WorldWideScience

Sample records for antigen levels leading

  1. Heterozygous Mutation in IκBNS Leads to Reduced Levels of Natural IgM Antibodies and Impaired Responses to T-Independent Type 2 Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gabriel K; Ádori, Monika; Stark, Julian M; Khoenkhoen, Sharesta; Arnold, Carrie; Beutler, Bruce; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in central components of classical NF-κB signaling have low levels of circulating natural IgM antibodies and fail to respond to immunization with T-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens. A plausible explanation for these defects is the severely reduced numbers of B-1 and marginal zone B (MZB) cells in such mice. By using an ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen, we identified a role for the atypical IκB protein IκBNS in humoral immunity. IκBNS-deficient mice lack B-1 cells and have severely reduced numbers of MZB cells, and thus resemble several other strains with defects in classical NF-κB signaling. We analyzed mice heterozygous for the identified IκBNS mutation and demonstrate that these mice have an intermediary phenotype in terms of levels of circulating IgM antibodies and responses to TI-2 antigens. However, in contrast to mice that are homozygous for the IκBNS mutation, the heterozygous mice had normal frequencies of B-1 and MZB cells. These results suggest that there is a requirement for IκBNS expression from two functional alleles for maintaining normal levels of circulating natural IgM antibodies and responses to TI-2 antigens.

  2. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  3. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  4. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K;

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum concentr......Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  5. Prognostic Effect of Pretreatment Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Kim, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have reported the prognostic value of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen (pre-CEA) levels on colorectal cancer outcomes. However, controversy remains concerning the significance of pre-CEA levels in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Our aim in this study was to investigate the prognostic role of the pre-CEA level in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant CRT followed by total mesorectal exc...

  6. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  7. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  8. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  9. Lead level in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Macinic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on a hunting ground belonging to AJVPS Arad, county Arad. Lead (Pb was determined in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos tissues (muscles and organs (liver, kidneys to see the contamination level of this tissues and organs and also the impact on humans health because in our days more and more wild game meat take a increasing percentage in humans food ratio. The Mallard is one of the most widespread duck species. Mallard has 50-62 cm length, 800-1400 g weight and lives about 11 years. It prefers rivers and shallow pounds with a lot of reed. It is a migratory species that is flying long distances to find food and unfrozen water, so it is a exposed to lead contamination that is under dust form in atmosphere. But another reason why lead level in Mallard can be higher that in other flying specie (pheasant, woodcock, quail, and pigeons are the lead shot shells that are used for duck hunting. It is known that the ducks can ingest these lead shot shells and so they are often exposed to lead intoxications. This is why in our days more ammunition for waterfowl are steel made or different type of alloys. Lead is known to be one of the most common pollutants with a large range of effects on human health: lead affects nervous system, digestive tract, kidneys, bones, enzymes. Lead has also mutagenic effect, carcinogenic effect, teratogenic effect.

  10. Levels of estrogen, carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen of breast in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the period from february 2004 to July 2004; with the objective of measuring the levels of estrogen (E2), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen of breast (CA-15.3) so as to facilitate the early diagnosis of breast cancer and determine the involvement of these parameters as risk factors for breast cancer. Ninety blood samples were collected from Sudanese females, divided into two groups; control group and patient groups. The patients group was sixty Sudanese females visiting the Radio Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and they were confirmed as breast cancer patient by histopathology. The levels of the above mentioned parameters were determined by using radioimmunoassay technique. The results showed that, no significant (p=0.05) difference between the levels of the estrogen in patients compared to the control, on the other hand there was non significant (p>0.05) elevation in CEA levels in the patients with breast cancer compared to the control. The level of CA15.3 was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the breast cancer patients compared to the control.(Author)

  11. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Infection with influenza a virus leads to flu antigen-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Susanne M; Hahn, Christian; Wohlleben, Gisela; Teufel, Martin; Major, Tamas; Moll, Heidrun; Bröcker, Eva-B; Erb, Klaus J

