mismatch: Hepatic subcapsular hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcapsular collections of bile, air or blood in the liver have been described following transhepatic procedures due to the leakage of bile and blood from the percutaneous puncture at the surface of the liver. Herein we presented the subcapsular collection led to a mismatch between functional and anatomical boundaries of the liver

  13. Representation and Processing of Lexical Tone and Tonal Variants : Evidence from the Mismatch Negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pronunciation variation is ubiquitous in the speech signal. Different models of lexical representation have been put forward to deal with speech variability, which differ in the level as well as the nature of mental representation. We present the first mismatch negativity (MMN) study investigating t

  14. Job Supply and Demand for University Graduates in Spain: A (Relative) Mismatch Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parellada, Marti; Duch, Nestor; Alvarez, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of job supply by Spanish firms and the demand for work, and the mismatch that occurs between these two variables. Data are taken for the year 2006, with particular attention to jobs offered by firms that require people with university degrees or other higher education qualifications. Demand and supply are broken…

  15. Labour Market Mismatch among UK Graduates: An Analysis Using REFLEX Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…

  16. Robustness of quantized continuous-time nonlinear systems to encoder/decoder mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De

    2009-01-01

    The robustness of quantized continuous-time nonlinear systems with respect to the discrepancy (mismatch) between the ranges of the encoder and the decoder quantizers is investigated. A condition which guarantees asymptotic stability and which describes the interplay between quantization density and

  17. Using stable MutS dimers and tetramers to quantitatively analyze DNA mismatch recognition and sliding clamp formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Groothuizen; A. Fish (Alexander); M.V. Petoukhov (Maxim); A. Reumer (Annet); L. Manelyte (Laura); H.H.K. Winterwerp (Herrie); M.G. Marinus (Martin); J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce); D.I. Svergun (Dmitri); P. Friedhoff (Peter); T.K. Sixma (Titia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe process of DNA mismatch repair is initiated when MutS recognizes mismatched DNA bases and starts the repair cascade. The Escherichia coli MutS protein exists in an equilibrium between dimers and tetramers, which has compromised biophysical analysis. To uncouple these states, we have

  18. The Role of Education Pathways in the Relationship between Job Mismatch, Wages and Job Satisfaction: A Panel Estimation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas; Sloane, Peter; Wei, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the outcome of over-skilling and over-education on wages and job satisfaction of full-time employees in Australia between 2001 and 2008. We employ a random effects probit model with Mundlak corrections. We find differences by type of mismatch, education pathway, and gender. We categorise reported mismatches as genuine…

  19. How metamer mismatching decreases as the number of colour mechanisms increases with implications for colour and lightness constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Godau, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Metamer mismatching has been previously found to impose serious limitations on colour constancy. The extent of metamer mismatching is shown here to be considerably smaller for trichromats than for dichromats, and maximal for monochromats. The implications for achromatic colour perception are discussed. PMID:26054251

  20. Circuit mismatch and current coupling effect influence on paralleling SiC MOSFETs in multichip power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reveals that there are circuit mismatches and a current coupling effect in the direct bonded copper (DBC) layout of a silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET multichip power module. According to the modelling and the mathematic analysis of the DBC layout, the mismatch of the common source stray...

  1. Anomalous cross-linking by mechlorethamine of DNA duplexes containing C-C mismatch pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R M; Mitas, M; Haworth, I S

    1999-03-23

    Nitrogen mustards such as mechlorethamine have previously been shown to covalently cross-link DNA through the N7 position of the two guanine bases of a d[GXC].d[GYC] duplex sequence, a so-called 1,3 G-G-cross-link, when X-Y = C-G or T-A. Here, we report the formation of a new mechlorethamine cross-link with the d[GXC].d[GYC] fragment when X-Y is a C-C mismatch pair. Mechlorethamine cross-links this fragment preferentially between the two mismatched cytosine bases, rather than between the guanine bases. The cross-link also forms when one or both of the guanine bases of the d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment are replaced by N7-deazaguanine, and, more generally, forms with any C-C mismatch, regardless of the flanking base pairs. Piperidine cleavage of the cross-link species containing the d[GCC].d[GCC] sequence gives DNA fragments consistent with alkylation at the mismatched cytosine bases. We also provide evidence that the cross-link reaction occurs between the N3 atoms of the two cytosine bases by showing that the formation of the C-C cross-link is pH dependent for both mechlorethamine and chlorambucil. Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) probing of the cross-linked d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment showed that the major groove of the guanine adjacent to the C-C mismatch is still accessible to DMS. In contrast, the known minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 inhibits the cross-link formation with a C-C mismatch pair flanked by A-T base pairs. These results suggest that the C-C mismatch is cross-linked by mechlorethamine in the minor groove. Since C-C pairs may be involved in unusual secondary structures formed by the trinucleotide repeat sequence d[CCG]n, and associated with triplet repeat expansion diseases, mechlorethamine may serve as a useful probe for these structures. PMID:10090751

  2. 白细胞介素-4在结直肠癌患者血清中的表达及其与癌胚抗原的相关性%Serum interleukin-4 expression levels in serum of colon cancer patients and the correlation of IL-4 with embryonic antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常树建; 慈雪萍; 刘劝

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the serum interleukin-4 (IL-4) expression levels in colon cancer patients and observe the correlation of IL-4 expression with embryonic antigen (CEA).Methods Sixty-four colorectal cancer patients,including 46 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (tumor burden),and 18 patients without recurrence or metastasis of cancer (without tumor burden).After taking the fasting blood,the serum level of IL-4 expression was detected using ELISA assay,and the the serum level of CEA was detected using chemiluminescent method.The correlation of IL-4 with CEA was tested using Pearson correlation coefficient.Simultaneously,the serum IL-4 change between before and after chemotherapy was compared in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Results The serum level of IL-4 was (116 ± 175) pg/ml in metastatic colorectal cancer patients,while (5± 15) pg/ml in control group.The serum level of IL-4 was higher in metastatic colorectal cancer patients than those in the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.01).In 64 patients,the serum levels of IL-4 and CEA were significantly correlated,and correlation coefficient γ=0.683,there was significant difference(P <0.01).In 20 metastatic patients who could be evaluated,the serum IL-4 level was decreased in 7 patients with tumor remission,while elevated in the other 13 patients without tumor remission after 2 cycles chemotherapy.Conclusions IL-4 is significantly increased in the serum of advanced colon cancer patients,and the serum level of IL-4 is significantly correlated with the serum level of CEA in colorectal cancer patients.%目的 检测结直肠癌患者血清中白细胞介素-4(IL-4)的表达水平并观察其与癌胚抗原(CEA)的相关性.方法 收集结直肠癌患者64例,其中转移性结直肠癌患者46例(带有肿瘤负荷),无复发或转移的结直肠癌患者18例(不带有肿瘤负荷).晨起空腹抽血,ELISA法检测血清IL-4的水平,化学

  3. Understanding the Consequences of Property Rights Mismatches: a Case Study of New Zealand's Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Yandle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Within fisheries and natural resource management literature, there is considerable discussion about the key roles that property rights can play in building biologically and socially sustainable resource management regimes. A key point of agreement is that secure long-term property rights provide an incentive for resource users to manage the resource sustainably. However, property rights mismatches create ambiguity and conflict in resource use. Though the term mismatches is usually associated with problems in matching temporal and spatial resource characteristics with institutional characteristics, I expand it here to include problems that can arise when property rights are incompletely defined or incompletely distributed. Property rights mismatches are particularly likely to occur over marine resources, for which multiple types of resource and resource user can be engaged and managed under a variety of regulatory regimes. I used New Zealand's marine resources to examine the causes and consequences of these property rights mismatches. New Zealand is particularly interesting because its property-rights-based commercial fishing regime, in the form of individual transferable quotas, has attracted considerable positive attention. However, my review of the marine natural resource management regime from a broader property rights perspective highlights a series of problems caused by property rights mismatches, including competition for resources among commercial, customary, and recreational fishers; spatial conflict among many marine resource users; and conflicting incentives and objectives for the management of resources over time. The use of a property rights perspective also highlights some potential solutions such as the layering of institutional arrangements and the improvement of how property rights are defined to encourage long-term sustainability.

  4. Camouflage mismatch in seasonal coat color due to decreased snow duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, L Scott; Zimova, Marketa; Oyler, Jared; Running, Steven; Abatzoglou, John T; Lukacs, Paul M

    2013-04-30

    Most examples of seasonal mismatches in phenology span multiple trophic levels, with timing of animal reproduction, hibernation, or migration becoming detached from peak food supply. The consequences of such mismatches are difficult to link to specific future climate change scenarios because the responses across trophic levels have complex underlying climate drivers often confounded by other stressors. In contrast, seasonal coat color polyphenism creating camouflage against snow is a direct and potentially severe type of seasonal mismatch if crypsis becomes compromised by the animal being white when snow is absent. It is unknown whether plasticity in the initiation or rate of coat color change will be able to reduce mismatch between the seasonal coat color and an increasingly snow-free background. We find that natural populations of snowshoe hares exposed to 3 y of widely varying snowpack have plasticity in the rate of the spring white-to-brown molt, but not in either the initiation dates of color change or the rate of the fall brown-to-white molt. Using an ensemble of locally downscaled climate projections, we also show that annual average duration of snowpack is forecast to decrease by 29-35 d by midcentury and 40-69 d by the end of the century. Without evolution in coat color phenology, the reduced snow duration will increase the number of days that white hares will be mismatched on a snowless background by four- to eightfold by the end of the century. This novel and visually compelling climate change-induced stressor likely applies to >9 widely distributed mammals with seasonal coat color. PMID:23589881

  5. Functional distance between recipient and donor HLA-DPB1 determines nonpermissive mismatches in unrelated HCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Pietro; Heinold, Andreas; Rebmann, Vera; Ottinger, Hellmut D; Horn, Peter A; Beelen, Dietrich W; Fleischhauer, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    The role of HLA amino acid (AA) polymorphism for the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is controversial, in particular for HLA class II. Here, we investigated this question in nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 T-cell epitope (TCE) mismatches reflected by numerical functional distance (FD) scores, assignable to all HLA-DPB1 alleles based on the combined impact of 12 polymorphic AAs. We calculated the difference in FD scores (ΔFD) of mismatched HLA-DPB1 alleles in patients and their 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors of 379 HCTs performed at our center for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Receiver-operator curve-based stratification into 2 ΔFD subgroups showed a significantly higher percentage of nonpermissive TCE mismatches for ΔFD >2.665, compared with ΔFD ≤2.665 (88% vs 25%, P 2.665 was significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.87; P TCE mismatches. There was a marked but not statistically significant increase in the hazards of relapse and nonrelapse mortality in the high ΔFD subgroup, whereas no differences were observed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Seven nonconservative AA substitutions in peptide-binding positions had a significantly stronger impact on ΔFD compared with 5 others (P = .0025), demonstrating qualitative differences in the relative impact of AA polymorphism in HLA-DPB1. The novel concept of ΔFD sheds new light onto nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in unrelated HCT. PMID:27162243

  6. 前列腺癌组织p504S和p63与血清PSA表达水平相关性分析%p504S and p63 expression and serum prostate-specific antigen the correlation of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦桂萍; 华玉兰; 侯海娜

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTTVE:To evaluate the expression of p504S and p63 in prostate cancer and its correlation with ser um prostate specific antigen(PSA). METHODS:The expression of p504S and p63 was detected by immunohistochemical staining in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia(PIN) and prostatic cancer(PCa) respec tively,and the correlation that p504S expression and serum PSA level in PCa was analyzed. RESULTS:Of the 18 cases of PCa, 16(88. 89%) were stained positive for p504S and 2(11.11%) were discontinuous positive for p63,of the 28 cases of PIN,6(21. 43%) were stained positive for p504S and 28(85.71%) were positive for p63,of the 124 cases of BPH,8 (6. 45%) were weakly positive for p504S and 116(93. 55%) were continuous positive for p63. The positive p504S expres sion rate was higher in PCa than that in PIN and BPH(P4 ng/mL,9 cases were stained positive for p504S. There was not statistical significance between two groups(P>0. 05). CONCLUSION:When the serum PSA level >4 ng/rnL clinically suspicions of prostate cancer,biopsy combined with immunohistochemical staining,can help diagnosis.%目的:探讨p504S、p63在前列腺癌(PCa)组织中的表达与血清前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)的关系.方法:采用免疫组织化学方法检测p504S、p63在前列腺增生(BPH)、前列腺上皮内瘤变(PIN)和前列腺癌(PCa)组织中的表达,并探讨前列腺癌(PCa)组织中p504S表达与血清PSA水平的相关性.结果:18例PCa组织中,p504S阳性表达16例(88.89%);28例PIN中,p504S阳性表达6例(21.43%);124例BPH中,p504S弱阳性表达8例(6.45%),p504S在PCa组织中的阳性表达率明显高于PIN与BPH组织,P<0.05.18例PCa组织中,p63呈不连续阳性表达2例(11.11%);28例PIN中,p63阳性表达24例(85.71%);124例BPH中,p63阳性表达116例(93.55%),p63在PCa组织中的表达阳性率明显低于BPH与PIN组织,P<0.05.p504S在血清PSA水平<4 ng/mL的8例PCa中7例阳性表达,在>4 ng/mL的10

  7. Linearized hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core-related antigen in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, W-K; Wong, D K-H; Fung, J; Huang, F-Y; Liu, K S-H; Lai, C-L; Yuen, M-F

    2014-11-01

    Changes in two novel HBV serological markers, linearized hepatitis B surface antigen (HQ-HBsAg) and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have not been well characterized. Serum HQ-HBsAg and HBcrAg levels of 404 Asian treatment-naïve CHB patients were analysed in a cross-sectional manner. Patients were categorized into five groups: immune tolerant (IT group, n=52), immune clearance (IC group, n=105), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative hepatitis (ENH group, n=97), HBeAg-negative quiescent group (ENQ group, n=95) and CHB with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance (SC group, n=55). HQ-HBsAg and HBcrAg were measured and correlated with HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBV genotype and clinical parameters. HQ-HBsAg showed good correlation with HBsAg, especially in the ENQ group (r=0.874, pHBcrAg correlated best with HBV DNA in the ENQ group (r=0.537, pHBcrAg; this subgroup of patients, when compared with those with detectable HBcrAg, had significantly lower median HBV DNA (3.17/4.48 log IU/mL, pHBcrAg up to 42 months after HBsAg seroclearance. When comparing anti-HBs positivity and median time after HBsAg seroclearance in the SC group with and without detectable HQ-HBsAg/HBcrAg, there was no significant difference (22.7% and 36.4%, respectively, p 0.284, and 76.5 and 93.2 months, respectively, p 0.245). HQ-HBsAg and HBcrAg showed unique patterns of distribution throughout the five disease phases of CHB, including high detectability rates after HBsAg seroclearance, opening up different possibilities for their applicability.

  8. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Satake, M.; Robins, T.; Ito, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 10/sup 6/ cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture.

  9. [ELISA method for the determination of factor VII antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, J I; Aznar, J A; Monteagudo, J; Montoro, J M; Casaña, P; Pascual, I; Bañuls, E; Curats, R; Llopis, F

    1989-12-01

    The low plasma concentration of clotting factor VII makes it difficult to assay its antigenic fraction by the conventional methods of precipitation with specific antigens. Simple and peroxidase-conjugated antisera are currently available from commercial sources, thus allowing one to determine F VII:Ag by enzyme immunoassay. An ELISA method has been developed in this laboratory which provides sensitivity limits about 0.1% of the plasma concentration of F VII and correlates significantly with its functional activity (r = 0.603, n = 44, p less than 0.001). This technique can be highly helpful in characterising molecular variants of F VII, as well as in detecting acquired deficiencies of this factor.

  10. Antigen Incorporation on Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Entrala Emilio; Sbihi Younes; Sánchez-Moreno Manuel; Mascaró Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are the infective stages responsible for transmission and survival of the organism in the environment. In the present work we show that the oocyst wall, far from being a static structure, is able to incorporate antigens by a mechanism involving vesicle fusion with the wall, and the incorporation of the antigen to the outer oocyst wall. Using immunoelectron microscopy we show that the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody used for diagnosis of cryptosporidi...

  11. Histocompatibility antigens in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Soutar, C A; Coutts, I.; Parkes, W R; Dodi, I. A.; Gauld, S; Castro, J E; Turner-Warwick, M

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five histocompatibility antigens have been measured in 100 coal miners with pneumoconiosis attending a pneumoconiosis medical panel and the results compared with a panel of 200 normal volunteers not exposed to dust. Chest radiographs were read independently by three readers according to the ILO U/C classification. On a combined score, 40 men were thought to have simple pneumoconiosis and 60 men complicated pneumoconiosis. The number of antigens tested and associations between antigens ...

