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Sample records for antigen levels leading

  1. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  2. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  3. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K; Abdallah, Basem M; Wolf, Anna-Maria; Hørder, Kirsten; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum concentr......Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  4. Prognostic Effect of Pretreatment Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Kim, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have reported the prognostic value of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen (pre-CEA) levels on colorectal cancer outcomes. However, controversy remains concerning the significance of pre-CEA levels in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Our aim in this study was to investigate the prognostic role of the pre-CEA level in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant CRT followed by total mesorectal exc...

  5. Blood lead levels in Jamaican school children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalor, G.; Rattray, R.; Vutchkov, M. [International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, 7 Kingston (Jamaica); Campbell, B.; Lewis-Bell, K. [Epidemiology Unit, Ministry of Health, Kingston (Jamaica)

    2001-03-26

    Blood lead levels are reported for a total of 421 schoolchildren in 13 schools in rural and urban environments in Jamaica, including one highly contaminated community. In the rural areas blood lead levels ranged from 3 to 28.5 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, with a median of 9.2 {mu}g dl{sup -1}; the range and median in the urban schools were 4-34.7 and 16.6 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, respectively. Forty-two percent of the rural and 71% of the urban blood lead levels exceeded the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intervention level of 10 {mu}g dl{sup -1}. Except in the contaminated area, the relationship between soil lead levels, which in Jamaica are in general typical of tropical lateritic soils, and blood lead levels is not clear-cut. Very high blood lead levels of 18 to >60 {mu}g dl{sup -1} with a median of 35 {mu}g dl{sup -1} were observed among children in the contaminated area, the site of a former lead ore processing plant. These high blood lead levels were significantly reduced, by the implementation of relatively simple mitigation strategies which involved isolation of the lead, education, and a food supplementation programme, to levels similar to those observed in the urban schools. These values, however, remain higher than are desirable and unfortunately, all the sources of lead are not yet identified. The recent discontinuation of the use of leaded petrol is expected to result in significant reductions in exposure to lead.

  6. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  7. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  8. Lead level in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Macinic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on a hunting ground belonging to AJVPS Arad, county Arad. Lead (Pb was determined in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos tissues (muscles and organs (liver, kidneys to see the contamination level of this tissues and organs and also the impact on humans health because in our days more and more wild game meat take a increasing percentage in humans food ratio. The Mallard is one of the most widespread duck species. Mallard has 50-62 cm length, 800-1400 g weight and lives about 11 years. It prefers rivers and shallow pounds with a lot of reed. It is a migratory species that is flying long distances to find food and unfrozen water, so it is a exposed to lead contamination that is under dust form in atmosphere. But another reason why lead level in Mallard can be higher that in other flying specie (pheasant, woodcock, quail, and pigeons are the lead shot shells that are used for duck hunting. It is known that the ducks can ingest these lead shot shells and so they are often exposed to lead intoxications. This is why in our days more ammunition for waterfowl are steel made or different type of alloys. Lead is known to be one of the most common pollutants with a large range of effects on human health: lead affects nervous system, digestive tract, kidneys, bones, enzymes. Lead has also mutagenic effect, carcinogenic effect, teratogenic effect.

  9. Blood lead levels in incinerator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, R; Brandt-Rauf, P; Graziano, J; Parides, M

    1992-10-01

    Questions have been raised concerning the safety of mass burn incineration and its role in solid waste management. In 1989, the New York City Office of Occupational Safety and Health examined air levels of metals in New York City incinerators and found that workers were exposed to air lead levels as high as 2500 micrograms/m3 while cleaning the electrostatic precipitators in the plant. In order to determine the biologic significance of these exposures to the workers, blood samples were taken from 56 incinerator workers and 25 controls and analyzed for lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. Incinerator workers were found to have a mean blood lead of 11.0 micrograms/dl as compared to the control group level of 7.4 micrograms/dl. Risk factors for increased blood lead levels were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. Wearing a personal protective device "always" or not and the interaction of smoking and cleaning the precipitator more than seven times in the past year were found to be significant predictors for blood lead. These results indicate that lead in municipal incinerator ash from electrostatic precipitators is bioavailable and that the effects of such exposure can be minimized by wearing personal protective devices, not smoking, and rotating the work force to minimize precipitator ash contact. PMID:1425516

  10. Levels of estrogen, carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen of breast in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the period from february 2004 to July 2004; with the objective of measuring the levels of estrogen (E2), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen of breast (CA-15.3) so as to facilitate the early diagnosis of breast cancer and determine the involvement of these parameters as risk factors for breast cancer. Ninety blood samples were collected from Sudanese females, divided into two groups; control group and patient groups. The patients group was sixty Sudanese females visiting the Radio Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and they were confirmed as breast cancer patient by histopathology. The levels of the above mentioned parameters were determined by using radioimmunoassay technique. The results showed that, no significant (p=0.05) difference between the levels of the estrogen in patients compared to the control, on the other hand there was non significant (p>0.05) elevation in CEA levels in the patients with breast cancer compared to the control. The level of CA15.3 was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the breast cancer patients compared to the control.(Author)

  11. Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  12. Infection with influenza a virus leads to flu antigen-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Susanne M; Hahn, Christian; Wohlleben, Gisela; Teufel, Martin; Major, Tamas; Moll, Heidrun; Bröcker, Eva-B; Erb, Klaus J

    2002-04-01

    It is well established, that viral infections may trigger urticaria or allergic asthma; however, as viral infections induce T helper 1 polarized responses, which lead to the inhibition of T helper 2 cell development, the opposite would be plausible. We wanted to investigate how viral infections may mediate allergic symptoms in a mouse model; therefore, we infected BALB/C mice with influenza A virus intranasally. Histologic analyses of lung sections and bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. In addition, cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes were restimulated in vitro to analyze which types of cytokines were induced by the flu infection. Furthermore, flu-specific antibody titers were determined and local anaphylaxis was measured after rechallenge with flu antigen. We found that airways inflammation consisted predominately of macrophages and lymphocytes, whereas only a few eosinophils were observed. interferon-gamma but no interleukin-4 and little interleukin-5 could be detected in the culture supernatants from in vitro restimulated T cells from the draining lymph nodes. The antibody response was characterized by high levels of virus-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG1 and, surprisingly, low levels of virus-specific IgE antibodies. Interestingly, flu-infected mice developed active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after rechallenge with flu-antigen. As the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction persisted over 48 h and was significantly lower after passive transfer of the serum, which was IgE depleted, local anaphylaxis seemed to be mediated predominately by specific IgE antibodies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mice infected with flu virus develop virus-specific mast cell degranulation in the skin. Our results may also have implications for the pathogenesis of urticaria or other atopic disorders in humans. PMID:11918711

  13. Vaccination with a cocktail of Ancylostoma ceylanicum recombinant antigens leads to worm burden reduction in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Łapiński, Maciej; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Jaros, Sławomir; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    Hookworms, a group to which Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs, are gastrointestinal nematodes that infect more than 700 million people around the world. They are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries. In order to effectively prevent hookworm infections research is conducted to develop an effective vaccine using recombinant antigens of the parasite. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the hosts' on protection against ancylostomiasis and the shaping of the humoral immune response among Syrian hamsters after immunization with a cocktail of five A. ceylanicum recombinant antigens. Ace-ASP-3, Ace-ASP-4, Ace-APR-1, Ace-MEP-6 and Ace-MEP-7 were obtained in the pET expression system. Immunization with a vaccine cocktail resulted in a 33.5% worm burden reduction. The immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined using ELISA. Statistical analysis showed that vaccinated hamsters developed stronger humoral responses to four of five recombinant antigens (the exception being Ace-ASP-3) compared to hamsters from the control group. PMID:27447220

  14. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  15. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Decharat, Somsiri; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determin...

  16. Influence of nutrient intake on blood lead levels of young children at risk for lead poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Scherer, Roberta W.; Sexton, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Although removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses remains the primary means of preventing elevated blood lead among young children, reduction of risk through nutritional factors has also been of interest. In this study we evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on blood lead levels by analyzing whether the intakes of certain dietary components a) were associated with blood lead levels independent of lead exposure or b) modified the effect of lead exposure on blood lead. Subjects were...

  17. Blood Lead Levels in Workers at Kooshk Lead and Zinc Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Hakimian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extensive use of Lead has led to health problems including CNS, anemia and other occupational poisoning among workers. To determine the blood lead levels in relation to demographic factors, this study was carried out. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 490 workers at Kooshk Lead and Zinc mine were selected and blood samples were taken. The blood lead levels were assessed according to the NIOSH standard using atomic absorption. Results: The mean, minimum and maximum of blood lead levels were 49, 9 and 116 mg/dl, respectively. The blood lead levels in 45.7 percent of workers was more than permissible limit. The blood lead level was not significantly related to age and history of work. The lowest and highest levels of blood lead were 9 & 116 mg/dl, respectively. In contrast, significant relationship was seen between the location of work and blood lead level. The results showed that in the majority of workers with blood lead levels higher than standard limit, there was a significant relationship between the blood Lead levels and the hemoglobin concentration. The blood lead level in 45% of samples was more than Iranian standards. Conclusion: The work location was the main factor affecting the blood lead levels. Attention should therefore be focused on the alteration of RBC and Hemoglobin levels during periodic medical examination of workers

  18. Evaluation of the use of salivary lead levels as a surrogate of blood lead or plasma lead levels in lead exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Correa Rodrigues, Maria H.; Buzalaf, Maria R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-15

    We conducted a study to evaluate the use of parotid salivary lead (Pb-saliva) levels as a surrogate of the blood lead (Pb-B) or plasma lead levels (Pb-P) to diagnose lead exposure. The relationship between these biomarkers was assessed in a lead exposed population. Pb-saliva and Pb-P were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while in whole blood lead was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. We studied 88 adults (31 men and 57 women) from 18 to 60 years old. Pb-saliva levels varied from 0.05 to 4.4 {mu}g/l, with a mean of 0.85 {mu}g/l. Blood lead levels varied from 32.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/l in men (mean 112.3 {mu}g/l) and from 25.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/l (mean 63.5 {mu}g/l) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.50 {mu}g/l (mean 0.77 {mu}g/l) and 0.03-1.6 {mu}g/l (mean 0.42 {mu}g/l) in men and women, respectively. A weak correlation was found between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-B (r=0.277, P<0.008), and between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-P (r=0.280, P=0.006). The Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio ranged from 0.20 to 18.0. Age or gender does not affect Pb-saliva levels or Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio. Taken together, these results suggest that salivary lead may not be used as a biomarker to diagnose lead exposure nor as a surrogate of plasma lead levels at least for low to moderately lead exposed population. (orig.)

  19. Effects of low level exposure to lead on neurophysiological functions among lead battery workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovala, T; Matikainen, E; Mannelin, T.; Erkkilä, J; Riihimäki, V; Hänninen, H.; Aitio, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Assessment of neurophysiological functions in workers with low level exposure to lead and evaluation of the efficacy of bone lead measurements in the prediction of effects of lead. METHODS: Exposure to lead of 60 workers from a lead battery battery factory was estimated from historical blood lead measurements and analysis of lead in the tibial and calcaneal bones with x ray fluorescence. Peripheral and central nervous system functions were assessed by measuring conduction velociti...

  20. A Molecular-Level Account of the Antigenic Hantaviral Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sai; Rissanen, Ilona; Zeltina, Antra; Hepojoki, Jussi; Raghwani, Jayna; Harlos, Karl; Pybus, Oliver G; Huiskonen, Juha T; Bowden, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses. PMID:27117403

  1. Levels of Antibody against 11 Staphylococcus aureus Antigens in a Healthy Population ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Jacobsson, Gunnar; Andersson, Rune; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Möllby, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples from 151 healthy individuals aged from 15 to 89 years were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG levels against 11 different purified antigens from Staphylococcus aureus. Surface antigens, such as teichoic acid, clumping factors A and B, and bone sialoprotein binding protein, and extracellular proteins, such as alpha-toxin, lipase, enterotoxin A, toxic shock syndrome toxin, scalded-skin syndrome toxin, fibrinogen binding protein, and extracellular adh...

  2. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.L.; Landrigan, P.J.; Barbour, A.G.; Cox, D.H.; Folland, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of 160 lead exposed workers at a secondary lead smelter, a small scrap smelter, and a lead chemicals facility to investigate dose response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects. The levels of blood lead ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 micromoles/liter (micromol/l). In 70 workers, 44 percent of the total number, clinical evidence of toxic exposure was detected including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anemia in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. At blood lead levels below 1.93 micromol/l no toxicity was detected. However, 13 percent of those workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 micromol/l had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. In 5 percent of the workers with lead levels of 1.93 to 2.85 micromol/l, anemia was noted. Anemia was also noted in 14 percent with levels between 2.90 and 3.81 micromol/l and in 36 percent with levels over 3.86 micromol/l. In long term lead workers elevated BUN occurred. All but three workers with elevated BUN had at least 4 years of occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation therapy. Eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability.

  3. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p 206Pb/207Pb vs.208Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/207Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. - Highlights: • Lead levels and isotope ratios in atmospheric particles, street dust and surface soil. • Significant enrichment of lead in atmospheric particles was observed. • Street dust and atmospheric particles have similar lead sources. • Endmembers of soil lead differ from street dust and atmospheric particles. • Airborne lead poses the main risks to unban environmental quality. - Transfer of airborne particle bound lead into street dust and surface soil in unban environmental based on lead levels and isotopic compositions

  4. Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen Levels in the Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei; Song, Liu-Wei; Fang, Yu-Qing; Xiao-feng WU; Liu, Dan-Yang; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen; Lv, Dong-Xia; Li, Jun; Deng, Yong-Qiong; Wang, Yan; Huo, Na; Yu, Min; Xi, Hong-Li

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have revealed antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) levels as a predictor of treatment response in hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in both interferon and nucleos(t)ide analog therapy cohorts. However, there is no information about anti-HBc levels in the natural history of CHB. This study aimed to define anti-HBc levels of different phases in the natural history of CHB. Two hundred eleven treatment-naive CHB pati...

  5. Lead level in foremilk and neurobehavioral development of neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been reported that blood lead level lower than 24 μ mol/L can lead to learning and cognitive deficits.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of lead level in foremilk and early neurobehavioral development of neonates taking lead level in foremilk as lead exposure index.DESIGN: A controlled observation.SETTING: Maternal and Child Health Center, Shanxi Children's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 128 neonates of full-term normal delivery, 76 male and 52 female, from ShanxiProvincial Maternal and Child Health Center and Jiexiu Maternal and Child Health Center were involved inthis study. All the involved neonates had no peripartal ischemic/hypoxic history. The corresponding puerperants were aged (27± 5 ) years. They had no various acute and chronic diseases during pregnancy, and family history of neurological disease as well as occupational lead exposure. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the puerperants.METHODS: ① Determination of lead level in foremilk: Altogether 128 foremilk samples, 1 mL each,were collected between January and February 2005. The same amount of violet acid was added to each sample. After foremilk was fully dissolved, 0.2 mL solution was taken for determining lead level with atomic absorption spectrometer in graphite stove. The determined process strictly followed the internal quantity control of laboratory and was involved in the blind quality control of Institute of Environmental Health of Chinese Academy. ② Participants grouping: Totally 128 neonates were involved, and the normal reference value of lead level of foremilk was 0.06- 0.48 μ mol/L. The involved neonates were assigned into high-level lead group (≥ 0.24 μ mol/L, n =60) and low-level lead group (< 0.24 μ mol/L, n =68). ③Assessment of neurobehavioral development of neonates: Neurobehavioral development level of neonates who was born 24 to 72 hours was assessed with 20-item neonatal neurobehavioral determination method

  6. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  7. Serum Prostatic Specific Antigen Levels in Women with Hirsutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Cebeci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Using an ultrasensitive assay, PSA has been detected in female serum and has been proposed as a potential marker of androgen excess in hirsute women. The object of this present study was to investigate an association between hirsutism and serum PSA levels.Material and Method: A total of 47 women with hirsutism and 24 age-matched nonhirsute women were included in this study. Using an ultrasensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay serum PSA were determined in all subjects.Results: Serum levels of PSA were higher in hirsute women than in nonhirsute controls (p<0.05.Conclusion: If more sensitive assays become available, PSA might be used as biochemical marker of peripheral androgen excess in women with hirsutism.

  8. Cell density related gene expression: SV40 large T antigen levels in immortalized astrocyte lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobberger James W

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is affected by population density. Cell density is a potent negative regulator of cell cycle time during exponential growth. Here, we asked whether SV40 large T antigen (Tag levels, driven by two different promoters, changed in a predictable and regular manner during exponential growth in clonal astrocyte cell lines, immortalized and dependent on Tag. Results Expression and cell cycle phase fractions were measured and correlated using flow cytometry. T antigen levels did not change or increased during exponential growth as a function of the G1 fraction and increasing cell density when Tag was transcribed from the Moloney Murine Leukemia virus (MoMuLV long terminal repeat (LTR. When an Rb-binding mutant T antigen transcribed from the LTR was tested, levels decreased. When transcribed from the herpes thymidine kinase promoter, Tag levels decreased. The directions of change and the rates of change in Tag expression were unrelated to the average T antigen levels (i.e., the expression potential. Conclusions These data show that Tag expression potential in these lines varies depending on the vector and clonal variation, but that the observed level depends on cell density and cell cycle transit time. The hypothetical terms, expression at zero cell density and expression at minimum G1 phase fraction, were introduced to simplify measures of expression potential.

  9. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Nastaran; Izadi, Anahita; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Javadinia, Shima; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Ashouri, Sarvenaz; Asgarian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead elements have an adverse effect on human health. The most important complications of lead poisoning are disorders of nervous system particularly seizure .This study aimed to evaluate the blood lead levels and its association with convulsion in a group of hospitalized febrile children. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 60 hospitalized febrile children with 1- 60 month old participated in the study via non-probability convenience sampling method. All of the infor...

  10. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman Herbert; Shen Xiaoming; Yan Chonghuai; Compher Charlene; McCauley Linda; Liu Jianghong; Pinto-Martin Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb) is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods P...

  11. Antigen-binding site protection during radiolabeling leads to a higher immunoreactive fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the immunointegrity of an antibody (Ab) depends on the preservation of its antigen-binding sites. Our goal was to radiolabel an antibody at several iodine:antibody molar ratios under conditions protecting its combining site and to compare its immunoreactive fraction (IRF) and electrophoretic mobility with those of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection. The data indicate that an antibody radiolabeled while its antigen-binding site is occupied by its antigen had the same IRF, regardless of the number of iodine atoms per antibody molecule. On the other hand, even at an I:Ab ratio of 1:1, the IRF of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection was lower than that of a protected one and decreased with increasing I:Ab ratios. In addition, the iodination of these Ab changes their electrophoretic mobility; however, when the Ab is labeled in the protected state, the degree of change is less. The binding of an antibody to its antigen prior to radiolabeling, therefore, enhances its immuno-integrity and prevents major conformational changes as reflected by electrophoresis

  12. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  13. Environmental lead levels in a coastal city of India: The lead burden continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization, rapid industrialization, increased vehicular traffic, and consequent increase in the use of petroleum fuels in India are constantly emitting lead along with other pollutants into the environment. Apart from atmospheric lead, this element is the most widely used in everyday life. Although infants and children are the most susceptible to the effects of lead, adults are also affected to varying degrees and it had ranked as one of the most serious environmental threats to human health. Hence, we must understand the benefits of preventing lead exposure as it reduces treatment costs, increases productivity in industry, and also reduces infant mortality. These are good enough reasons for a nation wide program to prevent lead poisoning. Objectives: In the view of elevated blood lead levels (BLL in majority of the school children in the city of Mangalore, we aimed to identify the potential sources of lead in the environment which would have probably caused the elevated BLL. Materials and Methods: More than 600 readings were taken throughout the city of Mangalore using X-ray fluorimeter. Results: Our results showed that there were elevated levels of lead in the environment surrounding the battery repair shops, battery recyclers, automotive workshops, and tyre retreaders, but interestingly, the soil around the petrol bunks did not show elevated levels of lead. Among the paints, the yellow paint showed high levels of lead. Conclusion: Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries in order to identify the potential sources of lead and to prevent lead poisoning.

  14. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  15. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo; Beldomenico, Pablo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana; Uhart, Marcela

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning in waterfowl due to ingestion of lead pellets is a long recognized worldwide problem but poorly studied in South America, particularly in Argentinean wetlands where duck hunting with lead gunshot is extensive. In 2008, we found high pellet ingestion rates in a small sample of hunted ducks. To expand our knowledge on the extent of lead exposure and to assess health risks from spent shot intake, during 2011 and 2012 we sampled 415 hunter-killed ducks and 96 live-trapped ducks. We determined the incidence of lead shot ingestion and lead concentrations in bone, liver and blood in five duck species: whistling duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), white-faced tree duck (D. viduata), black-bellied whistling-duck (D. autumnalis), rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca) and Brazilian duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis). The ingestion of lead shot was confirmed in 10.4% of the ducks examined (43/415), with a prevalence that varied by site and year, from 7.6% to 50%. All bone samples (n=382) and over 60% of liver samples (249/412) contained lead concentrations above the detection limit. The geometric mean lead concentration in tissues (mg/kg dry weight) was 0.31 (GSD=3.93) and 3.61 (GSD=4.02) for liver and bone, respectively, and 0.20 (GSD=2.55) in blood (mg/kg wet weight). Lead levels surpassed toxicity thresholds at which clinical poisoning is expected in 3.15% of liver samples, 23.8% of bones and 28% of blood samples. Ducks with ingested lead pellets were much more likely to have high levels of lead in their liver. Rosy-billed pochards were consistently more prone to ingesting lead shot than other duck species sampled. However, whistling ducks showed higher levels of lead in liver and bone. Our results suggest that lead from ammunition could become a substantial threat for the conservation of wild duck populations in Argentina. The replacement of lead by non-toxic shot would be a reasonable and effective solution to this problem. PMID:24314629

  16. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  17. Blood lead levels in children after phase-out of leaded gasoline in Bombay, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichani, Vikram; Smith, Mary Alice; Naeher, Luke P. [The University of Georgia (UGA), College of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Science, (EHS) Building, Athens, GA 30602-2102 (United States); Li, Wan-I [UGA, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Athens, GA (United States); Noonan, Gary [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kulkarni, Milind [Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Bombay (India); Kodavor, Mohan [Panchsheel Hospital, Bombay (India)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of this study was to test for reduction in pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs) in Bombay, India, by comparing BLLs collected in 2002 (after use of leaded gasoline was phased out in Bombay) to those collected in a study conducted by the George Foundation in 1997 (when leaded gasoline was still used in Bombay). We analyzed BLL in a total of 754 children under 12 years of age in two separate sampling campaigns (276 from December 2002 to January 2003 [non-monsoon season]; 478 in June to August 2003 [monsoon season]). BLL was measured using an ESA Lead Care Portable Analyzer. We also measured lead in PM{sub 10} samples collected in the study region. These data were compared with a study done by the George Foundation in 1997 before the phase out of leaded gasoline. The George Foundation study reported that 61.8% of the 291 children tested in Bombay had elevated blood lead levels (BLL>=10 {mu}g/dL). In the present study, 33.2% of the 754 tested children had elevated blood lead levels. The average BLL for the current study population (Geometric Mean=8.36 {mu}g/dL, SD=5.23 {mu}g/dL) was lower than the CDC level of concern (10 {mu}g/dL), with one child diagnosed with lead poisoning (BLL>65 {mu}g/dL). A seasonal trend of BLLs was suggested, with BLL in monsoon season (Geometric Mean=9.1 {mu}g/dL, SD=5.7 {mu}g/dL) higher than that in the non-monsoon season (Geometric Mean=7.3 {mu}g/dL, SD=4.0 {mu}g/dL). A seasonal periodicity of lead in PM{sub 10} was found, with lead in monsoon season (Geometric Mean=0.04 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, SEM=0.000667 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) lower than that in the non-monsoon season (Geometric Mean=0.38 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, SEM=0.10 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The overall level of airborne dust (PM{sub 10}) in monsoon season (56.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) was lower than in the non-monsoon season (273.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), presumably due to precipitation. The comparatively higher BLLs in the monsoon season, in the presence of lower air lead levels, suggest ingestion of water or food

  18. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, H. Y.; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (...

  19. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jessica J., E-mail: park16@fas.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Loffredo, Marian; D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  20. Differentiation induced by physiological and pharmacological stimuli leads to increased antigenicity of human neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lena-Maria Carlson; Sven P(a)hlman; Anna De Geer; Per Kogner; Jelena Levitskaya

    2008-01-01

    Sympathetic neuronal differentiation is associated with favorable prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of early childhood. Differentiation agents have proved useful in clinical protocols of NB treatment, but using them as a sole treatment is not sufficient to induce tumor elimination in patients. Therefore, complementary approaches, such as immunotherapy, are warranted. Here we demonstrate that differentiation of NB cell lines and ex vivo isolated tumor cells in response to physiological or pharmacological stimuli is associated with acquisition of increased antigenicity. This manifests as increased expression of surface major histocompatibility class I complexes and ICAM-1 molecules and translates into increased sensitivity of NB cells to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. The latter is paralleled by enhanced ability of differentiated cells to form immune conjugates and bind increased amounts of granzyme B to the cell surface. We demonstrate, for the first time, that, regardless of the stimulus applied, the differentiation state in NBs is associated with increased tumor antigenicity that enables more efficient elimination of tumor cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes and paves the way for combined application of differentiation-inducing agents and immunotherapy as an auxiliary approach in NB patients.

  1. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  2. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  3. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  4. Effects of low level lead ingestion in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, T.L.; Van Gelder, G.A.; Buck, W.B.; Hoffman, L.J.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty adult sheep of Columbia-Rambouilet cross were fed 0, 2.3, and 4.5 mg lead/kg body weight to control, low and high groups, respectively, for 27 weeks. This ingestion resulted in mean blood lead levels of 0.06, 0.17, and 0.30 ppm. Blood lead concentration, total red blood cells, total white blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, blood sugar, BUN, serum inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and SGOT were determined at biweekly intervals. Four weeks after the start of lead exposure, the ewes were bred. The experiment continued throughout gestation. Half of the animals in each group were tested on behavioral tasks throughout the study. The apparent added stress of the behavioral testing significantly reduced reproductive performance, while lead alone had no significant effect on reproductive performance. Significant group differences observed for hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and alkaline phosphatase were not linear with lead exposure and were attributed to change. No significant differences between groups were demonstrated for total red blood cells, total white blood cells, blood sugar, BUN, inorganic phosphorus, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and SGOT. 28 references, 4 figures, 12 tables.

  5. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  6. The Level of Evidence in Two Leading Endodontic Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiei, Leila; Shahravan, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The successful practice of dentistry, including endodontics, relies on a wide spectrum of dental research. The quantity and quality of research evidence in endodontics have seldom been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence in current leading endodontic journals. Materials and Methods All the articles published in 2000, 2006 and 2010 in two major endodontic journals (Journal of Endodontics and International Endodontic Journal) were evaluated. These...

  7. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  8. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature

  9. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Sun, Keye; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis; Gupta, Mool C.; Choi, Joshua J.

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  10. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  11. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control g...

  12. Synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in colon cancer with normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xiaofang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synuclein gamma (SNCG, initially identified as a breast cancer specific gene, is aberrantly expressed in many different malignant tumors but rarely expressed in matched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic potential of SNCG in colon cancer particularly in the patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels. Methods SNCG levels were assessed immunohistochemically in cancer tissues from 229 colon adenocarcinoma patients with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Correlations between SNCG levels and clinicopathologic features, preoperative serum CEA level, and clinical outcome were analyzed statistically using SPSS. Results SNCG levels in colon adenocarcinoma were closely associated with intravascular embolus and tumor recurrence but independent of preoperative serum CEA levels. SNCG expression was an independent prognostic factor of a shorter disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (P P = 0.001, P = 0.001, 0.002 for 97 patients with normal preoperative serum CEA level. Conclusions Our results suggest for the first time that SNCG is a new independent predicator for poor prognosis in patients with colon adenocarcinoma, including those with normal CEA levels. Combination of CEA with SNCG improves prognostic evaluation for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

  13. The levels of lead in some vegetables in Makarfi, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead(Pb) serves no useful purpose in the human body and its presence can lead to toxic effects. Human activities have dramatically increased the environmental load of Pb. This study reports the concentrations of Pb in Moringa oleifera, Venonia amygdalina, Teilferia occidentalis Adansonia digitata, Lactuca serriola, Amaranthus tricolor, Moringa oleifera and Brassica olaracea sampled from five sites in Makarfi Local Government Area, Nigeria. The samples were digested using a tri-acid mixture (HNO3:HCIO4:H2SO4 25:4:2). The Pb content of the digests obtained was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The results showed that 100% of the samples contained Pb in concentrations ranging from 0.035±0.052 to 0.624±0.001mg/g, with Adasonia digitata recording the highest concentration and Venonia amygdalina recording the least. The Pb concentration recorded in all the samples were above the WHO limit (0.01mg/g dry weight of drug) with no significant difference (P<0.05) among them. The study indicated that the samples analyzed were contaminated with abnormal levels of Pb sufficient to expose residents of the area to adverse health effects of the metal.

  14. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad; Manzurul Haque Khan; Salamat Khandker; A. F. M. Sarwar; Nahid Yasmin; Faruquee, M H; Rabeya Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB) in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturi...

  15. Advanced prostatic carcinomas with low serum levels of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Snežana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA represent a significant diagnostic and monitoring parameter of prostatic carcinoma (PC. The aim of the study was to establish correlation of serum PSA level in addition to grade, histological type, and clinical stage of PC in patients with normal or intermediary PSA serum level. In 37 untreated PC patients with preoperative serum PSA levels ranging between 0.1 and 9.6 ng/ml, paraffin-embedded tissue and serum samples were immunohistological studied and immunoassay for PSA was done. The most representative was poorly differentiated PC with D stage In serum samples from PC patients 27 (73.7% normal (≤ 4.0 ng/ml, and 10 (27.3% intermediate (4.1-10 ng/ml PSA levels were found Immunohistochemistry, in 36 PC (97.3% had demonstrated the expression of PSA. Our study results had shown low serum PSA levels in some patients with advanced poorly differentiated PC.

  16. Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa

    2016-05-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768

  17. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  18. Pregnancy-Related Human Leukocyte Antigen Sensitization Leading to Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy and Graft Failure in a Heart Transplant Recipient: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ginwalla, M.; Pando, M.J.; Khush, K. K.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present a heart transplant recipient who developed cross-reactive paternal and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II antibodies during pregnancy, leading to accelerated cardiac allograft vasculopathy and severe allograft dysfunction 17 years after transplantation. This resulted in acute heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias requiring repeat heart transplantation.

  19. The Effects of PPI Use on Clostridium Difficile Serum Antigen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü Beriat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the effects of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI use on distrubtion of intestinal flora  by measuring serum Clostridium Difficile antigen levels before and at the end of a three-months treatment  in patients with Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LFR treatment . Material and Methods The study covers 32 patients with LFR, out of which 24 were female (75% and 8 were male (25%. The mean age of the patients was 34.13 ± 11.59. All patients included in the study were administered Lansoprazole 30 mgr tablets perorally before meals and twice a day for treatment. Reflux Symptom Index (RSI, Reflux Finding Score (RFS, white blood cell count, CRP and serum Clostridium Difficile toxin A, B measurement results were comparatively evaluated through the blood serum samples drawn from the patients before and at the end of the three-months treatment. Results While the mean values of pre-treatment RSI and RFI were 20.81±4.05 and 13.31±3.30 respectively, the mean values were measured to be 3.41±2.37 and 1.50±1.88 respectively following the three-months treatment (p< 0.05. The pre-treatment mean value of serum Clostridium Difficile Ag was 140.56±11.74, while it was seen that the same value became 114.94±10.70 after the three-months treatment (p< 0.05. There was, however, no statistically significant change in the other parameters. Discussion According to the results obtained, it was seen that the treatment with PPI was not cause to  increase Clostridium difficile toxin A, B serum antigen levels. So these drugs could be used in long time therapies confidently. 

  20. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, Fnu; Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  1. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community. PMID:22782519

  2. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  3. The Serum Level of Prostate Specific Antigen in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level are increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 40 patients with PCOS, and 50 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study.The subjects were compared by means of serum PSA T SHBG DHEA-S levels. The correlations between PSA and T SHBG DHEA-S were evaluated.Serum PSA levels were found to be significantly higher in PCOS (PSA: 15.64±3.36 pg/mL, in PCOS; PSA: 3.56±0.44pg/mL, in control; P<0.01). Positive correlations between PSA and T (r=0.467, P<0.01) and between PSA and DHEA-S (r=, 0.205 P<0.05) were found. A negative correlation between PSA and SHBG was apparent (r=-0.260, P<0.05). Females with PCOS tended to have higher PSA than females without PCOS (P<0.01). PSA appears to be a promising marker of androgen excess in females suffering from PCOS. (authors)

  4. A common SNP in ER aminopeptidase 2 induces a specificity switch that leads to altered antigen processing

    OpenAIRE

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Birtley, James; Seregin, Sergey; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Giastas, Petros; Petrakis, Olivia; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Amalfitano, Andrea; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Mavridis, Irene M.; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    ER aminopeptidases 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) cooperate to trim antigenic peptide precursors for loading onto MHC class I molecules and help regulate the adaptive immune response. Common coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 and ERAP2 have been linked with predisposition to human diseases ranging from viral and bacterial infections to autoimmunity and cancer. It has been hypothesized that altered antigen processing by these enzymes is a causal link to disease etiology but the ...

  5. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05. Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  6. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  7. Effects of experimental immunosuppression in cattle with persistently high antibody levels to Salmonella Dublin lipopolysaccharide O-antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Liza R

    2007-08-01

    transportation stress or dexamethasone treatment did not lead to excretion of S. Dublin in milk or faeces from infected animals. The study questions the general conception that cattle with persistently high antibody levels against S. Dublin O-antigens in naturally infected herds should be considered high risk for transmission and therefore culled as part of effective intervention strategies. It is suggested that the location of S. Dublin infected foci in the animal plays a major role for the risk of excreting bacteria.

  8. Biliary carcinoembryonic antigen levels in diagnosis of occult hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaques Waisberg; Rog(e)rio T. Palma; Lu(i)s Contim Neto; Lourdes C. Martins; Maur(i)cio S. L. Oliveira; Carlos A. Nagashima; Antonio C. Godoy; Fabio S. Goffi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively explore the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in gallbladder bile in patients with colorectal carcinoma and the morphological and clinical features of neoplasia and the occurrence of hepatic metastases.METHODS: CEA levels in the gallbladder and peripheral blood were studied in 44 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 10 patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis. CEA samples were collected from the gallbladder bile and peripheral blood during the operation, immediately before extirpating the colorectal neoplasia or cholecystectomy.Values of up to 5 ng/ml were considered normal for bile and serum CEA.RESULTS: In the 44 patients with colorectal carcinoma who underwent operation with curative intent, the average level of serum CEA was 8.5 ng/ml (range: 0.1 to 111.0 ng/ml) and for bile CEA it was 74.5 ng/ml (range: 0.2 to 571.0ng/ml). In the patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis who underwent cholecystectomy, the average level of serum CEA was 1.9 ng/ml (range: 1.0 to 3.5 ng/ml) and for bile CEA it was 1.2 ng/ml (range: 0.3 to 2.9 ng/ml).The average duration of follow-up time was 16.5 months (range: 6 to 48 months). Four patients who underwent extirpation of the colorectal carcinoma without evidence of hepatic metastasis and with an average bile CEA value of 213.2 ng/ml presented hepatic metastases between three and seventeen months after removal of the primary colorectal neoplasia. Three of them successfully underwent extirpation of the hepatic lesions.CONCLUSION: High CEA levels in gallbladders of patients undergoing curative operation for colorectal carcinoma may indicate the presence of hepatic metastases. Such patients must be followed up with special attention to the diagnosis of such lesions.

  9. Blood lead level and seizure: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shah Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the most serious and fast-growing problems in the world of today. Lead poisoning is a threatening environmental situation with the potential of causing irreversible health issues and serious negative consequences in adults and children. Lead proves to have almost no clear biological function. However, once it enters the body, it is known to cause severe health effects, which might be irreversible. In this article, we aimed to review the related literature to find evidence concerning the effect of lead toxicity on CNS, particularly its role in febrile convulsion. In this review, PubMed database was searched using MeSH terms. One hundred and fifty seven articles were retrieved, most of which were irrelevant to the topic. After a thorough search in PubMed and Google Scholar, seizure was shown to be one of the consequences of lead toxicity, but there was no evidence of epilepsy or febrile convulsion, induced by this metal contamination.

  10. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels. PMID:26914149

  11. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gi; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Chang, Se-Jin; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang-Baek; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL) with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR]...

  12. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China. PMID:25294690

  13. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  14. Subclinical neuropathy at safe levels of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppalainen, A.M.; Tola, S.; Hernberg, S.; Kock, B.