    2002-04-01

    It is well established, that viral infections may trigger urticaria or allergic asthma; however, as viral infections induce T helper 1 polarized responses, which lead to the inhibition of T helper 2 cell development, the opposite would be plausible. We wanted to investigate how viral infections may mediate allergic symptoms in a mouse model; therefore, we infected BALB/C mice with influenza A virus intranasally. Histologic analyses of lung sections and bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. In addition, cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes were restimulated in vitro to analyze which types of cytokines were induced by the flu infection. Furthermore, flu-specific antibody titers were determined and local anaphylaxis was measured after rechallenge with flu antigen. We found that airways inflammation consisted predominately of macrophages and lymphocytes, whereas only a few eosinophils were observed. interferon-gamma but no interleukin-4 and little interleukin-5 could be detected in the culture supernatants from in vitro restimulated T cells from the draining lymph nodes. The antibody response was characterized by high levels of virus-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG1 and, surprisingly, low levels of virus-specific IgE antibodies. Interestingly, flu-infected mice developed active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after rechallenge with flu-antigen. As the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction persisted over 48 h and was significantly lower after passive transfer of the serum, which was IgE depleted, local anaphylaxis seemed to be mediated predominately by specific IgE antibodies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mice infected with flu virus develop virus-specific mast cell degranulation in the skin. Our results may also have implications for the pathogenesis of urticaria or other atopic disorders in humans. PMID:11918711

  13. Vaccination with a cocktail of Ancylostoma ceylanicum recombinant antigens leads to worm burden reduction in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Łapiński, Maciej; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Jaros, Sławomir; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    Hookworms, a group to which Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs, are gastrointestinal nematodes that infect more than 700 million people around the world. They are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries. In order to effectively prevent hookworm infections research is conducted to develop an effective vaccine using recombinant antigens of the parasite. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the hosts' on protection against ancylostomiasis and the shaping of the humoral immune response among Syrian hamsters after immunization with a cocktail of five A. ceylanicum recombinant antigens. Ace-ASP-3, Ace-ASP-4, Ace-APR-1, Ace-MEP-6 and Ace-MEP-7 were obtained in the pET expression system. Immunization with a vaccine cocktail resulted in a 33.5% worm burden reduction. The immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined using ELISA. Statistical analysis showed that vaccinated hamsters developed stronger humoral responses to four of five recombinant antigens (the exception being Ace-ASP-3) compared to hamsters from the control group. PMID:27447220

  14. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  15. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Decharat, Somsiri; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determin...

  16. Evaluation of the use of salivary lead levels as a surrogate of blood lead or plasma lead levels in lead exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Correa Rodrigues, Maria H.; Buzalaf, Maria R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-15

    We conducted a study to evaluate the use of parotid salivary lead (Pb-saliva) levels as a surrogate of the blood lead (Pb-B) or plasma lead levels (Pb-P) to diagnose lead exposure. The relationship between these biomarkers was assessed in a lead exposed population. Pb-saliva and Pb-P were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while in whole blood lead was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. We studied 88 adults (31 men and 57 women) from 18 to 60 years old. Pb-saliva levels varied from 0.05 to 4.4 {mu}g/l, with a mean of 0.85 {mu}g/l. Blood lead levels varied from 32.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/l in men (mean 112.3 {mu}g/l) and from 25.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/l (mean 63.5 {mu}g/l) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.50 {mu}g/l (mean 0.77 {mu}g/l) and 0.03-1.6 {mu}g/l (mean 0.42 {mu}g/l) in men and women, respectively. A weak correlation was found between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-B (r=0.277, P<0.008), and between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-P (r=0.280, P=0.006). The Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio ranged from 0.20 to 18.0. Age or gender does not affect Pb-saliva levels or Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio. Taken together, these results suggest that salivary lead may not be used as a biomarker to diagnose lead exposure nor as a surrogate of plasma lead levels at least for low to moderately lead exposed population. (orig.)

  17. A Molecular-Level Account of the Antigenic Hantaviral Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sai; Rissanen, Ilona; Zeltina, Antra; Hepojoki, Jussi; Raghwani, Jayna; Harlos, Karl; Pybus, Oliver G; Huiskonen, Juha T; Bowden, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses. PMID:27117403

  18. A Molecular-Level Account of the Antigenic Hantaviral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV, a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses.

  19. Impacts of traffic-induced lead emissions on air, soil and blood lead levels in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashisho, Z; El-Fadel, M

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a purely toxic heavy metal which induces a wide variety of adverse physiologic effects. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 8,000 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, traffic-induced emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitute more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas where no phase-out activities have been adopted. Gasoline lead content and traffic volume are strongly correlated with concentrations of lead in various environmental media. In the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline remains the predominant grade in many countries. This paper assesses the status of lead pollution from the combustion of leaded gasoline in Beirut based on field measurements of lead in air and roadside dust of urban and rural/suburban areas and recent data on soil and blood lead levels. Average atmospheric lead concentrations was about 1.86 microg m(-3) at urban locations and 0.147 microg m(-3) at suburban locations. The analysis of roadside dust revealed an average lead level of 353 microg g(-1) along urban streets and 125 microg g(-1) along rural/suburban roads. Blood lead levels were also relatively high in comparison to countries where leaded gasoline has been phased-out.