  12. The Consequences on Job Satisfaction of Job-Worker Educational and Skill Mismatches in the Spanish Labour Market: a Panel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Badillo Amador; Angel López Nicolás; Vila, Luis E.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of job-worker mismatches on job satisfaction are examined using the eight waves (1994-2001) of Spanish data taken from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The impacts of both educational and skill mismatches are estimated considering unobserved heterogeneity, state dependence and attrition bias. Dynamic analysis shows that skill mismatches emerge as a much better predictor of job satisfaction than educational mismatches as the effects of the latter are related to unobse...

  13. Detection of single base mismatches of thymine and cytosine residues by potassium permanganate and hydroxylamine in the presence of tetralkylammonium salts.

    OpenAIRE

    Gogos, J.A.; Karayiorgou, M; Aburatani, H; Kafatos, F C

    1990-01-01

    In the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride, potassium permanganate specifically modifies mismatched thymines. Similarly, the modification of mismatched cytosines by hydroxylamine was enhanced by tetraethylammonium chloride. Modification followed by piperidine cleavage permits specific identification of the T and C mismatches and by extension, when the opposite DNA strand is analyzed, of A and G mismatches as well. These reactions can be performed conveniently with DNA immobilized on Hybo...

  14. Spatiotemporal distribution of 1P1 antigen expression in the plexiform layers of developing chick retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHOUHUA; QIUBAOSONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of 1P1-antigen in the developing chick retina have been examined by indriect immunofluorescence staining technique using the novel monoclonal antibody(MAb)1P1.Expression of the 1P1 antigen was found to be regulated in radial as well as in tangential dimension of the retina,being preferentially or exclusively located in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the neural retina depending on the stages of development ,With the onset of the formation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 antigen becomes expressed in the retina.With progressing differentiation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 immunofluorescence revealed 2 subbands at E9 and 6 subands at E18,At postnatal stages(after P3) immunoreactivity was reduced in an inside-outside sequence leading to the complete absence of the 1P1 antigen in adulthood.1P1 antigen expression in the outer plexiform layer was also subject to developmental regulation.The spation-temporal pattern of 1P1 antigen expression was correlated with the time course of histological differentation of chick retina,namely the synapse rich plexiform layers.Whether the 1P1 antigen was functionally involved in dendrite extension and synapse formation was discussed.

  15. A Study of Immunoactivity of Retinal S—Antigen in Retinoblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YueSong; GuangdaYao

    1995-01-01

    Purposese:To study retinal S-antigen expression in human retinoblastoma and as-sess if there is a correlation between S-antigen immunoactivity and degree of retinoblastoma cell differentiations.Methods:Ten cases of Chinese retinoblastoma parafin-embedded tissues were ap-plied for this thudy.A strain of monoclonal antibody,MabA9C6,Which defines an epitope in S-antigen retained in fixed-tissue sections,was used to study S-antigen expression in 10 cases of retinoblastomas.S-antigen was localized by the biotina-vidin indirect immunoperoxidase technique and purified MabA9C6 ascites fluid was used with1100dilution.The whole procedure could be finished within a few hours.Results:The S-antigen immunosctivity was observed in different pattterns:the“normal”photorecepto elements incorporated in 3cases of growing tumors;3of 4Fleurettes and E-W rosettes;and scattered tumor cells in50%of the cases.Conclusions:The result suggests that the expression of S-antigen in retinoblas-toma may be used to assess the degree of tumor differentiation as anothe tumor marker in retinoblastoma.

  16. [Clinical benefit of HCV core antigen assay in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin combination therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive second generation HCV core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and kinetics data between commercially available core antigen assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag, and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor Test, Version 2 to estimate the predictive benefit of sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 59 patients treated with interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We found a good correlation between HCV core Ag and HCV RNA level regardless of genotype. Although the sensitivity of the core antigen assay was lower than PCR, the dynamic range was broader than that of the PCR assay, so that we did not need to dilute the samples in 59 patients. We detected serial decline of core Ag levels in 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days after interferon combination therapy. The decline of core antigen levels was significant in SVR patients compared to non-SVR as well as in genotype 2a, 2b patients compared to 1b. Core antigen-negative on day 1 could predict all 10 SVR patients (PPV = 100%), whereas RNA-negative could predict 22 SVR out of 25 on day 14 (PPV = 88.0%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core antigen on day 14 became SVR(NPV = 100%), although NPV was 91.2% on RNA negativity. An easy, simple, low cost new HCV core antigen detecting system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring IFN treatment for HCV.

  17. Neurofibromatosis type 2 tumor suppressor protein, NF2, induces proteasome-mediated degradation of JC virus T-antigen in human glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Beltrami

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 protein (NF2 has been shown to act as tumor suppressor primarily through its functions as a cytoskeletal scaffold. However, NF2 can also be found in the nucleus, where its role is less clear. Previously, our group has identified JC virus (JCV tumor antigen (T-antigen as a nuclear binding partner for NF2 in tumors derived from JCV T-antigen transgenic mice. The association of NF2 with T-antigen in neuronal origin tumors suggests a potential role for NF2 in regulating the expression of the JCV T-antigen. Here, we report that NF2 suppresses T-antigen protein expression in U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells, which subsequently reduces T-antigen-mediated regulation of the JCV promoter. When T-antigen mRNA was quantified, it was determined that increasing expression of NF2 correlated with an accumulation of T-antigen mRNA; however, a decrease in T-antigen at the protein level was observed. NF2 was found to promote degradation of ubiquitin bound T-antigen protein via a proteasome dependent pathway concomitant with the accumulation of the JCV early mRNA encoding T-antigen. The interaction between T-antigen and NF2 maps to the FERM domain of NF2, which has been shown previously to be responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a ternary complex among NF2, T-antigen, and the tumor suppressor protein, p53 within a glioblastoma cell line. Further, these proteins were detected in various degrees in patient tumor tissue, suggesting that these associations may occur in vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrate that NF2 negatively regulates JCV T-antigen expression by proteasome-mediated degradation, and suggest a novel role for NF2 as a suppressor of JCV T-antigen-induced cell cycle regulation.

  18. Thermostable Mismatch-Recognizing Protein MutS Suppresses Nonspecific Amplification during Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Kuramitsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-related technologies are hampered mainly by two types of error: nonspecific amplification and DNA polymerase-generated mutations. Here, we report that both errors can be suppressed by the addition of a DNA mismatch-recognizing protein, MutS, from a thermophilic bacterium. Although it had been expected that MutS has a potential to suppress polymerase-generated mutations, we unexpectedly found that it also reduced nonspecific amplification. On the basis of this finding, we propose that MutS binds a mismatched primer-template complex, thereby preventing the approach of DNA polymerase to the 3' end of the primer. Our simple methodology improves the efficiency and accuracy of DNA amplification and should therefore benefit various PCR-based applications, ranging from basic biological research to applied medical science.

  19. Pairing Mismatched ssDNA to dsDNA Studied with Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Qing Wu; Kai-Ge Wang; Dan Sun; Shuang Wang; Chen Zhang; Wei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules as pairing to a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule is studied by the reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIFS) technology.A nano-porous anode alumina membrane coated an Au layer is employed as the sensor substrate.The results indicate that when there are mismatched nucleotide bases,the effective optical thicknesses (OTeff) have obvious difference,and the changes of OTeff are connected with the sensor layer thickness and the effective refractive index.It is also demonstrated that the RIFS technique can be used to precisely detect the ssDNA molecules with individual base mismatched as pairing to dsDNA.

  20. Robust Adaptive Beamforming against Signal Steering Vector Mismatch and Jammer Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since adaptive beamformer suffers from output performance degradation in the presence of interference nonstationarity and signal steering vector mismatch, a novel robust null broadening adaptive beamforming is proposed. The proposed method is realized by the combination of projection transform and diagonal loading techniques. First, a new projection matrix with null broadening ability is constructed and then projects the array received data onto the projection matrix. With the diagonal loading technique, a new sample covariance matrix is obtained. The theoretical analysis shows that the projection transform operation can expand the incident direction of the interference and improve orthogonality between the signal-plus-interference and the noise subspaces; thus the proposed beamformer can effectively broaden the jammer null and enhance the null depth. The analytical expressions of the proposed algorithm are also provided, which are efficient and easily solved. Simulation results are presented and demonstrated that the proposed beamformer can provide strong robustness against signal steering vector mismatch and jammer motion.

  1. Perturbation theory for the refractive index mismatch between the inclusion and the surrounding tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chenggang; Liu, Quan

    2016-08-01

    Tissue refractive index is one optical contrast mechanism with diagnostic potential, it is very important to investigate the effect of the refractive index mismatch on light propagation through diffusive regions. Here, we present a new analytical solution of perturbation theory for the refractive index mismatch between the small spherical inclusion and the surrounding tissues. The solution has been used to implement fitting procedures in order to obtain the optical properties of a heterogeneous sphere in semi-infinite medium from measurements of diffuse reflectance. Finally, perturbation theory has been validated by comparisons with the results of Monte Carlo simulation. The new perturbation theory would provide a basis for allowing early disease diagnosis and automatic screening.

  2. Mismatch discrimination in fluorescent in situ hybridization using different types of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvia, Fontenete; Joana, Barros; Pedro, Madureira;

    2015-01-01

    in biological targets, Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter acinonychis. This is also the first study where unlocked nucleic acids (UNA) were used as chemistry modification in oligonucleotides for FISH methodologies. The effectiveness in detecting the specific target and in mismatch discrimination appears...... acid monomers might be crucial to the success of the analysis. To achieve the expected accuracy in detection, FISH probes should have high binding affinity towards their complementary strands and discriminate effectively the noncomplementary strands. In this study, we investigate the effect...... of different chemical modifications in fluorescent probes on their ability to successfully detect the complementary target and discriminate the mismatched base pairs by FISH. To our knowledge, this paper presents the first study where this analysis is performed with different types of FISH probes directly...

  3. Surface reconstruction: An effective method for the growth of mismatched materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Zheng, Beining; Wu, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Long; Wu, Jie; Guo, Hongping; Huang, Keke; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-01-01

    The crystalline quality of epitaxial films depends on the degree of lattice match between substrates and films. Here, we report a growth strategy for large mismatched epi-films to grow GaSb films on Si(1 1 1) substrates. The epitaxial strategy can be influenced by controlling the surface reconstructions of Sb-treated Si(1 1 1). The film with the best quality was grown on Si(1 1 1)-(5√3 × 5√3)-Sb surface due to the stress release and the formation of a self-assembled 2D fishbone structure. Controlled surface engineering provides an effective pathway towards the growth of the large mismatched materials.

  4. Maximum Likelihood A Priori Knowledge Interpolation-Based Handset Mismatch Compensation for Robust Speaker Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yuanfu; ZHUANG Zhixian; YANG Jyhher

    2008-01-01

    Unseen handset mismatch is the major source of performance degradation in speaker identifica-tion in telecommunication environments.To alleviate the problem,a maximum likelihood a priori knowledge interpolation (ML-AKI)-based handset mismatch compensation approach is proposed.It first collects a set of handset characteristics of seen handsets to use as the a priori knowledge for representing the space of handsets.During evaluation the characteristics of an unknown test handset are optimally estimated by in-terpolation from the set of the a pdod knowledge.Experimental results on the HTIMIT database show that the ML-AKI method can improve the average speaker identification rate from 60.0% to 74.6% as compared with conventional maximum a posteriori-adapted Gaussian mixture models.The proposed ML-AKI method is a promising method for robust speaker identification.

  5. Adaptive IF selection and IQ mismatch compensation in a low-IF GSM receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng; Wang Lifang; Tan Xi; Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that can adaptively select the intermediate frequency (IF) and compensate the IQ mismatch according to the power ratio of the adjacent channel interference to the desired signal in a low-IF GSM receiver.The IF can be adaptively selected between 100 and 130 kHz.Test result shows an improvement of phase error from 6.78°to 3.23°.Also a least mean squares (LMS) based IQ mismatch compensation algorithm is applied to improve image rejection ratio (IRR) for the desired signal along with strong adjacent channel interference.The IRR is improved from 29.1 to 44.3 dB in measurement.The design is verified in a low-IF GSM receiver fabricated in SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process with a working voltage of 1.2 V.

  6. Coexistence of epitaxial lattice rotation and twinning tilt induced by surface symmetry mismatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, L., E-mail: qiaol@ornl.gov, E-mail: biegalskim@ornl.gov; Biegalski, M. D., E-mail: qiaol@ornl.gov, E-mail: biegalskim@ornl.gov [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Xiao, H. Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Weber, W. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Combined x-ray diffraction and first-principles studies of various epitaxial rutile-type metal dioxide films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates reveal an unexpected rectangle-on-parallelogram heteroepitaxy. Unique matching of particular lattice spacings and crystal angles between the oxygen sublattices of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and the film(100) result in coexisted crystal rotation and lattice twinning inside the film. We demonstrate that, besides symmetry and lattice mismatch, angular mismatch along a specific crystal direction is also an important factor determining epitaxy. A generalized theorem has been proposed to explain epitaxial behaviors for tetragonal metal dioxides on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001).

  7. Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched cascaded interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, B. B.; Chong, A.; Wise, F. W.;

    2012-01-01

    Cascaded nonlinearities have attracted much interest, but ultrafast applications have been seriously hampered by the simultaneous requirements of being near phase matching and having ultrafast femtosecond response times. Here we show that in strongly phase-mismatched nonlinear frequency conversion...... crystals the pump pulse can experience a large and extremely broadband self-defocusing cascaded Kerrlike nonlinearity. The large cascaded nonlinearity is ensured through interaction with the largest quadratic tensor element in the crystal, and the strong phase mismatch ensures an ultrafast nonlinear......% efficiency, and upon further propagation an octave-spanning supercontinuum is observed. Such ultrafast cascading is expected to occur for a broad range of pump wavelengths spanning the near- and mid-IR using standard nonlinear crystals....

  8. Mismatch oxidation assay: detection of DNA mutations using a standard UV/Vis microplate reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Tania; Sallmann, Georgina; Cotton, Richard G H

    2009-01-01

    Simple, low-cost mutation detection assays that are suitable for low-throughput analysis are essential for diagnostic applications where the causative mutation may be different in every family. The mismatch oxidation assay is a simple optical absorbance assay to detect nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions in heteroduplex DNA. The method relies on detecting the oxidative modification products of mismatched thymine and cytosine bases by potassium permanganate as it is reduced to manganese dioxide. This approach, unlike other methods commonly used to detect sequence variants, does not require costly labeled probes or primers, toxic chemicals, or a time-consuming electrophoretic separation step. The oxidation rate, and hence the presence of a sequence variant, is detected by measuring the formation of the potassium permanganate reduction product (hypomanganate diester), which absorbs at the 420-nm visible wavelength, using a standard UV/vis microplate reader. PMID:19768598

  9. Effect of Equal and Mismatched Signal Transition Time on Power Dissipation in Global VLSI Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High density chips have introduced problems like crosstalk noise and power dissipation. The mismatching in transition time of the inputs occurs because different lengths of interconnects lead to different parasitic values. This paper presents the analysis of the effect of equal and unequal (mismatched transition time of inputs on power dissipation in coupled interconnects. Further, the effect of signal skew on transition time is analysed. To demonstrate the effects, a model of two distributed RLC lines coupled capacitively and inductively is taken into consideration. Each interconnect line is 4mm long and terminated by capacitive load of 30fF. The analysis is carried out for simultaneously switching lines. The results are obtained through SPICE simulations and waveforms are generated.

  10. Modeling of current mismatch induced by random dopant fluctuation in nano-MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Weifeng; Sun Lingling

    2011-01-01

    Deviation of threshold voltage and effective mobility due to random dopant fluctuation is proposed.An improved 65 nm average drain current MOS model called α law is utilized after fitting HSPICE simulating data and extracting process parameters.Then,a current mismatch model of nanoscale MOSFETs induced by random dopant fluctuation is presented based on propagation of variation theory.In test conditions,the calculated standard deviation applying this model,compared to 100 times Monte-Carlo simulation data with HSPICE,indicates that the average relative error and relative standard deviation is 0.24% and 0.22%,respectively.The results show that this mismatch model is effective to illustrate the physical mechanism,as well as being simple and accurate.