    1975-04-01

    Electrophysiological methods revealed subclinical neuropathy in 26 workers, exposed from 1 to 17 years to lead and whose blood lead (PbB) values had never exceeded 70 ..mu..g/100 ml, as ascertained by checking the monitor reports of the factory and by careful exposure history. The PbB determinations had been tested repeatedly and had been found valid. The main findings were slowing of the maximal motor conduction velocities of the median and ulnar nerves and particularly the conduction velocity of the slower fibers of the ulnar nerve. Electromyographical abnormalities comprised fibrillations, diminution of the number of motor units on maximal contraction, and an abnormally long duration of the units. Earlier similar measurements from heavily exposed workers had been even more abnormal. Thus, a dose-response relationship exists on a group basis. Since the regular monitoring of PbBs in most workers during their entire period of exposure excludes the possibility of a body burden out of proportion to the PbB slight neurological damage is produced at exposures hitherto regarded as quite safe.

  15. Occurrence and determinants of increases in blood lead levels in children shortly after lead hazard control activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an examination of the effect of lead hazard control strategies on children's blood lead levels immediately after an intervention was conducted as part of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program. Fourteen state and local government grantees participated in the evaluation. The findings indicated an overall average reduction in the blood lead levels of 869 children soon after the implementation of lead hazard controls. However, 9.3% of these children (n=81) had blood lead increases of 5 μg/dL or more. Data routinely collected as part of the evaluation, as well as additional information supplied by the individual programs, were used to determine potential reasons for these observed increases in blood lead. A logistic regression analysis indicated that three principal factors were associated with the blood lead increases: the number of exterior deteriorations present in the child's home (prior to intervention), the educational level of the female parent or guardian of the child, and the child's age. The statistical analysis did not find evidence that children living in households that either did not relocate or relocated for less than the full work period were significantly more likely to have a blood lead increase equal to or greater than 5 μg/dL than children living in households that fully relocated. Statistical analyses also did not reveal any single interior strategy to be more or less likely than others to be associated with a blood lead increase of 5 μg/dL or more

  16. Constraining the level density using fission of lead projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear level density is one of the main ingredients for the statistical description of the fission process. In this work, we propose to constrain the description of this parameter by using fission reactions induced by protons and light ions on 208Pb at high kinetic energies. The experiment was performed at GSI (Darmstadt), where the combined use of the inverse kinematics technique with an efficient detection setup allowed us to measure the atomic number of the two fission fragments in coincidence. This measurement permitted us to obtain with high precision the partial fission cross sections and the width of the charge distribution as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data and others previously measured, covering a large range in fissility, are compared to state-of-the-art calculations. The results reveal that total and partial fission cross sections cannot unambiguously constrain the level density at ground-state and saddle-point deformations and additional observables, such as the width of the charge distribution of the final fission fragments, are required.

  17. Factors related to serum level of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and cancer antigen 125 in healthy rural populations in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9(CA 19-9) and cancer antigen 125(CA125) in serum and its related factors in healthy Korean population. Although CA19-9 and CA125 have been widely used tumor markers for gastroenteric cancers and ovarian cancer in Western countries, there are no information available on the serum levels of CA19-9 and CA125 in healthy population and the factors affecting the levels of these tumor markers in Korea. A cross-sectional study was performed to measure CA19-9 and CA125 among 76 healthy males and 95 healthy females in Korea. CA19-9 and CA125 were quantitated using solid-phase radioimmunoassay kits. Informations on the factors which might be related to the levels of these markers were collected by questionnaire(e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, menstruation, oral pill use, breast-feeding history, etc.). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean of CA19-9 concentration between men(10.4 u/ml) and women (10.1 u/ml), whereas the mean of CA125 levels (11.2 u/ml) was higher in women than that(2.5 u/ml) in men. Although there was a statistically significant association between CA19-9 and average number of cigarette consumed per day (r=0.59, p=0.026) and total number of cigarettes consumed in women (r=0.74, p=0.003), the significance disappeared by multiple regression analysis after adjusting age and body mass index. Later age of menopause(p=0.035) and longer duration of breast-feeding(p=0.050) were significant predictors for CA125 levels in women by multiple regression analysis after adjusting age and body mass index. In conclusion, CA19-9 can be used as a stable tumor marker in clinical practices, however, menstruation and breast-feeding should be considered when CA125 is used in women

  18. Tight coevolution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-partner interaction networks in fungi leads to interspecies network incompatibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, L.; Zaretsky, M.; Fridman, Y; Ner-Gaon, H.; Rubin, E; Aharoni, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and connectivity of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are maintained throughout evolution by coordinated changes (coevolution) of network proteins. Despite extensive research, relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis and functional implications of the coevolution of PPI networks. Here, we used proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a hub protein that mediates DNA replication and repair in eukaryotes, as a model system to study the coevolution of PPI network...

  19. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past

  20. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  1. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  2. Lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This is one of a series of reports made on industrial pollutants by the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards to advise the United Kingdom Government on air quality standards. It describes the main sources of lead exposure, including the relative contribution of lead in the air and lead in the diet, and the methods by which it is measured in air. The Panel also considers the airborne concentrations recorded to date in the United Kingdom, ways in which lead is handled in by the body, and its toxic effects on people. The dominant source of airborne lead is petrol combustion. Other source include coal combustion, the production of non-ferrous metals and waste treatment and disposal. The justification of an air quality standard for lead is set down. The Panel recommends an air quality standard for lead in the United Kingdom of 0.25 {mu}g/m{sup 3} measured as an annual average. This is intended to protect young children, the group most vulnerable to impairment of brain function. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood

  4. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD. PMID:27338097

  5. Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Level of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Patients with Leptomeningeal Carcinomatous Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung Jin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Ha, Yoon Suk; Huh, So Young; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Min Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multifocal seeding of the leptomeninges by malignant cells, which is usually referred to as leptomeningeal carcinomatous metastasis, produces substantial morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis is usually established by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigation, including cytology, cell counts, protein, glucose, and a tumor marker such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This study examined the diagnostic value of CEA in the CSF. Methods We meas...

  6. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research. PMID:26987160

  7. RHAMM (CD168 Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian M. Gust

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Localized prostate cancer (CaP can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID, which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidate antigens were screened by DNA microarrays. Genes were then validated at the protein level by tissue microarrays, representing various stages of CaP disease. Of 43 targets identified by CID, 10 showed an overexpression on the complementary DNA array in CaP metastases. The RHAMM (CD168 gene, earlier identified by our group as an immunogenic antigen in acute and chronic leukemia, also showed highly significant overexpression in CaP metastases compared with localized disease and benign prostatic hyperplasia. At the protein level, RHAMM was highest in metastatic tissue samples and significantly higher in neoplastic localized disease compared with benign tissue. High RHAMM expression was associated with clinical parameters known to be linked to better clinical outcome. Patients with high RHAMM expression in the primaries had a significantly lower risk of biochemical failure. The number of viable cells in cell cultures was reduced in blocking experiments using hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive metastatic CaP cell lines. Acknowledging the proven immunogenic effects of RHAMM in leukemia, this antigen is intriguing as a therapeutic target in far-advanced CaP.

  8. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered. PMID:27135573

  9. Gender differences in developmental immunotoxicity to lead in the chicken: analysis following a single early low-level exposure in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, T L; Marsh, J A; Dietert, R R

    2000-12-29

    Lead has been shown previously to induce immunotoxic effects on macrophage and T-cell-associated functions after full-gestational exposure. To gain a better understanding of a single developmental exposure and the potential role of gender in immunotoxic responses to low levels of lead, 5-d-old avian embryos were injected once with lead acetate (5 or 10 microg). As juveniles (4 wk of age), animals were immunized with a foreign antigen, bovine serum albumin (BSA). At 6 and 8 wk, animals were sensitized with a self antigen, thyroglobulin (Tg). Immune parameters were examined at 6 and 10 wk of age. In males, anti-BSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were significantly increased at the highest lead treatment level compared to sodium acetate controls, while female antibody production was unaltered. Similarly, after early exposure to lead, males (which were noninducible for anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in sodium acetate controls) were induced to produce autoanti-thyroglobulin IgG. Lead exposure did not markedly alter autoantibody levels in females, although, unlike males, control females could be induced to produce autoantibody to thyroglobulin. Males differed significantly in total leukocyte counts between treatment groups, whereas females did not. No marked differences were observed in males or females in the delayed-type hypersensitivity response, lymphocytic infiltration of thyroids, or in spleen, thymus, or bursa weights following exposure to lead. These results suggest that there is a differential immunotoxic effect based on gender after a single in ovo exposure to lead. Therefore, when examining the developmental immunotoxic effects of a metal such as lead, gender is a potential risk factor. PMID:11132697

  10. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author)

  11. Neurotoxicity and aggressiveness triggered by low-level lead in children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Gonçalves, Claudia; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques

    2009-09-01

    Lead-induced neurotoxicity acquired by low-level long-term exposure has special relevance for children. A plethora of recent reports has demonstrated a direct link between low-level lead exposure and deficits in the neurobehavioral-cognitive performance manifested from childhood through adolescence. In many studies, aggressiveness and delinquency have also been suggested as symptoms of lead poisoning. Several environmental, occupational and domestic sources of contaminant lead and consequent health risks are largely identified and understood, but the occurrences of lead poisoning remain numerous. There is an urgent need for public health policies to prevent lead poisoning so as to reduce individual and societal damages and losses. In this paper we describe unsuspected sources of contaminant lead, discuss the economic losses and urban violence possibly associated with lead contamination and review the molecular basis of lead-induced neurotoxicity, emphasizing its effects on the social behavior, delinquency and IQ of children and adolescents. PMID:20058837

  12. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  13. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: Could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes of environmental media and children's blood and urine were analyzed. • Pb exposure and pollution source were studied in lead-acid battery and coking areas. • Pb isotope ratios in blood and urine were similar to those of food, water and PM. • Urine Pb level may not be used as a proxy for indicating the lead levels in blood. • Urine Pb isotope ratios is an alternative to identify source and exposure pathways. - Urinary lead is not a preferable proxy to estimate blood lead level, but urinary lead isotope ratios could be an alternative for identifying the sources of lead exposure in children

  14. Mapping the antigenic structure of porcine parvovirus at the level of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Langeveld, Jan; Bøtner, Anette;

    1998-01-01

    The antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was investigated. A total of nine linear epitopes were identified by Pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-PPV antisera. No sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All epitopes were...... located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein VP2. Based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and used to immunise rabbits. Most antisera were able to bind viral protein...

  15. Current pediatric and maternal lead levels in blood and breast milk in Andean inhabitants of a lead-glazing enclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    Prenatal and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure may induce neurodevelopmental disabilities in children. As part of an ongoing health-monitoring study, blood lead (PbB) levels were compared in 90 children tested in 2003 (current group) and 166 children tested between 1996 and 2000 (reference group) in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination. The mean PbB level for children in the reference group was 40 microg/dL (range, 6.2-119.1), and significantly higher than the mean PbB level of 25.5 microg/dL (range, 2.1-94.3) for the current group (t test, P = 0.0001). An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects for age and gender and no significant interaction between age and gender for the current group but a significant age by gender interaction for the reference group (F = 5.96, P = 0.01). Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.258, P = 0.01) between PbB level and age for males but not for females in the reference group. The Pb levels in breast milk from nursing mothers ranged from 0.4-20.5 microg/L (mean, 4.6), and the PbB levels in the breastfeeding mothers ranged from 4.5-35.2 microg/dL (mean, 17.1). The PbB levels of mother-infant pairs ranged from 4.6-27.4 microg/dL for mothers and 3.9-33.5 microg/dL for infants. The results showed significantly reduced PbB levels in children in the study area and suggest that a Pb education and prevention program contributed to the current reduction in Pb intoxication. PMID:15354063

  16. Unusual prostate carcinoma characterized by extensive metastasis, significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen, and neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuxin; YE Juan; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Qin-fang; WU Yue-long; CHEN Yue-yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Some rare variants of prostate carcinoma have been described in recent years.1-3 In this article we report a man with uncommon prostate carcinoma with the following three pathological characteristics: (a) extensive metastasis to bone and lymph nodes of the abdomen, pelvis, and supraclavicular area; (b) significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) as high as 1800 ng/ml; and (c) partial neuroendocrine differentiation in cancer tissue. The patient died 7 months after pathological diagnosis or 22 months after appearance of initial signs. This case has drawn our attention to the fact that pathological diversity of prostate neoplasm might easily lead to misdiagnosis or to delayed diagnosis, and moreover, reasonable therapy for such a case should be based on a thorough investigation. On the other hand, early initiation of appropriate treatment of advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma may improve the prognosis.

  17. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio; Juliana Naozuka; Pedro Vitoriano Oliveira; Maria Regina Alves Cardoso; Etelvino José Henriques Bechara; Wanda Maria Risso Günther

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus l...

  18. Probing hybridization of a single energy level coupled to superconducting leads

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zanten, David; Balestro, F; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Electron transport through a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads shows a sharp con-ductance onset when a quantum dot orbital level crosses the superconducting coherence peak of one lead. We study superconducting single electron transistors in the weak coupling limit by connecting individual gold nanoparticles with aluminum leads formed by electromigration. We show that the transport features close to the conductance onset threshold can be accurately described by the quantum dot level...

  19. Protein expression levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the Danish 'MALOVA'ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.; Christensen, L.; Blaakaer, J.; Jarle, Christensen,I; Gayther, S.; Jacobs, I.J.; Hogdall, C.K.; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2008-01-01

    from 189 women diagnosed with low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP, borderline ovarian tumours) and 571 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC). RESULTS: Using 30% as the cut-off level for CEA over-expression, 18% of LMPs and 4% of OCs were positive. A higher proportion of mucinous tumours......AIMS: To determine the variation in expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 760 epithelial ovarian tumours from Denmark, and to correlate expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis for the disease. METHODS: Using tissue arrays (TA), we analysed CEA expression in tissues...

  20. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Sik Hwang

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD.A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45° were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system.Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001. After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03-3.36 and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06-3.48, for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD.Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women.

  1. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  2. Virus-like particle production with yeast: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical insights into Pichia pastoris producing high levels of the Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protective immune response against Hepatitis B infection can be obtained through the administration of a single viral polypeptide, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Thus, the Hepatitis B vaccine is generated through the utilization of recombinant DNA technology, preferentially by using yeast-based expression systems. However, the polypeptide needs to assemble into spherical particles, so-called virus-like particles (VLPs, to elicit the required protective immune response. So far, no clear evidence has been presented showing whether HBsAg assembles in vivo inside the yeast cell into VLPs or later in vitro during down-stream processing and purification. Results High level production of HBsAg was carried out with recombinant Pichia pastoris using the methanol inducible AOX1 expression system. The recombinant vaccine was isolated in form of VLPs after several down-stream steps from detergent-treated cell lysates. Search for the intracellular localization of the antigen using electron microscopic studies in combination with immunogold labeling revealed the presence of HBsAg in an extended endoplasmic reticulum where it was found to assemble into defined multi-layered, lamellar structures. The distance between two layers was determined as ~6 nm indicating that these lamellas represent monolayers of well-ordered HBsAg subunits. We did not find any evidence for the presence of VLPs within the endoplasmic reticulum or other parts of the yeast cell. Conclusions It is concluded that high level production and intrinsic slow HBsAg VLP assembly kinetics are leading to retention and accumulation of the antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum where it assembles at least partly into defined lamellar structures. Further transport of HBsAg to the Golgi apparatus is impaired thus leading to secretory pathway disfunction and the formation of an extended endoplasmic reticulum which bulges into irregular cloud-shaped formations. As VLPs were

  3. Probing hybridization of a single energy level coupled to superconducting leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, D. M. T.; Balestro, F.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.

    2015-11-01

    Electron transport through a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads shows a sharp conductance onset when a quantum dot orbital level crosses the superconducting coherence peak of one lead. We study superconducting single electron transistors in the weak coupling limit by connecting individual gold nanoparticles with aluminum leads formed by electromigration. We show that the transport features close to the conductance onset threshold can be accurately described by the quantum dot levels' hybridization with the leads, which is strongly enhanced by the divergent density of states at the superconducting gap edge. This highlights the importance of electron cotunneling effects in spectroscopies with superconducting probes.

  4. Lead levels in human teeth from the inhabitants of Mexico City from three different historical periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human teeth from pre-Columbian, colonial and contemporary population groups were analyzed by PIXE in order to evaluate the lead contents in the inhabitants of Mexico City through different historical periods. Lead contents showed significant differences among the three groups, in Pre-Columbian teeth no lead was found, colonial teeth showed higher lead levels than contemporary ones. This results suggest that the native americans had no exposure to this toxic metal. The lead-glaze pottery introduced by the Spaniards, utilized in pottery and lead pipes, was the main source of lead in the colonial period. In recent teeth the deposited lead is mainly due to the absorption from the contaminated atmosphere. (Author)

  5. Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre-eclampsia in Dakahlia, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    AM El-Mansoury; MA El-Harouny; HE Gouda; SM Attalla; SM Motawei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead toxicity is a prevalent health problem in both developed and developing countries. One of the proposed mechanisms for lead-induced organ damage is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is well-associated with the pregnancy disorder, pre-eclampsia. Exposure to lead may be one of the sources of the oxidative stress that leads to development of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.Objective: To test if blood lead level of pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia is higher than the no...

  6. Lead levels in deciduous teeth of children from selected urban areas in the Cape Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lead levels in shed deciduous teeth of children from two selected urban regions in the Cape Peninsula were compared. The average levels in the teeth of children living in the vicinity of two large industrial plants were: whole teeth 20,419 ppm, enamel 10,952 ppm, and dentine 22,733 ppm. The lead levels in teeth from children living in the vicinity of light industries were: whole teeth 16,556 ppm, enamel 2,919 ppm, and dentine 19,926 ppm. These differences were significant at the 1% level (teeth and enamel) and 5% level (dentine)

  7. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associate...

  8. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec; Philippe Glorennec; Michel Cot; Pierre Dumas; Séverine Durand; Achille Massougbodji; Pierre Ayotte; Barbara Le Bot

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ra...

  9. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  10. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  11. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouachi Kamal; Sajid Khan; Mahmood Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared b...

  12. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W.; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C.

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly ...

  13. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobinprotect the population in West Africa. PMID:26866471

  14. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gi Kim

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.79, digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33-7.86, and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07-7.81 were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10-20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06-13.06. The RRs of females with 10-20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16-3.20 and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21-149.4. The RRs of females with BLL 10-20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74-62.93 and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69-147.86 was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender.

  15. Interaction of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen With DNA at the Single Molecule Level

    KAUST Repository

    Raducanu, Vlad-Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key factor involved in Eukaryotic DNA replication and repair, as well as other cellular pathways. Its importance comes mainly from two aspects: the large numbers of interacting partners and the mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA. The large numbers of interacting partners makes PCNA a necessary factor to consider when studying DNA replication, either in vitro or in vivo. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA, i.e. sliding along the duplex, reduces the six degrees of freedom of the molecule, three degrees of freedom of translation and three degrees of freedom of rotation, to only two, translation along the duplex and rotational tracking of the helix. Through this mechanism PCNA can recruit its partner proteins and localize them to the right spot on the DNA, maybe in the right spatial orientation, more effectively and in coordination with other proteins. Passive loading of the closed PCNA ring on the DNA without free ends is a topologically forbidden process. Replication factor C (RFC) uses energy of ATP hydrolysis to mechanically open the PCNA ring and load it on the dsDNA. The first half of the introduction gives overview of PCNA and RFC and the loading mechanism of PCNA on dsDNA. The second half is dedicated to a diffusion model and to an algorithm for analyzing PCNA sliding. PCNA and RFC were successfully purified, simulations and a mean squared displacement analysis algorithm were run and showed good stability and experimental PCNA sliding data was analyzed and led to parameters similar to the ones in literature.

  16. Fecal Calprotectin levels and Serological Responses to Microbial Antigens among Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashorn, Sara; Honkanen, Teemu; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Ashorn, Merja; Välineva, Tuuli; Wei, Bo; Braun, Jonathan; Rantala, Immo; Luukkaala, Tiina; Iltanen, Sari

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Non-invasive, sensitive and specific tools for early identification of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are needed for clinical practice. The aim was to identify new non-invasive test combinations for characterization of IBD in children and adolescents by comparing serological responses to microbial antigens and fecal calprotectin, a new promising marker for intestinal inflammation. Patients and methods Our study included 73 children who underwent endoscopies because of suspicion of IBD. Their sera were tested for antibodies to the Pseudomonas fluorescens-associated sequence I2, a Bacteroides caccae TonB-linked outer membrane protein, OmpW and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA). Simultaneously, samples for fecal calprotectin measurements were obtained from 55 subjects. Results IBD was diagnosed in 60 patients (CD in 18 patients, UC in 36 and IC in six). Thirteen children had a non-IBD disease. Fecal calprotectin levels were elevated (≥ 100ug/g) more frequently in IBD patients (89%, 39/44) compared to non-IBD cases (9%, 1/11, p<0.001). ASCA antibodies in sera were detected in 67% (12/18) of patients with CD, in 14% (5/36) of the children with UC and in 50% (3/6) of patients with IC. Seroreactivity for I2 was observed in 42% of the IBD patients, this frequency being higher than in non-IBD cases (7,7% seropositive; p=0.025). Serum anti-I2 IgA levels (median absorbances) were higher in those with IBD compared to those without gut inflammation (p=0.039). The combination of the measurements of fecal calprotectin and serological responses to microbial antigens (ASCA, I2 and OmpW) identified 100% of CD patients (sensitivity 100%, specificity 36%, PPV 66%, NPV 100%) and 89% of UC patients (sensitivity 89%, specificity 36%, PPV 77%, NPV 57%). Conclusions Increased levels of serological responses to microbial antigens (ASCA, I2 and OmpW) and fecal calprotectin are evident in both CD and UC patients. The combination of these markers provides valuable

  17. Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L A; Poppenga, R J; Davidson, W R; Fischer, J R; Morgan, K A

    2001-08-01

    In May 1999, lead poisoning was diagnosed in a yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) found at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Glynn County, GA, based on detection of 6.2 and 90.0 ppm wet weight (WW) lead in the liver of the warbler and squirrel, respectively. From October 21--26, 1999, 72 wild animals (37 mammals and 35 birds), comprised of 22 different species, were collected from a 24-ha area surrounding the FLETC outdoor firearms shooting range complex to evaluate exposure to lead and other trace elements. Ten animals were used as controls (five mammals and five birds) and were collected from areas 1.5--3 km outside the shooting range area. Kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for lead, zinc, and other trace elements. Bird gizzards and white-tailed deer abomasums were examined grossly and radiographically to detect metallic objects. Twenty-four (33.3%) animals (11 species) had kidney or liver tissue lead levels > 1.00 ppm, and 12 of these (6 species) had levels > 2.00 ppm. Carcasses of one brown-thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contained lead fragments. Elevated liver tissue levels of zinc (111.0 ppm) were detected in one brown thrasher that also had elevated kidney and liver tissue lead levels. In February 2000, seven yellow-rumped warblers and one solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius) found dead near the FLETC firearms shooting range also were diagnosed with lead poisoning, with liver and kidney tissue lead levels from 1.77--11.6 and 4.55--17.8 ppm WW, respectively. This frequency of elevated tissue lead levels among the animals examined, in combination with confirmed lead toxicosis in both avian and mammalian species at FLETC, indicates significant lead exposure of local wild bird and mammal communities via bullets and fragments in and on the soil surface of the four outdoor ranges. Most FLETC firearms training is being shifted to new baffled ranges

  18. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  19. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  20. The determination of levels of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from Naivasha area, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from different environments (Lake Naivasha, River Malewa boreholes and Olkaria geothermal wells) in Naivasha region and their possible origins are reported. The levels of mercury and lead in the water samples were above the maximum permissible limits of 0.005 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 respectively, as stipulated by the WHO. On the other hand, 83.3% of the samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01mg/1 in drinking water by WHO. The mercury and lead levels were also higher than those previously obtained from different regions of Kenya, while those for cadmium were within the corresponding range. Possible sources of elevated values were the geology of the surrounding area, sewage treatment works, use of phosphate rock fertilizers and lead fuels.(author)

  1. Cutaneous antigen priming via gene gun leads to skin-selective Th2 immune-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, David; Harder, Greg; Fattouh, Ramzi; Sun, Jiangfeng; Goncharova, Susanna; Stämpfli, Martin R; Coyle, Anthony J; Bramson, Jonathan L; Jordana, Manel

    2005-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the compartmentalization of immune responses is governed, in part, by tissue-selective homing instructions imprinted during T cell differentiation. In the context of allergic diseases, the fact that "disease" primarily manifests in particular tissue sites, despite pervasive allergen exposure, supports this notion. However, whether the original site of Ag exposure distinctly privileges memory Th2 immune-inflammatory responses to the same site, while sparing remote tissue compartments, remains to be fully investigated. We examined whether skin-targeted delivery of plasmid DNA encoding OVA via gene-gun technology in mice could generate allergic sensitization and give rise to Th2 effector responses in the skin as well as in the lung upon subsequent Ag encounter. Our data show that cutaneous Ag priming induced OVA-specific serum IgE and IgG1, robust Th2-cytokine production, and late-phase cutaneous responses and systemic anaphylactic shock upon skin and systemic Ag recall, respectively. However, repeated respiratory exposure to aerosolized OVA failed to instigate airway inflammatory responses in cutaneous Ag-primed mice, but not in mice initially sensitized to OVA via the respiratory mucosa. Importantly, these contrasting airway memory responses correlated with the occurrence of Th2 differentiation events at anatomically separate sites: indeed cutaneous Ag priming resulted in Ag-specific proliferative responses and Th2 differentiation in skin-, but not thoracic-, draining lymph nodes. These data indicate that Ag exposure to the skin leads to Th2 differentiation within skin-draining lymph nodes and subsequent Th2 immunity that is selectively manifested in the skin. PMID:15661930

  2. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  3. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO(3) (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products. PMID:19765804

  4. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  5. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Højrup Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against malaria. It has been hypothesized that the initial antibody responses against parasite antigens upon first few Plasmodium falciparum infections is dominated by non-protective IgG2/IgG4 and IgM antibodies, which then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. Methods Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P. falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high molecular weight (≥ 70 kDa or low molecular weight (P. falciparum infections. Results IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic IgG subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. Conclusions In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non-cytophilic to cytophilic subclasses against blood-stage parasite antigens as a likely mechanism for induction of protective immunity against malaria.

  6. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure. PMID:19656507

  7. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  8. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Imer Haziri; Muhamed Zogaj; Fatgzim Latifi; Jetmira Abeshi; Dorjana Beqiraj; Luljeta Dhaskali; Enkelejda Ozuni

    2011-01-01

    A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg). Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21...

  9. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  10. Elevated serum levels of fetal antigen 1,a member of the epidermal growth factor superfamily, in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harken Jensen, C; Drivsholm, L; Laursen, I; Teisner, B

    1999-01-01

    Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were quantified pretherapeutically in 16 patients with pneumonia, 30 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 10 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compared to the normal reference interval (n = 177). Serum FA1 levels were significantly...

  11. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah

  12. Bone scans in conjunction with prostata-specific antigen levels in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of the determination of PSA for primary diagnosis, follow-up, and therapy-monitoring of prostatic cancer is undebatable. It has been shown that more than 50% of the patients with stage A and B and about 90% of the patients with stage D demonstrate PSA-levels above the cut-off-level (4.0 ng/ml). Detection of bone metastases by bonescans is regarded as a marker for an extensive disease. In this stage, numerous groups have reported on PSA-levels >20 ng/ml in more than 98% of the patients. For PSA-levels 10 ng/ml or in cases of locally advanced stages with highly undifferentiated tumors. For follow-up purposes, the use of bonescans should be restrictes to patients with PSA-levels >20 ng/ml. Nevertheless, a bone-scan is mandatory for the evaluation of bone-pain, before surgery for local recurrence and before local radiation therapy. (orig.)

  13. Study on the neurotoxic effects of low-level lead exposure in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-wei; YANG Ru-Lai; DONG Gui-juan; ZHAO Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of developmental lead exposure on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in different brain regions and on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNA expression in the hippocampus of rats. On the basis of these observations, we explored possible mechanisms by which lead exposure leads to impaired learning and memorizing abilities in children. Methods: A series of rat animal models exposed to low levels of lead during the developing period was established (drinking water containing 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075% lead acetate). NOS activities in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the brain stem were determined with fluorescence measurement and levels of mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor 2A (NR2A) subunit and NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in the rat hippocampus were measured with Retro-translation (RT-PCR). Results: There were no differences in the body weight of rat pups between any of the groups at any given time (P>0.05). The blood lead level of Pb-exposed rat pups showed a systematic pattern of change: at 14 d of age, it was lower than that at 7 d of age, then rising to the peak level at 21 d and finally falling to lower levels at 28 d. The hippocampal NOS activities of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.01). NOS activities in the cerebellum of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.001) and the NOS activity of the 0.025% group was significantly lower than that of the 0.05% and 0.075% groups on the 28th day (P<0.05).NOS activity in the cerebral cortex of the 0.075% group was significantly lower than that of the control, 0.025% and 0.05% groups on the four day spans (P<0.001). There was no significant difference of NOS activity in the brain stem between any lead-exposed group and the control group on the four day spans. In the 0.05% and the 0.075% groups, the level of NR2A mRNA expression was

  14. Serum levels of ficolin-3 (Hakata antigen) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Munthe-Fog, L.; Garred, P.; Andersen, Trine; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ficolin-3 is a serum protein of putative importance in autoimmunity. Our objective was to investigate any differential expression of ficolin-3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or its clinical subsets. METHODS: Serum levels of ficolin-3 (S-ficolin-3) were determined in...

  15. Probing Hybridization of a Single Energy Level Coupled to Superconducting Leads

    OpenAIRE

    van Zanten, D. M. T.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Electron transport through a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads shows a sharp conductance onset when a quantum dot orbital level crosses the superconducting coherence peak of one lead. We study superconducting single electron transistors in the weak coupling limit by connecting individual gold nanoparticles with aluminum junctions formed by electromigration. We show that the transport features close to the conductance onset threshold can be accurately described by the quantum dot le...

  16. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged water advisory) than during the period before the water switch to FWS. Although unrelated to lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions. PMID:27359350

  17. Utility of endoscopic ultrasound, cytology and fluid carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 levels in pancreatic cystic lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), fluid tumor markers and cytology in distinguishing benign from (pre)malignant pancreatic cystic lesions.METHODS: 46 consecutive patients, referred to a gastroenterologist and surgeon for a symptomatic or incidental pancreatic cyst, were reviewed. EUS, cytology,and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) levels were compared with the final diagnosis, based on surgical pathology and/or imaging follow-up of at least 12 mo. Cysts were classified as benign (pseudocyst, serous cystadenoma) or malignant/pre-malignant (mucinous cystic neoplasm). Receiveroperator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed.RESULTS: The mean age was 56 years; 29% were male and median cyst diameter was 3 cm. Final outcome was obtained in 41 (89%) patients. Twenty-three (56%) of these 41 had surgical pathology. Twenty-three (56%)had benign lesions and 18 (44%) had malignant/premalignant lesions. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value of EUS alone to distinguish benign from malignant/premalignant pancreatic cystic lesions were 50%, 56%, 36% and 54% and for cytology were 71%, 96%, 92% and 85%, respectively. The corresponding values for the ROC-derived ideal cutoffs were 75%, 90%, 75%, 90% for CA 19-9 (> 37 U/mL)and 70%, 85%, 79% and 78% for CEA (> 3.1 ng/mL).Subgroup analysis of those with surgical pathology yielded almost identical performance and cutoffs.CONCLUSION: Cytology and cyst fluid tumor marker analysis is a very useful tool in distinguishing benign from (pre)malignant pancreatic cystic lesions.

  18. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P cadmium level of male and female students were 0.54 ± 0.23 and 0.52 ± 0.36, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students. The blood lead level of male and female students were 1.09 ± 0.49 and 0.59 ± 0.45, respectively. The blood lead level of male students was significantly higher than that of female students (P cadmium level of smokers and nonsmokers were 0.69 ± 0.29 and 0.49 ± 0.29 respectively (P cadmium level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). The blood lead level of smokers and nonsmokers were 1.09 ± 0.43 and 0.80 ± 0.54, respectively. The blood lead level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Therefore, proper nutritional education programs are required for college students in order to improve their dietary and health related living habits. PMID:22977689

  19. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  20. Levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens in resident and anadromous salmonids in the River Ellidaár system in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmundsson, Á; Árnason, F; Gudmundsdóttir, S; Antonsson, T

    2016-06-01

    In relation to stock enhancement programmes, wild salmon broodfish have been routinely screened for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens (Rs-Ag) for decades. A sudden increase in the prevalence of Rs-Ag experienced caused extensive problems to this industry as eggs from positive fish are discarded. The prevalence and level of Rs-Ag were examined in resident and anadromous salmonids in the River Ellidaár system and the progress of Rs-Ag in a cohort of salmon followed. Both prevalence and Rs-Ag levels were high in resident salmonids and emigrating salmon smolts in the river system. When the smolts re-entered their home river as adults the following summer, they were almost free of Rs-Ag, but the longer they stayed in the river, the more Rs-Ag they acquired; the majority being positive at spawning. This study demonstrates a high level of Rs-Ag in salmonids in the River Ellidaár system which significantly reduces in the salmon during its seawater phase. Accordingly, it seems ideal to sample salmon broodfish as soon as possible after ascending the river and subsequently transfer to Rs-free environment for storage until stripping, which could result in lower Rs-prevalence and minimize the problems that stock enhancement programmes have faced due to Rs-positive wild broodfish. PMID:26275672

  1. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  2. Relationship between CT features and high preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess the relationship between thin-section computed tomography (CT) features of primary tumour and high preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels that reportedly suggest poor prognoses in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: Two hundred and seventy-five consecutive patients who underwent resection of pathological stage I (T1–2aN0M0) adenocarcinomas with a maximum diameter of ≤3 cm (144 men, 131 women; mean age 67.8 years) were enrolled. CT features of the primary tumours and clinical characteristics of these patients were statistically evaluated to identify the factors associated with high serum CEA levels (>5 ng/ml). Results: Eighty-one patients (29.5%) had high serum CEA levels. In univariate analysis, lower ground-glass opacity ratio (p < 0.001), lower tumour shadow disappearance rate (TDR: the ratio of tumour area in mediastinal window to that of lung window, p < 0.001), presence of notch (p = 0.015), and coexistence with bullae or honeycomb cysts (p < 0.001) were observed more frequently in the group with high serum CEA levels than that of the group with normal levels. TDR [odds ratio (OR) 0.984; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.976–0.993; p < 0.001] and coexistence with bullae or honeycomb cysts (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.55–6.12; p = 0.001) remained significant, even after adjusting patients' age, gender, and smoking status. Conclusions: Adenocarcinomas with lower TDR and coexisting with bullae or honeycomb cysts are associated with high preoperative serum CEA levels. Although some CEA elevations may be due to benign pulmonary diseases, such tumours are suspected to have poor prognoses, even for early-stage diseases

  3. Using a genomic assay for the detection of SNPs of Knops blood group antigens leads to the identification of two caucasians homozygous for the SNP associated with the knops SL3 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. A.; Sprogoe, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: The antigens of the Knops (Kn) blood group system are associated with SNPs located on exon 29 and (to lesser extent) on exon 26 of the complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene. Because of a lack of proper typing antibodies, serologic detection of Kn antigens is not feasible. We...... previously described to be Sl3- (personal communication from the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol). * Number indicates the nucleotide position of the CR1 gene. Conclusion: In this study, we have set up a genomic assay for identifying the antigens in the Knops system. We found...... designed a genomic assay based on sequencing targeting the SNPs underlying the antigens of the Knops system. Study Design/Methods: Samples from a total of 105 blood donors and 2 patients were examined for polymorphisms in CR1 exon 29 by using PCR and subsequent Sanger sequencing. Results...

  4. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  5. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  6. Investigating the Effects of Regular Resistance Training and Prostatic Massage on Proinflammatory Markers and Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Males with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Some studies support that chronic inflammation of prostate tissue plays a role in the development of PC. A variety of growth factors and cytokines may lead to proinflammatory processes within the prostate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular resistance training and prostatic massage on proinflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels in males with PC. Patients and Methods Forty-five patients with PC were selected for this study. They were randomized into either the resistance training intervention group (n = 15, the massage intervention group (n = 15, or the control group (n = 15. Resistance-training patients participated in resistance training for eight weeks, and massage was performed for six weeks on the massage group. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the data (P ≤ 0.05. Results In the resistance training group, IL-10 levels significantly increased after four (P = 0.055 and eight weeks (P = 0.000. Four and eight weeks of resistance training showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Patients of massage intervention showed an increase in IL-10 after four (P = 0.045 and six weeks (P = 0.005. In addition, four and six weeks of massage intervention showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Conclusions Regular resistance training and prostatic massage can improve proinflammatory markers and PSA levels in men with PC.