  11. Image edge-enhancement in optical microscopy with a phase mismatched spiral phase plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shibiao Wei; Jing Bu; Siwei Zhu; Xiaocong Yuan

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present a spiral phase filtering system with a large tolerance for edge enhancement of both phase and amplitude objects in optical microscopy.The method is based on a Fourier 4-f spatial filtering system.A phase mismatched spiral phase plate (SPP) fabricated by electron beam lithography is employed as the radial Hilbert transform for image edge enhancement.Compared with holography, SPP is simple,economical, reliable, and easy to integrate.%We present a spiral phase filtering system with a large tolerance for edge enhancement of both phase and amplitude objects in optical microscopy. The method is based on a Fourier 4-f spatial filtering system.A phase mismatched spiral phase plate (SPP) fabricated by electron beam lithography is employed as the radial Hilbert transform for image edge enhancement. Compared with holography, SPP is simple,economical, reliable, and easy to integrate.

  12. Adaptive IF selection and IQ mismatch compensation in a low-IF GSM receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an algorithm that can adaptively select the intermediate frequency (IF) and compensate the IQ mismatch according to the power ratio of the adjacent channel interference to the desired signal in a low-IF GSM receiver. The IF can be adaptively selected between 100 and 130 kHz. Test result shows an improvement of phase error from 6.78° to 3.23°. Also a least mean squares (LMS) based IQ mismatch compensation algorithm is applied to improve image rejection ratio (IRR) for the desired signal along with strong adjacent channel interference. The IRR is improved from 29.1 to 44.3 dB in measurement. The design is verified in a low-IF GSM receiver fabricated in SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process with a working voltage of 1.2 V. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Electrical impedance tomography for assessing ventilation/perfusion mismatch for pulmonary embolism detection without interruptions in respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doan Trang; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael A; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Jin, Craig; McEwan, Alistair L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown high correlation between pulmonary perfusion mapping with impedance contrast enhanced Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and standard perfusion imaging methods such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT). EIT has many advantages over standard imaging methods as it is highly portable and non-invasive. Contrast enhanced EIT uses hypertonic saline bolus instead of nephrotoxic contrast medium that are utilized by CT and nuclear Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) scans. However, current implementation of contrast enhanced EIT requires induction of an apnea period for perfusion measurement, rendering it disadvantageous compared with current gold standard imaging modalities. In the present paper, we propose the use of a wavelet denoising algorithm to separate perfusion signal from ventilation signal such that no interruption in patient's ventilation would be required. Furthermore, right lung to left lung perfusion ratio and ventilation ratio are proposed to assess the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion for detection of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The proposed methodology was validated on an ovine model (n=3, 83.7±7.7 kg) with artificially induced PE in the right lung. The results showed a difference in right lung to left lung perfusion ratio between baseline and diseased states in all cases with all paired t-tests between baseline and PE yielding p <; 0.01, while the right lung to left lung ventilation ratio remained unchanged in two out of three experiments. Statistics were pooled from multiple repetitions of measurements per experiment.

  14. Mismatch of Low Perfusion and High Permeability Predicts Hemorrhagic Transformation Region in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intra-arterial Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Nan; Li, Ying; Wintermark, Max; Jackson, Alan; Wu, Bing; Su, Zihua; Chen, Fei; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yongwei; Zhu, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the permeability related parameter K(trans), derived from computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging, can predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke who receive intra-arterial thrombolysis. Data from patients meeting the criterion were examined. CTP was performed and K(trans) maps were used to assess the permeability values in HT and non-HT regions. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated, showing the sensitivity and specificity of K(trans) for predicting HT risk. Composite images were produced to illustrate the spatial correlations among perfusion, permeability changes and HT. This study examined 41 patients. Twenty-six patients had hemorrhagic infarction and 15 had parenchymal hemorrhage. The mean K(trans) value in HT regions was significantly lower than that in the non-HT regions (0.26 ± 0.21/min vs. 0.78 ± 0.64/min; P < 0.001). The ROC curve analysis identified an optimal cutoff value of 0.334/min for K(trans) to predict HT risk. Composite images suggested ischemic regions with low permeability, or the mismatch area of low perfusion and high permeability, more likely have HT. HT regions after intra-arterial thrombolysis had lower permeability values on K(trans) maps. The mismatch area of lower perfusion and higher permeability are more likely to develop HT. PMID:27302077

  15. The Mismatch Negativity: An Indicator of Perception of Regularities in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Xide Yu; Tao Liu; Dingguo Gao

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews music research using Mismatch Negativity (MMN). MMN is a deviation-specific component of auditory event-related potential (EPR), which detects a deviation between a sound and an internal representation (e.g., memory trace). Recent studies have expanded the notion and the paradigms of MMN to higher-order music processing such as those involving short melodies, harmony chord, and music syntax. In this vein, we firstly reviewed the evolution of MMN from sound to music and then...

  16. Nonlinear Stability of Intense Mismatched Beams in a Uniform Focusing Field

    CERN Document Server

    Pakter, Renato; Simeoni, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear coupling between axisymmetric and elliptic oscillations in the dynamics of intense beams propagating in a uniform magnetic focusing field. It is shown that finite amplitude mismatched oscillations of an initially round beam may destabilize elliptic oscillations, heavily affecting stability and the shape of the beam. This is a potential mechanics for beam particle loss in such systems. Self consistent simulations are performed to verify the findings.

  17. The Escherichia coli Methyl-Directed Mismatch Repair System Repairs Base Pairs Containing Oxidative Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrzykowski, Jennifer; Volkert, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    A major role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system of Escherichia coli is to repair postreplicative errors. In this report, we provide evidence that MMR also acts on oxidized DNA, preventing mutagenesis. When cells deficient in MMR are grown anaerobically, spontaneous mutation frequencies are reduced compared with those of the same cells grown aerobically. In addition, we show that a dam mutant has an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide treatment that can be suppressed by...

  18. Antisynchronization of a novel hyperchaotic system with parameter mismatch and external disturbances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fei Yu; Chun Hua Wang; Yan Hu; Jin Wen Yin

    2012-07-01

    A novel hyperchaotic system is proposed. It is particularly interesting that the hyperchaotic system has a nonlinear term in the form of an exponential function and has onle one equilibrium. Basic dynamical properties of the hyperchaotic system are investigated. Moreover, antisynchronization of the new hyperchaotic system with parameter mismatch and external disturbances is also studied in this paper by using adaptive control. Numerical simulation results further demonstrate that the proposed methods are effective and robust.

  19. Diagonal Loading of Robust General-Rank Beamformer for Direction of Arrival Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Z. U.; A. Naveed; A. Safeer; F. Zaman

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a technique which utilizes the movement of the peak of the main beam towards the presumed signal direction with negative diagonal loading for robust general-rank beamformer. The main beam symmetry along presumed signal direction is improved by this movement. When desired signal is contained in the data snapshots, the conventional beamformers face the problem of performance degradation even if there is a small mismatch between the presumed and the actual signal direction. D...

  20. Mismatch repair protein expression and colorectal cancer in Hispanics from Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    De Jesus-Monge, Wilfredo E.; Gonzalez-Keelan, Carmen; Zhao, Ronghua; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and alterations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, leading to absent protein (negative) expression, are responsible for approximately 20% of CRC cases. Immunohistochemistry is a tool for prescreening of MMR protein expression in CRC but the literature on its use on Hispanics is scarce. However, Hispanics represent the second leading ethnicity in the United States (US) and CRC is a public health burden in this group. Our object...

  1. Skill Mismatches and Anticipation of the Future Labour Market Need: Case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Bejaković, Predrag; MRNJAVAC, Željko

    2014-01-01

    Skills are the key elements contributing to the prosperity of nations and to better lives for individuals. That is why countries have invested heavily in skills over past decades. For workers, skills mean employability and social mobility. For society, skills represent a major component of its productivity, competitiveness and innovation. An important dimension of labour market disequilibria is the mismatch of supply and demand of different skills at the sectoral, regional and occupational...

  2. Predicting the Flory-Huggins χ Parameter for Polymers with Stiffness Mismatch from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Kozuch; Wenlin Zhang; Milner, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    The Flory–Huggins χ parameter describes the excess free energy of mixing and governs phase behavior for polymer blends and block copolymers. For chemically-distinct nonpolar polymers, the value of χ is dominated by the mismatch in cohesive energy densities of the monomers. For blends of chemically-similar polymers, the entropic portion of χ, arising from non-ideal local packing, becomes more significant. Using polymer field theory, Fredrickson et al. predicted that a difference in backbone st...

  3. Regional ventilation/perfusion mismatch pattern in patient with Swyer James (MacLeod's) syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sait Sager; Sertac Asa; Reşit Akyel; Ersan Atahan; Bedii Kanmaz

    2014-01-01

    Swyer James (McLeod′s) syndrome (SJMS) is an uncommon disease, which occurs as a result of childhood bronchiolitis obliterans. Patients may not be diagnosed until later in their life. A 46-year-old man underwent ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy for acute onset of dyspnea. The scan showed markedly diminished ventilation and perfusion unilaterally on the right middle and inferior lobes. However, mismatched ventilation-perfusion pattern was shown on the upper right lobe, which was consistent w...

  4. Measurement errors in multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzers with and without impedance electrode mismatch.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogónez Franco, Francisco; Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Bragós Bardia, Ramon; Rosell Ferrer, Francisco Javier; Yandiola, Iñigo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare measurement errors in two commercially available multi-frequency bioimpedance analyzers, a Xitron 4000B and an ImpediMed SFB7, including electrode impedance mismatch. The comparison was made using resistive electrical models and in ten human volunteers. We used three different electrical models simulating three different body segments: the right-side, leg and thorax. In the electrical models, we tested the effect of the capacitive coupling of the ...

  5. Estimation of cochlear response times using lateralization of frequency-mismatched tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral and objective estimates of cochlear response times CRTs and traveling-wave TW velocity were compared for three normal-hearing listeners. Differences between frequency-specific CRTs were estimated via lateralization of pulsed tones that were interaurally mismatched in frequency, similar...... could not be estimated with the behavioral method due to limitations of the lateralization paradigm. The method might be useful for studying the spatiotemporal cochlear response pattern in human listeners....

  6. Influence of hydrophobic mismatch on the catalytic activity of Escherichia coli GlpG rhomboid protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Alexander C Y; Harvey, Brandon G R; Metz, Jeff J; Goto, Natalie K

    2015-04-01

    Rhomboids comprise a broad family of intramembrane serine proteases that are found in a wide range of organisms and participate in a diverse array of biological processes. High-resolution structures of the catalytic transmembrane domain of the Escherichia coli GlpG rhomboid have provided numerous insights that help explain how hydrolytic cleavage can be achieved below the membrane surface. Key to this are observations that GlpG hydrophobic domain dimensions may not be sufficient to completely span the native lipid bilayer. This formed the basis for a model where hydrophobic mismatch Induces thinning of the local membrane environment to promote access to transmembrane substrates. However, hydrophobic mismatch also has the potential to alter the functional properties of the rhomboid, a possibility we explore in the current work. For this purpose, we purified the catalytic transmembrane domain of GlpG into phosphocholine or maltoside detergent micelles of varying alkyl chain lengths, and assessed proteolytic function with a model water-soluble substrate. Catalytic turnover numbers were found to depend on detergent alkyl chain length, with saturated chains containing 10-12 carbon atoms supporting maximal activity. Similar results were obtained in phospholipid bicelles, with no proteolytic activity being detected in longer-chain lipids. Although differences in thermal stability and GlpG oligomerization could not explain these activity differences, circular dichroism spectra suggest that mismatch gives rise to a small change in structure. Overall, these results demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch can exert an inhibitory effect on rhomboid activity, with the potential for changes in local membrane environment to regulate activity in vivo.

  7. Analysis of mismatch and shading effects in a photovoltaic array using different technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of a photovoltaic array implemented in the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia which consists of modules of different technologies and power, connected in series, in order to quantify the energy losses due to mismatch and the effect of the shadows. To do this, the performance of the modules was measured in operation under ambient conditions with field measurement equipment (AMPROBE Solar Analyzer, Solar - 4000), which allows the extrapolation of measures to standard conditions STC. For the data validation, measures under controlled conditions were taken to some modules in the flash test laboratory of the Institute of Energy Technology ITE of Valencia in Spain. Subsequently the array curves measured were validated with a photovoltaic array model developed in MATLAB-Simulink for the same conditions and technologies. The results of this particular array are lost up to 20% of the energy supplied due to the modules mismatch. The study shows the curves and the energy loss due to shadows modules. This result opens scenarios for conceivable modifications to the PV field configurations today, chosen during the design stage and unchangeable during the operating stage; and gives greater importance to the energy loss by mismatch in the PV array

  8. Functional interactions and signaling properties of mammalian DNA mismatch repair proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellacosa, A

    2001-11-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) system promotes genomic fidelity by repairing base-base mismatches, insertion-deletion loops and heterologies generated during DNA replication and recombination. This function is critically dependent on the assembling of multimeric complexes involved in mismatch recognition and signal transduction to downstream repair events. In addition, MMR proteins coordinate a complex network of physical and functional interactions that mediate other DNA transactions, such as transcription-coupled repair, base excision repair and recombination. MMR proteins are also involved in activation of cell cycle checkpoint and induction of apoptosis when DNA damage overwhelms a critical threshold. For this reason, they play a role in cell death by alkylating agents and other chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin. Inactivation of MMR genes in hereditary and sporadic cancer is associated with a mutator phenotype and inhibition of apoptosis. In the future, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional interactions of MMR proteins will lead to the development of more effective cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:11687886

  9. A Provably Efficient Algorithm for the k-Mismatch Average Common Substring Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankachan, Sharma V; Apostolico, Alberto; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-06-01

    Alignment-free sequence comparison methods are attracting persistent interest, driven by data-intensive applications in genome-wide molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction. Among all the methods based on substring composition, the average common substring (ACS) measure admits a straightforward linear time sequence comparison algorithm, while yielding impressive results in multiple applications. An important direction of this research is to extend the approach to permit a bounded edit/hamming distance between substrings, so as to reflect more accurately the evolutionary process. To date, however, algorithms designed to incorporate k ≥ 1 mismatches have O(n(2)) worst-case time complexity, where n is the total length of the input sequences. On the other hand, accounting for mismatches has shown to lead to much improved classification, while heuristics can improve practical performance. In this article, we close the gap by presenting the first provably efficient algorithm for the k-mismatch average common string (ACSk) problem that takes O(n) space and O(n log(k) n) time in the worst case for any constant k. Our method extends the generalized suffix tree model to incorporate a carefully selected bounded set of perturbed suffixes, and can be applied to other complex approximate sequence matching problems. PMID:27058840

  10. Roles of Interleaflet Coupling and Hydrophobic Mismatch in Lipid Membrane Phase-Separation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the nanoscale dynamic organization within lipid bilayer membranes is central to our understanding of cell membranes at a molecular level. We investigate phase separation and communication across leaflets in ternary lipid bilayers, including saturated lipids with between 12 and 20 carbons per tail. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations reveal a novel two-step kinetics due to hydrophobic mismatch, in which the initial response of the apposed leaflets upon quenching is to increase local asymmetry (antiregistration), followed by dominance of symmetry (registration) as the bilayer equilibrates. Antiregistration can become thermodynamically preferred if domain size is restricted below ∼20 nm, with implications for the symmetry of rafts and nanoclusters in cell membranes, which have similar reported sizes. We relate our findings to theory derived from a semimicroscopic model in which the leaflets experience a “direct” area-dependent coupling, and an “indirect” coupling that arises from hydrophobic mismatch and is most important at domain boundaries. Registered phases differ in composition from antiregistered phases, consistent with a direct coupling between the leaflets. Increased hydrophobic mismatch purifies the phases, suggesting that it contributes to the molecule-level lipid immiscibility. Our results demonstrate an interplay of competing interleaflet couplings that affect phase compositions and kinetics, and lead to a length scale that can influence lateral and transverse bilayer organization within cells. PMID:27574865

  11. Mechanism of mismatch recognition revealed by human MutS[beta] bound to unpaired DNA loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Shikha; Gellert, Martin; Yang, Wei (NIH)

    2012-04-17

    DNA mismatch repair corrects replication errors, thus reducing mutation rates and microsatellite instability. Genetic defects in this pathway cause Lynch syndrome and various cancers in humans. Binding of a mispaired or unpaired base by bacterial MutS and eukaryotic MutS{alpha} is well characterized. We report here crystal structures of human MutS{beta} in complex with DNA containing insertion-deletion loops (IDL) of two, three, four or six unpaired nucleotides. In contrast to eukaryotic MutS{alpha} and bacterial MutS, which bind the base of a mismatched nucleotide, MutS{beta} binds three phosphates in an IDL. DNA is severely bent at the IDL; unpaired bases are flipped out into the major groove and partially exposed to solvent. A normal downstream base pair can become unpaired; a single unpaired base can thereby be converted to an IDL of two nucleotides and recognized by MutS{beta}. The C-terminal dimerization domains form an integral part of the MutS structure and coordinate asymmetrical ATP hydrolysis by Msh2 and Msh3 with mismatch binding to signal for repair.