  7. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  8. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels (≤10 μg/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican–American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican–American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≥3.50 μg/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≤0.7 μg/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08–6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  9. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  10. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0 and 46.6 (36.5–60.1 µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  11. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  12. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nourmoradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  13. A Systematic Assessment of Blood Lead Level in Children and Associated Risk Factors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Zhen; Huang, Shao Xin; DU, Chuang; Wang, Hong; He, Li Ping; Bi, Yong Yi; Shi, Yong; Wang, Chun Hong

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we searched multiple databases for all relevant original articles (1996-2013). To investigate blood lead levels (BLL) and possible risk factors for lead exposure among children in China A total of 388 articles met our inclusion criteria. The overall geometric mean (GM) BLL was 71 µg/L, and the prevalence of elevated BLL (EBLL, defined as BLL ⋝ 100 µg/L) was 18.48% among children. The prevalence of EBLL remained significantly higher among boys. In children less than 6 years of age, there were significantly increasing trends in both BLL and prevalence of EBLL in an age-dependent manner. The ban on leaded gasoline significantly reduced the BLL as well as EBLL prevalence; however, children whose parents had lower educational levels or were exposed to lead in the workplace had a higher EBLL prevalence. Despite its decline over time, the average BLL among children in China remains higher than the average level most recently reported in the United States. Childhood lead poisoning remains a public health problem in China. PMID:26383600

  14. Early postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels in patients operated for colorectal carcinoma. A new method for following-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The only method of treatment offering a favourable prognosis for colorectal carcinoma is radical resection of the part of the colon or rectum including the pertaining lymph nodes and eventual radical removal of metastases. But even such presumably curative surgery does not warrant full recovery of all operated patients as recurrences are frequent and according to most analyses 5-year survival is lower than 50%. Therefore, additional treatment is attempted in some patients. Various prognostic factors of disease recurrence are helpful. One such prognostic sign is serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level measured soon after surgery. Conclusions. All patients with radical R0 resection, according to their postoperative serum CEA levels and the CEA half-life fall into three groups: CEAR0, CEAR1 and CEAR2 resected patients. A statistically significant difference regarding survival and number of recurrences was noted among patients categorized by the stage of disease, particularly between the three groups of patients and the group having been undergone presumably curative surgery. (author)

  15. A Feasibility Study of Lead Free Solders for Level 1 Packaging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the lead free ternary combinations that satisfied the solidification requirement for a solder used in level 1 packaging applications, using the CALPHAD approach. The segregation profiles of the promising candidates were analyzed after scrutinizing the...

  16. Immunoglobulin Concentrations and Antigen-Specific Antibody Levels in Cervicovaginal Lavages of Rhesus Macaques Are Influenced by the Stage of the Menstrual Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, F. Xusheng; Ma, Zhongmin; Rourke, Tracy; Srinivasan, Seema; McChesney, Michael; Christopher J. Miller

    1999-01-01

    The levels of antigen-specific antibodies (Abs) and immunoglobulins in the cervical mucus of women vary with the menstrual cycle; the highest levels occur during menses, and the lowest occur during the periovulatory period. The rhesus macaque is a widely used animal model of female genital tract immunity. We sought to determine whether rhesus macaques have a cyclical pattern of changing cervicovaginal Ab and immunoglobulin levels that is similar to that of the human female. ...

  17. Stabilization of lead-rich low-level mixed waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemically bonded magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic has been developed by an acid-base reaction at room temperature, for use in stabilizing U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed waste streams that include hazardous metals and low-level radioactive elements. Using this ceramic, we solidified, in monolithic waste forms, low-level mixed waste streams containing various levels of PbCl2 and PbCO3. These final waste forms were evaluated for their land disposal suitability. The results showed low open porosity (1.48-4.61 vol.%); hence, low permeability, and higher compression strengths (4310-6734 psi) that were one order of magnitude above that required. The level of lead in the leachate following the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test was reduced from 50,000 to <0.1 ppm. Leachability indexes from the long-term leaching test (ANS 16.1 test) were between 11.9 and 13.6. This excellent lead retention is due to its chemical fixation as insoluble lead phosphate and to physical encapsulation by the phosphate matrix

  18. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone and Prostate Specific Antigen Levels in Sprague-Dawley Female Rats Bearing Mammary Tumours Induced by Dimethylbenz (A) Anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast Cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in the world and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in females of both developed and developing countries. The present work aimed to study the diagnostic value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for breast cancer and the importance of treatment by blue green algae Spirulina platensis supplementation on PSA and testosterone levels. Two different analytical techniques based on micro particle enzyme immunoassay (MPIA) and enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ILFA) for quantitative determination of total PSA (free PSA and PSA complexed to alpha-1-antichymptrypsin) were studied in the diagnosis of breast cancer before and after Spirulina platensis supplementation. Female rats secret PSA from female prostate gland, serum testosterone and PSA concentrations were not detected in control and rats supplemented by Spirulina platensis groups. Serum testosterone and PSA concentration were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in rats bearing mammary tumours than rats bearing mammary tumours supplemented with Spirulina platensis. These results suggest that the clinical applicability of total PSA for breast cancer diagnosis and the biological mechanism behind its increase should be further investigated. Finally, the physiological mechanism behind the total PSA increase in breast cancer and its ramifications with respect to tumour progression should be further investigated.

  19. Effect of dose level and pregnancy on the distribution and toxicity of intravenous lead in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female Wistar rats were injected intravenously with tracer levels of 210Pb, alone or combined with carrier Pb(NO3)2 at 5 or 25 mg/kg body weight at 9 or 15 days of gestation (dg). Tissue 210Pb distribution and retention, and lead excretion, were measured several times during the first 30 h and at 20 dg. Toxic effects following the administration of 25 mg/kg (a teratogenic dose) included an early decrease in hematocrit, hematuria, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and diarrhea, as well as an eventual loss of body weight and an increase in spleen and kidney weights. The stage of pregnancy at injection did not affect the retention and distribution of lead in major organs other than the reproductive system. Following injection of the 25-mg/kg dose, deposition of lead in the liver, kidney, spleen, and lung was elevated. Disproportionately high plasma lead levels were also observed at early times after the injection of the 25-mg/kg dose, and may act as a significant factor in placental lead transfer and subsequent malformations or fetal mortality

  20. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns. PMID:11191638

  1. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  2. An adenoviral cancer vaccine co-encoding a tumor associated antigen together with secreted 4-1BBL leads to delayed tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Pedersen, Anders Elm;

    2016-01-01

    antibody administration. Furthermore, adenovirus encoded 4-1BBL expression has previously been successfully used to enhance responses toward Plasmodium falciparum and Influenza A antigens. We showed that the incorporation of 4-1BBL in the adenovirus vector led to surface expression of 4-1BBL on antigen...... survival compared to the vaccine expressing the membrane form of 4-1BBL. Accordingly, secreted 4-1BBL co-encoded with the Ii linked antigen may offer a simplification compared to administration of drug and vaccine separately....

  3. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  4. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  5. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.

  6. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. CASE REPORT A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. CONCLUSIONS There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  7. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures. PMID:23528234

  8. Low-level lead exposure effects on spatial reference memory and working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Yang; Ping Zhou; Yonghui Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that lead exposure can result in cognitive dysfunction and behavior disorders. However, lead exposure impairments vary under different experimental conditions.OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in spatial learning and memory following low-level lead exposure in rats, in Morris water maze test under the same experimental condition used to analyze lead exposure effects on various memory types and learning processes.DESIGN AND SETTING: The experiment was conducted at the Animal Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science between February 2005 and March 2006. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and behavioral observations were performed.MATERIALS: Sixteen male, healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into normal control and lead exposure groups (n = 8).METHODS: Rats in the normal control group were fed distilled water, and those in the lead exposure group were fed 250 mL of 0.05% lead acetate once per day. At day 28, all rats performed the Morris water maze test, consisting of four phases: space navigation, probe test, working memory test, and visual cue test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Place navigation in the Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, probe trials for spatial reference memory, working memory test for spatial working memory, and visual cue test for non-spatial cognitive function. Perkin-Elmer Model 300 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was utilized to determine blood lead levels in rats.RESULTS: (1) In the working memory test, the time to reach the platform remained unchanged between the control and lead exposure groups (F(1,1) = 0.007, P = 0.935). A visible decrease in escape latencies was observed in each group (P = 0.028). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (F(1,1) = 1.869, P = 0.193). The working memory probe test demonstrated no change between the two groups in the time spent in the target quadrant during the working memory probe test

  9. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imer Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg. Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21 mg/kg (Hg; 0.01-0.16 mg/kg (Pb; nd - 0.002 (Cd, and 0.01-0.03 (Cr mg/kg wet weight. The results collected from this monitoring process revealed that these groups of cultivated fish species show low levels of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and chrome (Cr. This monitoring process is very important to safeguard the health of Tirana consumers.

  10. Transition of cord blood lead level, 1985-2002, in the Taipei area and its determinants after the cease of leaded gasoline use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead has long been of concern for its toxicity, impairment of neurobehavioral and cognitive development, and electrophysiological deficits in children, even at levels less than 10 μg/dL. The present study was conducted to elucidate the extent of cord blood lead level decline in the Taipei area from 1985 to 2002 and to explore the factors affecting the cord blood lead level after the cease of leaded gasoline use. In the current study period of 2001-2002, 184 of 1310 newborns delivered in the Taipei Municipal Women and Children Hospital between September 2001 and August 2002 were eligible and randomly selected to participate in this study. Neither of their parents had an occupational lead exposure history. At each delivery, a sample of 5-10 mL umbilical cord blood was collected for lead determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The cord blood lead level of the newborns in the current study period averaged 2.35±1.12 μg/dL. Together with the cord blood lead averages of 7.48±2.25 and 3.28±1.52 μg/dL obtained from two previous surveys conducted in 1985-1987 and 1990-1992, respectively, the cord blood lead level was significantly decreased (P<0.005). It is estimated that such a reduction in cord blood lead from 7.48 to 2.35 μg/dL for each year's cohort of 260,000 newborns in Taiwan might benefit the economics, ranging from US$8.9 billion to US$12.1 billion by improving the worker productivity. For the time period from 1985 to 2002, there were consistent transition patterns among the yearly fluctuations of air lead level, leaded gasoline consumption, lead content in gasoline, estimated lead amount emitted from the consumed leaded gasoline, and average cord blood lead levels of the three respective study periods. Additionally, every 0.1-g/L reduction in lead content in gasoline might lead to a lowering of cord blood lead level by 1.78 μg/dL. Furthermore, at low level of around 2 μg/dL, a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that

  11. Ubiquitin Conjugation of Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen DNA Vaccine Leads to Enhanced Cell-Mediated Immune Response in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Yu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Hong-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Xi, Min; ZANG, GUO-QING; Tang, Zheng-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Background Nearly 350 million persons worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Ubiquitin (Ub) is a highly conserved small regulatory protein, ubiquitous in eukaryotes, that usually serves as a signal for the target protein that is recognised and degraded in proteasomes . The Ub-mediated processing of antigens is rapid and efficient and stimulates cell-mediated immune responses. Accordingly, Ub-mediated processing of antigens has been widely used in chronic-infection an...

  12. Intravital and whole-organ imaging reveals capture of melanoma-derived antigen by lymph node subcapsular macrophages leading to widespread deposition on follicular dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moalli, Federica; Proulx, Steven T; Schwendener, Reto; Detmar, Michael; Schlapbach, Christoph; Stein, Jens V.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant antigens expressed by tumor cells, such as in melanoma, are often associated with humoral immune responses, which may in turn influence tumor progression. Despite recent data showing the central role of adaptive immune responses on cancer spread or control, it remains poorly understood where and how tumor-derived antigen (TDA) induces a humoral immune response in tumor-bearing hosts. Based on our observation of TDA accumulation in B cell areas of lymph nodes (LNs) from melanoma patie...

  13. Intravital and Whole-Organ Imaging Reveals Capture of Melanoma-Derived Antigen by Lymph Node Subcapsular Macrophages Leading to Widespread Deposition on Follicular Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moalli, Federica; Proulx, Steven T; Schwendener, Reto; Detmar, Michael; Schlapbach, Christoph; Stein, Jens V.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant antigens expressed by tumor cells, such as in melanoma, are often associated with humoral immune responses, which may in turn influence tumor progression. Despite recent data showing the central role of adaptive immune responses on cancer spread or control, it remains poorly understood where and how tumor-derived antigen (TDA) induces a humoral immune response in tumor-bearing hosts. Based on our observation of TDA accumulation in B cell areas of lymph nodes (LNs) from melanoma patie...

  14. Levels of lead in solvent and water-based paints manufactured in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of lead in eight popular brands of solvent- and water-based paint manufactured locally in Pakistan are reported. The analysis was done using the flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method. The lead concentration was found to vary from 3.3 mg/kg to 13179 in different solvent-based brands, whereas the concentration of the metal was in the range of 1768 to less than 0.5mg/kg in water based paints. The lead concentrations were especially high in oil based green (maximum value of 13170 mg/kg) and yellow paints (maximum value of 84940 mg/kg). The corresponding higher concentration were observed in case of emerald (maximum value of 1768 mg/kg) and gray (maximum value of 542 mg/kg) paints in the water-based category. (author)

  15. Telomere length in children environmentally exposed to low-to-moderate levels of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007–2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and blood rTL was measured by quantitative PCR. The geometric mean of B-Pb was 3.28 μg/dl (range: 0.90–14.2), and the geometric mean of rTL was 1.08 (range: 0.49–2.09). B-Pb was significantly inversely associated with rTL in the children (rS = − 0.25, p = 0.013; in further analyses both log-transformed-univariate regression analysis β = − 0.13, p = 0.026, and R2adj 4%; and β = − 0.12, p = 0.056 when adjusting for mothers' smoking during pregnancy, Apgar score, mother's and father's ages at delivery, sex and mother's education, R2adj 12%, p = 0.011). The effect of lead remained significant in children without prenatal tobacco exposure (N = 87, rS = − 0.24, p = 0.024; in further analyses, β = − 0.13, p = 0.029, and R2adj 4%). rTL was not affected by sex, the concentrations of other elements in the blood (i.e., cadmium and selenium concentrations), or oxidative injury parameters (total antioxidant status, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Lead exposure in childhood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres, which might contribute to diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The inverse association between blood lead level and the telomeres in children emphasizes the importance of further reducing lead levels in the environment. - Highlights: • This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between environmental lead exposure and

  16. Telomere length in children environmentally exposed to low-to-moderate levels of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlas, Natalia, E-mail: n-pawlas@wp.pl [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Płachetka, Anna [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa str. 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kozłowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Broberg, Karin [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kasperczyk, Sławomir [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, SMDZ in Zabrze, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-09-01

    Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007–2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and blood rTL was measured by quantitative PCR. The geometric mean of B-Pb was 3.28 μg/dl (range: 0.90–14.2), and the geometric mean of rTL was 1.08 (range: 0.49–2.09). B-Pb was significantly inversely associated with rTL in the children (r{sub S} = − 0.25, p = 0.013; in further analyses both log-transformed-univariate regression analysis β = − 0.13, p = 0.026, and R{sup 2}adj 4%; and β = − 0.12, p = 0.056 when adjusting for mothers' smoking during pregnancy, Apgar score, mother's and father's ages at delivery, sex and mother's education, R{sup 2}adj 12%, p = 0.011). The effect of lead remained significant in children without prenatal tobacco exposure (N = 87, r{sub S} = − 0.24, p = 0.024; in further analyses, β = − 0.13, p = 0.029, and R{sup 2}adj 4%). rTL was not affected by sex, the concentrations of other elements in the blood (i.e., cadmium and selenium concentrations), or oxidative injury parameters (total antioxidant status, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Lead exposure in childhood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres, which might contribute to diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The inverse association between blood lead level and the telomeres in children emphasizes the importance of further reducing lead levels in the environment. - Highlights: • This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between

  17. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and cancer antigen 125 are related to the prognosis of adenomyosis patients after interventional therapy

    OpenAIRE

    MU, YONGXU; Hu, Xiaoyan; He, Junfeng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Heming; Hao, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study is to investigate the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in serum of adenomyosis patients before and after interventional therapy. The role of serum levels of VEGF and CA125 for the prognosis of adenomyosis is further studied. Methods: A total of 80 adenomyosis patients treated with interventional therapy and 40 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect ...

  18. Bucky-gel coated glassy carbon electrodes, for voltammetric detection of femtomolar leveled lead ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qijin; Yu, Fen; Zhu, Lina; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Nianjun

    2010-10-15

    Femtomolar (fM) leveled lead ions were electrochemically detected using a bucky-gel coated glassy carbon electrode and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The bucky-gel was composed of dithizone, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The fabrication of the bucky-gel coated electrode was optimized. The modified electrode was characterized with voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and chronoamperometry. After the accumulation of lead ions into the bucky-gel modified electrode at -1.2V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) for 5 min in a pH 4.4 sodium acetate-acetate acid buffer solution, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammograms of the accumulated lead show an anodic wave at -0.58 V. The anodic peak current is detectable for lead ions in the concentration range from 1.0 μM down to 500 fM. The detection limit is calculated to be 100 fM. The proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of lead ions in lake water. PMID:20875583

  19. Optimal Decision for Fashion Supply Chains with Service Level Constraint and Controllable Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a two-echelon supply chain inventory model with controllable lead time and service level constraint in fashion supply chains, in which we assume that the unit cost of compressing lead time follows exponential distribution. Under these conditions we investigate the optimal ordering quantity and production quantity in the fashion supply chain by minimizing the joint total cost. Simultaneously, we work out the boundaries of ordering quantity and production quantity, which simplify the computation. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented to test the feasibility of the model. The results show that assuming the unit cost of compressing lead time in accordance with exponential distribution is realistic. It also notices that the optimal order and production decision for fashion supply chains are constrained obviously by the service level and safety factors. What is more, the holding cost rate of both the service level and safety factors has a certain influence on it. And by further analyzing on some references in the last part, we have done some extensions and found some interesting results.

  20. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and surma use determine cord lead levels in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To estimate the umbilical cord blood lead levels (BLLs) of Pakistani neonates and to identify determinants for umbilical BLLs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of mothers and infants at one of the two obstetric units of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi during January-August 2005. Information from 540 mothers selected randomly from those registered for delivery was obtained about their pregnancy, diet, and current and past lead exposures. We collected umbilical cord blood for lead levels analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We computed geometric and arithmetic means. We performed multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with log-transformed umbilical cord BLLs. We also performed logistic regression analysis to identify determinants of high lead cord BLLs (≥10 μg/dl). Results: The geometric mean cord BLL of the neonates was 9.6 μg/dl; arithmetic mean (S.D.) was 10.8 μg/dl (5.7) with a median of 9.7 μg/dl and a range of 1.8-48.9 μg/dl. Women who reported intake of less than 58.5 mg of elemental iron supplement per day during pregnancy had cord BLL of 10.0 μg/dl; in comparison those women who had higher iron intake had lower cord BLL (8.4 μg/dl). Those who used surma (an eye cosmetic) daily had higher cord BLL (11.5 μg/dl) as compared to those who used it less frequently (9.4 μg/dl). In multivariable linear regression model, higher iron intake, owning a car, and being in 2nd quartile of mid-arm circumference were associated with low lead levels while father's occupation in lead-based industry was associated with significantly higher umbilical cord BLLs. There was interaction of daily surma use and ethnicity. Geometric mean BLLs were varied among surma users by ethnicity. Conclusions: Umbilical cord BLLs are high in Karachi, Pakistan, in comparison to those in developed countries such as United States. Measures are needed to reduce fetal lead exposure to prevent adverse

  1. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  2. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  3. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  4. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, CEA ratio, and treatment outcome of rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiation and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Between 2000 and 2009, 138 patients with advanced rectal cancer receiving CRT before surgery at our hospital were retrospectively classified into 3 groups: pre-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group L; n = 87); pre-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml and post-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group H-L; n = 32); and both pre- and post-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml (group H-H; n = 19). CEA ratio (defined as post-CRT CEA divided by pre-CRT CEA), post-CRT CEA level and other factors were reviewed for prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was better in groups L (69.0%) and H-L (74.5%) than in group H-H (44.9%) (p = 0.024). Pathologic complete response was observed in 19.5%, 21.9% and 5.3% of groups L, H-L and H-H respectively (p = 0.281). Multivariate analysis showed that ypN stage and pCR were independent prognostic factors for DFS and that post-CRT CEA level was independently predictive of pCR. As a whole, post-CRT CEA <2.61 ng/ml predicted pCR (sensitivity 76.0%; specificity 58.4%). For those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml, post-CRT CEA and CEA ratio both predicted pCR (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 76.7%). In patients with pre-CRT serum CEA ≥6 ng/ml, those with “normalized” CEA levels after CRT may have similar DFS to those with “normal” (<6 ng/ml) pre-CRT values. Post-CRT CEA level is a predictor for pCR, especially in those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml

  5. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in Nanjing, China: lead and cadmium levels in the duration of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kang-sheng; MAO Xiao-dong; HAO Jia-hu; SHI Juan; DAI Chun-fang; CHEN Wen-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal lead and cadmium exposure will not only influence the mother's organ systems,but also will provide an environment that may influence the fetus and neonate in a harmful way.In the present study,we detected the blood lead levels (BLLS) and cadmium levels for the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery and to analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.Methods A cohort study survey was carried out.We recruited 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group,and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group.Results The lead concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and in the postpartum period were:(5.98±2.43),(5.54±2.01),(5.59±1.97),and (6.76±1.74) μg/dl; and (6.75±2.13) μg/dl in the control group.The cadmium concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum period were 1.61±0.45,1.63±0.46,1.64±0.49,and 1.67±0.57.We found that the BLLs in the gravida group were lower than in the control group during all three trimesters.Occupations,supplement nutritional elements (dietary supplements and nutritional (food) elements),and the time of house painting could affect BLLs in pregnant women.Lead-related occupations,using cosmetics,and living in a house painted more recently than one year previously are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women,while calcium,iron,zinc,and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusions These findings may help people,especially pregnant women,to reduce lead exposure via supplements of calcium,iron,zinc,and milk or avoiding contacting risk factors.

  6. High Chloride Doping Levels Stabilize the Perovskite Phase of Cesium Lead Iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastidar, Subham; Egger, David A; Tan, Liang Z; Cromer, Samuel B; Dillon, Andrew D; Liu, Shi; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M; Fafarman, Aaron T

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead iodide possesses an excellent combination of band gap and absorption coefficient for photovoltaic applications in its perovskite phase. However, this is not its equilibrium structure under ambient conditions. In air, at ambient temperature it rapidly transforms to a nonfunctional, so-called yellow phase. Here we show that chloride doping, particularly at levels near the solubility limit for chloride in a cesium lead iodide host, provides a new approach to stabilizing the functional perovskite phase. In order to achieve high doping levels, we first co-deposit colloidal nanocrystals of pure cesium lead chloride and cesium lead iodide, thereby ensuring nanometer-scale mixing even at compositions that potentially exceed the bulk miscibility of the two phases. The resulting nanocrystal solid is subsequently fused into a polycrystalline thin film by chemically induced, room-temperature sintering. Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the chloride is further dispersed during sintering and a polycrystalline mixed phase is formed. Using density functional theory (DFT) methods in conjunction with nudged elastic band techniques, low-energy pathways for interstitial chlorine diffusion into a majority-iodide lattice were identified, consistent with the facile diffusion and fast halide exchange reactions observed. By comparison to DFT-calculated values (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional), the relative change in band gap and the lattice contraction are shown to be consistent with a Cl/I ratio of a few percent in the mixed phase. At these incorporation levels, the half-life of the functional perovskite phase in a humid atmosphere increases by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:27135266

  7. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  8. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  9. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults

  10. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  11. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 μg/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 μg/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 μg/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 μg/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 μg/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: → Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. → The mothers having history

  12. Seasonal variation of atmospheric lead levels in three sites in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Irma; Belmont, Raul; Jauregui, Ernesto [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric lead concentrations associated to particles smaller than 10 {mu}m were measured in Mexico City, to establish changes of levels of this pollutant in three sites (industrial, commercial and residential) for 1990-1991. Moreover, an attempt was made to establish a possible link between this airborne pollutant and blood lead levels reported in children and women living near the sampling sites. A marked gradient in atmospheric lead from North to South is observed with higher and more variable mean lead values in the northern site where industry is located. Lead concentrations and their corresponding variability gradually decrease (from about 1.2 to 0.5 {mu}g m-3) toward the southern suburbs. Moreover, these values are significantly higher during the dry season than in the wet season when a marked washout effect if observed. However, the quarterly averages recorded during the sampling time do not exceed the international standard (1.5 {mu}g m-3). Lead concentrations and corresponding PM{sub 1}0 values showed a significant correlation. This results shows that lead is associated to the fine fraction of airborne particles, with high proportion of them deposited in the respiratory tract. A substantial abatement in levels of atmospheric lead is observed in 1991 with respect to the previous year. This may be explained by the introduction of improved quality gasoline in the capital city. In spite of this measure more than 30% of the evaluated population in 1991 presented blood-lead levels> 10 {mu}g dL-1. [Spanish] Durante 1991 se evaluaron en tres sitios (industrial, comercial y residencial), las concentraciones de plomo atmosferico asociado a particulas menores de 10 {mu}m, con el objeto de establecer los cambios en los niveles de este contaminante. Ademas, se trato de establecer la posible relacion de este contaminante con los niveles de plomo en sangre citados para ninos y mujeres que viven en los alrededores de los sitios de muestreo. Se observo un marcado

  13. Targeting human dendritic cells via DEC-205 using PLGA nanoparticles leads to enhanced cross-presentation of a melanoma-associated antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandeep S Saluja,1 Douglas J Hanlon,1 Fiona A Sharp,2 Enping Hong,2 David Khalil,1 Eve Robinson,1 Robert Tigelaar,1 Tarek M Fahmy,2,3 Richard L Edelson1 1Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 3Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs is a powerful and novel strategy for vaccination. Priming or loading DCs with antigen controls whether subsequent immunity will develop and hence whether effective vaccination can be achieved. The goal of our present work was to increase the potency of DC-based antitumor vaccines by overcoming inherent limitations associated with antigen stability and cross-presentation. Nanoparticles prepared from the biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid have been extensively used in clinical settings for drug delivery and are currently the subject of intensive investigation as antigen delivery vehicles for vaccine applications. Here we describe a nanoparticulate delivery system with the ability to simultaneously carry a high density of protein-based antigen while displaying a DC targeting ligand on its surface. Utilizing a targeting motif specific for the DC-associated surface ligand DEC-205, we show that targeted nanoparticles encapsulating a MART-127–35 peptide are both internalized and cross-presented with significantly higher efficiency than isotype control-coated nanoparticles in human cells. In addition, the DEC-205-labeled nanoparticles rapidly escape from the DC endosomal compartment and do not colocalize with markers of early (EEA-1 or late endosome/lysosome (LAMP-1. This indicates that encapsulated antigens delivered by nanoparticles may have direct access to the class I cytoplasmic major histocompatibility complex loading machinery, overcoming the need for “classical” cross-presentation and facilitating heightened DC

  14. Environmental factors predicting blood lead levels in pregnant women in the UK: the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Taylor

    Full Text Available Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL of 5-10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy.Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women.Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC in 1991-1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285. Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19.The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41-19.14 µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.42; p<0.001. Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects.The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

  15. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 ...

  16. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C.(Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain); Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 ...

  17. Teratoma during Pregnancy with Positive Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors and Elevated Ca19-9 Antigen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Kanlioglu Kuman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 27-year-old female patient admitted with an anterior mediastinal mass. She complained of chest discomfort and hemoptysis which began seven months prior. She had given birth five months prior. Thoracic X-ray showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Thorax computed tomography (CT confirmed a well-defined anterior mediastinal mass with  cm diameter, extending to the right hemithorax. It was composed of cystic spaces and discrete areas like soft tissue and fat. Serum Ca 19-9 level was elevated. CT features were consistent with a mature teratoma. During median sternotomy, the tumor revealed adhesions to the right lung and the right subclavian artery. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a mature teratoma. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were detected to be positive in the resected tissue. We conclude that alterations in hormone levels during pregnancy might be the cause of rapid tumor growth which leads to hemoptysis.

  18. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.;

    2011-01-01

    useful for integrated full-chain human health risk assessments. In this study we use a newly developed computational tool – the 2FUN player to conduct a full-chain assessment combining measured ambient air lead concentrations with multi-media modelling and PBPK simulations to estimate the health risks...... calculate the Pb levels in the various body systems. Our results showed a low health risk from Pb exposures. It also identified that ingestion of leafy vegetables (i.e. lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and fruits contribute the most to total Pb blood levels. This full chain assessment approach of the 2FUN...... player is likely to be very useful for local health risk assessment studies (i.e. EIA and SEA studies)....

  19. Occurrence of high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal plants of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Plants can contain heavy metals from their presence in the soil, water or air. High levels of toxic metals can occur when the plants are grown in polluted areas, such as near roadways or metal mining and smelting operations. In addition, high levels can be found when agricultural expedients are used, including Cadmium containing fertilizers, organic mercury or lead based pesticides, and contaminated irrigation water. Quality has to be built into the whole process beginning from the selection of starting material to the final product reaching the consumer. In the present study were carried out, to evaluate the quality and safety of crude drug. The result shows that Indian herbal drug industry needs to ensure procurement of standardized authentic raw material free from toxic contaminants. Such approaches remain important in global promotion of medicinal plants & herbal medicinal products from India.

  20. An adenoviral cancer vaccine co-encoding a tumor associated antigen together with secreted 4-1BBL leads to delayed tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Laursen, Henriette; Holst, Peter J

    2016-04-19

    Previous studies have shown promising results when using an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody treatment against established tumors. While this is promising, this type of treatment can induce severe side effects. Therefore, we decided to incorporate the membrane form of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) in a replicative deficient adenovirus vaccine expressing the invariant chain (Ii) adjuvant fused to a tumor associated antigen (TAA). The Ii adjuvant increases and prolongs TAA specific CD8+ T cells as previously shown and local expression of 4-1BBL was chosen to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic antibody administration. Furthermore, adenovirus encoded 4-1BBL expression has previously been successfully used to enhance responses toward Plasmodium falciparum and Influenza A antigens. We showed that the incorporation of 4-1BBL in the adenovirus vector led to surface expression of 4-1BBL on antigen presenting cells, but it did not enhance T cell responses in mice towards the Ii linked antigen. In tumor-bearing mice, our vaccine was found to decrease the frequency of TAA specific CD8+ T cells, but this difference did not alter the therapeutic efficacy. In order to reconcile our findings with the previous reports of increased anti-cancer efficacy using systemically delivered 4-1BB agonists, we incorporated a secreted version of 4-1BBL (Fc-4-1BBL) in our vaccine and co-expressed it with the Ii linked to TAA. In tumor bearing mice, this vaccine initially delayed tumor growth and slightly increased survival compared to the vaccine expressing the membrane form of 4-1BBL. Accordingly, secreted 4-1BBL co-encoded with the Ii linked antigen may offer a simplification compared to administration of drug and vaccine separately. PMID:27004934

  1. Lead-bismuth cooled reactor with a high level of natural circulation (RBEC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RBEC-M is a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor with a high level of primary coolant natural circulation and a gas lift system in the primary circuit to ensure a supply of inert gas (argon) in the coolant under the core. The name reflects the basic technology of the concept: a fast neutron spectrum, heavy metal lead-bismuth coolant, a high level of natural circulation with a nominal operation of inert gas blowers and safe cooldown of the core after the trip of gas supply blowers. The RBEC-M reactor is a conceptual development based on the preliminary design of the RBEC reactor, hereafter referred to as a 'basic project'. The direct predecessor of the RBEC-M is the design named RBEC, one of the Russian-developed designs of fast reactors with heavy metal coolants. The preliminary design of the RBEC reactor of 900 MW(th) and 340 MW(e) was completed in the 1990s by Russian design and scientific institutions: OKB 'Gidropress', Russian Research Centre (RRC) 'Kurchatov Institute' and IPPE, with the participation of VNIINM and RIAR. The main objective of the development of the RBEC lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor was to provide a reliable solution for nuclear fuel breeding, while using an approach alternative to sodium cooled fast reactors. It was assumed that design development of a nuclear power plant (NPP) with such reactor could be completed in a rather short period, with modest expenditures for additional testing and qualification of separate equipment units

  2. Detection of prostate specific antigen in serum at the femto-gram per milliliter level using the intrinsic amplification of a field-effect enzymatic immuno-sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been achieved by applying the field-effect enzymatic detection (FEED) technique to the sandwich immuno-sensing technique. The voltage-controlled intrinsic amplification provided by FEED enabled the detection of PSA contained in serum on the femto-gram/mL level. Two electrochemical approaches used to obtain the amperometric detection signal resulted in similar detection limits and sensitivities. The lowest PSA detection limit achieved was 27 fg mL−1. The high selectivity of the detection system was reflected in the fact that PSA detection was successful on the fg mL−1 level, where biological substances other than PSA had a 1-million-fold higher concentration. Electron transfer through the immunological sandwich nanostructure has been observed in the detection of biomarkers. However, our results showed that electron transfer through the nanostructure could be controlled using an external voltage, leading to an ultralow detection limit for PSA

  3. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  4. Pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen level is a risk factor for para-aortic lymph node recurrence in addition to squamous cell carcinoma antigen following definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels as a risk factor for para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for cervical cancer. From March 1995 to January 2008, 188 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix were analyzed retrospectively. No patient received PALN irradiation as the initial treatment. CEA and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) were measured before and after radiotherapy. PALN recurrence was detected by computer tomography (CT) scans. We analyzed the actuarial rates of PALN recurrence by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analyses were carried out with Cox regression models. We stratified the risk groups based on the hazard ratios (HR). Both pretreatment CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL and SCC-Ag levels < 10 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 8.838), SCC-Ag levels ≥ 40 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 12.551), and SCC-Ag levels of 10-40 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 4.2464) were significant factors for PALN recurrence. The corresponding 5-year PALN recurrence rates were 51.5%, 84.8%, and 27.5%, respectively. The 5-year PALN recurrence rate for patients with both low (< 10 ng/mL) SCC and CEA was only 9.6%. CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL or SCC-Ag levels ≥ 10 ng/mL at PALN recurrence were associated with overall survival after an isolated PALN recurrence. Pretreatment CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL were also associated with survival after an isolated PALN recurrence. Pretreatment CEA ≥ 10 ng/mL is an additional risk factor of PALN relapse following definitive CCRT for SCC of the uterine cervix in patients with pretreatment SCC-Ag levels < 10 ng/mL. More comprehensive examinations before CCRT and intensive follow-up schedules are suggested for early detection and salvage in patients with SCC-Ag or CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL

  5. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  6. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  7. RHAMM (CD168) Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian M. Gust; Hofer, Matthias D; Sven R. Perner; Robert Kim; Arul M. Chinnaiyan; Sooryanarayana Varambally; Peter Moller; Ludwig Rinnab; Rubin, Mark A; Jochen Greiner; Michael Schmitt; Rainer Kuefer; Mark Ringhoffer

    2009-01-01

    Localized prostate cancer (CaP) can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID), which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidat...

  8. Antibodies to the enterobacterial common antigen: standardization of the passive hemagglutination test and levels in normal human sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Malkamäki, M

    1981-01-01

    The passive hemagglutination test for antibodies against the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) of Kunin was standardized for diagnostic purposes. Human erythrocytes were coated with a soluble ECA+ preparation from Salmonella typhimurium or, as specificity controls, with a similar ECA- preparation from congenic ECA-negative bacteria with saline, and the hemagglutination assay was performed on microtiter plates. The specificity of the test was ascertained further by inhibition assays with pu...

  9. A neuropsychological study of children with elevated dentine lead level: Assessment of the effect of lead in different socio-economic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, O.N.; Trillingsgaard, A.; Beese, I.; Lyngbye, T.; Grandjean, P. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-05-01

    The study was carried out in the municipality of Aarhus, a city of 250,000 inhabitants. The study was designed as a cross-sectional cohort study of school children in first grade in 1982-83. A total of 2,412 children were contacted and asked to submit their shed teeth to the teacher, and 1,291 children delivered at least one usable tooth (response rate, 54 percent). The lead level in circumpulpal dentin showed an average of 10.7 micrograms/g. Eight percent of the children (N = 110) had a lead level above 18.7 micrograms/g and were selected as a high lead exposure group. This group was matched by sex and socio-economic status of the parents with control children with a dentin lead level below 5 micrograms/g. Following a detailed interview with the parents, children were excluded from the study if medical risk factors were present. A clinical psychologist, blind to the lead data, administered selected psychometric tests to 162 of the children selected. The high-lead children scored lower on the WISC when compared to low-lead children, especially on the Verbal IQ (p less than 0.001) and Full Scale IQ (p less than 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the high- and low-exposure groups on the Performance IQ and on several experimental tests. Impaired function associated with lead exposure was also found on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (p less than 0.001) and on a behavioral rating scale (p less than 0.01). These results remained statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic status and other confounding variables.

  10. Changing of expression level of fas-antigen (CD95), cytokines synthesis and production after irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that bone marrow progenitor (CD34+), tymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are most radiosensitive than other cell types. Even low doses of radiation induce apoptosis. The investigators suggest that it is possible relationship between synthesis and production of cytokines and apoptotic process. With the purpose to determine correlation between expression of Fas-antigen and synthesis of cytokines after low doses irradiation the experiments by irradiation PBL of healthy persons in vitro were held. Cells were X-irradiated by 12,5, 25 and 50 cGy. In consequence of the experiments increasing of Fas-antigen was revealed. This increasing correlated with changing in synthesis and production of cytokines. Also the Chernobyl's accident liquidators (CAL) were investigated. After comparison data in the group CAL (I) with data in the control group (II) increasing of Fas-antigen expression was revealed. Also in I group was discovered increasing of the cell number sinthesied interleukine-4 (IL-4) and interleukine-6 (IL-6). Interleukine-lβ (IL-1 β) producing pell were decreased. These changes have been correlated with degree of immunodeficiency at CAL. These data allow to consider the apoptosis as cell mechanism included in pathogenesis of diseases, which can be showed later long time after irradiation. (author)

  11. Breast Milk Lead and Cadmium Levels in Suburban Areas of Nanjing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu-qing Xu; Xiao-qi Gu; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Fei Xu; Rong Shen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk in the second post-partum month,to investigate the relationship between Pb/Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemo-graphic parameters,and to explore whether these levels affect the infants' physical status or the mothers' psychological status (postpartum depression). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and December 2010. Al-together 170 healthy mothers were enrolled from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. The inclusion criteria were: voluntary to participate in this study,healthy,with no chronic disease,breastfeeding in the second postpartum month,living in a suburban but not non-industrial area of Nanjing,and not occupa-tionally exposed to toxic metals. All the mothers completed a questionnaire and were evaluated based on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to identify the risk of postpartum depression. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The infants of these mothers were examined for their z scores of weight for age,length for age,head circumference for age,and body mass index for age. Results The median breast milk levels of Pb and Cd were 40.6 μg/L and 0.67 μg/L,respectively. In 164 (96.5%) of the 170 samples,Pb levels were higher than the limit reported by the World Health Or-ganization (> 5 μg/L). Breast milk Cd level was > 1 μg/L in 54 (31.8%) mothers. The mothers with a his-tory of anemia had a higher breast milk Pb level than those without a history of anemia (41.1 μg/L vs. 37.9 μg/L,P = 0.050). The median breast milk Cd level in those who were active and passive smokers dur-ing pregnancy was significantly higher than that in non-smokers (0.88 μg/L vs. 0.00 μg/L,P = 0.025). The breast milk Cd level in the mothers not taking iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum was higher than in those taking the supplements (iron supplement: 0.74

  12. Blood Lead Levels During Pregnancy and Its Influencing Factors in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Xi-rong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the blood lead levels (BLLs) in the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery, and analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.MethodsPregnant women were recruited from September 2009 to February 2010 at the prenatalclinic inNanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. Altogether 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnant or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were enrolled as the gravidagroup, and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group. BLLs during pregnancy were determinedby flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.ResultsBLLs in all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were 59.8±24.3, 55.4±20.1,55.9±19.7, and 67.6±17.4 μg/L, respectively, and the mean BLL in control group was 67.5±21.3 μg/L. BLLs during all the three trimesters were lower in the gravida group than in the control group (P=0.043, 0.021, and 0.028). Furthermore, occupations, nutrients supplementation, and time ofhouse/apartmentpainted were associated with BLLs in pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, cosmetics use, and livingin a house painted less than 1 year beforeare risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusion Supplementing calcium, iron, zinc, and milk, or avoiding contact with risk factors may help people, especially pregnant women, to reduce lead exposure.

  13. Leading order nonadiabatic corrections to rovibrational levels of H2, D2, and T2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient computational approach to nonadiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule (H2, D2, and T2) is presented. The electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis set, which enables obtaining a very high accuracy of nonadiabatic potentials. A single point convergence of the potentials with growing size of the basis set reveals a relative accuracy ranging from 10−8 to 10−13. An estimated accuracy of the leading nonadiabatic correction to the rovibrational energy levels is of the order of 10−7 cm−1. After a significant increase in the accuracy of the Born-Oppenheimer and adiabatic calculations, the nonadiabatic results presented in this report constitute another step towards highly accurate theoretical description of the hydrogen molecule

  14. Reducing Igf-1r levels leads to paradoxical and sexually dimorphic effects in HD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Corrochano

    Full Text Available Many of the neurodegenerative diseases that afflict people in later life are associated with the formation of protein aggregates. These so-called "proteinopathies" include Alzheimer's disease (AD and Huntington's disease (HD. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS pathway has been proposed to modulate such diseases in model organisms, as well as the general ageing process. In this pathway, insulin-like growth factor binds to insulin-like growth factor receptors, such as the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R. Heterozygous deletion of Igf-1r has been shown to lead to increased lifespan in mice. Reducing the activity of this pathway had benefits in a HD C. elegans model, and some of these may be attributed to the expected inhibition of mTOR activity resulting in an increase in autophagy, which would enhance mutant huntingtin clearance. Thus, we tested if heterozygous deletion of Igf-1r would lead to benefits in HD related phenotypes in the mouse. Surprisingly, reducing Igf-1r levels led to some beneficial effects in HD females, but also led to some detrimental effects in HD males. Interestingly, Igf-1r deficiency had no discernible effects on downstream mTOR signalling in HD mice. These results do not support a broad beneficial effect of diminishing the IIS pathway in HD pathology in a mammalian system.

  15. Endurance of lead-free assembly under board level drop test and thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies under board level drop test and thermal cycling was investigated. TSOP (thin small outline package) devices with FeNi leads were reflow soldered on FR4 PCB (printed circuit board) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes (organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)) on the reliability performance were studied. The results show that the assemblies with ENIG finishes reveal better reliability performance than its OSP counterparts under drop test, however, the OSP samples outperform those with ENIG finishes under thermal cycling. The failure mechanism is different under these two test conditions: the solder joints fracture into the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer under drop test, and cracks initiate in the bulk solder under thermal cycling. The surface finishes have an effect on the failure mode. The propagation of crack in the ENIG case is along the device/solder interface, while in the case of OSP, the crack extends parallel to the solder/PCB interface

  16. Cadmium and lead levels consumed by patients with oral hospital diets prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia S. Manzoli de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in foods should be monitored as a function of health risks. Objective: To evaluate Cd and Pb levels in oral hospital diets and in an oral food complement (OFC according to their respective consumption by patients, and to estimate the patient's exposition risk. Methods: The levels of Cd and Pb were determined by ICP-OES in samples of regular, blend, soft and renal diets and OFC, collected on 6 weekdays. About 14.3% of the diets and OFC served were analyzed. Results and discussion: 163 patients participated, with mean weights and ages of 62.7 kg and 56.5 years, respectively, the majority being men (59.5%. The mean Cd content consumed was greater for men fed the regular and blend diets and similar amongst the sexes for the soft diet. The consumption of Cd (max. 21.02 µg/day was below the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. The mean Pb ingested (max. 199.49 µg/day was similar amongst the sexes. The soft diet showed the highest Pb content in September/2010, whereas the other showed no variation according to season. In September/2010 and January/2011, the soft and regular diets associated with the OFC offered 207.50 and 210.50 µg/day of Pb, respectively. Conclusions: The combination of the diet with the OFC increased the risk of an excessive ingestion of Pb, and the vulnerability of the patients to an excessive exposition to Pb could be greater due to water and medications. It was concluded that whereas the calculated ingestion of Cd conformed to the PTMI, the Pb level and ingestion represented a risk to the health of the patients.

  17. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  18. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Blood, Hair and Teeth of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a general agreement that children are a population that suffered increased risk of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure with adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental exposure to Pb and Cd in children living in Cairo since birth and their effects on other essential elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The relationships between these indicators for exposure and children characteristics such as sex, weight, height, blood pressure and smoking habits of parents were also estimated. Forty children (23 males and 17 females) aged 5-7 years had been included in this study. Levels of elements in the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb in blood (Pb-B), hair (Pb-H) and teeth (Pb-T) were 18.17 ± 5.35 fig/dl, 6.29 ± 2.07 fig/g and 8.07± 1.98 fig/g, respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls as regards Pb-H (P<0.001)and Pb-T(P<0.05). The Cd levels were 0.603 ±0.08 μg/dl in blood (Cd-B), 0.933 ± 0.18 fig/g in hair (Cd-H) and 4.825± 0.57 μg/g in teeth (Cd-T). Boys showed higher significant increases in Cd-B than girls (P < 0.001). Concerning Zn, the levels were 57.43± 6.86 μg/dl,148.18± 11.76μg/g and 100.32± 20.28 μg/dl in blood (Zn-B), hair (Zn-H) and teeth(Zn-T),correspondingly Girls displayed significant higher levels of Zn-H than boys (P < 0.05). Regarding Cu in blood (Cu-B), in hair (Cu-H) and in teeth (Cu-T), they were 113.42± 9.89 μg/dl, 17.9±4.18 μg/g and 10.6± 3.04 μg/g, respectively. Girls showed significant higher levels of Cu-H than boys (P < 0.05). The passive smoking children exhibited significant increased levels of Pb, Cd and Cu in blood, hair and teeth when compared to the non-exposed children. On the other hand, passive smoking leads to decrease in Zn concentrations in the three studied samples. The proper mechanism of Zn affection was explained by interactions with Cd, Pb and Cu. Correlation between Pb and Cd with

  19. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  20. Antibody levels to multiple malaria vaccine candidate antigens in relation to clinical malaria episodes in children in the Kasena-Nankana district of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduro Abraham R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the natural history of malaria of continued susceptibility to infection and episodes of illness that decline in frequency and severity over time, studies which attempt to relate immune response to protection must be longitudinal and have clearly specified definitions of immune status. Putative vaccines are expected to protect against infection, mild or severe disease or reduce transmission, but so far it has not been easy to clearly establish what constitutes protective immunity or how this develops naturally, especially among the affected target groups. The present study was done in under six year old children to identify malaria antigens which induce antibodies that correlate with protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods In this longitudinal study, the multiplex assay was used to measure IgG antibody levels to 10 malaria antigens (GLURP R0, GLURP R2, MSP3 FVO, AMA1 FVO, AMA1 LR32, AMA1 3D7, MSP1 3D7, MSP1 FVO, LSA-1and EBA175RII in 325 children aged 1 to 6 years in the Kassena Nankana district of northern Ghana. The antigen specific antibody levels were then related to the risk of clinical malaria over the ensuing year using a negative binomial regression model. Results IgG levels generally increased with age. The risk of clinical malaria decreased with increasing antibody levels. Except for FMPOII-LSA, (p = 0.05, higher IgG levels were associated with reduced risk of clinical malaria (defined as axillary temperature ≥37.5°C and parasitaemia of ≥5000 parasites/ul blood in a univariate analysis, upon correcting for the confounding effect of age. However, in a combined multiple regression analysis, only IgG levels to MSP1-3D7 (Incidence rate ratio = 0.84, [95% C.I.= 0.73, 0.97, P = 0.02] and AMA1 3D7 (IRR = 0.84 [95% C.I.= 0.74, 0.96, P = 0.01] were associated with a reduced risk of clinical malaria over one year of morbidity surveillance. Conclusion The data from this study support the view

  1. Influencing factors of colostrum exposure to low-level lead and their relationship with early neural development of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to low-level lead has a toxic effect on the development of neonates, which has attracted wide attention. Colostrum lead level can be used as the indication of lead exposure.OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship of colostrum lead level and the neurobehavioral development of infants.DESIGN: A prospective control observation.SETTING: Center for Maternal and Child Health, Shanxi Provincial Children's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 128 neonates of full-term normal delivery, 76 male and 52 female, from Shanxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Center and Jiexiu Maternal and Child Health Center were involved in this study. All the involved neonates had no peripartal ischemic/hypoxic history or fetus intrauterine developmental lag. Pregnant women had no various acute and chronic diseases in pregnancy, family history of neurological disease or occupational lead exposure. 128 portions of colostrum sample of full-term normal delivery were collected. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the puerperants and their relatives.METHODS: ①Experimental grouping: Lead level in the colostrum was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. According to lead level in the colostrum, the neonates were classified into two exposure groups of greater than or equal to 0.24 μ mol/L in a high-level lead group and less than 0.24 μ mol/L in a low-level lead group. ② Experimental evaluation: Mental developmental index (MDI) and psychological developmental index (PDI) of 3-month-old infants were evaluated with Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). The relationships of MDI, PDI and colostrum lead level were performed correlation regression analysis; The relationship of colostrum lead level and development was performed multi-factor analysis with family environment and health questionnaires.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Evaluation results of MDI and PDI. ② Multi-factor analysis results.RESULTS: Totally 128 neonates were involved in the study. Ten

  2. In silico design, cloning and high level expression of L7/L12-TOmp31 fusion protein of Brucella antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Golshani, Maryam; Rafati, Sima; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Nejati-Moheimani, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Globally, Brucella melitensis and B. abortus are the most common cause of human brucellosis. The outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) and L7/L12 are immunodominant and protective antigens conserved in human Brucella pathogens which are considered as potential vaccine candidates. We aimed to design the fusion protein from Brucella L7/L12 and truncated Omp31proteins, in silico, clone the fusion in pET28a vector, and express it in Escherichia coli host. Two possible fusion forms, L7/L12-TOmp31 and ...

  3. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Montes Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when

  4. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  5. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. PMID:26950629

  6. Bone remodeling during pregnancy and post-partum assessed by metal lead levels and isotopic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan; Eisman, John

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling is normally evaluated using bone turnover markers/indices as indicators of bone resorption and formation. However, during pregnancy and post-partum, there have been inconsistent results between and within biomarkers for bone formation and resorption. These differences may relate to pregnancy-related changes in metabolism and/or hemodilution altering measured marker levels. An alternative approach to evaluating bone remodeling is to use the metal lead (Pb) concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions in blood. These measurements can also provide information on the amount of Pb that is mobilized from the maternal skeleton. Despite some similarities with accepted bone turnover markers, the Pb data demonstrate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy that further continues post-partum independent of length of breast-feeding, dietary intake and resumption of menses. Furthermore the isotopic measurements are not affected by hemodilution. These data confirm calcium balance studies that indicate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy and lactation. They also indicate potentially major public health implications of the transfer of maternal Pb burden to the fetus and new born. PMID:27233973

  7. Levels of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) stranded on the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Hacon, Sandra S; Campos, Reinaldo C; do Couto Jacob, Silvana; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of liver and breast muscles of first-year Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), from two different areas on the Brazilian coast, 35 on the Rio de Janeiro coast and 12 on the Rio Grande do Sul coast. In both areas, Cd concentrations in muscle samples were <0.025 microg/g. However, the Cd and Hg concentrations found in liver and Hg concentrations found in muscle showed a significant difference between the two regions. The geometric mean of the concentrations was higher in the specimens from Rio de Janeiro (Cd--6.8 microg/g; Hg--liver, 1.6 microg/g, and muscle, 0.4 microg/g wet weight) than in those from Rio Grande do Sul (Cd--2.3 microg/g; Hg--liver, 0.9 microg/g, and muscle, 0.1 microg/g wet weight). The site differences could be related to differences in diet influenced by geographic factors. Brazil's southeastern coast is highly urbanized, and its coastal waters are contaminated by the waste of agricultural and industrial activities. There is a lack of information on the levels of heavy metals in S. magellanicus, however, their wide distribution and top position in the trophic chain make the use of stranded specimens an attractive source of information for monitoring heavy metals in the South Atlantic coast. PMID:19582498

  8. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  9. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R2=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV1/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV1/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations

  10. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  11. Exposure study by determination of blood lead levels using electro-thermal atomic absorption in correlation with basophilic stippling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood lead levels were determined in fifty traffic police personnel exposed to open traffic deputed at various crossings in Rawalpindi/Islamabad by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique to monitor the levels. Blood comparison of lead concentration in the blood samples of policemen working at high density area versus those working at low density area was made. The range of the blood lead levels of subjects working in the high density traffic is 7.2 - 19.6 up/dl whereas the blood lead levels of subjects at lean traffic is 0.4 - 6.9 Mu g /dL. The accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing SRM wheat flour, rice flour and bovine liver. The results obtained were compared with reported values of other countries as well as with the exposure limits of WHO. (author)

  12. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip;

    2014-01-01

    subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of......The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8(+) T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these...... regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at...

  13. Human serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1/Dlk1) increase with obesity, are negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and modulate inflammation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacón, M R; Miranda, M; Jensen, C H;

    2008-01-01

    Insulin Resistance), cytokines (sIL-6), adipokines (adiponectin) and circulating soluble fractions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2). RESULTS: IN the obesity study, levels of FA1 in serum were found to increase with obesity. The S(i) index was negatively dependent on FA1......OBJECTIVE:To investigate fetal antigen 1 (FA1) protein within the context of human obesity and its relation with insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study that analyses circulating levels of FA1 in two selected human cohorts: n=127 men for the study of FA1 circulating levels in the...... context of obesity and insulin sensitivity (S(i)); and n=61 severely obese women before and after bariatric surgery. The response in vitro to FA1 protein on human cell lines of monocytes, preadipocytes and mature adipocytes was studied. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometrical parameters: body mass index, waist...

  14. Cancer antigen 125 and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses recently reported progress in cancer antigen 125 as a prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Serum cancer antigen 125 levels measured preoperatively in both early and late stage ovarian cancer may be of prognostic value. Before...... cancer antigen 125 determination may be implemented into clinical practice, cut-off levels must be evaluated and internationally defined. Studies examining serum cancer antigen 125 levels after surgery but before, during, or after treatment confirmed that changes in serum levels are of prognostic value....... Furthermore, recent studies have shown that the level of expression of cancer antigen 125 in tissue may be an independent prognostic indicator in late stage ovarian cancer. SUMMARY: Prognostic markers may potentially help to individualize treatment within subgroups of patients. In a recent study the level of...

  15. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    -PAGE as high molecular weight ([greater than or equal to] 70 kDa) or low molecular weight (< 70 kDa). The number of discernable low molecular weight parasite antigens detected by different IgG subclass antibodies from each plasma sample was recorded. Using Wilcoxons rank sum test these reactivities were...... compared amongst groups of individuals with different levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections. RESULTS: IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens....... Cytophilic IgG subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non...

  16. Determination of lead in samples of zooplankton, water, and sediments in a Mexican reservoir: evidence for lead biomagnification in lower/intermediate trophic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro; Mejía Saavedra, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2008-08-01

    We have determined lead concentration of water, sediment, and zooplankton samples of El Niágara, a reservoir in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Our results include the first report of bioconcentration factor (BCF) obtained in an actual ecosystem (as opposed to the experimental setups in the laboratory) for a rotifer species; Asplanchna brigthwellii (BCF ca. 49 300). The BCF of this predatory zooplanktonic species (A. brigthwellii) are up to four times greater than those of two grazing zooplanktonic species (Daphnia similis and Moina micrura). In this contaminated reservoir that lacks fishes, Asplanchna, and Culex sp. together with ducks and other bigger invertebrates might represent the top predators. Our data suggest that biomagnification of lead through at least one trophic level can occur in freshwater systems. Biomagnification in A. brigthwellii might be explained in part by predation of this voracious predator on young of the herbivorous cladoceran, M. micrura. Our findings stand opposite to the current theoretical framework where lead biomagnification occurs only in lower trophic levels. PMID:18214885

  17. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nourmoradi, H.; M. Foroghi; Farhadkhani, M.; M Vahid Dastjerdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2  µ g/g and 4.08–60.20  µ g/g, respectiv...

  18. The influence of β-carotene on homocysteine level and oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kasperczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is involved in lead toxicity. This suggests that some antioxidants may play a role in the treatment of lead poisoning. In the light of this, the aim of the study was to determine whether β-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and homocysteine level in workers chronically exposed to lead. Material and Methods: The exposed population included healthy male workers exposed to lead who were randomly divided into 2 groups (mean blood lead level ca. 44 μg/dl. Workers in the 1st group (N = 49, reference group had no antioxidants, drugs, vitamins or dietary supplements administered, while workers in the 2nd group (N = 33 had β-carotene administered in a dose of 10 mg per day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included markers of lead-exposure and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress biomarker. We also measured the level of homocysteine (Hcy and thiol groups as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and its isoenzyme EC-SOD in serum. Results: After supplementation, the level of MDA significantly decreased, compared to baseline, by 16%, and to the reference group. When compared to the reference group, Hcy level was also significantly decreased. However, the level of thiol groups was significantly higher after supplementation with β-carotene compared to the reference group. Analogically, the activity of SOD and EC-SOD was significantly higher compared to the baseline and to the reference group. Conclusions: Despite some controversies over antioxidant properties of β-carotene, our results indicate that its antioxidant action could provide some beneficial effects in lead poisoning independent of chelation. Med Pr 2014;65(3:309–316

  19. Clinical indicators of envenoming and serum levels of venom antigens in patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique. Research Group on Snake Bites in Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, B; Canonge, D; Thomas, L; Tyburn, B; Robbe-Vincent, A; Choumet, V; Bon, C; Ketterlé, J; Lang, J

    1997-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure venom antigen levels in the serum of 40 patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus. The grading system used for the severity of envenomation (grades 1 to 4, minor to major) was predominantly based on the presence of local signs. Serum venom levels increased with the grade of severity (P or = 15 ng/mL were observed in all patients with progressive aggravation of swelling despite the use of early antivenom therapy. No venom was detectable in blood samples taken after completion of serotherapy. All patients recovered. These results confirm the efficacy of both the clinical severity scoring system used and the therapeutic regimen. PMID:9196765

  20. Using geographic information systems to assess risk for elevated blood lead levels in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, James R.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Curtis, Gerald B.; Reigart, J. Routt

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Targeted screening for childhood lead poisoning depends on assessment of risk factors including housing age. Using a geographic information system (GIS), we aim to determine high-risk regions in Charleston County, South Carolina, to assist public health officials in developing targeted lead-screening. METHODS: Properties built before 1978 were geocoded (assigned latitude and longitude coordinates) from tax assessor data. Addresses of Charleston County children who have been screen...

  1. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  2. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  3. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  4. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  5. Expressing Redundancy among Linear-Epitope Sequence Data Based on Residue-Level Physicochemical Similarity in the Context of Antigenic Cross-Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Epitope-based design of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and immunodiagnostics is complicated by structural changes that radically alter immunological outcomes. This is obscured by expressing redundancy among linear-epitope data as fractional sequence-alignment identity, which fails to account for potentially drastic loss of binding affinity due to single-residue substitutions even where these might be considered conservative in the context of classical sequence analysis. From the perspective of immune function based on molecular recognition of epitopes, functional redundancy of epitope data (FRED) thus may be defined in a biologically more meaningful way based on residue-level physicochemical similarity in the context of antigenic cross-reaction, with functional similarity between epitopes expressed as the Shannon information entropy for differential epitope binding. Such similarity may be estimated in terms of structural differences between an immunogen epitope and an antigen epitope with reference to an idealized binding site of high complementarity to the immunogen epitope, by analogy between protein folding and ligand-receptor binding; but this underestimates potential for cross-reactivity, suggesting that epitope-binding site complementarity is typically suboptimal as regards immunologic specificity. The apparently suboptimal complementarity may reflect a tradeoff to attain optimal immune function that favors generation of immune-system components each having potential for cross-reactivity with a variety of epitopes.

  6. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 μg/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p < 0.05 ∼ p < 0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 μg/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  7. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai ZX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  8. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30 μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  9. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels. PMID:23315126

  10. Blood Lead Levels and Associated Factors among Children in Guiyu of China: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Pi; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Binliang; Sun, Di; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qin; Huo, Xia; Hao, Yuantao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children's health problems caused by the electronic waste (e-waste) lead exposure in China remains. To assess children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in Guiyu of China and investigate risk factors of children's elevated BLLs in Guiyu. Material and Methods 842 children under 11 years of age from Guiyu and Haojiang were enrolled in this population-based study during 2011–2013. Participants completed a lifestyle and residential environment questionnaire and their physical growth indices w...

  11. Low-level lead exposure and children's IQ: A meta-analysis and search for a threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    To assess the strength of the association between blood lead and children's IQ, a meta-analysis of the studies examining the relationship in school age children was performed. Emphasis was given to the size of the effect, since that allow comparisons that are informative about potential confounding and effect modifiers. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A highly significant association was found between lead exposure and children's IQ (P < 0.001). An increase in blood lead from 10 to 20 [mu]g/dl was associated with a decrease of 2.6 IQ points in the meta-analysis. This result was robust to inclusion or exclusion of the strongest individual studies and to relaxing the age requirements (school age children) of the meta-analysis. Adding eight studies with effect estimates of O would still leave a significant association with blood lead (P < 0.01). There was no evidence that the effect was limited to disadvantaged children and there was a suggestion of the opposite. The studies with mean blood lead levels of 15 [mu]g/dl or lower in their sample had higher estimated blood lead slopes, suggesting that a threshold at 10 [mu]g/dl is implausible. The study with the lowest mean blood lead level was examined using nonparametric smoothing. It showed no evidence of a threshold down to blood lead concentrations of 1 [mu]g/dl. Lead interferes with GABAergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. It has been shown to bind to the NMDA receptor and inhibit long-term potentiation in the hippocampal region of the brain. Moreover, experimental studies have demonstrated that blood levels of 10 [mu]g/dl interfere with a broad range of cognitive function in primates. Given this support, these associations in humans should be considered causal. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  14. The effect of soil abatement on blood lead levels in children living near a former smelting and milling operation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lanphear, Bruce P.; Succop, Paul; Roda, Sandra; Henningsen, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of soil abatement on children's blood lead concentrations and on environmental levels of lead and arsenic. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The first (1989) was of a random sample of 6- to 72-month-old children (n=112). The second (1998) included all 6- to 72-month-old children whose parents agreed to participate in the survey (n=215). From 1993 to 1996, soil abatement was conducted around homes with average soil lead concentration >500 pa...

  15. Levels of lead in urban soils from selected cities in central region of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring element that poses environmental hazards when present at elevated concentration. It is being released into the environment because of industrial uses and from the combustion of fossil fuels. Hence, Pb is ubiquitous throughout global ecosystems. The existence of po...

  16. Two mouse hybridoma antibodies against human milk-fat globules recognise the I(Ma) antigenic determinant beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooi, H C; Uemura, K; Edwards, P A; Foster, C S; Pickering, N; Feizi, T

    1983-08-16

    Two mouse hybridoma antibodies (LICR-LON-M39 and LICR-LON-M18) against the human-milk-fat globules were found to resemble human autoantibodies of anti-I type in their cold agglutinating property and their preferential reactions with erythrocytes of I- rather than i-type. From inhibition of binding assays with glycoproteins having known A, B, H, Lea, Leb, I, and i activities, and oligosaccharides of the Type 1 and Type 2 lacto-N-glycosyl series, it was established that these antibodies are directed at Type 2 structures, and that the I(Ma) determinant, beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 6), which is usually found on branched oligosaccharides, is the preferred sequence. The hybridoma antibodies as well as anti-I Ma were shown to react well with the beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 6)-D-Gal or -D-Man sequence. Studies of the reactions of these antibodies with glycolipids on thin-layer plates showed that the two hybridoma antibodies differ from anti-I Ma in reacting weakly with the unbranched i-type sequence beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-galp-(1 leads to 4) as found on lacto-N-norhexasylceramide. Furthermore, they differ from anti-I Ma but resemble anti-I Woj and Sti, and a hybridoma antibody 1B2 in their failure to react with their determinant in the presence of alpha-D-(1 leads to 3)-linked galactosyl groups. From their lack of reactions with blood-group-A and -H active glycoproteins, and their reactions with neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes, it was deduced that the determinants recognised by the two hybridoma antibodies are also masked in the presence of alpha-L-(1 leads to 2)-linked fucosyl groups and sialic acid. PMID:6194884

  17. Distinct roles for histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP in cancer germline antigen gene regulation in human cancer cells and murine ES cells

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Petra A.; Gangisetty, Omkaram; James, Smitha R.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Karpf, Adam R.

    2009-01-01

    The H3K9me2 histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP repress Mage-a class cancer germline (CG) antigen gene expression in murine ES cells but the role of these enzymes in CG antigen gene regulation in human cancer cells is unknown. Here we show that while independent or dual knockdown of G9a and GLP in human cancer cells leads to reduced global and CG antigen promoter-associated H3K9me2 levels it does not activate CG antigen gene expression. Moreover, CG antigen gene repression is maintained fo...

  18. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Eric W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63. Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50 but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers.

  19. Intestinal Dysplasia Induced by Simian Virus 40 T Antigen Is Independent of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovics, Jennifer A.; Carroll, Patrick A.; Robles, M. Teresa Sáenz; Pope, Hannah; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Pipas, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing simian virus 40 large T antigen in enterocytes develop intestinal hyperplasia that progresses to dysplasia with age. Hyperplasia is dependent on T antigen binding to the retinoblastoma (pRb) family of tumor suppressor proteins. Mice expressing a truncated T antigen that inactivates the pRb-family, but is defective for binding p53, exhibit hyperplasia but do not progress to dysplasia. We hypothesized that the inhibition of the pRb family leads to entry of enterocytes into the cell cycle, resulting in hyperplasia, while inactivation of p53 is required for progression to dysplasia. Therefore, we examined T antigen/p53 complexes from the intestines of transgenic mice. We found that T antigen did not induce p53 stabilization, and we could not detect T antigen/p53 complexes in villus enterocytes. In contrast, T antigen expression led to a large increase in the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, mice in which pRb was inactivated by a truncated T antigen in a p53 null background exhibited intestinal hyperplasia but no progression to dysplasia. These data indicate that loss of p53 function does not play a role in T antigen-induced dysplasia in the intestine. Rather, some unknown function of T antigen is essential for progression beyond hyperplasia. PMID:15919904

  20. Comparison of lead levels in human permanent teeth from Strasbourg, Mexico City, and rural zones of Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the mean lead concentrations in enamel and dentin of human premolars and permanent molars was conducted by means of a systematic sampling procedure with energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. In a first series of analyses, no significant statistical differences in mean lead concentrations at various levels of enamel and dentin were noted between young patients of Strasbourg and those of small villages of Alsace, nor between elderly patients living in these two locations, despite the fact that motor traffic was significantly lower in the rural zones. However, in both locations, a significantly higher concentration of lead was observed in enamel and dentin in relation to age. In a second series of analyses, the mean lead concentrations of both dental hard tissues of premolars and permanent molars of young individuals from Strasbourg, rural Alsace, and Mexico City were compared. Significantly higher mean lead concentrations were found in enamel and dentin samples from Mexico City. This was most evident for inner coronal dentin (5.7 and 6.1 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace, respectively) and for pulpal root dentin (6.9 and 8.9 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace). It is proposed that the higher lead concentrations are related to the higher lead content of motor gasoline and to more intense traffic conditions. The dental hard tissues appear to be of value for the study of environmental lead pollution

  1. Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Yoon-Hwan; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Sakong, Joon; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Chul Gab; Kang, Dongmug; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children’s brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. Methods A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Par...

  2. Correlations between blood lead levels and some physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in some Nigerian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is one of the common toxic materials widely occurring in the Nigerian environment. Even with the change to unleaded petrol, other significant sources still remain to be addressed. The deleterious impact of lead on human health, is well documented. The effects range from attention-grabbing mass mortality - as happened in Zamfara State recently, to no less serious but grossly neglected neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects, including lowered intelligence quotient scores. All these impacts are most serious in children, especially fetuses who receive their burden from their mothers. Ninety percent of lead in most adults resides in the bones with a half-life measured in decades. Therefore, fetuses and breast-fed children in this generation will remain seriously at risk of exposure to damaging lead levels no matter the efforts to rid our external environment of lead in the years to come. In this work, we have investigated the correlation between Blood Lead Levels (BLL) and up to 35 physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in 62 women of child-bearing age from lIe-lfe, Nigeria. BLL was determined in venous blood using Inductively- coupled plasma Mass Spectrometry. Our results show that BLL significantly correlates with Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Creatine Clearance, and the ratio of Low-density Lipids to High density Lipids in these women. When the subjects were stratified into different Nutritional Status group based on their Body Mass Index, significant correlation was found between BLL and Age but only in Obese subjects.

  3. Determining Prenatal, Early Childhood and Cumulative Long-Term Lead Exposure Using Micro-Spatial Deciduous Dentine Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Austin, Christine; Sarrafpour, Babak; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb) levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal ...

  4. Lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and nickel distributions in vegetables and soils of an intensely cultivated area and levels of copper, lead and zinc in the growers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Czuba, M.; Cunningham, L.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been made of an intensively cultivated horticultural area, in production for less than 40 years since the drainage of the marsh from which it was formed. The muck soil varies in depth from 6 to 30 feet. Heavy applications of fertilizer and pesticides maintain high productivity. Crops include onions, carrots, potatoes, lettuce, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, parsnip and beet. Distribution of the trace heavy metals lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in the soils, crops and people was studied. The effect of cultivation practices on metal accumulation was determined by comparisons with undrained parts of the marsh. Marked soil profile effects were seen for all metals, especially for Cu. Crop levels revealed that Cu was relatively tightly held in the organic soil compared with the other metals, the order being Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd. Cadmium and Pb occurred at highest levels in the foliage of salad and leaf crops. Blood metal levels and concentrations in hair of the growers and the workers in packing stations were compared. Significant differenecs occurred for both Pb and Cu. Differences also occurred between males, females and in different age groups. 10 references, 5 figures, 12 tables.

  5. Cell surface expression level variation between two common Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles, HLA-A2 and HLA-B8, is dependent on the structure of the C terminal part of the alpha 2 and the alpha 3 domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellgren, Christoffer; Nehlin, Jan O; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, recent observations suggest that even minor differences in expression levels may influence the course of viral infections and the frequency of complications to stem cell transplantation. We have shown that some human multipotent stem cells have high expression of HLA-A while HLA-B is only weakly......Constitutive cell surface expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I antigens vary extremely from tissue to tissue and individual antigens may differ widely in expression levels. Down-regulation of class I expression is a known immune evasive mechanism used by cancer cells and viruses...... expressed, and demonstrate here that this is also the case for the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T. Using quantitative flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction we found expression levels of endogenous HLA-A3 (median 71,204 molecules per cell) 9.2-fold higher than the expression of...

  6. Normal dietary levels of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, and polonium-210 for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements on the levels in man's diet of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po are presented. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the United States, but in localized populations the 226Ra intake can be 8 or more pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show that intake of this nuclide is about 80% that of 226Ra except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi 228Ra/day are reported. Drinking water contributes less than 5% to daily intake except in special areas. For 210Pb, higher levels have been noted for Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics than for the United States. Persons in the Arctic who consume reindeer or caribou meat may ingest 210Pb at the rate of 10 to 40 pCi/day. Normal dietary levels of 210Po are about 20 to 30% higher than those of 210Pb, except in the Arctic. The levels of these nuclides in classes of foods are compared to show that the higher levels observed in certain diets are due to the levels in particular foods. Because of the high levels of 210Pb intake in Japan, total skeletal dose rates in that country are estimated to be more than twice those in the United States. The use of dietary intake for estimating metabolic parameters, such as intestinal absorption of 226Ra and 210Pb, is discussed

  7. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  8. A 1500-year record of lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium, zinc level in Antarctic seal hairs and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reconstruct the profiles of heavy metal levels in the South Ocean ecosystem of Antarctica, the concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in seal hairs and lake sediments spanning the past 1500 years from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and in weathering lake sediments from Nelson Island of West Antarctica were determined. The lead contents in the seal hairs and the weathering sediments show a sharp increase since the late 1800s, very likely due to anthropogenic contamination from modern industries. After the 1980s, the Pb content in seal hairs dropped by one-third, apparently due to the reduced usage of leaded gasoline in the Southern Hemisphere. Copper arises mainly from the weathering process, and its level may be substantially affected by climatic conditions. The concentrations of Cd, As, and Zn do not show any clear temporal trends

  9. A 1500-year record of lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium, zinc level in Antarctic seal hairs and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xuebin [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China); Liu Xiaodong [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun Liguang [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) and CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn; Zhu Renbin [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xie Zhouqing [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Yuhong [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    To reconstruct the profiles of heavy metal levels in the South Ocean ecosystem of Antarctica, the concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in seal hairs and lake sediments spanning the past 1500 years from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and in weathering lake sediments from Nelson Island of West Antarctica were determined. The lead contents in the seal hairs and the weathering sediments show a sharp increase since the late 1800s, very likely due to anthropogenic contamination from modern industries. After the 1980s, the Pb content in seal hairs dropped by one-third, apparently due to the reduced usage of leaded gasoline in the Southern Hemisphere. Copper arises mainly from the weathering process, and its level may be substantially affected by climatic conditions. The concentrations of Cd, As, and Zn do not show any clear temporal trends.

  10. DETERMINATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN RAW AGRICULTURAL CROPS BY USING DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of ultratrace levels of lead and cadmium in selected agricultural crop samples by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry. Samples are dry ashed at high temperature with H2SO4 as an ashing aid. Techniques are describ...