  12. MHC mismatch inhibits neurogenesis and neuron maturation in stem cell allografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of histocompatibility and immune recognition in stem cell transplant therapy has been controversial, with many reports arguing that undifferentiated stem cells are protected from immune recognition due to the absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers. This argument is even more persuasive in transplantation into the central nervous system (CNS where the graft rejection response is minimal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we evaluate graft survival and neuron production in perfectly matched vs. strongly mismatched neural stem cells transplanted into the hippocampus in mice. Although allogeneic cells survive, we observe that MHC-mismatch decreases surviving cell numbers and strongly inhibits the differentiation and retention of graft-derived as well as endogenously produced new neurons. Immune suppression with cyclosporine-A did not improve outcome but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin or rosiglitazone, were able to restore allogeneic neuron production, integration and retention to the level of syngeneic grafts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest an important but unsuspected role for innate, rather than adaptive, immunity in the survival and function of MHC-mismatched cellular grafts in the CNS.

  13. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  14. Mismatch repair inhibits homeologous recombination via coordinated directional unwinding of trapped DNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Khek-Chian; Hermans, Nicolaas; Winterwerp, Herrie H K; Cox, Michael M; Wyman, Claire; Kanaar, Roland; Lebbink, Joyce H G

    2013-08-01

    Homeologous recombination between divergent DNA sequences is inhibited by DNA mismatch repair. In Escherichia coli, MutS and MutL respond to DNA mismatches within recombination intermediates and prevent strand exchange via an unknown mechanism. Here, using purified proteins and DNA substrates, we find that in addition to mismatches within the heteroduplex region, secondary structures within the displaced single-stranded DNA formed during branch migration within the recombination intermediate are involved in the inhibition. We present a model that explains how higher-order complex formation of MutS, MutL, and DNA blocks branch migration by preventing rotation of the DNA strands within the recombination intermediate. Furthermore, we find that the helicase UvrD is recruited to directionally resolve these trapped intermediates toward DNA substrates. Thus, our results explain on a mechanistic level how the coordinated action between MutS, MutL, and UvrD prevents homeologous recombination and maintains genome stability. PMID:23932715

  15. A beamformer analysis of MEG data reveals frontal generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM on magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasionally (20% by a minor third. The beamforming analysis revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal (STC, inferior frontal (IFC, superior frontal (SFC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices within a time window of 100-200 ms after the occurrence of a deviant tone. IFC and SFC activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. The pronounced early right inferior frontal activation of the auditory mismatch negativity has not been shown in MEG studies so far. The activation in STC and IFC is consistent with earlier electroencephalography (EEG, optical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies that reveal the auditory and inferior frontal cortices as main generators of the auditory MMN. The observed right hemispheric IFC is also in line with some previous music studies showing similar activation patterns after harmonic syntactic violations. The results demonstrate that a deviant tone within a musical sequence recruits immediately a distributed neural network in frontal and prefrontal areas suggesting that top-down processes are involved when expectation violation occurs within well-known stimuli.

  16. An Algorithm for Quantitatively Calculating I/Q Gain and Phase Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The in-phase and quadrature modulator (IQ modulator is a key component in modern wireless transmitter. It provides a convenient method for modulating data bits or symbols onto an RF carrier. It has become the architecture of choice for implementing transmitter signal chains for end applications such as cellular, WiMAX, and wireless point-to-point. However, there are several non-ideal aspects of analog IQ modulator, include IQ gain imbalance, imperfect quadrature, and LO leakage. These imperfections will result in image spectral and degrade MER of the modulator, which in turn degrades bit error rate (BER. Gain matching and phase compensation both affect the total amount of image rejection. Factory calibration can detect the IQ gain and phase mismatch in different frequency and store the correction coefficients in nonvolatile memory. The key issue is how to get the exact mismatch. In this paper, a mathematical model of IQ modulator was established and an analytic solution is obtained about how to get the exact mismatch parameters.

  17. Controllable Mismatched Ligation for Bioluminescence Screening of Known and Unknown Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinfeng; Huang, Si-qiang; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2016-02-16

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are closely related to human diseases and individual drug responses, and the accurate detection of SNPs is crucial to both clinical diagnosis and development of personalized medicine. Among various SNPs detection methods, ligase detection reaction (LDR) has shown great potential due to its low detection limit and excellent specificity. However, frequent involvement of expensive labels increases the experimental cost and compromises the assay efficiency, and the requirement of careful predesigned probes limits it to only known SNPs assays. In this research, we develop a controllable mismatched ligation for bioluminescence screening of both known and unknown mutations. Especially, the ligation specificity of E. coli ligase is tunable under different experimental conditions. The mismatches locating on the 3'-side of the nick cannot be ligated efficiently by E. coli ligase, whereas all mismatches locating on the 5'-side of the nick can be ligated efficiently by E. coli ligase. We design a 3'-discriminating probe (3'-probe) for the discrimination of known mutation and introduce a T7 Endo I for the detection of unknown mutation. With the integration of bioluminescence monitoring of ligation byproduct adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), both known and unknown SNPs can be easily detected without the involvement of any expensive labels and labor-intensive separation. This method is simple, homogeneous, label-free, and cost-effective and may provide a valuable complement to current sequencing technologies for disease diagnostics, personalized medicine, and biomedical research. PMID:26754165

  18. Influence of framework design, contraction mismatch, and thermal history on porcelain checking in fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J; Gray, A E

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relative influence of contraction mismatch, framework design, furnace type, cooling rate, and multiple firings on immediate or delayed checking in fixed partial dentures. Frameworks for 60 anterior bridges (three-unit fixed partial dentures) were cast from a low-expansion Au-Pd alloy (O) and a high-expansion Pd-Ag alloy (J). A high-expansion porcelain (B) was applied to each of three framework designs. Firing was performed at heating rates of 56 degrees C/min and 180 degrees C/min. Specimens were cooled at two rates after each of five glazing cycles. For O-B specimens which exhibited a negative thermal contraction mismatch between 600 degrees C and 25 degrees C, 60% of the bridge specimens failed when they were subjected to slow cooling preceded by either fast or slow heating. When J-B specimens (which exhibited a smaller negative contraction mismatch) were heated and cooled rapidly, no failures occurred through all of the firing cycles. However, cracks were observed in 13.3% of the J-B bridges which were slowly heated and rapidly cooled. Delayed cracks (after the fifth glaze cycle) developed over periods of up to two years only in bridges which were slowly cooled in the furnace chamber. The results of this study suggest that checking in conventional feldspathic porcelains can be promoted by slow cooling rates and an excessive number of firing cycles. PMID:2691298

  19. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  20. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination agains

  1. Protein antigen delivery by gene gun-mediated epidermal antigen incorporation (EAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Ritter, Uwe; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The gene gun technology can not only be employed for efficient transfer of gene vaccines into upper layers of the skin, but also for application of protein antigens. As a tissue rich in professional antigen presenting cells, the skin represents an attractive target for immunizations. In this chapter we present a method for delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin into the skin of mice termed epidermal antigen incorporation and describe in detail how antigen-specific proliferation in draining lymph nodes can be followed by flow cytometry.

  2. Influence of donor-recipient HLA-DR mismatches and OKT3 prophylaxis on cadaver kidney graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereerstraeten, P; Dupont, E; Andrien, M; De Pauw, L; Abramowicz, D; Goldman, M; Kinnaert, P

    1995-08-15

    Previous studies from our center have shown that donor-recipient HLA-DR mismatches (MM), characterized by the presence of the DR antigen in the donor but not in the recipient or vice versa, are associated with differential effects on graft survival (GS): some of them are beneficial (BEN) with results similar to those of HLA-DR identical or compatible pairs (85% 18 months GS) and some are detrimental (DET) (64% 18 months GS), whereas the other MM, neither BEN nor DET (neutral [NEU]) yield intermediate results (78% 18 months GS). The aim of the present study was to update the results at a longer follow-up time and to assess whether they are influenced or not by prophylactic administration of anti-CD3 mAb (OKT3). The analysis of 234 transplantations performed from 1980 to 1994 with only 1 HLA-DR MM confirmed the BEN effects of HLA-DR5 in either the donor or the recipient and the DET effects of HLA-DR1 or -DR2 in the donor and of HLA-DR2 or -DRW6 in the recipient. These effects were independent of those exerted by other, HLA-DR not related, prognostic factors. The transplants with 1 HLA-DR MM were then compared with those with zero HLA-DR MM (n = 378) and 4 groups were formed according to 2 levels of HLA-DR MM (zero or BEN MM vs. NEU or DET MM) and immunosuppression (with vs. without OKT3 prophylaxis). GS at 5 years was 63% in the group with either zero or BEN MM as compared with 41% in the group with either NEU or DET MM in the absence of OKT3 prophylaxis (P < 0.02); in comparison, with OKT3 prophylaxis, GS at 5 years was 73% in the group with either zero or BEN MM as compared with 58% in the group with either NEU or DET MM (P = 0.07). We conclude that the differential effects of HLA-DR MM on GS are still observed under OKT3 prophylaxis, that the effects of HLA-DR and immunosuppression on graft outcome are additive, and that OKT3 induction therapy is superior to therapy without OKT3. These observations could have important implications for the allocation policy and

  3. HLA-A、B、DRB1高分辨等位基因与IgA肾病致慢性肾功能衰竭的关联性研究%The correlation between human leukocyte antigens-A, B, DRB1 high-resolution alleles and chronic renal failure caused by immunoglobulin-a nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立新; 曾明星; 叶桂荣; 罗敏; 肖露露

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between human leukocyte antigens-A,-B,-DRB1 (HLA-A,-B,-DRB1) high resolution alleles and chronic renal failure (CRF) caused by immunoglobulin-a nephropathy (IgAN).Method The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method was used to investigate the genotypes of HLA-A,-B and-DRB1 high-resolution alleles in 191 cases of CRF caused by IgAN (experimental group) and 503 healthy blood donors (control group).The alleles frequencies between two groups were compared and the association between CRF caused by IgAN and the polyrnorphism of HLA was analyzed.Result (1) There were 25 alleles at A locus,48 alleles at B locus and 32 alleles at DRB1 locus in experimental group.(2) The genetic frequency of HLAA * 2901 [Pc =0.033,OR =10.738,95% CI (1.193,96.691)],HLA DRB1 * 1106 [Pc =0.0001,OR =0.969,95% CI (0.944,0.994)],HLA-DRB1 * 1202[Pc =0.002,OR =1.859,95% CI (1.259,2.745)],HLA-DRB1 * 1401 [Pc =0.021,OR =0.984,95% CI (0.967,0.998)],HLA-DRB1 * 1602[Pc=0.015,OR=1.915,95% CI (1.157,3.17)] in experimental group was higher than in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion There is susceptibility association of HLA-A * 2901,HLA-DRB1 * 1106,HLA-DRE * 1202,HLA-DRB1 * 1401,HLA-DRB1 * 1602 with CRF caused by IgAN.It is concluded that there is a close genetic and immunological correlation between HLA alleles and the pathogenesis of CRF caused by IgAN.%目的 探讨HLA-A、B、DRB1高分辨等位基因表达与因IgA肾病(IgAN)最终导致慢性肾功能衰竭(CRF)的相关性.方法 采用聚合酶链反应直接测序分型技术(PCR-SBT)对来自于广东省3所三级甲等医院共191例因IgAN所致CRF患者(研究组)和503例健康献血者(对照组)进行HLA-A、B、DRB1高分辨等位基因分型,比较两组等位基因的频率,分析因IgAN所致CRF与HLA基因多态性的关系.结果 (1)研究组中共表达出HLA等位基因A位点25个,B位点48个,DRB1位点32个.(2)与对照组比较,研究组HLA-A* 2901 (Pc=0

  4. Heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: cloning and expression of the hexA gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations affecting heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae were localized in two genes, hexA and hexB, by fractionation of restriction fragments carrying mutant alleles. A fragment containing the hexA4 allele was cloned in the S. pneumoniae cloning system, and the hexA+ allele was introduced into the recombinant plasmid by chromosomal facilitation of plasmid transfer. Subcloning localized the functional hexA gene to a 3.5-kilobase segment of the cloned pneumococcal DNA. The product of this gene was shown in Bacillus subtilis minicells to be a polypeptide with an M/sub r/ of 86,000. Two mutant alleles of hexA showed partial expression of the repair system when present in multicopy plasmids. A model for mismatch repair, which depends on the interaction of two protein components to recognize the mismatched base pair and excise a segment of DNA between strand breaks surrounding the mismatch, is proposed

  5. Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival Responses. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Boothman

    1999-08-11

    Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival responses (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed.

  6. Supply-demand mismatch transients in susceptible peri-infarct hot zones explain the origin of spreading injury depolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bornstädt, Daniel; Houben, Thijs; Seidel, Jessica; Zheng, Yi; Dilekoz, Ergin; Qin, Tao; Sandow, Nora; Kura, Sreekanth; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Endres, Matthias; Boas, David A.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Lo, Eng H.; Dreier, Jens P.; Woitzik, Johannes; Sakadžić, Sava; Ayata, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) are seemingly spontaneous spreading depression-like waves that negatively impact tissue outcome in both experimental and human stroke. Factors triggering PIDs are unknown. Here, we show that somatosensory activation of peri-infarct cortex triggers PIDs when the activated cortex is within a critical range of ischemia. We show that the mechanism involves increased oxygen utilization within the activated cortex, worsening the supply-demand mismatch. We support the concept by clinical data showing that mismatch predisposes to PIDs in human stroke as well. Conversely, transient worsening of mismatch by episodic hypoxemia or hypotension also reproducibly triggers PIDs. Therefore, PIDs are triggered upon supply-demand mismatch transients in metastable peri-infarct hot zones due to increased demand or reduced supply. Based on the data, we propose that minimizing sensory stimulation and hypoxic or hypotensive transients in stroke and brain injury would reduce PID incidence and their adverse impact on outcome. PMID:25741731

  7. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50(CA50)expression in colorectal carcinoma.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa.Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa,cancer distant mucosa,cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa,and there were significant differences among them(P<0.05).The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the deg...

  8. Theoretical Considerations on Compensation of the Accommodation-Vergence Mismatch by Refractive Power of Focus-Adjustable 3D Glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2012-01-01

    The accommodation-vergence mismatch has been considered as a cause of the visual fatigue induced in watching 3D display. We would propose the mismatch can be compensated by refractive power of adjustable-focus 3D glasses. From lens optics and geometrical considerations, we also developed equations that calculate required refractive power of the 3D glasses. The compensation we proposed is supposed to reduce the visual fatigue of 3D display.

  9. Increasing efficiency of cold rolling of corrosion resistant steel at mismatching roll velocities. [12Kh18N10T steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agishev, L.A.; Grishkov, A.I.; Fisher, A.R.; Frolov, G.I.; Kolesnikov, N.A. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    On the example of 12Kh18N10T steel rolling it is shown that 7-10% mismatching roll velocities raise the rolling efficiency, increase productivity and technological abilities of four-high mills at production of cold-rolled sheets. Scheme of the system of roll velocities mismatching control at asymmetrical rolling is presented. The comparative conditions of symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling of 0.8 x 1030 mm sheets from 12Kh18N10T steel are given.

  10. High-energy Few-cycle Pulses Directly Generated from Strongly Phase-mismatched Lithium Niobate Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Chong, A.; Wise, F.W.;

    2012-01-01

    We show that effective soliton compression can be realized in strongly phase-mismatched quadratic media. Sub-15 fs pulses are experimentally generated directly from 10-mm-long bulk lithium niobate crystal by 120-fs input pulses at 1300 nm.......We show that effective soliton compression can be realized in strongly phase-mismatched quadratic media. Sub-15 fs pulses are experimentally generated directly from 10-mm-long bulk lithium niobate crystal by 120-fs input pulses at 1300 nm....

  11. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism augments thymic regulatory T-cell production and prevents relapse of EAE in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Limin; Li, Nainong; Zhang, Mingfeng; XUE, SHENG-LI; Cassady, Kaniel; Lin, Qing; Riggs, Arthur D; Zeng, Defu

    2015-01-01

    Induction of MHC- or HLA-matched mixed chimerism does not cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in animal models or humans, but matched mixed chimerism cannot reverse autoimmunity. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism is required for reversal of autoimmunity. Here, we report that, using a clinically applicable conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, pentostatin, and antithymocyte globulin, MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism is established in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...