  11. Dose-response association between hepatitis B surface antigen levels and liver cancer risk in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yu-Ting; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-07-15

    We aimed at evaluating the risk of liver cancer in different levels of HBsAg among Chinese men and women. We carried out a nested case-control study including 363 cases and 3,511 controls in two population-based cohorts in Shanghai. Plasma samples collected at enrollment were quantified for HBsAg levels using the Architect QT assay. Conditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for liver cancer, with adjustment for potential confounders. HBsAg was detected in 6.29% of control subjects overall (7.02% in men and 4.98% in women). HBsAg levels were positively associated with liver cancer risk in a dose-response manner (ptrend  < 0.001). Such association showed a significant gender disparity. With increasing levels of HBsAg, liver cancer risks rose more steeply in men than in women. In men, the adjusted ORs increased from 7.27 (95% CI: 3.49-15.15) at the lowest detectable level of HBsAg (5-9 IU/ml) to 7.16 (95% CI: 3.21-15.96), 34.30 (95% CI: 16.94-69.44), and 47.33 (95% CI: 23.50-95.34) at the highest level of HBsAg (≥1,000 IU/ml) compared to those negative for HBsAg. The corresponding ORs were much lower for women, from 1.37 (95% CI: 0.25-7.47), 3.81 (95% CI: 1.09-13.28), 7.36 (95% CI: 2.41-22.46) and 16.86 (95% CI: 7.24-39.27), respectively. HBsAg quantification has potential to distinguish individuals at different risks of liver cancer. Men with the lowest detectable level of HBsAg should still pay attention to their liver cancer risks, but those with a higher level may be given a higher priority in future liver cancer surveillance program. PMID:26990915

  12. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  13. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer

  14. Levels of Cadmium, Manganese and Lead in water and algae; Spirogyra aequinoctialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the ability of filamentous green algae; Spirogyra aequinoctialis to accumulate manganese, cadmium and lead from water. Water p H was also determined. Samples of S. aequinoctialis and their respective water environments were taken from designated sampling points in the city of Blantyre and Malawi during the rainy and dry season in order to capture seasonal variations. The concentration of metals in S. aequinoctialis were higher than in the corresponding water environment in both seasons, but lower in the rainy season than the dry season. In the rainy season the concentrations were (in S. aequinoctialis and (water): Mn 0.432-5.641 mg/L (ND-0.530 mg/L), Cd ND-0.016 mg/L (0.07-0.111 mg/L) and Pb ND-0.965 mg/L(0.011-0.98 mg/L). In the dry season the concentrations were: Mn 0.281-16.132 mg/L (0.035-0.626 mg/L), Cd 0.22-0.912 mg/L (0.014-0.111 mg/L) and Pb ND-0.972 mg/L (ND-0.23 mg/L). This study has shown that S. aequinoctialis has the capability of accumulating manganese, cadmium and lead. Therefore it can be used as a biological indicator for long term heavy metal water pollution monitoring

  15. National Food Contamination Monitoring Programmes—Levels of Mercury,Lead and Cadmium in Chinese Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAGHui-Fen; LUOXue-Yun; 等

    1994-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty-four food samples of six kinds were collected from beijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,Sichuan,Jilin and Guangdong areas,China and Hg,Pb,Cd contents were determined.The results showed that their levels in the Chinese foods were low;their levels in meat,egg,milk and fish ewere generally below the national hygienic standard.The average daily dietary intake of Hg,Pb,Cd were 7.25μg ,103.77μg and 30.72μg respectively and they were all less than the ADI established by WHO.

  16. Study of lead level during pregnancy by application of synchrotron radiation micro XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yongpeng; Sun, Huibin; Luo, Qi; Feng, Jinxing; Liu, Xiaohong; Liang, Feng; Yan, Fen; Yang, Ke; Yu, Xiaohan; Li, Yulan; Chen, Jianmin

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the daily Pb absorption in fetus and to monitor the main Pb sources in prenatal fetus, we have investigated several cases of Pb distribution along the longitudinal axis of fetal hair. The changes of Pb levels in the pregnancy period, even the daily changes of Pb levels can be detected in the hair. Therefore, by analyzing the Pb distribution curves in the fetal hair and the living habits of their mothers, the main sources of Pb in the prenatal fetus can be evaluated. In our study, the main sources of Pb in the two cases of prenatal fetus studied here should be from the polluted aquatics. PMID:20714823

  17. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: an alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Novak, A.J.; Seidl, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some

  18. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinye Lim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26 and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83 for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67 and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74 for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father, with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53 than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59, and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father, with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches

  19. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  20. Fragile X and autism: Intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagerman Randi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (> 200 repeats in the 5' untranslated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1, leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of several other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS occurs in an additional 30% of cases. Premutation repeat expansions (55 to 200 CGG repeats may also give rise to autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including both autism and PDD-NOS, through a different molecular mechanism that involves a direct toxic effect of the expanded CGG repeat FMR1 mRNA. RNA toxicity can also lead to aging effects including tremor, ataxia and cognitive decline, termed fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, in premutation carriers in late life. In studies of mice bearing premutation expansions, there is evidence of early postnatal neuronal cell toxicity, presenting as reduced cell longevity, decreased dendritic arborization and altered synaptic morphology. There is also evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in premutation carriers. Many of the problems with cellular dysregulation in both premutation and full mutation neurons also parallel the cellular abnormalities that have been documented in autism without fragile X mutations. Research regarding dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems in FXS, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5 pathway and γ aminobutyric acid (GABAA pathways, have led to new targeted treatments for FXS. Preliminary evidence suggests that these new targeted treatments will also be beneficial in non-fragile X forms of autism.

  1. Genome-wide association replicates the association of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) polymorphisms with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Smith, C Wayne; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low inflammatory state characterized by elevated levels of chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine family and is increased in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify loci regulating serum MCP-1 in obese Hispanic children from the Viva La Familia Study. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed in 815 children, ages 4-19 years, using genotypes assayed with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad v1.0 BeadChips. All analyses were performed in SOLAR using a linear regression-based test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for the relatedness of family members via a kinship variance component. The strongest association for MCP-1 levels was found with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12075, resulting in an amino acid substitution (Asp42Gly) in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene product (minor allele frequency=43.6%, p=1.3 × 10(-21)) on chromosome 1. Four other DARC SNPs were also significantly associated with MCP-1 levels (p<10(-16)-10(-6)). The Asp42Gly variant was associated with higher levels of MCP-1 and accounted for approximately 10% of its variability. In addition, MCP-1 levels were significantly associated with SNPs in chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9). In summary, the association of the DARC Asp42Gly variant with MCP-1 levels replicates previous GWA results substantiating a potential role for DARC in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23017229

  2. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 µg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology. PMID:24769258

  3. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.; Johansson, E.; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Brochot, C.

    The multi-causality interactions between environment and health are complex and call for an integrated multidisciplinary study approach. Emerging computational toxicology tools that link toxicology, chemistry, environmental sciences, biostatistics, and computer sciences are proving to be very...... then used to calculate the Pb concentration in various biota (leafy vegetables, root vegetables, grain, potatoes, and fruits) produced in the area as well as the amount of Pb a typical adult would inhale and ingest during this ten-year assessment period. The PBPK model of the 2FUN player was used to...... calculate the Pb levels in the various body systems. Our results showed a low health risk from Pb exposures. It also identified that ingestion of leafy vegetables (i.e. lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and fruits contribute the most to total Pb blood levels. This full chain assessment approach of the 2FUN...

  4. Leading to transformation?: The case of participatory budgeting at local level in Ayacucho, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Lanao, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    textabstractParticipation in development claims to have a transformative potential. Does it really live up to such claim? To answer such question we must look at how change occurs in spaces where citizen participation is encouraged. This paper studies the case of participatory budgeting at local level in Ayacucho, Peru. Through this case the author assesses whether and how political capabilities of citizens are enhanced, as well as the change in dynamics of power relations that occur in regul...

  5. Temporal changes of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in ground level air in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs activity concentrations in ground level air at five monitoring stations (MS Vinča, Zeleno Brdo, Zaječar, Vranje and Zlatibor in Serbia were determined during the period from May 2011. to September 2012., as part of the project monitoring of Serbia. Activity of the radionuclides in air was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 20 % by standard gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be, ranged from 1.5 to 8.8 mBq m-3 and exhibit maxima in the spring/summer period. The maximum concentrations for 210Pb were generally obtained in the fall for all investigated locations, and concentrations were in range 3.6 - 30 × 10-4 Bq m-3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air, during the observed period, were at level 0.3 - 8 μBq m-3. The variations in 7Be/210Pb activity ratio for the investigated stations are also presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  6. Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in Utero to low levels of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Sloman, J. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Wheelock College, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 {mu}g/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics.

  7. Low-level measurement of alpha-particle emitting nuclei in ceramics and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly all natural materials contain trace quantities of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) and their daughter nuclides, many of which emit α-particles in their decay. Lead, at the end of the U-decay chain, typically contains some radioactive 210Pb which is chemically inseparable from the other Pb isotopes. α-particle emission from these decays can affect sensitive electronic components, such as memory chips or processors. Measurement of α-particle emitters can be accomplished by direct detection of the α-particles (which typically provides no positive identification of the emitting isotope because of energy loss in the sample) or by low-background γ-ray spectroscopy (which does provide positive identification via characteristic γ-rays). The latter is by far the best method for screening kg-sized samples of materials like ceramics, aluminum, iron, or copper. The difference between α counting and γ-ray spectroscopy is less for measuring 210Pb in Pb since the 46.5 keV characteristic γ-rays directly following the 210Pb decay are strongly absorbed and both methods are limited to thin layers. This paper discusses these two cases and concludes that a large n-type germanium γ-ray spectrometer is probably the best overall system for both measurements. (author)

  8. Influence of nutrient levels on uptake and effects of mercury, cadmium, and lead in water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthberg, Agneta; Greger, Maria; Holm, Karin; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik

    2004-01-01

    In Southeast Asia the aquatic macrophyte water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) is a popular vegetable that is cultivated in freshwater courses. These often serve as recipients for domestic and other sorts of wastewater that often contain a variety of pollutants, such as heavy metals. In addition, fertilizers are frequently used where water spinach is cultivated commercially for the food market. To estimate the importance of ambient nutrient concentrations for accumulation of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in water spinach, plants were exposed to nutrient solutions of different strength and with varying metal concentrations. Metal-induced toxic effects, which might possibly affect the yield of the plants, were also studied. The lower the nutrient strength in the medium was, the higher the metal concentrations that accumulated in the different plant parts and the lower the metal concentration in the medium at which metal-induced toxic effects occurred. Accordingly, internal metal concentrations in the plants were correlated to toxic effects. Plants exposed to metals retained a major proportion of the metals in the roots, which had a higher tolerance than shoots for high internal metal concentrations. PMID:15254106

  9. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  10. Potential Association of Lead Exposure During Early Development of Mice With Alteration of Hippocampus Nitric Oxide Levels and Learning Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI SUN; ZHENG-YAN ZHAO; JIAN HU; XIE-LAI ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Objective Chronic lead (Pb) exposure during development is known to produce learning deficits. Nitric oxide participates in the synaptic mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. This study was designed to clarify whether Pb-induced impairment in learning and memory was associated with the changes of nitric oxide levels in mice brains.Methods Sixty Balb/c mice aged 10 days were chosen. A model of lead exposure was established by drinking 0.025%, 0.05%,0.075% lead acetate, respectively for 8 weeks. The controls were orally given distilled water. The ability to learn and memorize was examined by open field test, T-water maze test. In parallel with the behavioral data, NO level of hippocampus tissue was detected by biochemical assay. Results Compared with control groups, (1) the weight of 0.075% group was significantly reduced (P<0.05); (2) The number of times in mice attaining the required standards in T-water maze test was lower in 0.075%group (P<0.01). No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in open field test (P>0.05); (3)NO level of mouse hippocampus tissue was decreased in 0.075% group (P<0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that decreased hippocampus NO level may contribute to the Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory processes.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen levels are higher in African-American than in white patients in a multicenter registration study: Results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a national sample of African-American and white men with prostate cancer, and to attempt to explain any differences by using self-reported individual-level socioeconomic status adjustments. Methods and Materials: During 4((1)/(2)) months in 1994-95, 709 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study; 17.5% were African-American and 82.5% were white. Information about clinical stage, tumor grade, pretreatment PSA, type of insurance, and educational and income status was obtained. Serum PSA levels were measured and racial differences were found; how the differences were influenced by other patient- or tumor-related factors and if the differences could be explained by socioeconomic status disparities were determined. In univariate analyses, factors associated with the mean PSA levels were studied; log-converted values were used to yield a normal distribution. Multivariate analyses were done on log-linear models for description of association patterns among various categorical variables; a perfectly fitted model should have a correlation value (CV) of 1.0. Results: The mean PSA level was higher in African-Americans (14.68 ng/ml) than in whites (9.82 ng/ml) (p = 0.001). Clinical stage (p = 0.001), Gleason sum tumor grade (p = 0.0001), educational level (p = 0.001), and household income (p = 0.03) were also associated with mean PSA levels; age, type of biopsy, and insurance status were not. Disease stage (p = 0.0001), grade (p 0.0001), education (p = 0.07), and income (p = 0.02) were all associated with PSA levels for whites, but none of these factors were important for African-Americans (all p values > 0.1). The best fitted log-linear model (CV = 0.99) contained PSA ( 20), Gleason sum grade (2-5, 6-7, and 8-10), race, and two interactions: PSA by race (p = 0.0012) and PSA by Gleason sum (p = 0.0001). Models replacing race for either income (CV = 0.82) or education

  12. Evaluation of chemotherapy response with serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level in cervical cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yin

    Full Text Available MRI does not always reflect tumor response after chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to explore additional parameters to more accurately evaluate tumor response for the subsequent clinical determination about radiotherapy or radical surgery. A training cohort and an external validation cohort were used to examine the predictive performance of SCC-ag to evaluate tumor response from teaching hospital of Harbin Medical University. The study included 397 women with SCC (age: 28-73 years. Patients consecutively enrolled between August 2008 and January 2010 (n = 205 were used as training cohort. Patients consecutively enrolled between February 2010 and May 2011 (n = 192 were used as validation cohort. A multivariate regression analysis of the data from the training cohort indicated that serum SCC-ag level is an independent factor for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT response. Analysis of the data from the validation cohort suggested that chemotherapy response could be more accurately predicted by SCC-ag than by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (sensitivity (Se: 0.944 vs. 0.794; specificity (Sp: 0.727 vs. 0.636; positive predictive value (PPV: 0.869 vs. 0.806; negative predictive value (NPV: 0.873 vs. 0.618; the area under ROC curve (AUC: 0.898 vs. 0.734. Combining SCC-ag with MRI was more powerful than MRI alone (Se: 0.952 vs. 0.794; Sp: 0.833 vs. 0.636; PPV: 0.916 vs. 0.806; NPV: 0.902 vs. 0.618; AUC: 0.950 vs. 0.734. Our study indicates that serum SCC-ag level is a sensitive and reliable measure to evaluate cervical cancer response to chemotherapy. Using SCC-ag in combination with MRI findings further improves the predictive power.

  13. Prostate cancer detection upon transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen level: what to expect in the Chinese population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate cancer detection rates upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and risk factors of prostate cancer detection in the Chinese population. Data from all consecutive Chinese men who underwent first TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from year 2000 to 2013 was retrieved from our database. The prostate cancer detection rates with reference to DRE finding and PSA level of 50 ng ml−1 were investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate for potential risk factors of prostate cancer detection. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. In patients with normal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 8.6%, 13.4%, 21.8%, 41.7% and 85.2% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. In patients with abnormal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 12.4%, 30.2%, 52.7%, 80.6% and 96.4% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. Older age, smaller prostate volume, larger number of biopsy cores, presence of abnormal DRE finding and higher PSA level were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer detection upon multivariate logistic regression analyses (P < 0.001. Chinese men appeared to have lower prostate cancer detection rates when compared to the Western population. Taking the different risk factors into account, an individualized approach to the decision of TRUS-guided biopsy can be adopted.

  14. Pretreatment Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Level Indicates Tumor Response, Early Distant Metastasis, Overall Survival, and Therapeutic Selection in Localized and Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The use of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for localized and unresectable pancreatic cancer has been disputed because of high probability of distant metastasis. Thus, we analyzed the effect of clinical parameters on tumor response, early distant metastasis within 3 months (DM3m), and overall survival to identify an indicator for selecting patients who would benefit from CRT. Methods and Materials: This study retrospectively analyzed the data from 84 patients with localized and unresectable pancreatic cancer who underwent CRT between August 2002 and October 2009. Sex, age, tumor size, histological differentiation, N classification, pre- and post-treatment carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level, and CA 19-9 percent decrease were analyzed to identify risk factors associated with tumor response, DM3m, and overall survival. Results: For all 84 patients, the median survival time was 12.5 months (range, 2–31.9 months), objective response (complete response or partial response) to CRT was observed in 28 patients (33.3%), and DM3m occurred in 24 patients (28.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment CA 19-9 level (≤400 vs. >400 U/ml) was significantly associated with tumor response (45.1% vs. 15.2%), DM3m (19.6% vs. 42.4%), and median overall survival time (15.1 vs. 9.7 months) (p 3m, and overall survival and identifying patients who will benefit from CRT.

  15. Simultaneous Transurethral Resection of Prostate and Prostate Needle Biopsy in Patients with Acute Urinary Retention and Elevated Prostate Specific Antigen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ta Chen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the safety and accuracy of simultaneous transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and transurethral resection of prostate(TURP, patients with acute urinary retention (AUR who underwent simultaneous prostate biopsy and TURP were compared with those treated byTURP alone.Methods: From July 2000 to Jun 2004, 21 patients older than 70 years with AUR wereincluded in each group. Patients with elevated prostate specific antigen(PSA levels (> 4 ng/ml underwent TURP and TRUS-guided biopsy simultaneously (group I, while those with normal PSA levels (< 4 ng/ml receivedTURP alone (group II. The average ages of group I and group II patientswere 72.4 and 72.5 years.Results: In group I, 4 patients (19% were diagnosed with prostate cancer; 2 hadmetastasis and received hormone therapy; and 1 had localized cancer andwas treated with brachytherapy. An 82-year-old patient with localized canceropted for watchful waiting. Compared to group II, patients in group I did notshow aggregated morbidity, such as prolonged hospital stay, hematuria, orfever.Conclusion: Simultaneous TURP and TRUS-guided biopsy in healthy AUR patients doesnot increase the risk of morbidity. Furthermore, with this approach patientscan recover from the stress of AUR and have a definite diagnosis of theircondition.

  16. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027

  17. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC. Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administration; this was followed by the administration of serotonin to experimental animals. ROS, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP expression, and histopathological assessments were performed. Elevated ROS concentrations and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities were detected. Further, we observed an increase in cell surface area and elevated BNP expression which suggests that events associated with cardiac hypertrophy were increased in serotonin-administered diabetic rats. We conclude that serotonin secretion in diabetes could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy, through enhanced ROS production.

  18. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  19. Prospective associations between childhood low-level lead exposure and adult mental health problems: the Port Pirie cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Alexander C; Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Galletly, Cherrie; Sim, Malcolm R; Clark, Levina S

    2013-12-01

    Low-level environmental lead exposure during childhood is associated with poorer emotional/behavioural functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Scarce research has examined whether these apparent effects persist into adulthood. This study is the first to examine prospective associations between lead exposure across early childhood and several common adult mental health problems. Childhood data (including blood lead concentrations) and adult data (from mental health questionnaires and psychiatric interviews) were available for 210 participants (44% males, mean age=26.3 years) from the Port Pirie cohort study (1979-1982 birth cohort). Participants had a mean childhood (to 7 years) average blood lead concentration of 17.2μg/dL. Among females, childhood blood lead showed small significant positive associations with lifetime diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse and social phobia, and with anxiety, somatic and antisocial personality problems. For example: for a 10μg/dL blood lead increase, females were 2.84 times (95% CI 1.10, 7.30) more likely to have an alcohol abuse diagnosis. However, adjustment for childhood covariates - particularly stimulation within the home environment - rendered these associations non-significant. No significant or sizeable unadjusted or adjusted associations were seen for males. The associations between early lead exposure and emotional/behavioural functioning in children might persist into adulthood, at least for females. However, it is unclear whether such results arise from residual confounding, or other mechanisms. Interventions that focus on improving the childhood home environment may have a long-term positive impact on adult mental health outcomes. However, more prospective research using large and representative samples is needed to substantiate these results. PMID:23958641

  20. Coinfection of hepatic cell lines with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus leads to an increase in intracellular hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, David M; Warner, Nadia; Revill, Peter A; Solomon, Ajantha; Wightman, Fiona; Saleh, Suha; Crane, Megan; Cameron, Paul U; Bowden, Scott; Nguyen, Tin; Pereira, Cândida F; Desmond, Paul V; Locarnini, Stephen A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2010-06-01

    Liver-related mortality is increased in the setting of HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. However, interactions between HIV and HBV to explain this observation have not been described. We hypothesized that HIV infection of hepatocytes directly affects the life cycle of HBV. We infected human hepatic cell lines expressing HBV (Hep3B and AD38 cells) or not expressing HBV (Huh7, HepG2, and AD43 cells) with laboratory strains of HIV (NL4-3 and AD8), as well as a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotyped HIV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Following HIV infection with NL4-3 or AD8 in hepatic cell lines, we observed a significant increase in HIV reverse transcriptase activity which was infectious. Despite no detection of surface CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 by flow cytometry, AD8 infection of AD38 cells was inhibited by maraviroc and NL4-3 was inhibited by AMD3100, demonstrating that HIV enters AD38 hepatic cell lines via CCR5 or CXCR4. High-level infection of AD38 cells (50%) was achieved using VSV-pseudotyped HIV. Coinfection of the AD38 cell line with HIV did not alter the HBV DNA amount or species as determined by Southern blotting or nucleic acid signal amplification. However, coinfection with HIV was associated with a significant increase in intracellular HBsAg when measured by Western blotting, quantitative HBsAg, and fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that HIV infection of HBV-infected hepatic cell lines significantly increased intracellular HBsAg but not HBV DNA synthesis and that increased intrahepatic HBsAg secondary to direct infection by HIV may contribute to accelerated liver disease in HIV-HBV-coinfected individuals. PMID:20357083

  1. Possible Role of Trichophytin Antigen in Inducing Impaired Immunological Clearance of Fungus in Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chhavi; Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, V G; Saha, Rumpa; Bhattacharya, S N; Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Atri, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    The immunology of onychomycosis is poorly understood. Th1 and Th17 are the principal effector cells responsible for protective immunity against fungi, while it is assumed that Th2 responses are associated with deleterious effects. The study was conducted to appraise the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in onychomycosis patients and to study skin reactivity to trichophytin antigen in them. Serum samples of 60 cases of chronic onychomycosis and 30 healthy controls were assayed for serum IgE, IL-6 and TGF-β levels using specific immunoassay kits; 0.01 ml of trichophytin antigen, Candida antigen and phosphate-buffered saline using separate syringes were injected intradermal at three independent sites of the forearm in cases and controls. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls, while serum TGF-β levels in both cases and controls were comparable. Serum IgE levels in cases were significantly higher when compared with controls. Thirty-eight patients showed immediate hypersensitivity response to trichophytin antigen, while none showed delayed hypersensitivity reaction to trichophytin antigen. Constant fungal antigenic stimuli induce a state of anergy as indicated by low serum IL-6 levels and the absence of delayed hypersensitivity reaction to trichophytin antigen in cases, leading to chronicity of infection. High total IgE may indicate a high probability of prior fungal sensitization. PMID:26614362

  2. Radiotherapy options for localized prostate cancer based upon pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen levels and biochemical control: A comprehensive review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review all the available radiotherapy (RT) literature on localized prostate cancer treatment where serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were used to both stratify patients and evaluate outcome and determine if any conclusions can be reached regarding an optimal radiotherapeutic management for this disease. Methods and Materials: A MEDLINE search was conducted to obtain all articles in English on prostate cancer treatment employing RT from 1986-1997. Studies were considered eligible for review only if they met all the following criteria: 1) pretreatment PSA values were recorded and grouped for subsequent evaluation, 2) posttreatment PSA values were continuously monitored, 3) definitions of biochemical control were stated, and 4) the median follow-up was given. Results: Of the 246 articles identified, only 20 met the inclusion criteria; 4 using conformal external beam RT, 8 using conventional external beam RT, and 8 using interstitial brachytherapy (4 using a permanent implant alone, 3 combining external beam RT with a permanent implant, and 1 combining a conformal temporary interstitial implant boost with external beam RT). No studies using neutrons (with or without external beam RT) or androgen deprivation (combined with external beam RT) were identified where patients were stratified by pretreatment PSA levels. Results for all therapies were extremely variable with the 3-5-year rates of biochemical control for patients with pretreatment PSA levels ≤4 ng/ml ranging from 48 to 100%, for PSA levels >4 and ≤10 ng/ml ranging from 44 to 90%, for PSA levels >10 and ≤20 ng/ml ranging from 27 to 89%, and for PSA levels >20 ranging from 14 to 89%. The median Gleason score, T-stage, definition of biochemical control, and follow-up were substantially different from series to series. No RT option consistently produced superior results. Conclusions: When data are reviewed from studies using serum PSA levels to stratify patients and to evaluate

  3. Elevated IgG levels against specific bacterial antigens in obese patients with diabetes and in mice with diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nadeem; Tang, Lihua; Jahangiri, Anisa; de Villiers, Willem; Eckhardt, Erik

    2012-09-01

    High fat diets increase the risk for insulin resistance by promoting inflammation. The cause of inflammation is unclear, but germfree mouse studies have implicated commensal gut bacteria. We tested whether diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and inflammation are associated with anti-bacterial IgG. Blood from lean and obese healthy volunteers or obese patients with diabetes were analyzed by ELISA for IgG against extracts of potentially pathogenic and pro-biotic strains of Escherichia coli (LF-82 and Nissle), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and for circulating tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). C57Bl/6 mice were fed low- or high-fat diets (10% or 60% kcal from fat) for 10 weeks and tested for anti-bacterial IgG, bodyweight, fasting glucose, and inflammation. Obese diabetic patients had significantly more IgG against extracts of E. coli LF-82 compared with lean controls, whereas IgG against extracts of the other bacteria was unchanged. Circulating TNFα was elevated and correlated with IgG against the LF-82 extract. Mice fed high-fat diets had increased fasting glucose levels, elevated TNFα and neutrophils, and significantly more IgG against the LF-82 extracts. Diabetes in obesity is characterized by increased IgG against specific bacterial antigens. Specific commensal bacteria may mediate inflammatory effects of high-fat diets. PMID:22424821

  4. Influences of phosphate nutritional level on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium and lead in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su; SUN Tie-heng; SUN Li-na; ZHOU Qi-xing; CHAO Lei

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the influence of phosphate levels on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) in soil. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was selected as the tested plant. There were 5phosphate fertilizer(Ca(H2PO4)2) levels including 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg P2O5/kg soil, marked by P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4, respecby TI, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that the P fertilizer promoted the dry weight of wheat in all treatments and alleviated the contamination induced by Cd and Pb. With increasing levels of the additional P fertilizer, Cd concentration in different parts (root, haulm, chaffand grain) of wheat decreased at the P1 level at first and then increased. The soluble plus exchangeable (SE)fraction of Cd in soil decreased at the P1 level and then increased from P2 to P4 levels. The moderate P fertilizer reduced the phytoavailability of Cd. The application of P could obviously restrain the uptake of Pb by wheat and there were significantly negative correlations between the levels of P and the uptake of Pb. Phosphorus supply resulted in a decrease in the SE fraction of Pb and there was a significantly negative correlation between the levels of P and the SE fraction of Pb in soil. All the levels of the P fertilizer in this experiment could reduce the phytoavailability of Pb. Thus, it is feasible to apply the P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2) to Pb contaminated soils.However, the levels of P application should be restricted in case that redundant P may increase the phytoavailability of Cd.

  5. Development of tools to target antigen through mannose receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Zaigham

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are unique antigen presenting cells which play a major role in antigen presentation and initiation of the immune response by regulating B- and T- cell activation. Antigen targeting to DC receptors is an effective, safe and specific method for vaccine development. The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor expressed by subpopulations of DC and antigen targeting through MR leads to enhanced antigen uptake and presentation to T -cells. This makes MR a favourite recep...

  6. A binderless, covalently bulk modified electrochemical sensor: Application to simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium at trace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunigollahalli Kempegowda, Raghu [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India); Malingappa, Pandurangappa, E-mail: mprangachem@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed sensor is a new type of binderless covalent bulk modified electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface can be easily renewed by simple mechanical polishing using emery sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free from modifier leaching during electrochemical measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides long term storage stability with good reproducibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanomolar level detection limit achieved with selectivity. - Abstract: A new type of covalent binderless bulk modified electrode has been fabricated and used in the simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium ions at nanomolar level. The modification of graphitic carbon with 4-amino salicylic acid was carried out under microwave irradiation through the amide bond formation. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated electrode has been carried out to decipher the interacting ability of the functional moieties present on the modifier molecules toward the simultaneous determination of Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The possible mode of interaction of functional groups with metal ions is proposed based on the pKa values of the modifier functionalities present on the surface of graphitic carbon particles. The analytical utility of the proposed sensor has been validated by measuring the lead and cadmium content from pretreated waste water samples of lead acid batteries.

  7. Simple high-cell density fed-batch technique for high-level recombinant protein production with Pichia pastoris: Application to intracellular production of Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Anton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is a serious global public health concern. Though a safe and efficacious recombinant vaccine is available, its use in several resource-poor countries is limited by cost. We have investigated the production of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg using the yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 by inserting the HBsAg gene into the alcohol oxidase 1 locus. Results Large-scale production was optimized by developing a simple fed-batch process leading to enhanced product titers. Cells were first grown rapidly to high-cell density in a batch process using a simple defined medium with low salt and high glycerol concentrations. Induction of recombinant product synthesis was carried out using rather drastic conditions, namely through the addition of methanol to a final concentration of 6 g L-1. This methanol concentration was kept constant for the remainder of the cultivation through continuous methanol feeding based on the on-line signal of a flame ionization detector employed as methanol analyzer in the off-gas stream. Using this robust feeding protocol, maximum concentrations of ~7 grams HBsAg per liter culture broth were obtained. The amount of soluble HBsAg, competent for assembly into characteristic virus-like particles (VLPs, an attribute critical to its immunogenicity and efficacy as a hepatitis B vaccine, reached 2.3 grams per liter of culture broth. Conclusion In comparison to the highest yields reported so far, our simple cultivation process resulted in an ~7 fold enhancement in total HBsAg production with more than 30% of soluble protein competent for assembly into VLPs. This work opens up the possibility of significantly reducing the cost of vaccine production with implications for expanding hepatitis B vaccination in resource-poor countries.

  8. Relationship of Thyroid Hormone Levels to Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, p,p′- DDE, and Other Toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Denham, Melinda; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is well documented that acute exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p′-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), can affect human health including thyroid function. Chronic exposure to multiple toxicants is common but difficult to analyze, and most prior studies have focused on adults or newborns, creating a gap in our understanding of multitoxicant effects among adolescents. Objective We investigated whether levels of PCBs, p,p′-DDE, HCB, mirex, lead, and mercury reflecting past chronic exposure are associated with alterations in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (TT4), and free thyroxine (FT4) among older children and adolescents. Methods The sample consists of youth from the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation (n = 232) who reside in proximity to several industries that have contaminated the local environment. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the effect of PCB groupings, p,p′-DDE, HCB, lead, and mercury on thyroid hormones after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and controlling for all other toxicants. Results Exposure to PCBs affects the thyroid hormone profile in adolescents. The group of persistent PCBs was positively associated with TSH but inversely related to FT4. Nonpersistent PCBs were significantly and negatively related to FT4 only. HCB was negatively associated with T4, and lead was positively associated with T3. Breast-fed adolescents had higher levels of persistent PCBs and p,p′-DDE but not of nonpersistent PCBs or any other toxicant when compared with non-breast-fed adolescents. Though having lower levels of persistent PCBs and p,p′-DDE, non-breast-fed adolescents exhibited significant relationships between persistent PCBs and TSH and FT4, but breast-fed adolescents did not. It appears that PCBs from breast milk obscure the relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and

  9. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells. PMID:26895538

  10. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  11. Optimizing patient selection for dose escalation techniques using the prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy gleason score, and clinical T-stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Ideal candidates for 3D dose escalation conformal radiation or external beam + implant therapy are identified on the basis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 American Joint Commission Cancer (AJCC) clinical T-stage. Methods and Materials: The pathologic findings of 1742 men with clinical stage T1c,2 prostate cancer managed with a radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 1998 were subjected to a logistic regression multivariable analysis. The endpoints examined included pathologic organ-confined (OC), specimen-confined (SC), and margin (M) or seminal vesicle (SV) positive disease. SC disease was defined as extracapsular extension (ECE) with a negative surgical margin. The clinical factors tested included PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 AJCC clinical T-stage. PSA failure-free (bNED) survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: Significant negative predictors of pathologic OC-disease or positive predictors of M+ or SV+ disease included a PSA > 10 ng/ml (p + or SV+ disease respectively. Conclusions: Patients most likely to derive a survival benefit from the improved local control possible using dose escalation techniques were those who had both a low risk of having occult micrometastatic disease (+ or SV+) and a reasonable likelihood of remaining disease-free after RP (>50% 5-year bNED). These patients included those having T1c, 2a, PSA > 10-15 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤6 or T1c, 2a, 2b, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤ 7 prostate cancer

  12. A nomogram based on age,prostate-specific antigen level,prostate volume and digital rectal examination for predicting risk of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Hui Chen; Matthew Uhlman; Yu-Rong Lin; Xiang-Rong Deng; Bin Wang; Wen-Jun Yang; Ke-Ji Xie

    2013-01-01

    Nomograms for predicting the risk of prostate cancer developed using other populations may introduce sizable bias when applied to a Chinese cohort.In the present study,we sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Chinese population.A total of 535 Chinese men who underwent a prostatic biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in the past decade with complete biopsy data were included.Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of a positive initial biopsy.Age,prostate-specific antigen (PSA),prostate volume (PV),digital rectal examination (DRE) status,% free PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings were included in the analysis.A nomogram model was developed that was based on these independent predictors to calculate the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy.A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of using the nomogram and PSA levels alone for predicting positive prostate biopsy.The rate for positive initial prostate biopsy was 41.7% (223/535).The independent variables used to predict a positive initial prostate biopsy were age,PSA,PV and DRE status.The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for a positive initial prostate biopsy for PSA alone and the nomogram were 79.7% and 84.8%,respectively.Our results indicate that the risk of a positive initial prostate biopsy can be predicted to a satisfactory level in a Chinese population using our nomogram.The nomogram can be used to identify and Counsel patients who should consider a prostate biopsy,ultimately enhancing accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer.

  13. Expression, purification, and molecular analysis of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1): a production process developed for a lead candidate recombinant hookworm vaccine antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Gaddam Narsa; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Tsao, Eric I; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1) belongs to a unique Nu class of GSTs and is a lead candidate antigen in a bivalent human hookworm vaccine. Here we describe the expression of Na-GST-1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris at the 20 L manufacturing scale and its purification process performed by three chromatographic steps, comprised of a Q Sepharose XL anion exchange column, followed by a Butyl Sepharose HP hydrophobic affinity column and a Superdex 75 size-exclusion column. Approximately 1.5 g of recombinant protein was recovered at an overall process yield of 51%, with a purity grade of 98% and the absence of detectable host cell protein. By mass spectrometry the recombinant protein exhibits a mass of 23,676Da, which closely matches the predicted molecular mass of the protein. The expression and purification methods described here are suitable for further scale-up product development and for its use to design formulation processes suitable to generate a vaccine for clinical testing. PMID:22503665

  14. The Practicality of Targeted Prostate Biopsy Procedures on the Dominant Side of the Tumor Determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Elderly Patients with High Serum Levels of Prostate-Specific Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Jung Sik; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Kyung Kgi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the possibility of reducing the number of cores per prostate biopsy in elderly patients with high levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without significantly lowering the detection rate of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two hundreds sixteen men with PSA levels >20 ng/mL who underwent prostate biopsies from May 2009 to April 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. With the help of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the laterality of the dominant tumor burden in patien...

  15. Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal bone, umbilical cord blood, and childhood serial blood samples collected from the ages of 3 months to ≥6 years. We found that Pb levels (as 208Pb:43Ca in dentine formed at birth were significantly associated with cord blood Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.69; n = 27; p<0.0001. The association of prenatal dentine Pb with maternal patella Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.48; n = 59; p<0.0001 was stronger than that observed for tibia Pb levels (Spearman ρ = 0.35; n = 41; p<0.03. When assessing postnatal exposure, we found that Pb levels in dentine formed at 3 months were significantly associated with Pb concentrations in children's blood collected concurrently (Spearman ρ = 0.64; n = 55; p<0.0001. We also found that mean Pb concentrations in secondary dentine (that is formed from root completion to tooth shedding correlated positively with cumulative blood lead index (Spearman ρ = 0.38; n = 75; p<0.0007. Overall, our results support that micro-spatial measurements of Pb in dentine can be reliably used to reconstruct Pb exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods, and secondary dentine holds the potential to estimate long-term exposure up to the time the tooth is shed.

  16. Determining of the level of lead and cadmium contamination in pregnant women living in an exposed mining area of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the objective of this study to determine in the first year the level of acute pollution and their nutritional status in pregnant women living in a lead and cadmium exposed mining area of Peru. The complete project will focus on delivering women and their infants who are one of the most vulnerable groups of the life cycle. It is of particular interest to investigate the impact of pollution not only in the mother but also the possible transfer to the infant. (author)

  17. (Q, R inventory model with service level constraint and variable lead time in fuzzy-stochastic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Soni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's global marketplace, individual firms do not compete as independent entities rather as an integral part of a supply chain. Uncertainty is the main attribute in managing the supply chains. Accordingly, we develop a (Q, R inventory model with service level constraint and variable lead-time in fuzzy-stochastic environment. In addition, the triangular fuzzy numbers counts upon lead-time are used to construct fuzzy-stochastic lead-time demand. Using credibility criterion, the expected shortages are calculated. Without loss of generality, we assume that all the observed values of the fuzzy random variable, representing the demand are triangular fuzzy numbers. Consequently, the value of total expected cost in the fuzzy sense is derived using the expected value criterion or credibility criterion. To determine an optimal policy, a numerical technique is presented and the results are analyzed using scan and zoom for constraint optimization. Finally, in order to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed model, numerical example and sensitivity analysis are also included.