  12. Investigation on the influence of BBO thermal-induced phase mismatching in 266nm UV laser conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Jin, Guangyong; Yu, Miao; Huang, Zhulong; Zhai, Ruizhi; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    266nm UV laser has a wide range of applications in many fields, such as laser medical treatment, laser processing, precision measure and other applications for the reason of its advantages in wavelength, small diffraction effects, high single-photon energy, and high resolution and so on. BBO crystals absorb parts of the fundamental laser energy and second harmonic laser energy are unavoidable, and thus the temperature raise, so that the existing crystal phase matching conditions change, resulting in phase mismatching in the high-power frequency doubling, greatly influence the 266nm UV laser conversion efficiency. To further study the effect of phase mismatching to conversion efficiency, and improve the conversion efficiency, output power and other output characteristics of 266nm laser, the article mainly describe from the following three aspects. Firstly, took the use of three-dimensional nonlinear crystal temperature distribution which is obtained, the process of BBO crystal thermal-induced phase mismatching is analyzed. Secondly, based on frequency doubling theory, the effects of the thermal-induced phase mismatching affected of conversion in crystals are analyzed. Combining with the phase mismatching of the three-dimensional distributions, the fourth harmonic conversion efficiency with thermal phase mismatching changes of BBO 266nm UV laser are simulated for the first time. Thirdly, by using MATLAB software, the effects of phase mismatching to conversion efficiency in crystal for different waist radius, 532nm laser power and the fundamental beam quality are simulated. The results indicate a good physical interpretation of reasons of high power laser frequency doubling system. It shows that the model established explains the reason of the reduction of conversion efficiency, output power and the beam quality excellently. All results make a leading sense to the research on the compensating of the phase mismatching and on the improvement of conversion efficiency.

  13. Further characterization of filarial antigens by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Dissanayake, S.; Galahitiyawa, S. C.; Ismail, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of an antigen isolated from sera of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected patients and Setaria digitata antigen SD2-4 is reported. Both antigens showed carbohydrate (glycoprotein) staining. The W. bancrofti antigen had an apparent relative molecular mass of 35 000 while the S. digitata antigen SD2-4 migrated at the marker dye position on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SDS treatment of these antigens did not abolish the precipita...

  14. The Combined Effect of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Bilayer Local Bending on the Regulation of Mechanosensitive Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavi, Omid; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Naghdabadi, Reza; Jamali, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic mismatch between the lipid bilayer and integral membrane proteins has well-defined effect on mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Also, membrane local bending is suggested to modulate MS channel activity. Although a number of studies have already shown the significance of each individual factor, the combined effect of these physical factors on MS channel activity have not been investigated. Here using finite element simulation, we study the combined effect of hydrophobic mismatch and local bending on the archetypal mechanosensitive channel MscL. First we show how the local curvature direction impacts on MS channel modulation. In the case of MscL, we show inward (cytoplasmic) bending can more effectively gate the channel compared to outward bending. Then we indicate that in response to a specific local curvature, MscL inserted in a bilayer with the same hydrophobic length is more expanded in the constriction pore region compared to when there is a protein-lipid hydrophobic mismatch. Interestingly in the presence of a negative mismatch (thicker lipids), MscL constriction pore is more expanded than in the presence of positive mismatch (thinner lipids) in response to an identical membrane curvature. These results were confirmed by a parametric energetic calculation provided for MscL gating. These findings have several biophysical consequences for understanding the function of MS channels in response to two major physical stimuli in mechanobiology, namely hydrophobic mismatch and local membrane curvature. PMID:26958847

  15. Meningococcal vaccine antigen diversity in global databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehony, Carina; Hill, Dorothea M; Lucidarme, Jay; Borrow, Ray; Maiden, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    The lack of an anti-capsular vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease has necessitated the exploration of alternative vaccine candidates, mostly proteins exhibiting varying degrees of antigenic variation. Analysis of variants of antigen-encoding genes is facilitated by publicly accessible online sequence repositories, such as the Neisseria PubMLST database and the associated Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL). We investigated six proposed meningococcal vaccine formulations by deducing the prevalence of their components in the isolates represented in these repositories. Despite high diversity, a limited number of antigenic variants of each of the vaccine antigens were prevalent, with strong associations of particular variant combinations with given serogroups and genotypes. In the MRF-MGL and globally, the highest levels of identical sequences were observed with multicomponent/multivariant vaccines. Our analyses further demonstrated that certain combinations of antigen variants were prevalent over periods of decades in widely differing locations, indicating that vaccine formulations containing a judicious choice of antigen variants have potential for long-term protection across geographic regions. The data further indicated that formulations with multiple variants would be especially relevant at times of low disease incidence, as relative diversity was higher. Continued surveillance is required to monitor the changing prevalence of these vaccine antigens. PMID:26676305

  16. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto......'s thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and healthy controls were incubated with human thyroglobulin (Tg) before adding normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The deposition of immunoglobulins and C3 fragments on B cells was then assessed. Inclusion of Tg in serum from HT patients promoted B cell capture...... of IgG and C3 fragments. Furthermore, the binding of Tg to B cells in preparations of normal blood cells was higher in HT serum than in serum from controls and correlated positively with the serum anti-Tg activity, as did the B and CD4+ T cell proliferation. Disruption of the three-dimensional structure...

  17. Defining the antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and the requirements for a multi-allele vaccine against malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien R Drew

    Full Text Available Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate and a target of naturally-acquired human immunity. Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 is polymorphic and in vaccine trials it induces strain-specific protection. This antigenic diversity is a major roadblock to development of AMA1 as a malaria vaccine and understanding how to overcome it is essential. To assess how AMA1 antigenic diversity limits cross-strain growth inhibition, we assembled a panel of 18 different P. falciparum isolates which are broadly representative of global AMA1 sequence diversity. Antibodies raised against four well studied AMA1 alleles (W2Mef, 3D7, HB3 and FVO were tested for growth inhibition of the 18 different P. falciparum isolates in growth inhibition assays (GIA. All antibodies demonstrated substantial cross-inhibitory activity against different isolates and a mixture of the four different AMA1 antibodies inhibited all 18 isolates tested, suggesting significant antigenic overlap between AMA1 alleles and limited antigenic diversity of AMA1. Cross-strain inhibition by antibodies was only moderately and inconsistently correlated with the level of sequence diversity between AMA1 alleles, suggesting that sequence differences are not a strong predictor of antigenic differences or the cross-inhibitory activity of anti-allele antibodies. The importance of the highly polymorphic C1-L region for inhibitory antibodies and potential vaccine escape was assessed by generating novel transgenic P. falciparum lines for testing in GIA. While the polymorphic C1-L epitope was identified as a significant target of some growth-inhibitory antibodies, these antibodies only constituted a minor proportion of the total inhibitory antibody repertoire, suggesting that the antigenic diversity of inhibitory epitopes is limited. Our findings support the concept that a multi-allele AMA1 vaccine would give broad coverage against the diversity of AMA1 alleles and establish new tools to

  18. Antigen incorporation on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entrala Emilio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are the infective stages responsible for transmission and survival of the organism in the environment. In the present work we show that the oocyst wall, far from being a static structure, is able to incorporate antigens by a mechanism involving vesicle fusion with the wall, and the incorporation of the antigen to the outer oocyst wall. Using immunoelectron microscopy we show that the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody used for diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis (Merifluor®, Meridian Diagnostic Inc. could be found associated with vesicles in the space between the sporozoites and the oocysts wall, and incorporated to the outer oocyst wall by an unknown mechanism.

  19. Flow Cytometric Analysis of T, B, and NK Cells Antigens in Patients with Mycosis Fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Serkan; Bülbül Başkan, Emel; Budak, Ferah; Oral, Barbaros; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Ceylan Kalin, Zübeyde; Özkaya, Güven; Aydoğan, Kenan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Tunali, Şükran

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological correlation and prognostic value of cell surface antigens expressed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). 121 consecutive MF patients were included in this study. All patients had peripheral blood flow cytometry as part of their first visit. TNMB and histopathological staging of the cases were retrospectively performed in accordance with International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (ISCL/EORTC) criteria at the time of flow cytometry sampling. To determine prognostic value of cell surface antigens, cases were divided into two groups as stable and progressive disease. 17 flow cytometric analyses of 17 parapsoriasis (PP) and 11 analyses of 11 benign erythrodermic patients were included as control groups. Fluorescent labeled monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell surface antigens: T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), TCRαβ(+), TCRγδ(+), CD7(+), CD4(+)CD7(+), CD4(+)CD7(-), and CD71(+)), B cells (HLA-DR(+), CD19(+), and HLA-DR(+)CD19(+)), NKT cells (CD3(+)CD16(+)CD56(+)), and NK cells (CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+)). The mean value of all cell surface antigens was not statistically significant between parapsoriasis and MF groups. Along with an increase in cases of MF stage statistically significant difference was found between the mean values of cell surface antigens. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cell surface antigens in patients with mycosis fungoides may contribute to predicting disease stage and progression. PMID:26788525

  20. Interplay between immune responses to HLA and non-HLA self-antigens in allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angaswamy, Nataraju; Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Sarma, Nayan J; Subramanian, Vijay; Klein, Christina; Wellen, Jason; Shenoy, Surendra; Chapman, William C; Mohanakumar, T

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies strongly suggest an increasing role for immune responses against self-antigens (Ags) which are not encoded by the major histocompatibility complex in the immunopathogenesis of allograft rejection. Although, improved surgical techniques coupled with improved methods to detect and avoid sensitization against donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have improved the immediate and short term function of transplanted organs. However, acute and chronic rejection still remains a vexing problem for the long term function of the transplanted organ. Immediately following organ transplantation, several factors both immune and non immune mechanisms lead to the development of local inflammatory milieu which sets the stage for allograft rejection. Traditionally, development of antibodies (Abs) against mismatched donor HLA have been implicated in the development of Ab mediated rejection. However, recent studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that development of humoral and cellular immune responses against non-HLA self-Ags may contribute in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection. There are reports demonstrating that immune responses to self-Ags especially Abs to the self-Ags as well as cellular immune responses especially through IL17 has significant pro-fibrotic properties leading to chronic allograft failure. This review summarizes recent studies demonstrating the role for immune responses to self-Ags in allograft immunity leading to rejection as well as present recent evidence suggesting there is interplay between allo- and autoimmunity leading to allograft dysfunction.

  1. Superadditive correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, B G; Heumann, J M; Lapedes, A S

    1999-05-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such "noncausal correlation" is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range "noncausal" correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. PMID:11969452

  2. HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSES TO VARIOUS ANTIGENS IN THE ASTERIDS: A.GIBBOSA AND A.RUBENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leclerc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunizations with various antigens of the sea stars Asterina gibbosa and Asterias rubens produce specific humoral immune reactions which initiate the antibody factor. This antibody factor is correlated with kappa genes and could be composed of 4 kappa chains. It is the first time that such phenomenom was described in an invertebrate.

  3. Human leukocyte antigen supertype matching after myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation with 7/8 matched unrelated donor allografts: a report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen R.; Wang, Hai-Lin; Pidala, Joseph; Nishihori, Taiga; Askar, Medhat; Olsson, Richard; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Yong, Agnes; Gandhi, Manish; Dandoy, Christopher; Savani, Bipin; Hale, Gregory; Page, Kristin; Bitan, Menachem; Reshef, Ran; Drobyski, William; Marsh, Steven GE; Schultz, Kirk; Müller, Carlheinz R.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A.; Verneris, Michael R.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Arora, Mukta; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles can be simplified by consolidating them into fewer supertypes based on functional or predicted structural similarities in epitope-binding grooves of HLA molecules. We studied the impact of matched and mismatched HLA-A (265 versus 429), -B (230 versus 92), -C (365 versus 349), and -DRB1 (153 versus 51) supertypes on clinical outcomes of 1934 patients with acute leukemias or myelodysplasia/myeloproliferative disorders. All patients were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research following single-allele mismatched unrelated donor myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation. Single mismatched alleles were categorized into six HLA-A (A01, A01A03, A01A24, A02, A03, A24), six HLA-B (B07, B08, B27, B44, B58, B62), two HLA-C (C1, C2), and five HLA-DRB1 (DR1, DR3, DR4, DR5, DR9) supertypes. Supertype B mismatch was associated with increased risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio =1.78, P=0.0025) compared to supertype B match. Supertype B07-B44 mismatch was associated with a higher incidence of both grade II–IV (hazard ratio=3.11, P=0.002) and III–IV (hazard ratio=3.15, P=0.01) acute graft-versus-host disease. No significant associations were detected between supertype-matched versus -mismatched groups at other HLA loci. These data suggest that avoiding HLA-B supertype mismatches can mitigate the risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease in 7/8-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation when multiple HLA-B supertype-matched donors are available. Future studies are needed to define the mechanisms by which supertype mismatching affects outcomes after alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:27247320

  4. Variable flowering phenology and pollinator use in a community suggest future phenological mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.; Mazaris, Antonios D.; Pantis, John D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    2014-08-01

    Recent anthropogenic climate change is strongly associated with average shifts toward earlier seasonal timing of activity (phenology) in temperate-zone species. Shifts in phenology have the potential to alter ecological interactions, to the detriment of one or more interacting species. Recent models predict that detrimental phenological mismatch may increasingly occur between plants and their pollinators. One way to test this prediction is to examine data from ecological communities that experience large annual weather fluctuations. Taking this approach, we analyzed interactions over a four-year period among 132 plant species and 665 pollinating insect species within a Mediterranean community. For each plant species we recorded onset and duration of flowering and number of pollinator species. Flowering onset varied among years, and a year of earlier flowering of a species tended to be a year of fewer species pollinating its flowers. This relationship was attributable principally to early-flowering species, suggesting that shifts toward earlier phenology driven by climate change may reduce pollination services due to phenological mismatch. Earlier flowering onset of a species also was associated with prolonged flowering duration, but it is not certain that this will counterbalance any negative effects of lower pollinator species richness on plant reproductive success. Among plants with different life histories, annuals were more severely affected by flowering-pollinator mismatches than perennials. Specialized plant species (those attracting a smaller number of pollinator species) did not experience disproportionate interannual fluctuations in phenology. Thus they do not appear to be faced with disproportionate fluctuations in pollinator species richness, contrary to the expectation that specialists are at greatest risk of losing mutualistic interactions because of climate change.

  5. Influenza virus reassortment occurs with high frequency in the absence of segment mismatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Marshall

    Full Text Available Reassortment is fundamental to the evolution of influenza viruses and plays a key role in the generation of epidemiologically significant strains. Previous studies indicate that reassortment is restricted by segment mismatch, arising from functional incompatibilities among components of two viruses. Additional factors that dictate the efficiency of reassortment remain poorly characterized. Thus, it is unclear what conditions are favorable for reassortment and therefore under what circumstances novel influenza A viruses might arise in nature. Herein, we describe a system for studying reassortment in the absence of segment mismatch and exploit this system to determine the baseline efficiency of reassortment and the effects of infection dose and timing. Silent mutations were introduced into A/Panama/2007/99 virus such that high-resolution melt analysis could be used to differentiate all eight segments of the wild-type and the silently mutated variant virus. The use of phenotypically identical parent viruses ensured that all progeny were equally fit, allowing reassortment to be measured without selection bias. Using this system, we found that reassortment occurred efficiently (88.4% following high multiplicity infection, suggesting the process is not appreciably limited by intracellular compartmentalization. That co-infection is the major determinant of reassortment efficiency in the absence of segment mismatch was confirmed with the observation that the proportion of viruses with reassortant genotypes increased exponentially with the proportion of cells co-infected. The number of reassortants shed from co-infected guinea pigs was likewise dependent on dose. With 10⁶ PFU inocula, 46%-86% of viruses isolated from guinea pigs were reassortants. The introduction of a delay between infections also had a strong impact on reassortment and allowed definition of time windows during which super-infection led to reassortment in culture and in vivo. Overall

  6. Coherent piezoelectric strain transfer to thick epitaxial ferromagnetic films with large lattice mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang-Yong; Yao, Lide; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2013-02-27

    Strain control of epitaxial films using piezoelectric substrates has recently attracted significant scientific interest. Despite its potential as a powerful test bed for strain-related physical phenomena and strain-driven electronic, magnetic, and optical technologies, detailed studies on the efficiency and uniformity of piezoelectric strain transfer are scarce. Here, we demonstrate that full and uniform piezoelectric strain transfer to epitaxial films is not limited to systems with small lattice mismatch or limited film thickness. Detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of 100 nm thick CoFe(2)O(4) and La(2/3)Sr(1/3)MnO(3) epitaxial films on piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) substrates (+4.3% and -3.8% lattice mismatch) indicate that misfit dislocations near the interface do not hamper the transfer of piezoelectric strain. Instead, the epitaxial magnetic oxide films and PMN-PT substrates are strained coherently and their lattice parameters change linearly as a function of applied electric field when their remnant growth-induced strain state is negligible. As a result, ferromagnetic properties such as the coercive field, saturation magnetization, and Curie temperature can be reversibly tuned by electrical means. The observation of efficient piezoelectric strain transfer in large-mismatch heteroepitaxial structures opens up new possibilities for the engineering of strain-controlled physical properties in a broad class of hybrid material systems. PMID:23370268

  7. The Steppengrille (Gryllus spec./assimilis: selective filters and signal mismatch on two time scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Michael Rothbart

    Full Text Available In Europe, several species of crickets are available commercially as pet food. Here we investigated the calling song and phonotactic selectivity for sound patterns on the short and long time scales for one such a cricket, Gryllus spec., available as "Gryllus assimilis", the Steppengrille, originally from Ecuador. The calling song consisted of short chirps (2-3 pulses, carrier frequency: 5.0 kHz emitted with a pulse period of 30.2 ms and chirp rate of 0.43 per second. Females exhibited high selectivity on both time scales. The preference for pulse period peaked at 33 ms which was higher then the pulse period produced by males. Two consecutive pulses per chirp at the correct pulse period were already sufficient for positive phonotaxis. The preference for the chirp pattern was limited by selectivity for small chirp duty cycles and for chirp periods between 200 ms and 500 ms. The long chirp period of the songs of males was unattractive to females. On both time scales a mismatch between the song signal of the males and the preference of females was observed. The variability of song parameters as quantified by the coefficient of variation was below 50% for all temporal measures. Hence, there was not a strong indication for directional selection on song parameters by females which could account for the observed mismatch. The divergence of the chirp period and female preference may originate from a founder effect, when the Steppengrille was cultured. Alternatively the mismatch was a result of selection pressures exerted by commercial breeders on low singing activity, to satisfy customers with softly singing crickets. In the latter case the prominent divergence between male song and female preference was the result of domestication and may serve as an example of rapid evolution of song traits in acoustic communication systems.

  8. Detection of serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and identification of related antigens in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M C; Liu, C G; Wang, D X; Zhan, Z

    2015-12-07

    We detected autoantibodies against melanocytes in serum samples obtained from 50 patients, including 4 with HBV, with vitiligo and identified the associated membrane antigens. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and anti-tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) antibody levels were analyzed. The associated antigens in normal human melanocyte were identified by immunofluorescence. Autoantibodies against melanocyte membrane and cytoplasmic proteins were detected by western blot. Membrane antigens with higher frequencies were identified by protein mass spectrometry. The HSP70 and anti-TRP-1 antibody levels (N = 70; 10 with HBV) were detected by ELISA. The specific antigens were detected in melanocyte cytoplasm and membrane (40/50; 80% incidence; western blot). The autoantibodies reacted with several membrane antigens with approximate molecular weights (Mr) of 86,000, 75,000, 60,000, 52,000, and 44,000 (strip positive rates: 36, 58, 22, 2, and 2%, respectively). Thirty percent of the patients showed the presence of cytoplasmic antigens (Mr: 110,000, 90,000, 75,000, 50,000, and 400,000; strip positive rates: 12, 4, 12, 10, and 2%, respectively). Fifteen and 5% of the healthy subjects showed positive expression of membrane and cytoplasmic antigens, respectively. Protein mass spectrometry predicted membrane proteins with Mr of 86,000 and 75,000 and 60,000 to be Lamin A /C and Vimentin X1, respective. High titers of anti-TRP-1 antibody were detected and showed positive correlation with HSP70 (r = 0. 927, P vitiligo, which might assist future investigations into autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo and formation of autoantibodies. HBV infection was correlated to vitiligo.

  9. Performance of calibration standards for antigen quantitation with flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkei, R; Gratama, J W; Rothe, G; Schmitz, G; D'hautcourt, J L; Arekrans, A; Mandy, F; Marti, G

    1998-10-01

    In the frame of the activities initiated by the Task Force for Antigen Quantitation of the European Working Group on Clinical Cell Analysis (EWGCCA), an experiment was conducted to evaluate microbead standards used for quantitative flow cytometry (QFCM). An unified window of analysis (UWA) was established on three different instruments (EPICS XL [Coulter Corporation, Miami, FL], FACScan and FACS Calibur [Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA]) with QC3 microbeads (FCSC, PR). By using this defined fluorescence intensity scale, the performance of several monoclonal antibodies directed to CD3, CD4, and CD8 (conjugated and unconjugated), from three manufacturers (BDIS, Coulter [Immunotech], and DAKO) was tested. In addition, the QIFI system (DAKO) and QuantiBRITE (BDIS), and a method of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, method of Giorgi), were compared. mAbs reacting with three more antigens, CD16, CD19, and CD38 were tested on the FACScan instrument. Quantitation was carried out using a single batch of cryopreserved peripheral blood leukocytes, and all tests were performed as single color analyses. Significant correlations were observed between the antibody-binding capacity (ABC) values of the same CD antigen measured with various calibrators and with antibodies differing in respect to vendor, labeling and possible epitope recognition. Despite the significant correlations, the ABC values of most monoclonal antibodies differed by 20-40% when determined by the different fluorochrome conjugates and different calibrators. The results of this study indicate that, at the present stage of QFCM consistent ABC values may be attained between laboratories provided that a specific calibration system is used including specific calibrators, reagents, and protocols.

  10. Multitime correlation functions in nonclassical stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, F.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2016-06-01

    A general method is introduced for verifying multitime quantum correlations through the characteristic function of the time-dependent P functional that generalizes the Glauber-Sudarshan P function. Quantum correlation criteria are derived which identify quantum effects for an arbitrary number of points in time. The Magnus expansion is used to visualize the impact of the required time ordering, which becomes crucial in situations when the interaction problem is explicitly time dependent. We show that the latter affects the multi-time-characteristic function and, therefore, the temporal evolution of the nonclassicality. As an example, we apply our technique to an optical parametric process with a frequency mismatch. The resulting two-time-characteristic function yields full insight into the two-time quantum correlation properties of such a system.

  11. Single-mode quantum properties of the codirectional Kerr nonlinear coupler: frequency mismatch and exact solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the single-mode quantum properties of the codirectional Kerr nonlinear coupler when the frequency mismatch is involved and a condition for an exact solution of equations of motion is fulfilled. Particularly, we investigate quadrature and principal squeezing, Wigner function, quadrature distribution, phase distribution and phase variance. We show that the quadrature squeezing and the phase variance can exhibit collapse-revival and collapse-revival-subrevival phenomena, respectively, based on the values of the detuning parameter. Furthermore, we analytically demonstrate that the system can generate cat states, in particular, Yurke-Stoler states

  12. Surface tension/thermal mismatch in a self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface tension is increasingly used for the self-assembly of 3D microstructures. This paper studies the use of a benzocyclobutene (BCB) photo-resist material for the out-of-plane rotation via self-assembly behavior of a silicon micro-part. The literature discusses both surface-tension self-assembly and thermal-mismatch self-assembly, but these two topics are treated separately. Due to its relatively large thermal expansion coefficient, the BCB photo-resist material exhibits both surface-tension and thermal-mismatch effects during self-assembly. Therefore, the residual stresses induced by the self-assembly process on the interface between the melting pad and the microstructure are an issue that needs clarification. In order to quantify the shear stress on the interface, a micro-cantilever test specimen is designed and fabricated by a two-mask self-assembly process using a BSOI wafer and DRIE etching. Two cantilever designs are compared, one having a single section of photo-resist coverage and the other having two sections of photo-resist coverage. The MSC/NASTRAN finite-element method with an interfacial shear-lag model is used to estimate the deflection of the cantilever beam due to residual stresses from surface tension and thermal shrinkage. A clamped-edge-body-rotation model is proposed in order to calibrate measurement results by confocal optical microscopy with numerical results. The interfacial shear between the BCB photo-resist and the silicon structure is found to range from 0.4 to 1.0 MPa due to thermal shrinkage (after soft bake and structure release). The residual stress from surface tension (after material reflow and self-assembly) depends on the thickness of the PR layer and in some cases is twice the residual stress from material mismatch. Finally, a micro-mirror design employing BCB melting pads is presented to verify a self-assembly process powered by both surface tension and thermal mismatch

  13. Robust Feedback Controller for Exponential Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Mismatched Uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The robust stabilization of nonlinear systems with mismatched uncertainties is investigated. Based on the stability of the nominal system, a new approach to synthesizing a class of continuous state feedback controllers for uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems is proposed. By such feedback controllers, the exponential stability of uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems can be guaranteed. The approach can give a clear insight to system analysis. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the utilization of the approach developed. Simulation results show that the method presented is practical and effective.

  14. Regional ventilation/perfusion mismatch pattern in patient with Swyer James (MacLeod's) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Sait; Asa, Sertac; Akyel, Reşit; Atahan, Ersan; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2014-09-01

    Swyer James (McLeod's) syndrome (SJMS) is an uncommon disease, which occurs as a result of childhood bronchiolitis obliterans. Patients may not be diagnosed until later in their life. A 46-year-old man underwent ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy for acute onset of dyspnea. The scan showed markedly diminished ventilation and perfusion unilaterally on the right middle and inferior lobes. However, mismatched ventilation-perfusion pattern was shown on the upper right lobe, which was consistent with pulmonary embolism. Unilaterally matched ventilation/perfusion defect can see in SJMS in lung scintigraphy; however, when pulmoner embolism may accompany, scintigraphy should be carefully examined. PMID:25535507

  15. A Qualitative Assessment of Mismatch Between Dialysis Modality Selection and Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Susan; Liebman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    At our institution, we have noted that end-stage renal disease patients choosing a home dialysis modality after education often initiate renal replacement therapy with in-center hemodialysis (HD) instead. We interviewed 24 such patients (23 choosing peritoneal dialysis [PD], one choosing home HD) to determine reasons for this mismatch. The most common reasons cited for not starting home dialysis were: lack of confidence/concerns about complications, lack of space or home-related issues, a feeling of insufficient education, and perceived medical or social contraindications. We propose several potential strategies to help patients start with their preferred modality.

  16. A Note on Parabolic Homogenization with a Mismatch between the Spatial Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselott Flodén

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the homogenization of the linear parabolic problem which exhibits a mismatch between the spatial scales in the sense that the coefficient of the elliptic part has one frequency of fast spatial oscillations, whereas the coefficient of the time derivative contains a faster spatial scale. It is shown that the faster spatial microscale does not give rise to any corrector term and that there is only one local problem needed to characterize the homogenized problem. Hence, the problem is not of a reiterated type even though two rapid scales of spatial oscillation appear.

  17. Effect of escitalopram on cognitive function in depression A mismatch negativity potentials study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhe Zhou; Guozhen Yuan; Jianjun Yao; Zaohuo Cheng

    2011-01-01

    We detected the event-related potential mismatch negativity (MMN) of 30 depression patients and compared to 30 age, gender, and education-matched healthy controls. Results showed that amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN were lower in depression patients compared with control patients, indicating abnormality in auditory processing (i.e., cognitive impairment). Following escitalopram treatment for 8 weeks, the amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN were significantly increased and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores were significantly decreased in depression patients. These data suggest that escitalopram can improve cognitive function of patients with depression. Further, MMN may be a useful tool for evaluating cognitive function and treatment effects.

  18. Analysis of mismatched heterointerfaces by combined HREM image processing and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebus, G.; Inkson, B.J. [Univ. of Sheffield, Dept. of Engineering Materials, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Levay, A. [Eoetvoes Univ., Dept. of Solid State Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Hytch, M.J. [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique, CNRS, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Inst., Berlin (Germany); Wagner, T. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Lattice mismatched heterointerfaces are classified by a simple five parameter configuration space which allows to quantify the following properties: gradual partial coherence, distribution and localisation of misfit dislocations, anisotropy of strain fields, elastic dissimilarity of the lattices. HREM images are digitally processed into one-dimensional strain and Fourier spectrum profiles along the interface at selected distance from the interface. The interpretation of these profiles as a Fourier expansion of displacement waves is justified through a link to continuum modelling approaches presented earlier. Limitations and microscope conditions for this simple direct image interpretation approach are listed and discussed. (orig.)

  19. Intraocular/Intracranial pressure mismatch hypothesis for visual impairment syndrome in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fan; Hargens, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is considered a major risk for future human spaceflight. Loss of hydrostatic pressure gradients in vascular and cerebrospinal fluid systems due to the removal of gravity associated with subsequent intracranial and intraocular fluid shifts and the resulting intraocular/intracranial pressure mismatch might be important etiology factors causingVIIP syndrome. Acclimation changes in the ocular and cerebral circulation and the two fluid systems during chronic microgravity exposure and their underlying mechanisms need further elucidation. Relevant findings may help to validate the pressure differential hypothesis for VlIP syndrome and to evaluate whether a gravity based countermeasure is needed. PMID:24479265

  20. Role of Deficient Mismatch Repair in the Personalized Management of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-Min; Lv, Jin-Feng; Gong, Liang; Yu, Lin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Fan, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the third most common type of cancer in developed countries and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Personalized management of CRC has gained increasing attention since there are large inter-individual variations in the prognosis and response to drugs used to treat CRC owing to molecular heterogeneity. Approximately 15% of CRCs are caused by deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype. The present review is aimed at highlighting the role of MMR status in informing prognosis and personalized treatment of CRC including adjuvant chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy to guide the individualized therapy of CRC. PMID:27618077

  1. Finding the missing stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN): emitted MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2012-04-01

    Deviations from repetitive auditory stimuli evoke a mismatch negativity (MMN). Counterintuitively, omissions of repetitive stimuli do not. Violations of patterns reflecting complex rules also evoke MMN. To detect a MMN to missing stimuli, we developed an auditory gestalt task using one stimulus. Groups of six pips (50 ms duration, 330 ms stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA], 400 trials), were presented with an intertrial interval (ITI) of 750 ms while subjects (n=16) watched a silent video. Occasional deviant groups had missing 4th or 6th tones (50 trials each). Missing stimuli evoked a MMN (pgestalt grouping rule. Patterned stimuli appear more sensitive to omissions and ITI than homogenous streams.

  2. Power-Cooling-Mismatch Test Series Test PCM-7. Experiment operating specifications. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, D.T.; Smith, R.H.; Stanley, C.J.

    1979-02-01

    The experiment operating specifications for the Power-Cooling-Mismatch (PCM) Test PCM-7 to be conducted in the Power Burst Facility are described. The PCM Test Series was designed on the basis of a parametric evaluation of fuel behavior response with cladding temperature, rod internal pressure, time in film boiling, and test rod power being the variable parameters. The test matrix, defined in the PCM Experiment Requirements Document (ERD), encompasses a wide range of situations extending from pre-CHF (critical heat flux) PCMs to long duration operation in stable film boiling leading to rod failure.

  3. Hypertension: a problem of organ blood flow supply-demand mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeners, Maarten P; Lewis, Kirsty E; Ford, Anthony P; Paton, Julian Fr

    2016-05-01

    This review introduces a new hypothesis that sympathetically mediated hypertensive diseases are caused, in the most part, by the activation of visceral afferent systems that are connected to neural circuits generating sympathetic activity. We consider how organ hypoperfusion and blood flow supply-demand mismatch might lead to both sensory hyper-reflexia and aberrant afferent tonicity. We discuss how this may drive sympatho-excitatory-positive feedback and extend across multiple organs initiating, or at least amplifying, sympathetic hyperactivity. The latter, in turn, compounds the challenge to sufficient organ blood flow through heightened vasoconstriction that both maintains and exacerbates hypertension. PMID:27091483

  4. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... PSA testing is an important tool for detecting prostate cancer, but it is not foolproof. Other conditions can cause a rise in PSA, including: A larger prostate ...

  5. Score Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  6. Mapping Epitopes on a Protein Antigen by the Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmerson, Ronald; Paterson, Yvonne

    1986-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody bound to a protein antigen decreases the rate of proteolytic cleavage of the antigen, having the greatest effect on those regions involved in antibody contact. Thus, an epitope can be identified by the ability of the antibody to protect one region of the antigen more than others from proteolysis. By means of this approach, two distinct epitopes, both conformationally well-ordered, were characterized on horse cytochrome c.