  18. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  19. Engineered mutations in fibrillin-1 leading to Marfan syndrome act at the protein, cellular and organismal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Karina A; Reinhardt, Dieter P

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are the major components of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix of elastic and non-elastic tissues. They are multi-domain proteins, containing primarily calcium binding epidermal growth factor-like (cbEGF) domains and 8-cysteine/transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-like (TB) domains. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene give rise to Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder with clinical complications in the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular and other organ systems. Here, we review the consequences of engineered Marfan syndrome mutations in fibrillin-1 at the protein, cellular and organismal levels. Representative point mutations associated with Marfan syndrome in affected individuals have been introduced and analyzed in recombinant fibrillin-1 fragments. Those mutations affect fibrillin-1 on a structural and functional level. Mutations which impair folding of cbEGF domains can affect protein trafficking. Protein folding disrupted by some mutations can lead to defective secretion in mutant fibrillin-1 fragments, whereas fragments with other Marfan mutations are secreted normally. Many Marfan mutations render fibrillin-1 more susceptible to proteolysis. There is also evidence that some mutations affect heparin binding. Few mutations have been further analyzed in mouse models. An extensively studied mouse model of Marfan syndrome expresses mouse fibrillin-1 with a missense mutation (p.C1039G). The mice display similar characteristics to human patients with Marfan syndrome. Overall, the analyses of engineered mutations leading to Marfan syndrome provide important insights into the pathogenic molecular mechanisms exerted by mutated fibrillin-1. PMID:26281765

  20. An investigation of environmental levels of cadmium and lead in airborne matter and surface soils within the locality of a municipal waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, R S; Oduyemi, K; Lill, D E

    1998-01-19

    The results of an investigation into the environmental impact of heavy metals in the airborne emissions from the Baldovie municipal waste incinerator, Scotland, are presented. A sampling network of 1-km grid squares covering a 7 x 9 km area was established over the incinerator plant and its surroundings. Surface soil core samples were collected from within each 1 km2 and analysed for cadmium and lead content. The spatial distribution of lead levels in soils showed a marked variation downwind from the Baldovie incinerator in comparison with the background level for the area but remained well within the typical range of lead in rural, unpolluted, British soils. A comparison of the observed levels of lead in local soils, with the predicted downwind long-term ground level lead distribution in air indicates that atmospheric emissions of lead originating from the Baldovie incinerator directly determine concentrations of lead in soils within a radius of 5 km of the incinerator. An empirical relationship between the levels of lead in soils and the long-term levels in air was established. In the case of cadmium, the spatial distribution of the heavy metal showed neither a marked nor extensive contamination of the sampled area around the incinerator and remained within the typical range of cadmium levels in rural, unpolluted, British soils. The work concludes that atmospheric emissions of lead from the Baldovie incinerator significantly determines the local distribution of lead in soils within the immediate vicinity of the incinerator. PMID:9514037

  1. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure

  2. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  3. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  4. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  5. Tumor-targeted delivery of IL-2 by NKG2D leads to accumulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor loci and enhanced anti-tumor effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Heung Kang

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has been shown to promote tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and differentiation but systemic administration of IL-2 results in significant toxicity. Therefore, a strategy that can specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location may alleviate concerns of toxicity. Because NKG2D ligands have been shown to be highly expressed in many cancer cells but not in healthy cells, we reason that a chimeric protein consisting of NKG2D linked to IL-2 will lead to the specific targeting of IL-2 to the tumor location. Therefore, we created chimeric proteins consisting of NKG2D linked to Gaussia luciferase (GLuc; a marker protein or IL-2 to form NKG2D-Fc-GLuc and NKG2D-Fc-IL2, respectively. We demonstrated that NKG2D linked to GLuc was able to deliver GLuc to the tumor location in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that TC-1 tumor-bearing mice intramuscularly injected with DNA encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2, followed by electroporation, exhibited an increased number of luciferase-expressing E7-specific CD8+ T cells at the tumor location. More importantly, treatment with the DNA construct encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2 significantly enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects generated by intradermal vaccination with therapeutic HPV DNA in tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, by linking NKG2D to IL2, we are able to specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location, enhancing antigen-specific T-cell immune response and controlling tumor growth. Our approach represents a platform technology to specifically deliver proteins of interest to tumor loci.

  6. Association between blood lead levels and environmental exposure among Saudi schoolchildren in certain districts of Al-Madinah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Adnan Zolaly1, Manal Ibrahim Hanafi2,3, Nashaat Shawky4, Khalid el-Harbi1, Ahmed M Mohamadin5,61Pediatric Department, 2Family and Community Medicine Department, Medical College, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 3Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Ophthalmology Department, Medical College, 5Chemistry for Health Sciences Department, Deanery of Academic Services, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 6Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptIntroduction: Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries. When humans are exposed to high levels of lead, there is damage to almost all organs and organ systems (most importantly, the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood, which often culminates in death.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs and to identify the sources of environmental exposure and potential risk factors for elevated BLLs among Saudi schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2010. The study population included 557 Saudi school students of both sexes. A multistage random sampling technique was used. Information about socioeconomic status, house and school construction, and parents' education and employment was collected using questionnaires. Lead was analyzed in a blood sample using an atomic absorption technique and hemoglobin was measured using a Sysmex hematological analyzer.Results: The mean BLL was 4.94 ± 3.38 µg/dL (range 0.45–26.3 µg/dL. A total of 19% had BLLs <1.0 µg/dL, 16% had BLLs <2.5 µg/dL, 15% had BLLs <5.0 µg/dL, 20% had BLLs <7.5 µg/dL, 25% had BLLs <10.0 µg/dL, and about 6% had BLLs >10.0 µg/dL. Analysis of odds by controlling all risk factors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] that affect BLLs (≥10 µg/dL indicated

  7. A follow-up comparison of blood lead levels between foreign and native workers of battery manufacturing in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign workers employed in industries in Taiwan have been found at elevated risk of injuries. Less well known is whether the elevated risk persists in chemical exposure such as lead exposure at battery manufacturing. A cohort of 70 Thai workers and 55 native workers employed at a battery plant were followed up, after an education of job safety, from 2000 until 2002. This study compared the change of blood lead levels (BLLs) between these two groups of workers. With informed consent, BLLs were measured annually for participants and compared. The average baseline BLLs were approximately at similarly high levels between Thai workers and native workers with means ± standard deviations of 36.9 ± 16.4 and 36.2 ± 12.4 μg/dl, respectively (p = 0.79). At the end of 2002, the average concentration was higher in Thai workers than in native workers. Using mixed models, Thai workers had an average of 5.95 μg/dl increase in BLLs over native workers during the 3-year study. Further measurements revealed that the average BLL for workers in the assembly department was 3.57 ± 1.83 μg/dl in excess, compared with workers in the plate engineering department. Thai workers were more likely to drink alcohol but less likely to wear gloves at work and wash hands before meals. The BLL disparities between Thai workers and native workers can partly be explained by differences in risk-taking behaviors. Higher BLLs in Thai workers suggest the need of language appropriate health education to improve their personal hygiene. Workplace smoking ceasing program may be needed both in Thai and native workers

  8. Blood lead and cadmium levels and relevant factors among children from an e-waste recycling town in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is ongoing in Guiyu, and thus toxic heavy metals may keep on threatening to the health of local children. Some related factors may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) or blood cadmium levels (BCLs). Objective: To investigate the children's BLLs and BCLs in Guiyu and Chendian as compare to discuss the effects of primitive e-waste recycling activities on children's health. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight children less than 8 years who lived in Guiyu and Chendian were observed, and their BLLs and BCLs were determined by graphite atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Questionnaire survey for risk factors was also performed and data were analyzed using spearman correlation analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results: Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs and BCLs as compared with those living in Chendian (p10 μg/dL, and 20.1% of children (31/154) had BCLs>2 μg/L, compared with 38.7% of children (48/124) had BLLs>10 μg/dL and 7.3% of children (9/124) had BCLs>2 μg/L in Chendian (p<0.01, respectively). We also observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p<0.01). Mean height of children in Guiyu was significantly lower than that in Chendian (p<0.01). The risk factors related to children's BLLs and BCLs mainly included father's engagement in the work related to e-waste, children's residence in Guiyu and the amount of time that children played outside near the road everyday. Conclusions: There are close relationships between the BLLs, BCLs in children and the primitive e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu. Environmental pollution, especially lead pollution, has threatened the health of children living around e-waste recycling site

  9. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  10. Stress leads to contrasting effects on the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Lakshminarasimhan

    Full Text Available Recent findings on stress induced structural plasticity in rodents have identified important differences between the hippocampus and amygdala. The same chronic immobilization stress (CIS, 2 h/day causes growth of dendrites and spines in the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but dendritic atrophy in hippocampal area CA3. CIS induced morphological changes also differ in their temporal longevity--BLA hypertrophy, unlike CA3 atrophy, persists even after 21 days of stress-free recovery. Furthermore, a single session of acute immobilization stress (AIS, 2 h leads to a significant increase in spine density 10 days, but not 1 day, later in the BLA. However, little is known about the molecular correlates of the differential effects of chronic and acute stress. Because BDNF is known to be a key regulator of dendritic architecture and spines, we investigated if the levels of BDNF expression reflect the divergent effects of stress on the hippocampus and amygdala. CIS reduces BDNF in area CA3, while it increases it in the BLA of male Wistar rats. CIS-induced increase in BDNF expression lasts for at least 21 days after the end of CIS in the BLA. But CIS-induced decrease in area CA3 BDNF levels, reverses to normal levels within the same period. Finally, BDNF is up regulated in the BLA 1 day after AIS and this increase persists even 10 days later. In contrast, AIS fails to elicit any significant change in area CA3 at either time points. Together, these findings demonstrate that both acute and chronic stress trigger opposite effects on BDNF levels in the BLA versus area CA3, and these divergent changes also follow distinct temporal profiles. These results point to a role for BDNF in stress-induced structural plasticity across both hippocampus and amygdala, two brain areas that have also been implicated in the cognitive and affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  11. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA. PMID:25724617

  12. Plant growth, development and change in GSH level in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. exposed to copper and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shufen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure to heavy metals, copper (Cu and lead (Pb in the soil, separately and in combination, were examined in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.. Plant growth and development, GSH level and GSH2 expression at seedling, branching, and flowering stages were studied. Cu at lower concentrations had a stimulating effect on seedling height and root length. A significant positive correlation was observed between heavy metal concentrations and inhibition of plant growth. Plant height, root length and lateral root numbers decreased progressively with increasing concentrations of Cu and Pb. Except at the seedling stage, the metal mixture elicited a synergistic effect on safflower growth and development. The GSH content was significantly reduced in both safflower roots and leaves at increased concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the treatment with a low concentration of Cu that resulted in a slightl increase in GSH content at the seedling and branching stages. RT-PCR analysis revealed a negative correlation between GSH2 expression levels and metal concentration. Short exposure to low concentrations of Cu induce an increase in GSH synthesis to preserve normal plant growth, whereas prolonged exposure and large Cu and Pb concentrations affect the GSH metabolic chain, and are severely toxicity. The findings obtained in this study enhance our understanding of the role of the GSH pool in the response of plants to heavy metal-induced stress, and serve as a basis for improved cultivation of safflower.

  13. Canavanine Alters ROS/RNS Level and Leads to Post-translational Modification of Proteins in Roots of Tomato Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Andrzejczak, Olga; Staszek, Paweł; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Canavanine (CAN), a structural analog of arginine (Arg), is used as a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS in mammals. CAN is incorporated into proteins’ structure in the place of Arg, leading to the formation of aberrant compounds. This non-protein amino acid is found in legumes, e.g., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. or Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. and acts as a strong toxin against herbivores or plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were treated for 24–72 h with CAN (10 or 50 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect. We determined ROS level/production in root extracts, fluorescence of DAF-FM and APF derivatives corresponding to RNS level in roots of tomato seedlings and linked CAN-induced restriction of root growth to the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins: carbonylation and nitration. Both PTMs are stable markers of nitro-oxidative stress, regarded as the plant’s secondary response to phytotoxins. CAN enhanced H2O2 content and superoxide radicals generation in extracts of tomato roots and stimulated formation of protein carbonyl groups. An elevated level of carbonylated proteins was characteristic for the plants after 72 h of the culture, mainly for the roots exposed to 10 μM CAN. The proteolytic activity was stimulated by tested non-protein amino acid. CAN treatment led to decline of fluorescence of DAF-FM derivatives, and transiently stimulated fluorescence of APF derivatives. Short-term exposure of tomato seedlings to CAN lowered the protein nitration level. Activity of peroxidase, polyamine oxidase and NADPH oxidase, enzymes acting as modulators of H2O2 concentration and governing root architecture and growth were determined. Activities of all enzymes were stimulated by CAN, but no strict CAN concentration dependence was observed. We conclude, that although CAN treatment led to a decline in the nitric oxide level, PTMs observed in roots of plants exposed to CAN are linked rather to the

  14. Canavanine Alters ROS/RNS Level and Leads to Post-translational Modification of Proteins in Roots of Tomato Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Andrzejczak, Olga; Staszek, Paweł; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Canavanine (CAN), a structural analog of arginine (Arg), is used as a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS in mammals. CAN is incorporated into proteins' structure in the place of Arg, leading to the formation of aberrant compounds. This non-protein amino acid is found in legumes, e.g., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. or Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. and acts as a strong toxin against herbivores or plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were treated for 24-72 h with CAN (10 or 50 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect. We determined ROS level/production in root extracts, fluorescence of DAF-FM and APF derivatives corresponding to RNS level in roots of tomato seedlings and linked CAN-induced restriction of root growth to the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins: carbonylation and nitration. Both PTMs are stable markers of nitro-oxidative stress, regarded as the plant's secondary response to phytotoxins. CAN enhanced H2O2 content and superoxide radicals generation in extracts of tomato roots and stimulated formation of protein carbonyl groups. An elevated level of carbonylated proteins was characteristic for the plants after 72 h of the culture, mainly for the roots exposed to 10 μM CAN. The proteolytic activity was stimulated by tested non-protein amino acid. CAN treatment led to decline of fluorescence of DAF-FM derivatives, and transiently stimulated fluorescence of APF derivatives. Short-term exposure of tomato seedlings to CAN lowered the protein nitration level. Activity of peroxidase, polyamine oxidase and NADPH oxidase, enzymes acting as modulators of H2O2 concentration and governing root architecture and growth were determined. Activities of all enzymes were stimulated by CAN, but no strict CAN concentration dependence was observed. We conclude, that although CAN treatment led to a decline in the nitric oxide level, PTMs observed in roots of plants exposed to CAN are linked rather to the formation of

  15. Isolation of Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens were isolated from intact worms in the cold by using Nonidet P-40. Proof of the tegumental nature of the antigens was shown by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical technique at the light microscope level. The potential of F. hepatica tegument antigens for the immunodiagnosis of rabbit and human fascioliasis was shown by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion, although cross-reactivity was evident in one of six serum samples from patients infected with Schi...

  16. Simple high-cell density fed-batch technique for high-level recombinant protein production with Pichia pastoris: Application to intracellular production of Hepatitis B surface antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Anton; Lünsdorf Heinrich; Gäbel Thomas; Adnan Ahmad; Gurramkonda Chandrasekhar; Nemani Satish; Swaminathan Sathyamangalam; Khanna Navin; Rinas Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B is a serious global public health concern. Though a safe and efficacious recombinant vaccine is available, its use in several resource-poor countries is limited by cost. We have investigated the production of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using the yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 by inserting the HBsAg gene into the alcohol oxidase 1 locus. Results Large-scale production was optimized by developing a simple fed-batch process leading to enhanced product ...

  17. Blood lead levels for Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus migrating between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kenny

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, we have been determining blood lead levels (BLLs for Eurasian black vulture (EbVs, Aegypius monachus in Mongolia. Since EbVs migrated from Mongolia to the Republic (R. of Korea in 2012, we started comparing BLLs from Mongolia to Korean birds [Mongolia; mean=2.72±0.09 μg/dL standard error (SE, n=181, R. of Korea; mean=6.68±0.58 μg/dL SE, n=124]. In Korea we also analyzed birds by comparing BLLs for free-ranging birds (mean=7.54±0.50 μg/dL SE, n=44 to rehabilitation center birds (mean=6.21±0.86 μg/dL SE, n=80, and for birds fed rescued water deer (Hydropotes inermis (mean=11.26±1.66 μg/dL SE, n=7 to birds fed livestock (mean=1.97±0.27 μg/dL, n=4. Finally, we analyzed BLLs from Mongolia and the R. of Korea according to the following categories: background=<10.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 100%, n=181; R. of Korea 83.1%, exposure=≥10.0 μg/dL to <45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 16.1%, n=20, and diagnostic=≥45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 0.8%, n=1. Our research indicates that EbVs are acquiring lead while migrating to the R. of Korea.

  18. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  19. RHAMM (CD168) Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian M. Gust; Hofer, Matthias D; Sven R. Perner; Kim, Robert; Arul M. Chinnaiyan; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Moller, Peter; Rinnab, Ludwig; Rubin, Mark A; Greiner, Jochen; Schmitt, Michael; Kuefer, Rainer; Ringhoffer, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Localized prostate cancer (CaP) can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID), which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidat...

  20. Virus-like particle production with yeast: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical insights into Pichia pastoris producing high levels of the Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Ahmad; Gurramkonda Chandrasekhar; Lünsdorf Heinrich; Khanna Navin; Rinas Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A protective immune response against Hepatitis B infection can be obtained through the administration of a single viral polypeptide, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Thus, the Hepatitis B vaccine is generated through the utilization of recombinant DNA technology, preferentially by using yeast-based expression systems. However, the polypeptide needs to assemble into spherical particles, so-called virus-like particles (VLPs), to elicit the required protective immune ...

  1. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    OpenAIRE

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  2. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells with Greater Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) Expression Exhibit Higher Levels of Metalloproteinase Activity and Are More Aggressive In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chiao Hsu; Kurt Mildenstein; Kordell Hunter; Olena Tkachenko; Mullen, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) is a gene that is expressed in activated lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and stem cells of a variety of tissues in mice. Despite decades of study its functions remain poorly defined. These studies explored the impact of expression of this stem cell associated gene in acute lymphoid leukemia. Higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 expression led to more aggressive leukemia growth in vivo and earlier death of hosts. Leukemias expressing higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 ex...

  3. Low levels of tissue factor lead to alveolar hemorrhage, potentiating murine acute lung injury and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarache, J.A.; Sebag, S. C.; Clune, J.K.; Grove, B.S.; Lawson, W.E.; Janz, D. R.; Roberts, L. J.; Dworski, R; Mackman, N.; Ware, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Systemic blockade of Tissue Factor (TF) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) in animal models of sepsis but the effects of global TF deficiency are unknown. Hypothesis We used mice with complete knockout of mouse TF and low levels (~1%) of human TF (LTF mice) to test the hypothesis that global TF deficiency attenuates lung inflammation in direct lung injury. Methods LTF mice were treated with 10 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle administered by direct intratracheal (IT) injection and studied at 24 hours. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, LTF mice had increased lung inflammation and injury as measured by bronchoalveolar lavage cell count (3.4 × 105 WT LPS versus 3.3 × 105 LTF LPS, p=0.947) and protein (493 μg/ml WT LPS versus 1014 μg/ml LTF LPS, p=0.006), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, p<0.035 WT LPS versus LTF LPS) and histology compared to wild type mice. LTF mice also had increased hemorrhage and free hemoglobin in the airspace accompanied by increased oxidant stress as measured by lipid peroxidation products (F2-Isoprostanes and Isofurans). Conclusions These findings indicate that global TF deficiency does not confer protection in a direct lung injury model. Rather, TF deficiency causes increased intra-alveolar hemorrhage following LPS leading to increased lipid peroxidation. Strategies to globally inhibit tissue factor may be deleterious in patients with ALI. PMID:23033361

  4. Combined Effect of Blood Cadmium and Lead Levels on Coronary Heart Disease Prediction Risk in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Min; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Kim, Min-Young; Yang, Sung-Won; Seo, Young-Seok; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk calculated using the Framingham risk score. The heavy metal data set of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2008-2010) was analyzed. The 10-year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood Cd and Pb levels in Korean men. For the highest quartile of Cd and Pb, the odds ratio (OR) of the intermediate risk and beyond for CHD (10-year risk ≥10%) compared to the lowest quartile was 6.870 (Cd, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.58-10.30) and 3.127 (Pb, 95% CI: 2.09-4.69) after adjusting for confounders, respectively. The adjusted OR of the intermediate risk and beyond for CHD (10-year risk ≥10%) in the fourth quartile of both Cd and Pb was 12.2 (95% CI: 8.0-18.5) compared to the reference group (first and second quartiles of Cd and Pb). However, the association between log-transformed blood Cd and Pb and the 10-year CHD risk was not significant in Korean women. PMID:26586853

  5. A leading-edge hardware family for diagnostics applications and low-level RF in CERN's ELENA ring

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Jaussi, M; Leiononen, P; Levens, T E; Molendijk, J C; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Simonin, J

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons transferred from the CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The requirements for the acquisition and treatment of signals for longitudinal diagnostics are very demanding, owing to the revolution frequency swing as well as to the digital signal processing required. The requirements for the Low-Level Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system are very demanding as well, especially in terms of revolution frequency swing, dynamic range and low noise required by the cavity voltage control and digital signal processing to be performed. Both sets of requirements will be satisfied by using a leading-edge hardware family, developed to cover the LLRF needs of all synchrotrons in the Meyrin site; it will be first deployed in 2014 in the CERN’s PSB and in the medical machine MedAustron. This paper gives an overview of the main building blocks of the hardware family and of th...

  6. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87μg/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51μg/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35μg/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for ongoing public health action directed at tobacco prevention, reduction, and cessation for women of reproductive age. Pb and THg were detected in more than 95% of all cord blood samples, with GMs of 21 μg/L and 2.7μg/L, respectively, and Cd was detected in 26% of all cord samples, with a GM of 0.08μg/L. Cord:maternal ratios from paired samples ranged from 0.44 to 4.5 for THg, from 0.5 to 10.3 for MeHg, and 0.1 to 9.0 for Pb. On average, levels of THg, MeHg, and Zn were significantly higher in cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.0001), whereas maternal Cd, Pb, Se, and Cu levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0

  7. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Söylemez, Esma [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Middle Black Sea Passage Generation of Agricultural Research Station Director, Tokat (Turkey); Söylemezoğlu, Tülin [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  8. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  9. The impact of low-level lead toxicity on school performance among children in the Chicago Public Schools: a population-based retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Evens, Anne; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Rankin, Kristin M; Lewis, Dan A; Forst, Linda; Rosenberg, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental lead exposure poses a risk to educational performance, especially among poor, urban children. Previous studies found low-level lead exposure was a risk factor for diminished academic abilities, however, this study is distinct because of the very large sample size and because it controlled for very low birth weight and early preterm birth–two factors closely associated with lower academic performance. In this study we examined the association between lead concentration...

  10. The antigenic properties of human prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antigenic properties of human prolactin (HPr) were studied using various methods of radio-immuno assay. The homologous system, the difficulty of which resides in the preparation of the tracer, easily permits measurement of physiological levels. In this system, blood prolactin in the monkey has an antigenicity comparable with that of human prolactin, whereas growth hormone and human chorionic somatotropin have feeble or nil antigenic relationship with HPr. Human, sheep and pig prolactins have variable antigenic cross-reactions depending on the immune serum used. These antigenic cross reactions may be applied to the isolation of amniotic prolactin. Human blood prolactin has several components of different molecular weight, but antigenicity comparable with that of pituitary HPr

  11. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  12. Blood lead level and its relationship to certain essential elements in the children aged 0 to 14 years from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate blood lead level and its relationship to copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium and iron in the children aged 0 to 14 years old from Beijing, China. Methods: We classified 3181 children into one of the four groups: Group A (n = 783, < 1 year old); Group B (n = 1538, 1-3 years old); Group C (n = 443, 3-7 years old); and, Group D (n = 417, 7-14 years old). All these metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The blood lead level was 0.207 ± 0.105 μmol/L. There was a significant gender difference for zinc (P < 0.05) in Group C, and there was also a significant gender difference for copper (P < 0.05) and lead (P < 0.05) in Group D. Controlling for gender and age, we observed that there was a negative correlation of lead with zinc (r = - 0.052, P < 0.01), magnesium (r = - 0.042, P < 0.05) and iron (r = - 0.031, P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, in the children aged 1-7 years old, we also found there was a negative linear correlation of lead with zinc, magnesium and iron, respectively (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Blood lead level in children from Beijing was markedly decreased. And deficiency of zinc, magnesium and iron is related to the elevated blood lead level in the children aged 1-7 years. - Research highlights: →We studied blood lead level and nutritional metals in children aged 0-14 years from Beijing, China. →There are 3181 children, which is a relatively large sample. →We investigated the relationship between lead and copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron. →Our data are all for the whole blood. →Our information can be helpful for further control efforts to reduce children's exposure to lead.

  13. Distinct CDR3 Conformations in T Cell Receptors Determine the Level of Cross-Reactivity for Diverse Antigens, but Not the Docking Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lindsay L.; Colf, Leremy A.; Stone, Jennifer D.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Kranz, David M.

    2008-01-01

    T cells are known to cross-react with diverse peptide MHC antigens through their αβ TCRs. To explore the basis of such cross-reactivity, we examined the 2C TCR that recognizes two structurally distinct ligands, SIY-Kb and alloantigen QL9-Ld. Here we characterized the crossreactivity of several high affinity 2C TCR variants that contained mutations only in the CDR3α loop. Two of the TCRs lost their ability to cross-react with the reciprocal ligand (SIY-Kb), while another TCR (m67) maintained r...

  14. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantity positively correlates with plasma levels of microRNAs differentially expressed in immunological phases of chronic hepatitis B in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Heiberg, Ida Louise; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner;

    2013-01-01

    Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles are produced in large excess over infect...... infectious virions. Interestingly, circulating HBsAg particles have been shown to carry microRNAs. A thorough characterisation of the identified microRNAs and HBsAg over time in plasma from children with CHB may provide useful information about the natural course of childhood CHB....

  15. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  16. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  17. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan M. Draid

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ability of camel milk to reduce lead toxicity may relate to its antioxidant actions or enhancing, the metal chelating action. In conclusion, Supplementation of daily diets with camel milk may be recommended to improve the body in case of lead contamination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1125-1130

  18. Lead levels and cognitive abilities in Peruvian children Níveis de chumbo e funções cognitivas em crianças peruanas

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann M.; Joel E Salinas-Piélago; María del Rosario Gutiérrez-Campos; Ricardo D Mandamiento-Ayquipa; María del Carmen Yara-Hokama; Johny Ponce-Canchihuamán; Jorge Castro-Morales

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To study the relationship between blood lead levels and cognitive abilities of children exposed to this metal. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study that included 134 children aged 6 to 8.5 years old from 3 schools with different risks of lead exposure located in El Callao (Peru). Cognitive assessments were made by means of the Graphic Test of Reasoning (GTR) and the Kohs Block Design Test (KBDT). Blood lead levels and other laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Children with ...

  19. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  20. Recent Trends in Atmospheric Lead Levels at an Urban-Industrial District of Metropolitan Lisbon, Portugal, through PIXE Analysis of Air-Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a steep decline in primary, traffic-related loads, lead in the environment is still much of an issue. Current atmospheric levels may be unmistakably reflecting the widespread use of cleaner fuels, yet decades of uncontrolled emissions from mobile sources have made lead to pervade every terrestrial (and aquatic) ecosystem, from where it keeps re-entering the lower troposphere, at least in terms of local circulation. The continuing surveillance of airborne-lead levels is thus necessary, not just for ensuring a strict compliance with regulatory decisions, but also for assisting in the implementation of remediation and/or rehabilitation policies. In Portugal, unleaded gasoline was made generally available in 1990, yet both leaded and lead-free varieties were commercialised until 1998. After that, all vehicles were compelled to use unleaded gasoline. Even though it is certainly too early for a full trend analysis of airborne levels and their response to the ban on lead, concentrations in ambient air over an important urban-industrial corridor within the Lisbon metropolitan area show a steady, sharp decrease through the last decade. Since 2000, airborne-lead data seems somewhat stabilised and, as far as busy conurbations are concerned, roughly within the values that were usually observed in the rural hinterland back in the mid 1990s

  1. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations. PMID:22580791

  2. Tales of Antigen Evasion from CAR Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Both T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors and tumor-specific antibodies can successfully target some malignancies, but antigen escape can lead to relapse. Two articles in this issue of Cancer Immunology Research explore what effective countermeasures may prevent it. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 473-473. ©2016 AACRSee articles by Zah et al., p. 498, and Rufener et al., p. 509. PMID:27252092

  3. Misplaced Inventory and Lead-Time in the Supply Chain: Analysis of Decision-Making on RFID Investment with Service Level

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hao Zhang; Ti-Jun Fan; Wen-Chyuan Chiang; Feng Tao

    2014-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID), as the key technology of Internet of Things (IoT), has been hailed as a major innovation to solve misplaced inventory and reduce lead-time. Many retailers have been pushing their suppliers to invest this technology. However, its associated costs seem to prohibit its widespread application. This paper analyzes the situation of service level in a retail supply chain, which has resulted from misplaced inventory and lead-time. By newsvendor model, we analyze...

  4. Alterations in thyroid hormones, lipid peroxidation, glutathione content and protein plasma levels of male rats and their male offspring treated with lead acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a pervasive environmental pollutant known to induced a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunction in both laboratory animals as well as in human. The present work was directed to study the impact of lead (Pb) contamination on blood levels of thyroid hormones. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, total protein, albumin and globulin in male albino rats and whether this impact extends to their offspring growing up in same conditions. Animals were classified into three main groups; 1- control. 2- painter's (fathers). 3- first generation of male rats yielded from Pb-contaminated parents (fathers and mothers). groups 2 and 3 were levels; 100 and 200 mg l, drinking water with lead acetates at two dose levels; 100 and 200 mg l. drinking water for two months. The results revealed that lead contamination induced significant elevations (P4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in both fathers and offspring. Yet, lead significantly increase the plasma lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) with concomitant decreased in glutathione blood content in both fathers and male offspring. The plasma levels of total; protein were significantly increased as a response to the plasma albumin elevations and in turn the albumin / globulin ratio in both fathers and male offspring. Collectively, it was evident that lead high dose (200 mg) dose and the male offspring were highly contaminated than their fathers. The present investigation recommended that urban population ad persons whose work is associated with exposure to lead. Would expected to be at increased risk for lead exposure that will extend to their offspring, and they should be submitted with antioxidants and subjected to periodical medical examinations

  5. Distribution-Free Continuous Review Inventory Model with Controllable Lead Time and Setup Cost in the Presence of a Service Level Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Min MA; QIU, Bing-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Based on the mean and the standard deviation of lead time demand, and also taking the difficulty in measuring shortage cost into consideration, we investigate the joint decision problem of continuous review inventory in which a service level constraint should be satisfied. Under the assumption of controllable lead time and setup cost, a mathematical programming model is established. The objective function of the proposed model is the total expected annual cost and the constraint guarantees th...

  6. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  7. Blood lead levels and sexual maturation in U.S. girls: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tiejian; Buck, Germaine M; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we assessed measures of puberty in U.S. girls in relation to blood lead levels to determine whether sexual maturation may be affected by current environmental lead exposure. The study sample included 1,706 girls 8-16 years old with pubic hair and breast development information; 1,235 girls 10-16 years old supplied information on menarche. Blood lead concentrations (range = 0.7-21.7 micro g/dL) were categorized into th...

  8. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  9. Nano-iniferter based imprinted sensor for ultra trace level detection of prostate-specific antigen in both men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) was developed using surface imprinting and nanotechnology. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with manganese nanoparticles was functionalized with thio-group to make a nano-iniferter. This nano-iniferter was used as a platform to synthesize a three-dimensional molecularly imprinted polymer matrix for PSA by controlled radical polymerization technique. The PSA-sensor displayed good analytical performance for the detection of PSA by square wave and differential pulse stripping voltammetric techniques. The limit of detection was calculated as low as 0.25pgL(-1) (from SWSV) and 3.04pgL(-1) (from DPSV) at signal to noise ratio of 3. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of PSA in human blood serum, urine, and forensic samples without any cross-reactivity. Thus this sensor offers high selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and clinical applicability for PSA determination in sera of both the men and women, which have not been reported together in the previously reported systems. The sensor may be used as a better alternative for the commercially available ELISA kits for PSA determination. PMID:25460874

  10. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 μg/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 μg/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  11. A screening-level assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc in fish and crayfish from Northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Brumbaugh, William G; Linder, Gregory L; Hinck, Jo Ellen

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential human and ecological risks associated with metals in fish and crayfish from mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Crayfish (Orconectes spp.) and fish of six frequently consumed species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; spotted bass, M. punctulatus; and white crappie, Pomoxis annularis) were collected in 2001--2002 from the Oklahoma waters of the Spring River (SR) and Neosho River (NR), which drain the TSMD. Samples from a mining-contaminated site in eastern Missouri and from reference sites were also analyzed. Individual fish were prepared for human consumption in the manner used locally by Native Americans (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc. Whole crayfish were analyzed as composite samples of 5--60 animals. Metals concentrations were typically higher in samples from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. Within the TSMD, most metals concentrations were higher at sites on the SR than on the NR and were typically highest in common carp and crayfish than in other taxa. Higher concentrations and greater risk were associated with fish and crayfish from heavily contaminated SR tributaries than the SR or NR mainstems. Based on the results of this and previous studies, the human consumption of carp and crayfish could be restricted based on current criteria for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and the consumption of channel catfish could be restricted due to lead. Metals concentrations were uniformly low in Micropterus spp. and crappie and would not warrant restriction, however. Some risk to carnivorous avian wildlife from lead and zinc in TSMD fish and invertebrates was also indicated, as was risk to the fish themselves. Overall, the wildlife assessment is consistent with previously reported biological effects attributed to metals

  12. Variation in an Iron Metabolism Gene Moderates the Association Between Blood Lead Levels and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Elmore, Alexis L.; Natarajan, Neil; Friderici, Karen H.; Nikolas, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental condition, there is also considerable scientific and public interest in environmental modulators of its etiology. Exposure to neurotoxins is one potential source of perturbation of neural, and hence psychological, development. Exposure to lead in particular has been widely investigated and is correlated with neurodevelopmental outcomes, including ADHD. To investigate whether this effect is likely to be causal, we used a Mendelian randomization design with a functional gene variant. In a case-control study, we examined the association between ADHD symptoms in children and blood lead level as moderated by variants in the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. The HFE gene regulates iron uptake and secondarily modulates lead metabolism. Statistical moderation was observed: The magnitude of the association of blood lead with symptoms of ADHD was altered by functional HFE genotype, which is consistent with a causal hypothesis. PMID:26710823

  13. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  14. Correlation analysis of the long latency auditory evoked potential N2 and cognitive P3 with the level of lead poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of lead on children's health have been widely studied. Aim: To analyze the correlation between the long latency auditory evoked potential N2 and cognitive P3 with the level of lead poisoning in Brazilian children. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 20 children ranging in age from 7 to 14 years at the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations. We performed periodic surveys of the lead concentration in the blood and basic audiological evaluations. Furthermore, we studied the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 by analyzing the absolute latency of the N2 and P3 potentials and the P3 amplitude recorded at Cz. At the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations, the average concentration of lead in the blood was less than 10 ug/dL. Results: In conventional audiologic evaluations, all children had hearing thresholds below 20 dBHL for the frequencies tested and normal tympanometry findings; the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 were present in 95% of children. No significant correlations were found between the blood lead concentration and latency (p = 0.821 or amplitude (p = 0.411 of the P3 potential. However, the latency of the N2 potential increased with the concentration of lead in the blood, with a significant correlation (p = 0.030. Conclusion: Among Brazilian children with low lead exposure, a significant correlation was found between blood lead levels and the average latency of the auditory evoked potential long latency N2; however, a significant correlation was not observed for the amplitude and latency of the cognitive potential P3.