  7. Tales of Antigen Evasion from CAR Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Both T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors and tumor-specific antibodies can successfully target some malignancies, but antigen escape can lead to relapse. Two articles in this issue of Cancer Immunology Research explore what effective countermeasures may prevent it. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 473-473. ©2016 AACRSee articles by Zah et al., p. 498, and Rufener et al., p. 509. PMID:27252092

  8. Characterization of an antigenically distinct porcine rotavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, J C; Clarke, I. N.; McCrae, M A

    1982-01-01

    A porcine virus with rotavirus morphology, which was antigenically unrelated to previously described rotaviruses, is described. Particles with an outer capsid layer measured 75 nm and those lacking the outer layer were 63 nm in diameter. Particles which resembled cores were also identified. The virus was shown to be antigenically distinct from other rotaviruses as judged by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy, and it failed to protect piglets from challenge with porcine rotaviru...

  9. Surveillance and vaccine effectiveness of an influenza epidemic predominated by vaccine-mismatched influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses in Taiwan, 2011-12 season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The 2011-12 trivalent influenza vaccine contains a strain of influenza B/Victoria-lineage viruses. Despite free provision of influenza vaccine among target populations, an epidemic predominated by influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses occurred during the 2011-12 season in Taiwan. We characterized this vaccine-mismatched epidemic and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE. METHODS: Influenza activity was monitored through sentinel viral surveillance, emergency department (ED and outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI syndromic surveillance, and case-based surveillance of influenza with complications and deaths. VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was evaluated through a case-control study on ILI patients enrolled into sentinel viral surveillance. Logistic regression was used to estimate VE adjusted for confounding factors. RESULTS: During July 2011-June 2012, influenza B accounted for 2,382 (72.5% of 3,285 influenza-positive respiratory specimens. Of 329 influenza B viral isolates with antigen characterization, 287 (87.2% were B/Yamagata-lineage viruses. Proportions of ED and outpatient visits being ILI-related increased from November 2011 to January 2012. Of 1,704 confirmed cases of influenza with complications, including 154 (9.0% deaths, influenza B accounted for 1,034 (60.7% of the confirmed cases and 103 (66.9% of the deaths. Reporting rates of confirmed influenza with complications and deaths were 73.5 and 6.6 per 1,000,000, respectively, highest among those aged ≥65 years, 50-64 years, 3-6 years, and 0-2 years. Adjusted VE was -31% (95% CI: -80, 4 against all influenza, 54% (95% CI: 3, 78 against influenza A, and -66% (95% CI: -132, -18 against influenza B. CONCLUSIONS: This influenza epidemic in Taiwan was predominated by B/Yamagata-lineage viruses unprotected by the 2011-12 trivalent vaccine. The morbidity and mortality of this vaccine-mismatched epidemic warrants careful consideration of introducing a

  10. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  11. Strain mismatch induced tilted heteroepitaxial (000l) hexagonal ZnO films on (001) cubic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bo Soo [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Stan, Liliana; Usov, Igor O.; DePaula, Raymond F.; Arendt, Paul N.; Nastasi, Michael; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lee, Jung-Kun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Harriman, Tres A.; Lucca, Don A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Park, Bae Ho [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, Department of Physics, Konkuk University Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    A novel strain mismatch induced tilted epitaxy method has been demonstrated for producing high quality (000l) hexagonal films on (001) cubic substrates. Highly oriented hexagonal (000l) ZnO films are grown on cubic (001) MgO substrates using Sm{sub 0.28}Zr{sub 0.72}O{sub 2-{delta}} (SZO) as a template. The large lattice mismatch of >13% between the obvious crystallographic matching directions of the template and substrate means that cube-on-cube epitaxy is energetically unfavorable, leading to growth instead of two high index, low energy compact planes, close to the {l_brace}111{r_brace} orientation. These planes give three different in-plane orientations resulting from coincidence site lattice matching (12 in-plane orientations in total) and provide a pseudo-hexagonal symmetry surface for the ZnO to grow on. The texture of the ensuing (000l) ZnO layer is markedly improved over the template. The work opens up both a new avenue for growing technologically important hexagonal structures on a range of readily available, (001) cubic substrates, as well as showing that there are wide possibilities for heteroepitaxial growth of a range of dissimilar materials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Strategies for tuning phonon transport in multilayered structures using a mismatch-based particle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam Q.; Duda, John C.; English, Timothy S.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2012-04-01

    The performance of many micro- and nanoscale devices depends on the ability to control interfacial thermal transport, which is predominantly mediated by phonons in semiconductor systems. The phonon transmissivity at an interface is therefore a quantity of interest. In this work, an empirical model, termed the thermal mismatch model, is developed to predict transmissivity at ideal interfaces between semiconductor materials, producing an excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of wave packets. To investigate propagation through multilayered structures, this thermal mismatch model is then incorporated into a simulation scheme that represents wave packets as particles, showing a good agreement with a similar scheme that used molecular dynamics simulations as input [P. K. Schelling and S. R. Phillpot, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5377 (2003)]. With these techniques validated for both single interfaces and superlattices, they are further used to identify ways to tune the transmissivity of multilayered structures. It is shown that by introducing intermediate layers of certain atomic masses, the total transmissivity can either be systematically enhanced or reduced compared to that of a single interface. Thus, this model can serve as a computationally inexpensive means of developing strategies to control phonon transmissivity in applications that may benefit from either enhancement (e.g., microelectronics) or reduction (e.g., thermoelectrics) in thermal transport.

  13. The Effect of Polar Fluctuation and Lattice Mismatch on Carrier Mobility at Oxide Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Han, Kun; Zeng, Shengwei; Motapothula, Mallikarjuna; Borisevich, Albina Y; Ghosh, Saurabh; Lü, Weiming; Li, Changjian; Zhou, Wenxiong; Liu, Zhiqi; Coey, Michael; Venkatesan, T; Ariando

    2016-04-13

    Since the discovery of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the oxide interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO), improving carrier mobility has become an important issue for device applications. In this paper, by using an alternate polar perovskite insulator (La0.3Sr0.7) (Al0.65Ta0.35)O3 (LSAT) for reducing lattice mismatch from 3.0% to 1.0%, the low-temperature carrier mobility has been increased 30 fold to 35,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Moreover, two critical thicknesses for the LSAT/STO (001) interface are found, one at 5 unit cells for appearance of the 2DEG and the other at 12 unit cells for a peak in the carrier mobility. By contrast, the conducting (110) and (111) LSAT/STO interfaces only show a single critical thickness of 8 unit cells. This can be explained in terms of polar fluctuation arising from LSAT chemical composition. In addition to lattice mismatch and crystal symmetry at the interface, polar fluctuation arising from composition has been identified as an important variable to be tailored at the oxide interfaces to optimize the 2DEG transport. PMID:26959195

  14. Conflict and metacognitive control: the mismatch-monitoring hypothesis of how others' knowledge states affect recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-09-01

    Information about others' success in remembering is frequently available. For example, students taking an exam may assess its difficulty by monitoring when others turn in their exams. In two experiments, we investigated how rememberers use this information to guide recall. Participants studied paired associates, some semantically related (and thus easier to retrieve) and some unrelated (and thus harder). During a subsequent cued recall test, participants viewed fictive information about an opponent's accuracy on each item. In Experiment 1, participants responded to each cue once before seeing the opponent's performance and once afterwards. Participants reconsidered their responses least often when the opponent's accuracy matched the item difficulty (easy items the opponent recalled, hard items the opponent forgot) and most often when the opponent's accuracy and the item difficulty mismatched. When participants responded only after seeing the opponent's performance (Experiment 2), the same mismatch conditions that led to reconsideration even produced superior recall. These results suggest that rememberers monitor whether others' knowledge states accord or conflict with their own experience, and that this information shifts how they interrogate their memory and what they recall. PMID:26247369

  15. Recipient-derived hepatocytes in liver transplants: a rare event in sex-mismatched transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Franz; Beyser, Kurt H; Poremba, Christopher; Zimmerman, Robert L; Khettry, Urmila; Ruschoff, Josef

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells have been shown to engraft and populate native tissues during repair and in transplanted animal tissues. Very few studies have been performed in humans to evaluate the possibility of stem cell engraftment in transplanted tissues. In human renal transplants, recipient cells have been demonstrated within vascular and interstitial structures. In a previous study of patients with hepatic transplants, hepatocytes with XY chromosome patterns have been detected in sex-mismatched female to male transplanted livers in a small number of cases. Because of the possibility of Y chromosome microchimerism of females with male offspring, we analyzed the presence of X and Y chromosomes in liver biopsies of 13 patients with sex-mismatched liver transplants (8 female to male, 5 male to female) and long transplant to biopsy intervals (1.2 to 12 years; mean, 4.5 years). We were able to detect recipient-specific sex chromosomal patterns in inflammatory cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization/immunohistochemistry combination within the liver parenchyma but not within hepatocytes. In conclusion, recipient engraftment of stem cells may be an early feature in liver transplant but may be an infrequent persistent feature in long-term grafts.

  16. Measurement Matrix Optimization and Mismatch Problem Compensation for DLSLA 3-D SAR Cross-Track Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qian; Jiang, Chenglong; Lin, Yun; Tan, Weixian; Wang, Zhirui; Hong, Wen

    2016-01-01

    With a short linear array configured in the cross-track direction, downward looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) can obtain the 3-D image of an imaging scene. To improve the cross-track resolution, sparse recovery methods have been investigated in recent years. In the compressive sensing (CS) framework, the reconstruction performance depends on the property of measurement matrix. This paper concerns the technique to optimize the measurement matrix and deal with the mismatch problem of measurement matrix caused by the off-grid scatterers. In the model of cross-track reconstruction, the measurement matrix is mainly affected by the configuration of antenna phase centers (APC), thus, two mutual coherence based criteria are proposed to optimize the configuration of APCs. On the other hand, to compensate the mismatch problem of the measurement matrix, the sparse Bayesian inference based method is introduced into the cross-track reconstruction by jointly estimate the scatterers and the off-grid error. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed APCs’ configuration schemes and the proposed cross-track reconstruction method. PMID:27556471

  17. Multiple scale model for cell migration in monolayers: Elastic mismatch between cells enhances motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Benoit; Bresler, Yony; Wirtz, Denis; Grant, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a multiscale model for monolayer of motile cells that comprise normal and cancer cells. In the model, the two types of cells have identical properties except for their elasticity; cancer cells are softer and normal cells are stiffer. The goal is to isolate the role of elasticity mismatch on the migration potential of cancer cells in the absence of other contributions that are present in real cells. The methodology is based on a phase-field description where each cell is modeled as a highly-deformable self-propelled droplet. We simulated two types of nearly confluent monolayers. One contains a single cancer cell in a layer of normal cells and the other contains normal cells only. The simulation results demonstrate that elasticity mismatch alone is sufficient to increase the motility of the cancer cell significantly. Further, the trajectory of the cancer cell is decorated by several speed "bursts" where the cancer cell quickly relaxes from a largely deformed shape and consequently increases its translational motion. The increased motility and the amplitude and frequency of the bursts are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments. PMID:26134134

  18. Predictive genetic testing in children: constitutional mismatch repair deficiency cancer predisposing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, Zandrè; Algar, Ursula; Vorster, Alvera; Fieggen, Karen; Davidson, Alan; Goldberg, Paul; Wainwright, Helen; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in mismatch repair genes predispose to constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D). The condition is characterized by a broad spectrum of early-onset tumors, including hematological, brain and bowel and is frequently associated with features of Neurofibromatosis type 1. Few definitive screening recommendations have been suggested and no published reports have described predictive testing. We report on the first case of predictive testing for CMMR-D following the identification of two non-consanguineous parents, with the same heterozygous mutation in MLH1: c.1528C > T. The genetic counseling offered to the family, for their two at-risk daughters, is discussed with a focus on the ethical considerations of testing children for known cancer-causing variants. The challenges that are encountered when reporting on heterozygosity in a child younger than 18 years (disclosure of carrier status and risk for Lynch syndrome), when discovered during testing for homozygosity, are addressed. In addition, the identification of CMMR-D in a three year old, and the recommended clinical surveillance that was proposed for this individual is discussed. Despite predictive testing and presymptomatic screening, the sudden death of the child with CMMR-D syndrome occurred 6 months after her last surveillance MRI. This report further highlights the difficulty of developing guidelines, as a result of the rarity of cases and diversity of presentation.

  19. Strategy in clinical practice for classification of unselected colorectal tumours based on mismatch repair deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Lindebjerg, J; Byriel, L;

    2007-01-01

    Objective Deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) causes microsatellite instability (MSI) in a subset of colorectal cancers. Patients with these tumours have a better prognosis and may have an altered response to chemotherapy. Some of the tumours are caused by hereditary mutations (hereditary non...... methylation or BRAF mutation analysis to distinguish sporadic patients from likely hereditary ones. MMR deficient patients with sporadic disease can be reassured of the better prognosis and the likely hereditary cases should receive genetic counselling.......Objective Deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) causes microsatellite instability (MSI) in a subset of colorectal cancers. Patients with these tumours have a better prognosis and may have an altered response to chemotherapy. Some of the tumours are caused by hereditary mutations (hereditary...... nonpolyposis colon cancer or Lynch syndrome), but most are epigenetic changes of sporadic origin. The aim of this study was to define a robust and inexpensive strategy for such classification in clinical practice. Method Tumours and blood samples from 262 successive patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas...

  20. Physical and functional interactions between Werner syndrome helicase and mismatch-repair initiation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saydam, Nurten; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Dietschy, Tobias;

    2007-01-01

    is poorly understood. Here we show that WRN physically interacts with the MSH2/MSH6 (MutSalpha), MSH2/MSH3 (MutSbeta) and MLH1/PMS2 (MutLalpha) heterodimers that are involved in the initiation of mismatch repair (MMR) and the rejection of homeologous recombination. MutSalpha and MutSbeta can strongly...... stimulate the helicase activity of WRN specifically on forked DNA structures with a 3'-single-stranded arm. The stimulatory effect of MutSalpha on WRN-mediated unwinding is enhanced by a G/T mismatch in the DNA duplex ahead of the fork. The MutLalpha protein known to bind to the MutS alpha......-heteroduplex complexes has no effect on WRN-mediated DNA unwinding stimulated by MutSalpha, nor does it affect DNA unwinding by WRN alone. Our data are consistent with results of genetic experiments in yeast suggesting that MMR factors act in conjunction with a RecQ-type helicase to reject recombination between...

  1. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, J.L., E-mail: s207094248@live.nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I-V curves of the whole module with the I-V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  2. Diagonal Loading of Robust General-Rank Beamformer for Direction of Arrival Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.U. Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a technique which utilizes the movement of the peak of the main beam towards the presumed signal direction with negative diagonal loading for robust general-rank beamformer. The main beam symmetry along presumed signal direction is improved by this movement. When desired signal is contained in the data snapshots, the conventional beamformers face the problem of performance degradation even if there is a small mismatch between the presumed and the actual signal direction. Diagonal loading is a popular technique to mitigate this problem. There is no definite criterion to find diagonal loading level. A new diagonal loading method has been proposed in the literature which utilizes the movement of the peak of main beam towards the presumed signal direction with positive diagonal loading. The proposed technique works iteratively for the selection of negative diagonal loading level to move the main beam at a position to get the beam symmetry at desired level and hence the desired robustness. The mismatched signal will not be cancelled as long as it is within the half of the width of the main beam. But there is the tradeoff between this robustness and interference cancelling capability.

  3. Direct evidence of mismatching effect on H emission in laser-induced atmospheric helium gas plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zener Sukra Lie; Koo Hendrik Kurniawan [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); May On Tjia [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Rinda, Hedwig [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Banten (Indonesia); Syahrun Nur Abdulmadjid; Nasrullah Idris [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Alion Mangasi Marpaung [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Marincan Pardede [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Jobiliong, Eric [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Muliadi Ramli [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Heri Suyanto [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Fukumoto, Kenichi; Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2013-02-07

    A time-resolved orthogonal double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with helium surrounding gas is developed for the explicit demonstration of time mismatch between the passage of fast moving impurity hydrogen atoms and the formation of thermal shock wave plasma generated by the relatively slow moving major host atoms of much greater masses ablated from the same sample. Although this so-called 'mismatching effect' has been consistently shown to be responsible for the gas pressure induced intensity diminution of hydrogen emission in a number of LIBS measurements using different ambient gases, its explicit demonstration has yet to be reported. The previously reported helium assisted excitation process has made possible the use of surrounding helium gas in our experimental set-up for showing that the ablated hydrogen atoms indeed move faster than the simultaneously ablated much heavier major host atoms as signaled by the earlier H emission in the helium plasma generated by a separate laser prior to the laser ablation. This conclusion is further substantiated by the observed dominant distribution of H atoms in the forward cone-shaped target plasma.