  15. Towards allele-level human leucocyte antigens genotyping - assessing two next-generation sequencing platforms: Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine and Illumina MiSeq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J L; Lind, C; Mackiewicz, K; Ferriola, D; Papazoglou, A; Derbeneva, O; Wallace, D; Monos, D S

    2015-10-01

    Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) typing has been a challenge due to extreme polymorphism of the HLA genes and limitations of the current technologies and protocols used for their characterization. Recently, next-generation sequencing techniques have been shown to be a well-suited technology for the complete characterization of the HLA genes. However, a comprehensive assessment of the different platforms for HLA typing, describing the limitations and advantages of each of them, has not been presented. We have compared the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) and Illumina MiSeq, currently the two most frequently used platforms for diagnostic applications, for a number of metrics including total output, quality score per position across the reads and error rates after alignment which can all affect the accuracy of HLA genotyping. For this purpose, we have used one homozygous and three heterozygous well-characterized samples, at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1. The total output of bases produced by the MiSeq was higher, and they have higher quality scores and a lower overall error rate than the PGM. The MiSeq also has a higher fidelity when sequencing through homopolymer regions up to 9 bp in length. The need to set phase between distant polymorphic sites was more readily achieved with MiSeq using paired-end sequencing of fragments that are longer than those obtained with PGM. Additionally, we have assessed the workflows of the different platforms for complexity of sample preparation, sequencer operation and turnaround time. The effects of data quality and quantity can impact the genotyping results; having an adequate amount of good quality data to analyse will be imperative for confident HLA genotyping. The overall turnaround time can be very comparable between the two platforms; however, the complexity of sample preparation is higher with PGM, while the actual sequencing time is longer with MiSeq. PMID:26119888

  16. Trace elements studies on Karachi population part IV: blood copper, zinc, magnesium and lead levels in psychiatric patients with depression, mental retardation and seizure disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood copper, zinc, magnesium and lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy for 15 males and 16 female suffering from depression, 6 males and 1 female with mental retardation and 3 males and 4 females with seizure disorders. They were all under no medication and belong to low income groups. No difference in copper levels was found between the sexes in any of the groups. The levels in all the groups were significantly higher than in the normals. In depressives, males had significantly higher zinc levels than females and only female depressives had lower levels from normals. In both depressives and normals, males had higher magnesium levels than females but no group of patients had significantly different levels from normals. Lead levels were significantly higher in female depressives and for those with seizure disorders than for controls. At least one metal abnormality was found in 21 (67.7%) depressive, 5 (71.4%) of those with mental retardation and 6 (85.7%) with seizure disorders. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy compared with permanent prostate implantation in low-risk prostate cancer based on endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and prostate-specific antigen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response by comparing the time to resolution of spectroscopic abnormalities (TRSA) and the time to prostate-specific antigen level in low-risk prostate cancer patients after treatment with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) compared with permanent prostate implantation (PPI). Recent studies have suggested that the treatment of low-risk prostate cancer yields similar results for patients treated with 3D-CRT or PPI. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients, 25 in each group, who had been treated with 3D-CRT or PPI, had undergone endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging before and/or at varying times after therapy. The 3D-CRT patients had received radiation doses of ≥72 Gy compared with 144 Gy for the PPI patients. The spectra from all usable voxels were examined for detectable levels of metabolic signal, and the percentages of atrophic and cancerous voxels were tabulated. Results: The median time to resolution of the spectroscopic abnormalities was 32.2 and 24.8 months and the time to the nadir prostate-specific antigen level was 52.4 and 38.0 months for the 3D-CRT and PPI patients, respectively. Of the 3D-CRT patients, 92% achieved negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 40% having complete metabolic atrophy. All 25 PPI patients had negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 60% achieving complete metabolic atrophy. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that metabolic and biochemical responses of the prostate are more pronounced after PPI. Our results have not proved PPI is more effective at curing prostate cancer, but they have demonstrated that it may be more effective at destroying prostate metabolism

  18. The effect of various methodological options on the detection of leading modes of sea level pressure variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huth, Radan

    58A, č. 1 (2006), s. 121-130. ISSN 0280-6495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : sea level pressure variability * principal component analysis * circulation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2006

  19. Contribution of environmental lead exposure to blood lead level among infants based on IEUBK model%基于IEUBK模型研究环境铅对婴儿血铅的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 邵迪初; 项张华; 叶虹; 倪为民; 杨水莲; 吴翠娥; 李凭健; 傅华

    2011-01-01

    concentration were above 100μg/L. Lead in soil, atmosphere and drink-water were 45.57mg/kg,0. 023μg/m3 and 3.25μg/L respectively. While based on the calculation of the IEUBK model,the value attributed to environmental lead exposure was 12.4μg/L, accounting for 22.7% of the real blood lead level. Conclusion The results indicated that environmental lead contamination in the rural area might not be the main reason of elevation in blood lead among infants,other lead resources such as food lead exposure might be the major sources for the intake of lead among infants and should be paid more attentions in future.

  20. Relationship of Thyroid Hormone Levels to Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, p,p′- DDE, and Other Toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Denham, Melinda; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is well documented that acute exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p′-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), can affect human health including thyroid function. Chronic exposure to multiple toxicants is common but difficult to analyze, and most prior studies have focused on adults or newborns, creating a gap in our understanding of multitoxicant effects among adolescents. Objective ...

  1. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How ... poisoning is still one of the most important health issues in the United States ... in housing built before 1946 have elevated blood lead levels. These ...

  2. Malaria resistance genes are associated with the levels of IgG subclasses directed against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afridi Sarwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. Methods In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. Results After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii the FcγRIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. Conclusion Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual’s humoral response against malaria.

  3. Immunogenic salivary proteins of Triatoma infestans: development of a recombinant antigen for the detection of low-level infestation of triatomines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schwarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. The most effective vector, Triatoma infestans, has been controlled successfully in much of Latin America using insecticide spraying. Though rarely undertaken, surveillance programs are necessary in order to identify new infestations and estimate the intensity of triatomine bug infestations in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Since hosts exposed to triatomines develop immune responses to salivary antigens, these responses can be evaluated for their usefulness as epidemiological markers to detect infestations of T. infestans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. infestans salivary proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and tested for their immunogenicity by Western blotting using sera from chickens and guinea pigs experimentally exposed to T. infestans. From five highly immunogenic protein spots, eight salivary proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS and comparison to the protein sequences of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and expressed sequence tags of a unidirectionally cloned salivary gland cDNA library from T. infestans combined with the NCBI yeast protein sub-database. The 14.6 kDa salivary protein [gi|149689094] was produced as recombinant protein (rTiSP14.6 in a mammalian cell expression system and recognized by all animal sera. The specificity of rTiSP14.6 was confirmed by the lack of reactivity to anti-mosquito and anti-sand fly saliva antibodies. However, rTiSP14.6 was recognized by sera from chickens exposed to four other triatomine species, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. sordida, Rhodnius prolixus, and Panstrongylus megistus and by sera of chickens from an endemic area of T. infestans and Chagas disease in Bolivia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The recombinant rTiSP14.6 is a suitable and promising

  4. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace level lead in biological samples in the presence of aqueous micellar solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Humaira; AHMED, M. Jamaluddin; Bhanger, M. Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    A very simple, ultra-sensitive and fairly selective new spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of lead(II) at ultra-trace level using 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) in presence of aqueous micellar solutions. The proposed method enabled the determination of lead down to µg l−1 in human blood and urine in aqueous media without resource of any “clean-up” step. The most remarkable point of this method is that the presence of micellar system avoids the prev...

  5. Brain infection with Staphylococcus aureus leads to high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Dahlberg, Daniel; Mariussen, Espen; Goverud, Ingeborg Løstegaard; Antal, Ellen-Ann; Tønjum, Tone; Maehlen, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcal brain infections may cause mental deterioration and epileptic seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission in the brain. We injected Staphylococcus aureus into rat striatum and found an initial 76% reduction in the extracellular level of glutamate as detected by microdialysis at 2 hr after staphylococcal infection. At 8 hr after staphylococcal infection, however, the extracellular level of glutamate had increased 12-fold, and at 20 hr it had increased >30-fold. The extracellular level of aspartate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) also increased greatly. Extracellular Zn(2+) , which was estimated at ∼2.6 µmol/liter in the control situation, was increased by 330% 1-2.5 hr after staphylococcal infection and by 100% at 8 and 20 hr. The increase in extracellular glutamate, aspartate, and GABA appeared to reflect the degree of tissue damage. The area of tissue damage greatly exceeded the area of staphylococcal infiltration, pointing to soluble factors being responsible for cell death. However, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 ameliorated neither tissue damage nor the increase in extracellular neuroactive amino acids, suggesting the presence of neurotoxic factors other than glutamate and aspartate. In vitro staphylococci incubated with glutamine and glucose formed glutamate, so bacteria could be an additional source of infection-related glutamate. We conclude that the dramatic increase in the extracellular concentration of neuroactive amino acids and zinc could interfere with neurotransmission in the surrounding brain tissue, contributing to mental deterioration and a predisposition to epileptic seizures, which are often seen in brain abscess patients. PMID:25043715

  6. Full formula for heavy quarkonium energy levels at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a full formula for the energy level of a heavy quarkonium state identified by the quantum numbers n, ℓ, s and j, up to O(αs5m) and O(αs5mlog⁡αs) in perturbative QCD. The QCD Bethe logarithm is given in a one-parameter integral form. The rest of the formula is given as a combination of rational numbers, transcendental numbers (π, ζ(3), ζ(5)) and finite sums (besides the 3-loop constant a¯3 of the static potential whose full analytic form is still unknown). A derivation of the formula is given

  7. Comparison of the Level of Cadmium and Lead between the Cigarette Filters of Different Iranian and non-Iranian Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Pashapour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts have been shown to release numerous kinds of chemicals such as heavy metals in water and may be a continual source of aquatic environments contamination after discarding. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of Cd and Pb in cigarette filters of different Iranian and non-Iranian brands in smoked and non-smoked samples. Methods: Ten different brands of cigarettes were collected from Tehran, Iran local markets in 2014. Standardized international protocols were followed for preparation of the materials and analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Cd contents. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 18 software by ANOVA and Student T tests. Results: The average concentration of Cd in Iranian cigarette filters was 0.42±0.03mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 0.31±0.05mg/kg (p=0.4. The average concentration of Pb in Iranian cigarette filters was 22.32±1.15mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 23.62±3.17mg/kg (p=0.072. The Cadmium concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 0.18 to 0.48μg/g before and 0.25 to 0.88μg/g after smoking. The Lead concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 16.63 to 33.52μg/g before and 20.14 to 53.55μg/g after smoking. Conclusion: Smoked cigarette filters have more concentrations of Cd and Pb than non-smoked cigarette filters and these concentrations are also different between Iranian and non-Iranian cigarette brands.

  8. Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Ferum And Zinc Levels In The Cockles (Anadara Granosa) From Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to provide information on the concentration of metals in cockles (Anadara granosa) from Kuala Selangor, Malaysia. Cockles in this study area were taken by local people as part of their diet, therefore necessary to determine metal concentrations in the cockles. Sample collection activity was conducted at Kuala Selangor (03degree20'N - 101degree15'E) between the month of March, and April 2012. About two kilograms of samples were purchased from local fish market at Kuala Selangor. The concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn in the samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission (ICP-OES). The observed mean concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn is 1.48±0.33, 1.43±0.91, 15.78±5.28, 1.11±0.46, 875.55±343.43 and 94.17±7.91 mg/ kg respectively. From the public health point of view, these metal concentrations were below the maximum permissible levels set by the Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulations (1985). Therefore, cockles from Kuala Selangor are safe for human consumption. (author)

  9. Do all associations lead to lower levels of ethnocentrism? A two-year longitudinal test of the selection and adaptation model

    OpenAIRE

    Hooghe, Marc; Quintelier, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Within the literature on the relation between membership in voluntary associations and tolerance, three theoretical perspectives can be distinguished. The socialization perspective assumes that the interaction within association leads to higher levels of tolerance; the self-selection perspective suggests that tolerant actors are more likely to join associations; while the selection and adaption model predicts that the group culture within an association will have a specific effect on members’...

  10. Effects of experimental immunosuppression in cattle with persistently high antibody levels to Salmonella Dublin lipopolysaccharide O-antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen Liza R; Jensen Asger L; Agerholm Jørgen S; Lomborg Sanne R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) is a zoonotic bacterium which is host adapted to cattle. The bacterium can cause subclinical persistent infection in cattle (carriers), which may be reactivated. During reactivation, animals may shed bacteria, thus constituting a source of infection for other animals. Identification of such carriers is assumed to be critical in attempts to control and eradicate the infection. Some authors suggest that persistently high antibody levels in serum...

  11. Genome-wide association replicates the association of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) polymorphisms with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in Hispanic children

    OpenAIRE

    Voruganti, V. Saroja.; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R.; Smith, C. Wayne; Cole, Shelley A.; Butte, Nancy F.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low inflammatory state characterized by elevated levels of chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine family and is increased in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify loci regulating serum MCP-1 in obese Hispanic children from the Viva La Familia Study. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed in 815 children, ages 4-19 years, using genotypes assayed with the Illumin...

  12. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  13. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  14. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  15. THF1 mutations lead to increased basal and wound-induced levels of oxylipins that stimulate anthocyanin biosynthesis via COI1 signaling in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gan; Hong Li; Ye Xie; Wenjuan Wu; Maoyin Li; Xuemin Wang; Jirong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Mutants defective in chloroplast development or photosynthesis are liable to accumulate higher levels of anthocyanin in photo-oxidative stress. However, regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the mutants remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the deletion of thylakoid formation1 (THF1) leads to an increased level of anthocyanin in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Physiological and genetic evidence showed that the increased level of anthocya-nin in thf1 is dependent on coronatine-insensitive1 (COI1) signaling. Our data showed that thf1 had higher levels of basal a-linolenic acid (a-LeA), and methyl jasmonate (JA)-induced a-LeA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) than the wild type (WT). Consistently, expression levels of phospholipase genes including pPLAIIa and PLA-Ig1 were elevated in thf1. Further-more, inhibition of lipase activity by bromoenol lactone, a specific inhibitor of plant pPLA, led to producing identical levels of anthocyanins in WT and thf1 plants. Interestingly, OPDA biosynthesis was triggered by light il umination in isolated chloroplasts, indicating that new protein import into chlor-oplasts is not required for OPDA biosynthesis. Thus, we conclude that the elevated anthocyanin accumulation in thf1 is attributed to an increase in JA levels. This JA-mediated signaling to coordinate plant metabolism and growth in stress may be conserved in other photosensitive mutants.

  16. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sediment fraction. Background levels were successfully reached for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, compared to various literature references. Nevertheless, in the case of lead, the normalized data depicted a general enrichment in all samples, and the natural levels could only be reached when concentrations were corrected for the atmospheric contribution by analysing lead isotope ratios. Also for Zn, a general enrichment was found in our samples, although less important. - Among several potential normalizers, stable Cs (133Cs) depicted the best ability to correct for the grain-size effect of shelf sediments and was used to estimate regional background levels of heavy metals

  17. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis: specific detection of free and complex-dissociated antibodies anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Susana Imaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic test characteristics of detecting free and complex-dissociated IgG to three recombinant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B, singly and in combination, were evaluated in sera from 161 tuberculous patients [smear-positive pulmonary TB (50, smear-negative pulmonary TB (pTBsm- (60 and extrapulmonary TB (51 and 214 control patients (mycobacteriosis (14, mycoses(14, leprosy(4, other underlying diseases (82 and healthy people (100]. The individual antigens ranged from 25% to 42% in sensitivity and from 93% to 96% in specificity, while considering free IgG response. Addition of complex-dissociated antibodies against each individual antigen improved the sensitivity up to 55%. The number and levels of specific antibodies varied greatly from individual to individual. Combination of individual results for free and complex-dissociated IgG to 38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B offered 76% sensitivity and 83% specificity. When the three antigens were placed in the same well, the sensitivity was lower than that expected on the basis of single antigen (63% but with a good specificity (95%, even in the group of mycobacteriosis or mycoses. The highest contribution of complex-dissociated IgG results to free IgG results was seen for the diagnosis of pTBsm- patients. In conclusion, although neither single recombinant antigen was reactive with most sera from TB patients even after the measurement of both free and complex-dissociated antibodies, the use of multi-antigen cocktails improved the diagnostic utility of the ELISA assay, allowing the identification of almost 70% of pTBsm-, with a high level of specificity; the use of additional, well selected antigens should lead to the detection of almost all patients with TB.

  18. Correlations between the CagA Antigen and Serum Levels of Anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Chun Woo; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae-Young; Jun, Jin-Su; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2016-03-01

    We tested correlations between anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA levels and the urease test, anti-CagA protein antibody, degree of gastritis, and age. In total, 509 children (0-15 years) were enrolled. Subjects were stratified as 0-4 years (n = 132), 5-9 years (n = 274), and 10-15 years (n = 103) and subjected to the urease test, histopathology, ELISA, and western blot using whole-cell lysates of H. pylori strain 51. The positivity rate in the urease test (P = 0.003), the degree of chronic gastritis (P = 0.021), and H. pylori infiltration (P pylori IgG was 732.5 IU/mL at 0-4 years, 689.0 IU/mL at 5-9 years, and 966.0 IU/mL at 10-15 years (P pylori IgA was 61.0 IU/mL at 0-4 years, 63.5 IU/mL at 5-9 years, and 75.0 IU/mL at 10-15 years (P pylori IgG and IgA titers increased with the urease test grade, chronic gastritis degree, active gastritis, and H. pylori infiltration. Presence of CagA-positivity is well correlated with a high urease test grade and high anti-H. pylori IgG/IgA levels. PMID:26955243

  19. Societal benefits from EU reduction measures to decrease lead levels in the environment; Combining results from the EU funded projects INTARESE and HEIMTSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens J. G. E. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper combines the results of two Sixth Framework Program EU research projects aimed at developing and testing methods for integrated assessment of health risks from environmental stressors, i.e. the INTARESE and the HEIMTSA project, both of which covered a case study on environmental lead. The INTARESE case study on lead in Europe was meant to illustrate the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. The HEIMTSA case study on the other hand involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR in response to current and future legislation. Analysing environmental data, significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 μg/m3 (P95: 0.94; n=98 prior to 1990 to 0.045 μg/m3 (P95:0.11; n=256 in 2007 (latest

  20. Relationships of video assessments of touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards to parental perceptions of child behaviors and blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Stephen; Schaefer, Peter D; Vicario, Cristina M; Binns, Helen J

    2007-01-01

    Childrens' touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards were measured using video observations. Descriptions were made of childrens' outdoor residential play environments. Behaviors assessed were used to examine (1) validity of parental responses to questions on childrens' oral behaviors and outdoor play and (2) relationships of mouthing behaviors to blood lead levels (BLLs). Thirty-seven children aged 1-5 years were recruited for 2 h of video recording in their yard and blood lead measurement. Video assessments included hourly rates of hand touches to ground/walking-level surfaces (cement/stone/steel, porch floor/steps, grass, and bare soil) and oral behaviors. Parental questionnaires assessed their child's outdoor activities, behaviors, and home environment. The children were: mean 39 months; 51% male; 89% Hispanic; and 78% Medicaid or uninsured. Twenty-two children had a blood lead measured (mean 6 microg/dl). During taping, all children had access to cement, 92% to grass, 73% to bare soil, and 59% to an open porch. Children had frequent touching and mouthing behaviors observed (median touches/h: touches to surfaces 81; hand-to-mouth area (with and without food) 26; hand-in-mouth 7; and object-in-mouth 17). Blood lead was directly correlated with log-transformed rates of hand-in-mouth (Pearson's correlation, r=0.564, n=22, P=0.006) and object-in-mouth (Pearson's correlation, r=0.482, n=22, P=0.023) behaviors. Parental questionnaire responses did not accurately reflect childrens' observed oral behaviors, play habits, or play environment. These data confirm the direct relationship between hand-to-mouth activities and BLLs and fail to validate parental perceptions of their child's mouthing behaviors or outdoor play environment. PMID:16941017

  1. The automated computation of tree-level and next-to-leading order differential cross sections, and their matching to parton shower simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Alwall, J; Frixione, S; Hirschi, V; Maltoni, F; Mattelaer, O; Shao, H -S; Stelzer, T; Torrielli, P; Zaro, M

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical bases that underpin the automation of the computations of tree-level and next-to-leading order cross sections, of their matching to parton shower simulations, and of the merging of matched samples that differ by light-parton multiplicities. We present a computer program, MadGraph5_aMC@NLO, capable of handling all these computations -- parton-level fixed order, shower-matched, merged -- in a unified framework whose defining features are flexibility, high level of parallelisation, and human intervention limited to input physics quantities. We demonstrate the potential of the program by presenting selected phenomenological applications relevant to the LHC and to a 1-TeV $e^+e^-$ collider. While next-to-leading order results are restricted to QCD corrections to SM processes in the first public version, we show that from the user viewpoint no changes have to be expected in the case of corrections due to any given renormalisable Lagrangian, and that the implementation of these are well un...

  2. An immobilization antigen gene of the fish-parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a severe fish parasite that causes ‘white spot’ disease in many freshwater fish and leads to high mortality. The antigens on the parasite surface are involved in the antibody-mediated immobilization and hence designated as immobilization antigens (i-antigens). ...

  3. Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) → Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) → Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) → Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products. PMID:21082317

  4. The absence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprF protein leads to increased biofilm formation through variation in c-di-GMP level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline eBouffartigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OprF is the major outer membrane porin in bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonas genus. In previous studies, we have shown that OprF is required for full virulence expression of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we describe molecular insights on the nature of this relationship and report that the absence of OprF leads to increased biofilm formation and production of the Pel exopolysaccharide. Accordingly, the level of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger in biofilm control, is elevated in an oprF mutant. By decreasing c-di-GMP levels in this mutant, both biofilm formation and pel gene expression phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels. We further investigated the impact on two small RNAs, which are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, and found that expression of rsmZ but not of rsmY was increased in the oprF mutant and this occurs in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Finally, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF sigma factors AlgU and SigX displayed higher activity levels in the oprF mutant. Two genes of the SigX regulon involved in c-di-GMP metabolism, PA1181 and adcA (PA4843, were up-regulated in the oprF mutant, partly explaining the increased c-di-GMP level. We hypothesized that the absence of OprF leads to a cell envelope stress that activates SigX and results in a c-di-GMP elevated level due to higher expression of adcA and PA1181. The c-di-GMP level can in turn stimulate Pel synthesis via increased rsmZ sRNA levels and pel mRNA, thus affecting Pel-dependent phenotypes such as cell aggregation and biofilm formation. This work highlights the connection between OprF and c-di-GMP regulatory networks, likely via SigX (ECF, on the regulation of biofilm phenotypes.

  5. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P < 0.05) than alum except for BmVAH antigen. In vitro ADCC assay showed that inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P < 0.01 and as cocktail P < 0.05, respectively) than alum. The results had confirmed the capability of inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. PMID:25041426

  6. Antigen sampling in the fish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkka, Guro; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2016-11-01

    Antigen uptake in the gastrointestinal tract may induce tolerance, lead to an immune response and also to infection. In mammals, most pathogens gain access to the host though the gastrointestinal tract, and in fish as well, this route seems to be of significant importance. The epithelial surface faces a considerable challenge, functioning both as a barrier towards the external milieu but simultaneously being the site of absorption of nutrients and fluids. The mechanisms allowing antigen uptake over the epithelial barrier play a central role for maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and regulate appropriate immune responses. Such uptake has been widely studied in mammals, but also in fish, a number of experiments have been reported, seeking to reveal cells and mechanisms involved in antigen sampling. In this paper, we review these studies in addition to addressing our current knowledge of the intestinal barrier in fish and its anatomical construction. PMID:26872546

  7. Detection of filarial antigen in urine of humans with Wuchereria bancrofti infection by immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human urine samples of different groups were analyzed for the presence of filarial antigen by immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA) using 125I-Rabbit IgG antibodies to B. malayi antigen. Six out of ten microfilaraemia, one out of five clinical filariasis had detectable antigen, while none of the endemic and non-endemic normals (n=12) were positive. The effect of heat-acid treatment on the detectability of antigen in the urine and serum was explored. Heat-acid treatment in general did not reduce the level of filarial antigen in the urine samples while there was a measurable reduction in the antigen levels in the sera. (author)

  8. Predicting the Mutating Distribution at Antigenic Sites of the Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyang Xu; Yiyan Yang; Shuning Wang; Ruixin Zhu; Tianyi Qiu; Jingxuan Qiu; Qingchen Zhang; Li Jin; Yungang He; Kailin Tang; Zhiwei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the influenza virus lead to antigenic changes that cause recurrent epidemics and vaccine resistance. Preventive measures would benefit greatly from the ability to predict the potential distribution of new antigenic sites in future strains. By leveraging the extensive historical records of HA sequences for 90 years, we designed a computational model to simulate the dynamic evolution of antigenic sites in A/H1N1. With templates of antigenic sequences, the model can effectively pred...

  9. Aluminium, lead, cadmium and mercury levels in human food chain (in Karnataka, India) and their interaction with micronutrients - Copper, iron, zinc and vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronutrient elements are indispensable for the survival of life. Nature and food habits govern the uptake, deposition, metabolic involvement and excretion of metals in human body. In this process, certain non-essential metals like Aluminium (Al), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) may accumulate in various organs during the life cycle. Essential trace elements like Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn), play dual role and they have beneficiary action at biologically optimum concentrations, whereas they affect biological function at very low or higher concentration. High concentration of lead (Pb) arising from automobile exhaust, pesticides, solders, water, dairy products; cadmium (Cd) arising from tanneries, nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers in plastic, glazed potteries, and mercury (Hg) arising from refineries, batteries, pesticides, amalgams, paints and industrial waste; are found in food. High concentration of Pb, Cd, Hg and Al are also reported in leafy vegetables grown on sewage run-off in urban areas. Main source of Al in our diet is from drinking water and through use of aluminium utensils for cooking of food. There is a growing concern regarding the human health in developed and developing countries with respect to neurodegenerative disorders and carcinogenic potential caused by heavy metals when their levels exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI). The PTWI levels (mg/kg body weight) are 7 for Al, 0.025 for Pb, 0.007 for Cd and 0.005 for Hg. Dietary exposure of humans to toxic trace elements leads to their accumulation in various tissues and consequently influence functional ability of essential elements. Studies show that Al, Pb and Cd alter or impair the optimal biological and physiological functions of Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu

  10. Cancer vaccine--Antigenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Antigenics is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine based on heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The vaccine [HSPPC-96, Oncophage] is in a pivotal phase III clinical trial for renal cancer at 80 clinical sites worldwide. The trial is enrolling at least 500 patients who are randomised to receive surgical removal of the primary tumour followed by out-patient treatment with Oncophage((R)) or surgery only. This study was initiated on the basis of results from a pilot phase I/II study and preliminary results from a phase II study in patients with renal cell cancer. In October 2001, Oncophage was designated as a fast-track product by the Food and Drug Administration in the US for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Oncophage is in phase I/II trials in Italy for colorectal cancer (30 patients) and melanoma. The trials in Italy are being conducted at the Istituto dei Tumouri, Milan (in association with Sigma-Tau). Preliminary data from the phase II trial for melanoma was presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in Florida, USA, in October 2001. Oncophage is also in a phase I/II (42 patients) and a phase II trial (84 patients) in the US for renal cell cancer, a phase II trial in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (35 patients), a phase II trial in the US for sarcoma (20-35 patients), a phase I/II trial in the US for melanoma (36 patients), and phase I/II trials in Germany for gastric (30 patients) and pancreatic cancers. A pilot phase I trial in patients with pancreatic cancer began in the US in 1997 with 5 patients enrolled. In November 2000, Antigenics announced that this trial had been expanded to a phase I/II study which would now include survival as an endpoint and would enroll 5 additional patients. The US trials are being performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The trials in Germany are being carried out at Johannes Gutenberg-University Hospital, Mainz. Oncophage is an autologous vaccine consisting of

  11. Three-step laser excitation of the 6p3/2ns, nd, ng autoionizing Rydberg levels via the 6p5f 1/2[5/2]2 level of lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, A.; Nadeem, A.; Bhatti, S. A.; Baig, M. A.

    2005-03-01

    Odd parity autoionizing Rydberg levels of atomic lead in the energy region above the 6p1/2 ionization threshold have been investigated using three-step laser excitation in conjunction with an atomic beam apparatus. The 6p3/2ns (J = 1, 2), 6p3/2nd (J = 1, 2, 3) and 6p3/2ng (J = 2, 3) levels have been observed from the 6p5f 1/2[5/2]2 intermediate level. Energy values and FWHM of forty levels belonging to the 6p3/2ns, 6p3/2nd and 6p3/2ng configurations are presented. Six levels based on the 6p3/2ng (5, 13 ≤n ≤15) configurations and three levels attached to the 6p3/28d configuration are reported for the first time. The present study of the low-lying autoionizing levels attached to the 6p3/25g (J = 2, 3) configuration completes the series adjacent to the 6p1/2 limit.

  12. Methods for examination of antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To choose and establish the methods for examination of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin in order to offer the reference for evaluating the antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin against human. Methods: Antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin was examined for hypersensitivity, cell-mediated immunity reaction, humoral immunity reaction and cross-reaction of antigen. Results: The rabbit and guinea pig did not give rise to hypersensitivity. In immunized rabbits, the level of serum total IgG was normal, but the level of serum specific IgG was high. The examination of B lymphocytes showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with control. Cross-reaction of antigen proved that bovine hemoglobin had cross-reaction with human hemoglobin. Suggesting that they may be homologous, the level of the serum specific antibody is high in the immunized animal. According to the immunology theories, the polymerized hemoglobin has antigenicity. (authors)

  13. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567

  14. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  15. PAIgG and PAIgM levels in secondary dengue virus infections lead to thrombocytopenia in patients from KP, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Alam; Said Hassan; Iftikhar Alam; Rahmat Gul; Farhad Ali; Ijaz Ali; Sana Ullah; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Aasif Awan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the impact of platelet associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG)/ platelet associated immunoglobulin M (PAIgM) on severity of dengue virus infection leading to thrombocytopenia. Methods: In this study we examined a total of 52 patients who were having secondary infection of dengue in acute phase by using competitive ELISA. Results: A decrease in the platelet count was observed at the acute phase of infection while all along the recovery stage the count of platelet was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed inPAIgG andPAIgM in these subjects. Inverse correlation was found between platelets count andPAIgG/PAIgM among the subjects studied. In the platelets elution from ten subjects, anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were observed.PAIgG andPAIgM with inclined levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than the classical dengue fever. In the development of dengue hemorrhagic feverPAIgM inclined level was independently associated with high specificity, showing a possible indication of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Conclusions: This study suggests that in secondary dengue virus infection, thePAIgGand PAIgM levels, and the activity of anti-dengue virus play key roles, both in the development and severity of the disease.

  16. PAIgG and PAIgM levels in secondary dengue virus infections lead to thrombocytopenia in patients from KP, Pakistan简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar; Alam; Said; Hassan; Iftikhar; Alam; Rahmat; Gul; Farhad; Ali; Ijaz; Ali; Sana; Ullah; Imtiaz; Ali; Khan; Aasif; Awan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the impact of platelet associated immunoglobulin G(PAIg G)/platelet associated immunoglobulin M(PAIg M) on severity of dengue virus infection leading to thrombocytopenia.Methods: In this study we examined a total of 52 patients who were having secondary infection of dengue in acute phase by using competitive ELISA.Results: A decrease in the platelet count was observed at the acute phase of infection while all along the recovery stage the count of platelet was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed in PAIg G and PAIg M in these subjects. Inverse correlation was found between platelets count and PAIg G/PAIg M among the subjects studied. In the platelets elution from ten subjects, anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were observed. PAIg G and PAIg M with inclined levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than the classical dengue fever. In the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever PAIg M inclined level was independently associated with high specificity, showing a possible indication of dengue hemorrhagic fever.Conclusions: This study suggests that in secondary dengue virus infection, the PAIg G and PAIg M levels, and the activity of anti-dengue virus play key roles, both in the development and severity of the disease.

  17. Evaluated the levels of lead and cadmium in scalp hair of adolescent boys consuming different smokeless tobacco products with related to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Asma J; Afridi, Hassan I; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Ali, Jamshed; Memon, G Zuhra

    2015-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the scalp hair samples of adolescent boys age ranged 12-15 years, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group who did not consume any SLT products were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in SLT products and the scalp hair samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The difference between experimental and certified values of both elements was not significant (p > 0.05). The resulted data indicated that the adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have two- to threefold higher levels of Cd and Pb in the scalp hair samples as compared to the referent boys (p < 0.01). The adolescent chewing different SLT products have 82.2-110 and 60.6-94.5% higher levels of Cd and Pb, respectively, in their scalp hair as related to the referents. PMID:25537077

  18. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  19. Electrochemical sensor based on EDTA intercalated into layered double hydroxides of magnesium and aluminum for ultra trace level detection of lead (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chelator ethylene diaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has been intercalated into layered double hydroxides by the anion exchange method. The resulting composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. They were applied to modify a carbon paste electrode for the stripping voltammetric determination of lead (II) ions at ng L−1 levels. Stripping currents are linearly related to the logarithm of Pb (II) concentrations from 2 ng L−1 to 33 μg L−1. The detection limit (3σ) is as low as 0.95 ng L−1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb (II) in spiked tap water without any pretreatment.(author)

  20. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD = 6.06 in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61 and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83. Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.09 and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59 were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

  1. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All About Food Allergies Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size What's in ... sample is used to determine if H. pylori antigens are present in your child's gastrointestinal (GI) system. ...

  2. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  3. Transgene sequences free of CG dinucleotides lead to high level, long-term expression in the lung independent of plasmid backbone design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, Reto P; Pringle, Ian A; Connolly, Mary M; Davies, Lee A; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Schleef, Martin; Hyde, Stephen C; Gill, Deborah R

    2016-07-01

    Non-viral aerosol gene therapy offers great potential for treating chronic lung diseases of the airways such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Early clinical trials showed that transgene expression in the airways was transient whereas maximal duration of transgene expression is essential in order to minimise the frequency of aerosol treatments. Improved vector design, such as careful selection of the promoter/enhancer, can lead to more persistent levels of transgene expression, but multiple factors affect expression in vivo. Following aerosol delivery to the lungs of mice, we measured reporter gene expression from a CpG-free luciferase transgene cassette in the context of both a plasmid and minicircle vector configuration and showed that the vector backbone had no effect on expression. Transgene activity was affected by the vector backbone however, when a similar, but sub-optimal CpG-containing transgene was used, suggesting that aspects of the plasmid backbone had a negative impact on transgene expression. Similar studies were performed in Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) knockout mice to investigate a potential role for the TLR9 signalling pathway in detecting CpGs in the vector sequence. Even in the absence of TLR9, persistent expression could only be achieved with a CpG-free transgene. Together, these data indicate that in order to achieve high levels of persistent expression in vivo, a CpG-free transgene cassette is required. PMID:27061267

  4. Immunoassay of antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described of immunoassay of an antigen in a liquid sample wherein a complex is formed between antigen contained in the said sample and two or more antibody reagents, and the said complex is bound to a solid support by non-covalent bonding as defined herein: and the amount of complex becoming bound to the support is determined; the process employing at least one monoclonal antibody reagent. Labelling methods including radioactive, fluorimetric and enzyme labelling may be used to effect determination of the binding ofthe complex to the solid support. The solid support may take the form of particles, beads, wall-coatings on the reaction vessel or an insert of large surface area. The method is particularly applicable to the assay of TSH, CEA, HCG, alphafeto protein, immunoglobulins, viruses, allergens, bacteria, toxins, drugs and vitamins. Use of monoclonal reagents improves the specificity of the process, and also decreases non-specific binding

  5. Distinct effects of endogenous interleukin-23 on eosinophilic airway inflammation in response to different antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Ogawa; Yusuke Suzuki; Shizuko Kagawa; Katsunori Masaki; Koichi Fukunaga; Akihiko Yoshimura; Seitaro Fujishima; Takeshi Terashima; Tomoko Betsuyaku; Koichiro Asano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of interleukin (IL)-23 in asthma pathophysiology is still controversial. We examined its role in allergic airway inflammation in response to two distinct antigens using IL-23-deficient mice. Methods: Allergic airway inflammation was evaluated in wild-type and IL-23p19−/− mice. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) by intraperitoneal injection of antigen and their airways were then exposed to the same antigen. Levels of antigen-specific immuno...

  6. Independent prognostic value of preoperative serum markers CA 242, specific tissue polypeptide antigen and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta, but not of carcinoembryonic antigen or tissue polypeptide antigen in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpelan-Holmström, M; Haglund, C.; Lundin, J; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U H; Roberts, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The prognostic value of preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), specific tissue polypeptide antigen (TPS) and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (hCG beta) in 251 patients with colorectal cancer (39 Dukes' A, 98 Dukes' B, 56 Dukes' C and 58 Dukes' D) was investigated. When using the cut-off levels recommended for diagnostic purposes, there was a significantly longer overall survival in patients with low tumour marker level...