  4. Bromouracil mutagenesis in Escherichia coli evidence for involvement of mismatch repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, B.

    1977-01-01

    Bromouracil mutagenesis was studied in several strains of E. coli in combination with measurement of incorporation of bromouracil in DNA. For levels below 10% total replacement of bromouracil for thymine, mutagenesis was negligible compared with higher levels of incorporation. Such a nonlinear response occurred both when the bromouracil was evenly distributed over the genome and when a small proportion of the genome was highly substituted. Also, the mutation frequency could be drastically lowered by amino acid starvation following bromouracil incorporation. These observations suggest the involvement of repair phenomena. Studies of mutagenesis in recA/sup -/ and uvrA/sup -/ mutants, as well as studies of prophage induction, did not support an ''error prone'' repair pathway of mutagenesis. On the other hand, uvrD/sup -/ and uvrE/sup -/ mutants, which are deficient in DNA mismatch repair, had much increased mutation frequencies compared with wild type cells. The mutagenic action of bromouracil showed specificity under the conditions used, as demonstrated by the inability of bromouracil to revert an ochre codon that was easily revertable by ultraviolet light irradiation. The results are consistent with a mechanism of bromouracil mutagenesis involvng mispairing, but suggest that the final mutation frequencies depend on repair that removes mismatched bases.

  5. Study of cover source mismatch in steganalysis and ways to mitigate its impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodovský, Jan; Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    When a steganalysis detector trained on one cover source is applied to images from a different source, generally the detection error increases due to the mismatch between both sources. In steganography, this situation is recognized as the so-called cover source mismatch (CSM). The drop in detection accuracy depends on many factors, including the properties of both sources, the detector construction, the feature space used to represent the covers, and the steganographic algorithm. Although well recognized as the single most important factor negatively affecting the performance of steganalyzers in practice, the CSM received surprisingly little attention from researchers. One of the reasons for this is the diversity with which the CSM can manifest. On a series of experiments in the spatial and JPEG domains, we refute some of the common misconceptions that the severity of the CSM is tied to the feature dimensionality or their "fragility." The CSM impact on detection appears too difficult to predict due to the effect of complex dependencies among the features. We also investigate ways to mitigate the negative effect of the CSM using simple measures, such as by enlarging the diversity of the training set (training on a mixture of sources) and by employing a bank of detectors trained on multiple different sources and testing on a detector trained on the closest source.

  6. Mismatched single stranded antisense oligonucleotides can induce efficient dystrophin splice switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Ryszard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligomer induced exon skipping aims to reduce the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by redirecting splicing during pre-RNA processing such that the causative mutation is by-passed and a shorter but partially functional Becker muscular dystrophy-like dystrophin isoform is produced. Normal exons are generally targeted to restore the dystrophin reading frame however, an appreciable subset of dystrophin mutations are intra-exonic and therefore have the potential to compromise oligomer efficiency, necessitating personalised oligomer design for some patients. Although antisense oligomers are easily personalised, it remains unclear whether all patient polymorphisms within antisense oligomer target sequences will require the costly process of producing and validating patient specific compounds. Methods Here we report preclinical testing of a panel of splice switching antisense oligomers, designed to excise exon 25 from the dystrophin transcript, in normal and dystrophic patient cells. These patient cells harbour a single base insertion in exon 25 that lies within the target sequence of an oligomer shown to be effective at removing exon 25. Results It was anticipated that such a mutation would compromise oligomer binding and efficiency. However, we show that, despite the mismatch an oligomer, designed and optimised to excise exon 25 from the normal dystrophin mRNA, removes the mutated exon 25 more efficiently than the mutation-specific oligomer. Conclusion This raises the possibility that mismatched AOs could still be therapeutically applicable in some cases, negating the necessity to produce patient-specific compounds.

  7. High Performance Charge Pump Phase-Locked Loop with Low Current Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In CMOS CPs, which have Up and Down switches made of p-channel and n-channel respectively, generates fluctuations in the VCO due to current mismatch occurs when dumping the charge to the loop filter and subsequently a large phase noise on the PLL output. This paper presents a new CP circuit after detailed analysis of the current mismatch problem. It combines an error amplifier with reference current sources to achieve good current matching characteristics and lower phase noises. Charge sharing can be eliminated by using charge removal transistors. In addition, a low-voltage cascode current mirror and gain-boosting circuit are used to enhance current matching over process corners and increase the output impedance of the CP. Good current matching characteristic is achieved with less than 0.1% difference of the Up/Down current and 1% over all process variations. The CP output compliance voltage range of 0.1-1.8 V is achieved for 1.8-V supply voltage. The circuit was designed using 0.18um TSMC CMOS technology and simulated by Spectre tools.

  8. Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Ribeiro, Helena; Potton, Anita; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Moore, Derek G

    2013-11-01

    Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life.

  9. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I–V curves of the whole module with the I–V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  10. Structure of ll- VI Lattice Mismatched Epilayers used for Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pinardi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical thickness (hc is calculated for capped and uncapped lattice mismatched II-VIsemiconductor epilayers. Both the old equilibrium theory and the improved theory have been used.The calculated values are compared with the experimental data on epilayers of several II-VIsemiconductors and alloys. The observed values of hc are larger than the calculated values. Howeverthe discrepancy is much smaller than that found in InGaAs/GaAs and GeSilSi layers. Moreover ascompared to InGaAs/GaA.s:a nd GeSilSi layers, the experimental data show a much smaller scatter andcan be fitted with one curve. Strain relaxation in layers with thickness h > hc is also calculated. Strainrelaxation in ZnSe layers grown on (100 GaAs shows good agreement with the equilibrium theory. Inother cases the observed relaxation is sluggish, the residual strain is larger than its calculated value.Thick highly mismatched layers behave differently. The residual strain agrees with theory anddislocations are distributed periodically, A model to interpret these observations is suggested.Implications of this study on the stability of 11V- I strained layers are discussed.

  11. Measurement Matrix Optimization and Mismatch Problem Compensation for DLSLA 3-D SAR Cross-Track Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qian; Jiang, Chenglong; Lin, Yun; Tan, Weixian; Wang, Zhirui; Hong, Wen

    2016-08-22

    With a short linear array configured in the cross-track direction, downward looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) can obtain the 3-D image of an imaging scene. To improve the cross-track resolution, sparse recovery methods have been investigated in recent years. In the compressive sensing (CS) framework, the reconstruction performance depends on the property of measurement matrix. This paper concerns the technique to optimize the measurement matrix and deal with the mismatch problem of measurement matrix caused by the off-grid scatterers. In the model of cross-track reconstruction, the measurement matrix is mainly affected by the configuration of antenna phase centers (APC), thus, two mutual coherence based criteria are proposed to optimize the configuration of APCs. On the other hand, to compensate the mismatch problem of the measurement matrix, the sparse Bayesian inference based method is introduced into the cross-track reconstruction by jointly estimate the scatterers and the off-grid error. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed APCs' configuration schemes and the proposed cross-track reconstruction method.

  12. Physical interaction between components of DNA mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) and DNA mismatch repair are required for some common processes although the biochemical basis for this requirement is unknown. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD14 was identified in a two-hybrid screen using MSH2 as 'bait,' and pairwise interactions between MSH2 and RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD10, RAD14, and RAD25 subsequently were demonstrated by two-hybrid analysis. MSH2 coimmunoprecipitated specifically with epitope-tagged versions of RAD2, RAD10, RAD14, and RAD25. MSH2 and RAD10 were found to interact in msh3 msh6 and mlh1 pms1 double mutants, suggesting a direct interaction with MSH2. Mutations in MSH2 increased the UV sensitivity of NER-deficient yeast strains, and msh2 mutations were epistatic to the mutator phenotype observed in NER-deficient strains. These data suggest that MSH2 and possibly other components of DNA mismatch repair exist in a complex with NER proteins, providing a biochemical and genetical basis for these proteins to function in common processes

  13. Tunable band structures of polycrystalline graphene by external and mismatch strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Tao Wu; Xing-Hua Shi; Yu-Jie Wei

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a band gap largely limits the application of graphene in electronic devices.Previous study shows that grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline graphene can dramatically alter the electrical properties of graphene.Here,we investigate the band structure of polycrystalline graphene tuned by externally imposed strains and intrinsic mismatch strains at the GB by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.We found that graphene with symmetrical GBs typically has zero band gap even with large uniaxial and biaxial strain.However,some particular asymmetrical GBs can open a band gap in graphene and their band structures can be substantially tuned by external strains.A maximum band gap about 0.19 eV was observed in matched-armchair GB (5,5) | (3,7) with a misorientation of θ =13° when the applied uniaxial strain increases to 9%.Although mismatch strain is inevitable in asymmetrical GBs,it has a small influence on the band gap of polycrystalline graphene.

  14. Studies on the surface coat of Paramecium aurelia. II. Relationship to the immobilization antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E

    1977-07-11

    Correlations between the presence of surface coat and immobilization antigen of Paramecium tetraurelia were studied. Supravital, partial removal of the surface coat resulted in accelerated response of monobacterially and axenically grown cells to the homologous antiserum. Ciliates pretreated with trypsin or pronase (0.5 mg/ml for 45 min at 0-4 degrees C) were immobilized approximately twice as fast as untreated control cells. The probable localization of at least part, of the immobilization antigen within the surface coat of P. tetraurelia is discussed.

  15. In vitro production of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N; Abdul Basith, S; Senthilkumar, T M A

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature. PMID:27605834

  16. Assessment of primer/template mismatch effects on real-time PCR amplification of target taxa for GMO quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedira, Rim; Papazova, Nina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Ruttink, Tom; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2009-10-28

    GMO quantification, based on real-time PCR, relies on the amplification of an event-specific transgene assay and a species-specific reference assay. The uniformity of the nucleotide sequences targeted by both assays across various transgenic varieties is an important prerequisite for correct quantification. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) frequently occur in the maize genome and might lead to nucleotide variation in regions used to design primers and probes for reference assays. Further, they may affect the annealing of the primer to the template and reduce the efficiency of DNA amplification. We assessed the effect of a minor DNA template modification, such as a single base pair mismatch in the primer attachment site, on real-time PCR quantification. A model system was used based on the introduction of artificial mismatches between the forward primer and the DNA template in the reference assay targeting the maize starch synthase (SSIIb) gene. The results show that the presence of a mismatch between the primer and the DNA template causes partial to complete failure of the amplification of the initial DNA template depending on the type and location of the nucleotide mismatch. With this study, we show that the presence of a primer/template mismatch affects the estimated total DNA quantity to a varying degree.

  17. The {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '} mismatch in Ni based superalloys: In situ measurements during a creep test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diologent, F.; Caron, P.; D' Almeida, T.; Jacques, A. E-mail: jacques@mines.u-nancy.fr; Bastie, P

    2003-01-01

    The lattice mismatch between the fcc {gamma} matrix and the ordered {gamma}{sup '} cuboiedal precipitates in superalloys induces large internal stresses within the material. These stresses have a major effect on its mechanical behaviour and on the anisotropic evolution of the microstructure (rafting...) during its lifetime. The evolution of the effective lattice mismatch of the AM1 and MCNG superalloys was measured continuously during high temperature creep tests (1100 deg. C, 150 MPa) at the ID 15 (high energy) beamline of the ESRF. The bulk profiles of the 200 reflection (parallel to the tensile axis) were recorded using the triple crystal diffractometer. Both materials have a negative mismatch, and exhibit a transition between the initial wide {gamma}{sup '} peak to a two peaks profile during stage I of the creep curve, as rafting takes place. During stage II, the 200 mismatch decreases in magnitude. During stage III, as a microstructural transition (coalescence) occurs and the strain rate increases, the mismatch changes in the same direction, but at a faster rate, while the thickness of both peaks increases. Evolution of the MCNG specimen was the same as AM1 ones, but rafting and transition to stage II take place at a different rate.

  18. Mismatch repair genes Mlh1 and Mlh3 modify CAG instability in Huntington's disease mice: genome-wide and candidate approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mouro Pinto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Huntington's disease gene (HTT CAG repeat mutation undergoes somatic expansion that correlates with pathogenesis. Modifiers of somatic expansion may therefore provide routes for therapies targeting the underlying mutation, an approach that is likely applicable to other trinucleotide repeat diseases. Huntington's disease Hdh(Q111 mice exhibit higher levels of somatic HTT CAG expansion on a C57BL/6 genetic background (B6.Hdh(Q111 than on a 129 background (129.Hdh(Q111 . Linkage mapping in (B6x129.Hdh(Q111 F2 intercross animals identified a single quantitative trait locus underlying the strain-specific difference in expansion in the striatum, implicating mismatch repair (MMR gene Mlh1 as the most likely candidate modifier. Crossing B6.Hdh(Q111 mice onto an Mlh1 null background demonstrated that Mlh1 is essential for somatic CAG expansions and that it is an enhancer of nuclear huntingtin accumulation in striatal neurons. Hdh(Q111 somatic expansion was also abolished in mice deficient in the Mlh3 gene, implicating MutLγ (MLH1-MLH3 complex as a key driver of somatic expansion. Strikingly, Mlh1 and Mlh3 genes encoding MMR effector proteins were as critical to somatic expansion as Msh2 and Msh3 genes encoding DNA mismatch recognition complex MutSβ (MSH2-MSH3. The Mlh1 locus is highly polymorphic between B6 and 129 strains. While we were unable to detect any difference in base-base mismatch or short slipped-repeat repair activity between B6 and 129 MLH1 variants, repair efficiency was MLH1 dose-dependent. MLH1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in 129 mice compared to B6 mice, consistent with a dose-sensitive MLH1-dependent DNA repair mechanism underlying the somatic expansion difference between these strains. Together, these data identify Mlh1 and Mlh3 as novel critical genetic modifiers of HTT CAG instability, point to Mlh1 genetic variation as the likely source of the instability difference in B6 and 129 strains and suggest

  19. Tresyl-Based Conjugation of Protein Antigen to Lipid Nanoparticles Increases Antigen Immunogencity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anekant; Yan, Weili; Miller, Keith R.; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the engineering of NPs with protein-conjugated-surfactant at their surface. In order to increase the immunogenicity of a protein antigen, Brij 78 was functionalized by tresyl chloride and then further reacted with the primary amine of the model proteins ovalbumin (OVA) or horseradish peroxide (HRP). The reaction yielded Brij 78-OVA and Brij 78-HRP conjugates which were then used directly to form NP-OVA or NP-HRP using a one-step warm oil-in-water microemulsion precursor method with emulsifying wax as the oil phase, and Brij 78 and the Brij 78-OVA or Brij 78-HRP conjugate as surfactants. Similarly, Brij 700 was conjugated to HIV p24 antigen to yield Brij 700-p24 conjugate. The utility of these NPs for enhancing the immune responses to protein-based vaccines was evaluated in vivo using ovalbumin (OVA) as model protein and p24 as a relevant HIV antigen. In separate in vivo studies, female BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection with NP-OVA and NP-p24 formulations along with several control formulations. These results suggested that with multiple antigens, covalent attachment of the antigen to the NP significantly enhanced antigen-specific immune responses. This facile covalent conjugation and incorporation method may be utilized to further incorporate other protein antigens, even multiple antigens, into an enhanced vaccine delivery system. PMID:20837122

  20. Tresyl-based conjugation of protein antigen to lipid nanoparticles increases antigen immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anekant; Yan, Weili; Miller, Keith R; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G; Mumper, Russell J

    2010-11-30

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the engineering of NPs with protein-conjugated-surfactant at their surface. In order to increase the immunogenicity of a protein antigen, Brij 78 was functionalized by tresyl chloride and then further reacted with the primary amine of the model proteins ovalbumin (OVA) or horseradish peroxide (HRP). The reaction yielded Brij 78-OVA and Brij 78-HRP conjugates which were then used directly to form NP-OVA or NP-HRP using a one-step warm oil-in-water microemulsion precursor method with emulsifying wax as the oil phase, and Brij 78 and the Brij 78-OVA or Brij 78-HRP conjugate as surfactants. Similarly, Brij 700 was conjugated to HIV p24 antigen to yield Brij 700-p24 conjugate. The utility of these NPs for enhancing the immune responses to protein-based vaccines was evaluated in vivo using ovalbumin (OVA) as model protein and p24 as a relevant HIV antigen. In separate in vivo studies, female BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection with NP-OVA and NP-p24 formulations along with several control formulations. These results suggested that with multiple antigens, covalent attachment of the antigen to the NP significantly enhanced antigen-specific immune responses. This facile covalent conjugation and incorporation method may be utilized to further incorporate other protein antigens, even multiple antigens, into an enhanced vaccine delivery system. PMID:20837122