  7. Detection of hepatitis A viral antigen by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With coded samples, the effectiveness and specificity of a micro-SPIRA procedure for rapidly and quantitatively detecting type A hepatitis-associated antigen in large numbers of specimens from infected liver, stool, or serum has been demonstrated. Samples which were judged to be negative by IEM were found to contain significant levels of HAV antigen by this immunoradiometric technique. The detection of significant levels of HAV antigen in infected chimpanzees supports epidemiologic evidence of viremia during the acute stage of the disease. The results of this study suggest that the diagnosis of type A hepatitis by a convention serologic procedure may now be at hand. (auth)

  8. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (pcement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (pcement dust and clinker (pMercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (pcement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

  9. Findings of and treatment for high levels of mercury and lead toxicity in ground zero rescue and recovery workers and lower Manhattan residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokayi, Kamau; Altman, Claire Haaga; Callely, Robert W; Harrison, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Olive Leaf Wholeness Center conducted a demonstration project that provided health assessment, testing, and treatment to 160 uniformed service personnel and residents of Lower Manhattan who were exposed to the air at Ground Zero following September 11, 2001, for extended periods of time. The program, known as Project Olive ReLeaf, found that most individuals had eight or more serious health complaints, including severe respiratory problems, digestive problems, skin rashes, sleeplessness, anxiety, depression, weight gains, elevated blood pressure, lethargy, and recurrent headaches. Heavy metal toxicity was suspected as a causal factor for many of these symptoms. Of those tested for heavy metal toxicity, using a challenge urine test, 85% had excessively high levels of lead and mercury. Chelation treatment using dimercaptuosuccinic acid (DMSA), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved sulfur compound, was the primary treatment prescribed. After three to four months of treatment, the first cohort of 100 individuals reported significant (greater than 60%) improvement in all symptoms. (This demonstration program was developed based on the results of an earlier pilot in 2003 for 25 emergency service officers of the New York City Police Department.) In addition, adjunctive therapies to assist with the detoxification process and build the immune system were offered. A small grant has been received to conduct follow-up tests on a sample of those treated with DMSA. PMID:16979103

  10. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free solder, lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust ... NOT store wine, spirits, or vinegar-based salad dressings in lead crystal decanters for long periods of ...

  11. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or ... avoid exposure to soil. Is there a medical test for lead exposure? • Blood samples can be tested ...

  12. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  13. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  14. A simple method based on ICP-MS for estimation of background levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and selenium in blood of the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Juliana A; Batista, Bruno L; Rodrigues, Jairo L; Caldas, Naise M; Neto, Jose A G; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 microl of blood samples was mixed with 500 microl of 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 microg//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\\comparison program operated by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 microg/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood. The levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb were

  15. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  16. Expression and immunoactivity of chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jie Yang; Ning-Shao Xia; Min Chen; Tong Cheng; Shui-Zhen He; Shao-Wei Li; Bao-Quan Guan; Zi-Heng Zhu; Ying Gu; Jun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To improve the immunogenicity of receptor binding site of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on preS1 antigen using HBV core antigen as an immuno-carrier.METHODS: One to 6 tandem copies of HBV preS1 (21-47)fragment were inserted into HBcAg at the sites of aa 78 and 82, and expressed in E. coli. ELISA, Western blot and animal immunization were used to analyze the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of purified particulate antigens. The ability to capture HBV by antibodies elicited by chimeric partides was detected with immuno-capture PCR.RESULTS: Recombinant antigens CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ carrying 1-3 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) individually could form viruslike particles (VLPs), similar to HBcAg in morphology. But recombinant antigens carrying 4-6 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) were poorly expressed in E.coli. Chimeric antigens were lacking of immunoreactivity with anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), but still reserved good immunoreactivity with anti-HBe McAbs. CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ could strongly react with anti-preS1 McAb, suggesting that preS1 (21-47) fragment was well exposed on the surface of chimeric VLPs. Three chimeric VLP antigens (CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ) could stimulate mice to produce high-level antibody responses, and their immunogenicity was stronger than non-particulate antigen 21-47*6, containing 6 copies of preS1 (21-47). Mouse antibodies to CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ were able to capture HBV virions in immuno-capture PCR assay in vitro.CONCLUSION: Chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of HBV can elicit strong antibody responses to preS1. They have a potential to be developed into prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection.

  17. Antigenic variants of rabies virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, TJ; Koprowski, H

    1980-01-01

    Antigenic variants of CVS-11 strain of rabies virus were selected after treatment of virus populations with monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoprotein antigen of the virus. These variants resisted neutralization by the hybridoma antibody used for their selection. Two independently mutating antigenic sites could be distinguished when five variants were tested with nine hybridoma antibodies. The frequency of single epitope variants in a cloned rabies virus seed was approximately 1:...

  18. Microbial antigenic variation mediated by homologous DNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Cornelis; Rudenko, Gloria; Seifert, H Steven

    2012-09-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms employ numerous molecular strategies in order to delay or circumvent recognition by the immune system of their host. One of the most widely used strategies of immune evasion is antigenic variation, in which immunogenic molecules expressed on the surface of a microorganism are continuously modified. As a consequence, the host is forced to constantly adapt its humoral immune response against this pathogen. An antigenic change thus provides the microorganism with an opportunity to persist and/or replicate within the host (population) for an extended period of time or to effectively infect a previously infected host. In most cases, antigenic variation is caused by genetic processes that lead to the modification of the amino acid sequence of a particular antigen or to alterations in the expression of biosynthesis genes that induce changes in the expression of a variant antigen. Here, we will review antigenic variation systems that rely on homologous DNA recombination and that are found in a wide range of cellular, human pathogens, including bacteria (such as Neisseria spp., Borrelia spp., Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma spp.), fungi (such as Pneumocystis carinii) and parasites (such as the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei). Specifically, the various DNA recombination-based antigenic variation systems will be discussed with a focus on the employed mechanisms of recombination, the DNA substrates, and the enzymatic machinery involved. PMID:22212019

  19. Valores sangüíneos de chumbo em bovinos nelore suplementados com sal mineral naturalmente contaminado por chumbo Blood levels of lead in nelore cattle supplemented with mineral salt naturally contaminated with lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Sachetin Marçal

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada em 8 propriedades rurais com regime de criação extensiva, situadas às margens da represa de Barra Bonita, no município de Anhembi, estado de São Paulo. Amostras de sal mineral, capim e sangue animal foram colhidas para análise laboratorial, para se investigar a presença de chumbo. Foram utilizados 160 bovinos, machos e fêmeas, da raça Nelore, divididos em dois grupos de 80 animais. A finalidade precípua foi realizar um estudo comparativo entre os dois grupos, sendo que no primeiro os animais recebiam sal mineral sabidamente contaminado com chumbo. O segundo grupo serviu como lote para efeito comparativo. O critério de comparação foi a análise sangüínea que revelou valores aquém do limite de tolerância biológico atribuído à espécie bovina, em ambos os grupos. Os resultados permitem a conclusão de que, aos níveis de chumbo detectados nas amostras mineralizadas, ainda não há risco de efeito cumulativo e tóxico para os bovinos avaliados.This study was performed at the beef cattle region at Anhembi County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Eight beef farms where cattle were raised at pasture were selected. These farms were located around Barra Bonita dam. One-hundred-and-sixty Nelore cattle, males and females, were divided into two groups of 80 cattle each. One group received mineral salt naturally contaminated with lead, whereas the other group received lead-free mineral salt. The main goal of this study was to compare both groups. Blood samples, and samples from the mineral salt and grass were collected and analyzed for the presence of lead. Blood lead concentration was found to be below the "tolerance limit" for this species in both groups. It was concluded that the lead concentration detected in the mineral salt did not present a risk for toxicity and cumulative effects in the population studied.

  20. Expression of Fas Antigen (CD95 on Human Leukemic Cells and Assessment of Apoptosis on Fas+ and Fas-Samples by Flowcytometry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Zieh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of normal cell growth and turnover is balanced between cell pro¬liferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis.A disruption of this balance is thought to be an important event leading to carcinogenesis .One of the effector molecules in apoptosis is Fas antigen . Cross-linking of Fas by its ligand (Fas L or agonistic anti Fas antibodies induces apoptosis of cells expressing Fas on the membrane by triggering cascade of caspaces.The aim of this research was to study the percent of expression of Fas antigen on bone marrow and peripheral blood cells in 100 patients suffering from acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemia by flow cytometry method. Sample were obtained at the time of diagnosis before antileukemic therapy. Expression of Fas antigen on normal control peripheral leukocytes was also analysed.From these data, it was found that Fas antigen is expressed in all cases, but the expression level varied widely.The percentage of Fas antigen expression in all of acute lymphoid leukemia samples was below 20%, but in acute myeloid leukemia samples, 8 out of 50 cases was above 20%. In normal control samples, the mean value for monocytes was higher than granulocytes and in granulocytes higher than lymphcytes.Expression of Fas antigen in most of the leukemic cells was low and the preliminary results showed that increase in Fas antigen expression above 20% after treatment, is a favorable prognostic sign associated with increase relapse free and total survival. Thus evaluation of this antigen before, during and after treatment is recommended.

  1. 9 CFR 113.407 - Pullorum antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pullorum antigen. 113.407 Section 113... and Reagents § 113.407 Pullorum antigen. Pullorum Antigen shall be produced from a culture of... standard for stained antigen K's and 50 ±10 times McFarland No. 1 standard for tube antigen....

  2. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi: circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bongertz

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Circulating antigens were detected in sera of mice experimentally infected with a high close of Trypanosoma cruzi by reaction with sera from chronically infected mice. The immunodiffusion reaction between homologous acute and chronic sera produced four precipitation lines. By reaction with chronic mouse serum, circulating antingens were detected in sera from heavily infected hamsters, dogs, rabbits and in sera from chagasic patients. A reaction was also found in urine from acutely infected mice and dogs. Trypanosoma cruzi exoantigen was detected in trypanosome culture medium and in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. Attempts to isolate the antigens are described.Antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de camundongos infectados experimentalmente com elevadas doses de Trypanosoma cruzi pela reação com soros obtidos de camundongos em fase crônica de infecção. A reação de imunodifusão entre soros homólogos agudo e crônico produziu quatro linhas de precipitação. Por reação com soro crônico de camundongo antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de crícetos, cães e coelhos infectados com doses elevadas de Trypanosoma cruzi e em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Uma reação foi também observada com urina de camundongos e cães infectados de forma aguda. Exoantígeno de Trypanosoma cruzi foi detectado em meio de cultura de tripanosomas e em sobrenadantes de culturas de células infectadas. Tentativas de isolamento dos antigenos são descritas.

  4. Lead determination at ng/mL level by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a tantalum coated slotted quartz tube atom trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, İlknur; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) still keeps its importance despite the relatively low sensitivity; because it is a simple and economical technique for determination of metals. In recent years, atom traps have been developed to increase the sensitivity of FAAS. Although the detection limit of FAAS is only at the level of µg/mL, with the use of atom traps it can reach to ng/mL. Slotted quartz tube (SQT) is one of the atom traps used to improve sensitivity. In atom trapping mode of SQT, analyte is trapped on-line in SQT for few minutes using ordinary sample aspiration, followed by the introduction of a small volume of organic solvent to effect the revolatilization and atomization of analyte species resulting in a transient signal. This system is economical, commercially available and easy to use. In this study, a sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of lead with the help of SQT atom trapping flame atomization (SQT-AT-FAAS). 574 Fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained at a sample suction rate of 3.9 mL/min for 5.0 min trapping period with respect to FAAS. Organic solvent was selected as 40 µL of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). To obtain a further sensitivity enhancement inner surface of SQT was coated with several transition metals. The best sensitivity enhancement, 1650 fold enhancement, was obtained by the Ta-coated SQT-AT-FAAS. In addition, chemical nature of Pb species trapped on quartz and Ta surface, and the chemical nature of Ta on quartz surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. Raman spectrometric results indicate that tantalum is coated on SQT surface in the form of Ta2O5. XPS studies revealed that the oxidation state of Pb in species trapped on both bare and Ta coated SQT surfaces is +2. For the accuracy check, the analyses of standard reference material were performed by use of SCP SCIENCE EnviroMAT Low (EU-L-2) and results for Pb were to be in good agreement with

  5. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Patel, Devesh Kumar

    2010-04-15

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 microL) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 microL of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL(-1) lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL(-1). The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility. PMID:20004520

  6. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 μL) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 μL of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL-1 lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL-1. The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility.

  7. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh, E-mail: shrikam@rediffmail.com [Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 8800 Rockville pike, Building 29A, 2B20, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Patel, Devesh Kumar [Department of chemistry, Govt. Science College, Rajnandgaon-491441, CG (India)

    2010-04-15

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 {mu}L) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 {mu}L of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL{sup -1} lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility.

  8. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  9. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  10. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has also been associated with juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior. In adults, lead can increase blood pressure ... and-forth manner, but rather from left to right (or vise-versa), or from the top of ...

  11. Does antibody binding to diverse antigens predict future infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J P; Waite, J L; Holden, K Z; Clayton, D H

    2014-11-01

    We studied diverse antigen binding in hosts and the outcome of parasitism. We used captive-bred F1 descendants of feral rock pigeons (Columba livia) challenged with blood-feeding flies (Hippoboscidae) and a protozoan parasite (Haemoproteus). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunoblots were used to test (i) whether pre-infection IgY antigen binding predicts parasite fitness and (ii) whether antigen binding changes after infection. Assays used extracts from three pigeon parasites (northern fowl mite, Salmonella bacteria and avian pox virus), as well as nonparasitic molecules from cattle, chicken and keyhole limpet. Binding to hippoboscid and S. enterica extracts were predictive of hippoboscid fly fitness. Binding to extracts from hippoboscids, pox virus and nonparasitic organisms was predictive of Haemoproteus infection levels. Antigen binding to all extracts increased after parasite challenge, despite the fact that birds were only exposed to flies and Haemoproteus. Immunoblots suggested innate Ig binding to parasite-associated molecular markers and revealed that new antigens were bound in extracts after infection. These data suggest that host antibody binding to diverse antigens predicts parasite fitness even when the antigens are not related to the infecting parasite. We discuss the implications of these data for the study of host-parasite immunological interaction. PMID:25313676

  12. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  13. Exosome targeting of tumor antigens expressed by cancer vaccines can improve antigen immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Ryan B; Mandl, Stefanie J; Nachtwey, James M; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Brinkmann, Kay; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain

    2011-08-01

    MVA-BN-PRO (BN ImmunoTherapeutics) is a candidate immunotherapy product for the treatment of prostate cancer. It encodes 2 tumor-associated antigens, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and is derived from the highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus stock known as MVA-BN. Past work has shown that the immunogenicity of antigens can be improved by targeting their localization to exosomes, which are small, 50- to 100-nm diameter vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosome targeting is achieved by fusing the antigen to the C1C2 domain of the lactadherin protein. To test whether exosome targeting would improve the immunogenicity of PSA and PAP, 2 additional versions of MVA-BN-PRO were produced, targeting either PSA (MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2) or PAP (MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2) to exosomes, while leaving the second transgene untargeted. Treatment of mice with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 led to a striking increase in the immune response against PAP. Anti-PAP antibody titers developed more rapidly and reached levels that were 10- to 100-fold higher than those for mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. Furthermore, treatment with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 increased the frequency of PAP-specific T cells 5-fold compared with mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. These improvements translated into a greater frequency of tumor rejection in a PAP-expressing solid tumor model. Likewise, treatment with MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2 increased the antigenicity of PSA compared with treatment with MVA-BN-PRO and resulted in a trend of improved antitumor efficacy in a PSA-expressing tumor model. These experiments confirm that targeting antigen localization to exosomes is a viable approach for improving the therapeutic potential of MVA-BN-PRO in humans. PMID:21670078

  14. Oxidative stress can alter the antigenicity of immunodominant peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Schwanninger, Angelika; Weinberger, Birgit; Almanzar, Giovanni; Parson, Walther; Buus, Søren; Lindner, Herbert; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2010-01-01

    APCs operate frequently under oxidative stress induced by aging, tissue damage, pathogens, or inflammatory responses. Phagocytic cells produce peroxides and free-radical species that facilitate pathogen clearance and can in the case of APCs, also lead to oxidative modifications of antigenic...... proteins and peptides. Little information is available presently about the consequences of such modifications on the immune response. To model oxidative modification of an immunodominant antigenic peptide, we oxidized the methionine residue of the human CMV pp65(495-503) (NLVPMVATV) peptide. Such...... modifications of an antigenic peptide can affect MHC binding or TCR recognition. Using binding and dissociation assays, we demonstrate that oxidative modification of the CMVpp65(495-503) peptide leads to a decreased binding of the pMHC complex to the TCR, whereas binding of the peptide to the MHC class I...

  15. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice Marcano; Mary Labady; Clara Gomes; Guillermina Aguiar; Jorge Laine

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  16. δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and Peptide Transporter 2*2 Haplotype (hPEPT2*2) Differently Influence Neurobehavior in Low-Level Lead Exposed Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sobin, Christina; Gisel Flores-Montoya, Mayra; Gutierrez, Marisela; Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-01-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and peptide transporter haplotype 2*2 (hPEPT2*2) through different pathways can increase brain levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid and are associated with higher blood lead burden in young children. Past child and adult findings regarding ALAD2 and neurobehavior have been inconsistent, and the possible association of hPEPT2*2 and neurobehavior has not yet been examined. Mean blood lead level (BLL), genotype, and ne...

  17. An experimental protocol for the establishment of dogs with long-term cellular immune reactions to Leishmania antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are considered to be the main reservoirs of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. In this work, we evaluated a protocol to induce Leishmania infantum/Leishmania chagasi-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in dogs, which consisted of two injections of Leishmania promastigote lysate followed by a subcutaneous inoculation of viable promastigotes. The primary objective was to establish a canine experimental model to provide positive controls for testing immune responses to Leishmania in laboratory conditions. After inoculation of viable promastigotes, specific proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to either Leishmania lysate or recombinant proteins, the in vitro production of interferon-γ by antigen-stimulated PBMCs and a significant increase in circulating levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies were observed. The immunized dogs also displayed positive delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to Leishmania crude antigens and to purified recombinant proteins. An important finding that supports the suitability of the dogs as positive controls is that they remained healthy for the entire observation period, i.e., more than seven years after infection. Following the Leishmania antigen lysate injections, the infection of dogs by the subcutaneous route appears to induce a sustained cellular immune response, leading to an asymptomatic infection. This provides a useful model for both the selection of immunogenic Leishmania antigens and for immunobiological studies on their possible immunoprotective activities.

  18. Lead encephalopathy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janapareddy Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries. We report the varied clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in two adult patients with lead encephalopathy. Both patients worked in a battery manufacturing unit. Both patients presented with seizures and one patient also complained of abdominal colic and vomiting. Both were anemic and a lead line was present. Blood lead level in both the patients was greater than 25 µg/dl. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalamus, lentiform nucleus in both patients and also the external capsules, sub-cortical white matter in one patient. All these changes, seen as hyperintensities in T2-weighted images suggested demyelination. They were advised avoidance of further exposure to lead and were treated with anti-epileptics; one patient also received D-penicillamine. They improved well on follow-up. Lead encephalopathy is an uncommon but important manifestation of lead toxicity in adults.

  19. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  20. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Hurdebise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed.

  1. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also...

  2. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  3. Natural Selection Promotes Antigenic Evolvability

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P. D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes...

  4. Antigen-Specific versus Non-Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorption in ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Thölking

    Full Text Available ABO-incompatible (ABOi renal transplantation (RTx from living donors is an established procedure to expand the donor pool for patients with end stage renal disease. Immunoadsorption (IA is a standard procedure for the removal of preformed antibodies against the allograft. In this study, antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific IA in ABOi RTx were compared.10 patients underwent antigen-specific IA (Glycosorb group and 13 patients non-antigen-specific IA (Immunosorba group. The effects of both procedures regarding antibody reduction, number of treatments, complications, costs, as well as the allograft function and patient survival were compared between both groups.Although the IgG levels were reduced equally by both procedures (p=0.82, the reduction of the IgM level was more effective in the Glycosorb group (p=0.0172. Patients in both groups required a median number of 6 IA before ABOi RTx. Allograft function at one year after AB0i RTx was similar in both groups (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 66 vs. 64 ml/min/1.73m² respectively, with a death-censored graft survival of 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. Complication rates did not differ between procedures. Due to the reuse of non-antigen-specific Immunosorba columns, costs were considerably lower in this group; however, the use of the Immunosorba-based IA was less time-efficient.Considering upcoming alternatives as simultaneous performance of dialysis and IA or a possible reuse of Glycosorb columns, this might become less relevant in the future.

  5. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik; Iversen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  6. A novel antibody–antigen based impedimetric immunosensor for low level detection of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients via modification of a gold nanoparticles decorated multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, Elham [Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Ziba [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • Design of a novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of HER2 in serum samples. • Use of a multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode modified with AuNPs as a base. • Immobilization of monoclonal HER2 antibody on AuNPs/MWCILE using 1,6-hexanedithiol as a cross linker. • Achieving linear dynamic range and limit of detection of 10–110 ng mL{sup −1} and 7.4 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. • Method development and validation and application to assay of HER2 in biological fluids. - Abstract: A highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticles/multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode (AuNPs/MW-CILE) was developed for the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the extent of immobilization and to retain the immunoactivity of the antibody Herceptin on the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed for characterization of various layers coated onto the AuNPs/MW-CILE. The impedance measurements at different steps were based on the charge transfer kinetics of the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} redox pair. The immobilization of antibody and the corresponding antigen–antibody interaction at the electrode surface altered the interfacial electron transfer. The interactions of antibody with various concentrations of antigen were also monitored via the change of impedance response. The results showed that the charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increasing concentrations of HER2 antigen. The linear range and limit of detection were found as 10–110 ng mL{sup −1} and 7.4 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor were validated. The results showed that the prepared immunosensor is a useful tool for screening of trace amounts of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients.

  7. A novel antibody–antigen based impedimetric immunosensor for low level detection of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients via modification of a gold nanoparticles decorated multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Design of a novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of HER2 in serum samples. • Use of a multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode modified with AuNPs as a base. • Immobilization of monoclonal HER2 antibody on AuNPs/MWCILE using 1,6-hexanedithiol as a cross linker. • Achieving linear dynamic range and limit of detection of 10–110 ng mL−1 and 7.4 ng mL−1, respectively. • Method development and validation and application to assay of HER2 in biological fluids. - Abstract: A highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticles/multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode (AuNPs/MW-CILE) was developed for the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the extent of immobilization and to retain the immunoactivity of the antibody Herceptin on the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed for characterization of various layers coated onto the AuNPs/MW-CILE. The impedance measurements at different steps were based on the charge transfer kinetics of the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox pair. The immobilization of antibody and the corresponding antigen–antibody interaction at the electrode surface altered the interfacial electron transfer. The interactions of antibody with various concentrations of antigen were also monitored via the change of impedance response. The results showed that the charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increasing concentrations of HER2 antigen. The linear range and limit of detection were found as 10–110 ng mL−1 and 7.4 ng mL−1, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor were validated. The results showed that the prepared immunosensor is a useful tool for screening of trace amounts of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients

  8. Regular Exercise Enhances the Immune Response Against Microbial Antigens Through Up-Regulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishi Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Regular physical exercise can enhance resistance to many microbial infections. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the changes in the immune system induced by regular exercise. Methods: We recruited members of a university badminton club as the regular exercise (RE group and healthy sedentary students as the sedentary control (SC group. We investigated the distribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC subsets and functions in the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in plasma cytokine levels between the RE and SC groups in the true resting state. However, enhanced levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-α and IL-12 were secreted by PBMCs in the RE group following microbial antigen stimulation, when compared to the SC group. In contrast, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 secreted by PBMC in the RE group were suppressed compared with those in SC group following non-microbial antigen stimulation (concanavalin A or α-galactosylceramide. Furthermore, PBMC expression of TLR2, TLR7 and MyD88 was significantly increased in the RE group in response to microbial antigen stimulation. Conclusion: Regular exercise enhances immune cell activation in response to pathogenic stimulation leading to enhanced cytokine production mediated via the TLR signaling pathways.

  9. Enhancement of Immune Effector Functions by Modulating IgG’s Intrinsic Affinity for Target Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Yariv; Yang, Chunning; Borrok, M. Jack; Ayriss, Joanne; Aherne, Karen; Wu, Herren; Dall’Acqua, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-mediated immune effector functions play an essential role in the anti-tumor efficacy of many therapeutic mAbs. While much of the effort to improve effector potency has focused on augmenting the interaction between the antibody-Fc and activating Fc-receptors expressed on immune cells, the role of antibody binding interactions with the target antigen remains poorly understood. We show that antibody intrinsic affinity to the target antigen clearly influences the extent and efficiency of Fc-mediated effector mechanisms, and report the pivotal role of antibody binding valence on the ability to regulate effector functions. More particularly, we used an array of affinity modulated variants of three different mAbs, anti-CD4, anti-EGFR and anti-HER2 against a panel of target cell lines expressing disparate levels of the target antigen. We found that at saturating antibody concentrations, IgG variants with moderate intrinsic affinities, similar to those generated by the natural humoral immune response, promoted superior effector functions compared to higher affinity antibodies. We hypothesize that at saturating concentrations, effector function correlates most directly with the amount of Fc bound to the cell surface. Thus, high affinity antibodies exhibiting slow off-rates are more likely to interact bivalently with the target cell, occupying two antigen sites with a single Fc. In contrast, antibodies with faster off-rates are likely to dissociate each binding arm more rapidly, resulting in a higher likelihood of monovalent binding. Monovalent binding may in turn increase target cell opsonization and lead to improved recruitment of effector cells. This unpredicted relationship between target affinity and effector function potency suggests a careful examination of antibody design and engineering for the development of next-generation immunotherapeutics. PMID:27322177

  10. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and peptide transporter 2*2 haplotype (hPEPT2*2) differently influence neurobehavior in low-level lead exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobin, Christina; Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Gutierrez, Marisela; Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and peptide transporter haplotype 2*2 (hPEPT2*2) through different pathways can increase brain levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid and are associated with higher blood lead burden in young children. Past child and adult findings regarding ALAD2 and neurobehavior have been inconsistent, and the possible association of hPEPT2*2 and neurobehavior has not yet been examined. Mean blood lead level (BLL), genotype, and neurobehavioral function (fine motor dexterity, working memory, visual attention and short-term memory) were assessed in 206 males and 215 females ages 5.1-11.8years. Ninety-six percent of children had BLLssex, age and mother's level of education) and sibling exclusion (N=252), generalized linear mixed model analyses showed opposite effects for the ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 genetic variants. Significant effects for ALAD2 were observed only as interactions with BLL and the results suggested that ALAD2 was neuroprotective. As BLL increased, ALAD2 was associated with enhanced visual attention and enhanced working memory (fewer commission errors). Independent of BLL, hPEPT2*2 predicted poorer motor dexterity and poorer working memory (more commission errors). BLL alone predicted poorer working memory from increased omission errors. The findings provided further substantiation that (independent of the genetic variants examined) lowest-level lead exposure disrupted early neurobehavioral function, and suggested that common genetic variants alter the neurotoxic potential of low-level lead. ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 may be valuable markers of risk, and indicate novel mechanisms of lead-induced neurotoxicity. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine long-term influences of these genetic variants on neurobehavior. PMID:25514583

  11. The Impacts of Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Positivity on Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Erkol Ižnal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to clarify the impacts of H. pylori infection on disease activity and clinical findings of AS. Material and Method: Forty-eight patients with AS were included in this study. The demographic data including age, sex, durations of the disease and medication of the patients were recorded. The laboratory analysis comprised Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and H. pylori antigen determination in gaita. The disease activity, functional disability and clinical status were assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI, The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional index (BASFI and The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI respectively. We divided patients according to H. pylori antigen positivity in gaita as H. pylori positive and negative patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 41.9 11.8. CRP levels were slightly but not significantly higher in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients without H. pylori antigen in gaita (p=0.08. There was no significant difference in terms of ESR levels, BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients with negative H. pylori antigen in gaita (p-values were >0.05 for all. In regression model BASDAI score was found to have no relationship with H. pylori antigen positivity, ESR and CRP levels (p-values were >0.05 for all. Discussion: H. pylori seemed to have probable impacts on the disease activity of AS. Studies with greater patient population and longer follow-up periods are warranted to enlighten this issue.

  12. A new role for complement C3: regulation of antigen processing through an inhibitory activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Villiers, Christian; Cretin, François,; Lefebvre, Nicole; Marche, Patrice; Villiers, Marie-Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    International audience Increasing evidence underlines the involvement of complement component C3 in the establishment of acquired immunity which appears to play a complex role and to act at different levels. As antigen proteolysis by antigen presenting cells is a key event in the control of antigen presentation efficiency, and consequently in the quality of the immune response, we investigated whether C3 could modulate this step. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C3 can inter...

  13. Interferon-gamma-like molecule induces Ia antigens on cultured mast cell progenitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, G H; Clark-lewis, I.; McKimm-Breschkin, J L; Schrader, J W

    1982-01-01

    Persisting (P) cells (murine cells that resemble mast cells and grow continuously in vitro for prolonged periods in the presence of a specific growth factor) did not express detectable levels of Ia antigens (murine class II major histocompatibility antigens) when their growth was supported by partially purified P cell-stimulating factor. However, when these Ia-negative P cells were transferred to medium conditioned by concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells, Ia antigens appeared within 24 hr. ...

  14. 血铅水平对儿童健康危害的调查及其干预措施%Blood Lead Level on Children's Health Hazard Survey and its Intervention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彩娥; 龚妍宁; 刘知华; 杨华

    2012-01-01

      Objective To the attractors among the children aged 0 to 6 blood lead level screening, children high blood lead analysis of relevant factors. Methods 0~6 years, 2983 cases of children in the cluster sampling blood lead level detection and calcium, iron, and zinc determination of trace elements, and relative factor questionnaire survey. Results 2983 cases of children blood lead in 17-183 assessmentμg/L, and between the average (76.51+/-53.37μg/L, testing out high blood lead children in 856 cases, the detection rate is 28.7%, and the blood lead quartile 100μg/L group of child's serum calcium, zinc, hot metal significantly below the average blood lead<100μg/L groups of children are statistically significant differences, (P<0.01);High blood lead children see more repeated respiratory infection, sweat, hyperactivity inattention, to junk food such as anorexia;Cause children high blood lead the related risk factors are:living conditions, and father/mother engaged in relevant work, housing recent lead a decoration, family members have smoking habits, parents, children in eating habits, etc. Conclusion High blood lead children in more, lead poisoning in children growth great harm to children's blood lead level for regular screening for the high blood lead children to take active corresponding intervention measures, improve the level of children's health, promote children's healthy development.%  目的对我区0~6岁儿童血铅水平进行筛查,分析儿童高血铅的相关因素.方法对0~6岁2983例儿童进行整群抽样血铅水平检测及钙、铁、锌微量元素测定,并进行相关因素问卷调查.结果2983例儿童血铅检测值在17~183μg/L之间,平均(76.51±53.37)μg/L,检测出高血铅儿童856例,检出率为28.7%,血铅≥100μg/L组儿童的血清钙、锌、铁水平均显著低于血铅<100μg/L组儿童,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);高血铅儿童多见反复呼吸道感染、多汗、多动注意力不集中、偏

  15. Dexamethasone treatment alters insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels in male mice as observed in DIO but does not lead to alterations of metabolic phenotypes in the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bönisch, Clemens; Irmler, Martin; Brachthäuser, Laura; Neff, Frauke; Bamberger, Mareike T.; Marschall, Susan; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic inheritance (EI) of metabolic phenotypes via the paternal lineage has been shown in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO). However, the factors involved in soma-to-germline information transfer remain elusive. Here, we address the role of alterations in insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels for EI of metabolic phenotypes by treating C57BL/6NTac male mice (F0) with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and generating offspring (F1) either by in vitro fertilization or by...

  16. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  17. Effects of pre-existing anti-carrier immunity and antigenic element multiplicity on efficacy of a modular virus-like particle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Yap P; Rivera-Hernandez, Tania; Wibowo, Nani; Connors, Natalie K; Wu, Yang; Hughes, Fiona K; Lua, Linda H L; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2013-09-01

    Modularization of a peptide antigen for presentation on a microbially synthesized murine polyomavirus (MuPyV) virus-like particle (VLP) offers a new alternative for rapid and low-cost vaccine delivery at a global scale. In this approach, heterologous modules containing peptide antigenic elements are fused to and displayed on the VLP carrier, allowing enhancement of peptide immunogenicity via ordered and densely repeated presentation of the modules. This study addresses two key engineering questions pertaining to this platform, exploring the effects of (i) pre-existing carrier-specific immunity on modular VLP vaccine effectiveness and (ii) increase in the antigenic element number per VLP on peptide-specific immune response. These effects were studied in a mouse model and with modular MuPyV VLPs presenting a group A streptococcus (GAS) peptide antigen, J8i. The data presented here demonstrate that immunization with a modular VLP could induce high levels of J8i-specific antibodies despite a strong pre-existing anti-carrier immune response. Doubling of the J8i antigenic element number per VLP did not enhance J8i immunogenicity at a constant peptide dose. However, the strategy, when used in conjunction with increased VLP dose, could effectively increase the peptide dose up to 10-fold, leading to a significantly higher J8i-specific antibody titer. This study further supports feasibility of the MuPyV modular VLP vaccine platform by showing that, in the absence of adjuvant, modularized GAS antigenic peptide at a dose as low as 150 ng was sufficient to raise a high level of peptide-specific IgGs indicative of bactericidal activity. PMID:23532896

  18. The Antagonistic Effect of Selenium on Lead-Induced Inflammatory Factors and Heat Shock Protein mRNA Level in Chicken Cartilage Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shufang; Song, Huanyu; Gao, Han; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Fu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is recognized as a necessary trace mineral in animal diets, including those of birds. Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal and can damage organs in humans and animals. Complex antagonistic interactions between Se and heavy metals have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Se on Pb-induced toxicity and the expression of inflammatory factors and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the cartilage of chickens. In this present study, we fed chickens either with Se or Pb or both Se and Pb supplement and later analyzed the mRNA expressions of inflammatory factors (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and HSPs (Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90). The results showed that Se and Pb influenced the expression of inflammatory factors and HSP genes in the chicken cartilage tissues. Additionally, we also found that antagonistic interaction existed between Se and Pb supplementation. Our findings suggested that Se could exert a antagonistic effect on Pb in chicken cartilage tissues. PMID:26831653

  19. Elucidation of lead-induced oxidative stress in Talinum triangulare roots by analysis of antioxidant responses and DNA damage at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Mohan Murali Achary, V; Panda, Brahma B

    2013-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were performed with Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. focusing the root cellular biochemistry with special emphasis on DNA damage, structural, and elemental analyses in Pb(NO3)2 exposed with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 mM for 7 days. Lead (Pb) increased reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, cell death, and DNA damage and decreased the protein content in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, a dose-dependent induction of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase by Pb was evident. Ascorbate peroxidase on the other hand responded biphasically to Pb treatments by showing induction at low (0.25 and 0.50) and repression at high (0.75-1.25 mM) concentrations. The estimation of proline content also indicated a similar biphasic trend. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that 1.25 mM Pb treatment resulted in ultrastructural modifications in roots and stem tissue that was marked by the change in the elemental profile. The findings pointed to the role of oxidative stress in the underlying Pb phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in T. triangulare. PMID:23263755

  20. Effect of nuclear level density on the calculation of excitation function for production of cesium, xenon, iodine, thallium, lead and bismuth radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions for the production of radionuclides Cs, Xe, I, Pb, Tl, Bi and some others for charged particle energies ranging from 5-100 MeV have been calculated. The well known experimental results have been compared to excitation functions calculated by two versions of the most widely used computer code ALICE. The generalized superfluid model of nuclei was used for level density description. The results of calculation for the ALICE-87 and ALICE-92 codes are discussed. Modified ALICE-92 code takes into account γ-ray competition, as well as cluster's preequilibrium emission. 43 refs.; 29 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Increasing Levels of Dietary Hempseed Products Leads to Differential Responses in the Fatty Acid Profiles of Egg Yolk, Liver and Plasma of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Suh, M; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2016-05-01

    The limited efficiency with which dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted by hens into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for egg deposition is not clearly understood. In this study, dietary ALA levels were increased via the inclusion of hempseed (HS) and hempseed oil (HO) in hen diets, with the goal of assessing the effects on the fatty acid (FA) profiles of total lipids and lipid classes in yolk, liver and plasma. Forty-eight hens were individually caged and fed one of six diets containing either HS:10, 20 or 30, HO:4.5 or 9.0 (%, diet) or a control (containing corn oil), providing a range (0.1-1.28 %, diet) of ALA. Fatty acid methyl esters of total lipids and lipid classes, including phosphatidyl choline (PtdCho) and ethanolamine (PtdEtn) in yolk, plasma and liver were then determined. Levels of n-3 FAs in both total lipids and lipid classes increased in all tissues. ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased linearly, while docosapentaenoic acid and DHA increased quadratically. The FA profiles of yolk closely reflected levels in both plasma and liver. While ALA was highly concentrated in the triacylglycerol, it was low but equally distributed between PtdCho and PtdEtn in all tissues; however, the net accumulation was lower (P < 0.0001) in liver compared to yolk and plasma. Levels of EPA and ALA in yolk-PtdEtn were linearly (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.93) associated, and reflected those in liver-PtdEtn (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.90). In the liver, a strong inverse correlation (P < 0.0001; r = -0.94) between PL-DHA and ALA-to-EPA ratio in PtdEtn supports theories of low substrate availability, possibly limiting the conversion of ALA into DHA for egg enrichment. PMID:27052441

  2. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  3. Behaviour of rocks and mechanical model of leads on the powered supports in a fully mechanized sub-level caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y. [China Coal Research Institute (China). Beijing Research Institute of Coal Mining

    1997-06-01

    Based on the study of distribution of abutment pressure and movement of overlying rocks and main roof, the decisive effect of the weakened degree of the immediate roof (penetration of shear cracks) and width of the completely failed zone of the top coal in ground pressure manifestation period are studied. Based on which, a mechanical model for calculation of the loads on the powered supports