  20. Levels of Antibody against 11 Staphylococcus aureus Antigens in a Healthy Population ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Jacobsson, Gunnar; Andersson, Rune; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Möllby, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples from 151 healthy individuals aged from 15 to 89 years were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG levels against 11 different purified antigens from Staphylococcus aureus. Surface antigens, such as teichoic acid, clumping factors A and B, and bone sialoprotein binding protein, and extracellular proteins, such as alpha-toxin, lipase, enterotoxin A, toxic shock syndrome toxin, scalded-skin syndrome toxin, fibrinogen binding protein, and extracellular adh...

  1. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.L.; Landrigan, P.J.; Barbour, A.G.; Cox, D.H.; Folland, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of 160 lead exposed workers at a secondary lead smelter, a small scrap smelter, and a lead chemicals facility to investigate dose response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects. The levels of blood lead ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 micromoles/liter (micromol/l). In 70 workers, 44 percent of the total number, clinical evidence of toxic exposure was detected including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anemia in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. At blood lead levels below 1.93 micromol/l no toxicity was detected. However, 13 percent of those workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 micromol/l had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. In 5 percent of the workers with lead levels of 1.93 to 2.85 micromol/l, anemia was noted. Anemia was also noted in 14 percent with levels between 2.90 and 3.81 micromol/l and in 36 percent with levels over 3.86 micromol/l. In long term lead workers elevated BUN occurred. All but three workers with elevated BUN had at least 4 years of occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation therapy. Eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability.

  2. Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen Levels in the Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei; Song, Liu-Wei; Fang, Yu-Qing; Xiao-feng WU; Liu, Dan-Yang; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen; Lv, Dong-Xia; Li, Jun; Deng, Yong-Qiong; Wang, Yan; Huo, Na; Yu, Min; Xi, Hong-Li

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have revealed antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) levels as a predictor of treatment response in hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in both interferon and nucleos(t)ide analog therapy cohorts. However, there is no information about anti-HBc levels in the natural history of CHB. This study aimed to define anti-HBc levels of different phases in the natural history of CHB. Two hundred eleven treatment-naive CHB pati...

  3. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  4. Lead level in foremilk and neurobehavioral development of neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been reported that blood lead level lower than 24 μ mol/L can lead to learning and cognitive deficits.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of lead level in foremilk and early neurobehavioral development of neonates taking lead level in foremilk as lead exposure index.DESIGN: A controlled observation.SETTING: Maternal and Child Health Center, Shanxi Children's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 128 neonates of full-term normal delivery, 76 male and 52 female, from ShanxiProvincial Maternal and Child Health Center and Jiexiu Maternal and Child Health Center were involved inthis study. All the involved neonates had no peripartal ischemic/hypoxic history. The corresponding puerperants were aged (27± 5 ) years. They had no various acute and chronic diseases during pregnancy, and family history of neurological disease as well as occupational lead exposure. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the puerperants.METHODS: ① Determination of lead level in foremilk: Altogether 128 foremilk samples, 1 mL each,were collected between January and February 2005. The same amount of violet acid was added to each sample. After foremilk was fully dissolved, 0.2 mL solution was taken for determining lead level with atomic absorption spectrometer in graphite stove. The determined process strictly followed the internal quantity control of laboratory and was involved in the blind quality control of Institute of Environmental Health of Chinese Academy. ② Participants grouping: Totally 128 neonates were involved, and the normal reference value of lead level of foremilk was 0.06- 0.48 μ mol/L. The involved neonates were assigned into high-level lead group (≥ 0.24 μ mol/L, n =60) and low-level lead group (< 0.24 μ mol/L, n =68). ③Assessment of neurobehavioral development of neonates: Neurobehavioral development level of neonates who was born 24 to 72 hours was assessed with 20-item neonatal neurobehavioral determination method

  5. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  6. Serum Prostatic Specific Antigen Levels in Women with Hirsutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Cebeci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Using an ultrasensitive assay, PSA has been detected in female serum and has been proposed as a potential marker of androgen excess in hirsute women. The object of this present study was to investigate an association between hirsutism and serum PSA levels.Material and Method: A total of 47 women with hirsutism and 24 age-matched nonhirsute women were included in this study. Using an ultrasensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay serum PSA were determined in all subjects.Results: Serum levels of PSA were higher in hirsute women than in nonhirsute controls (p<0.05.Conclusion: If more sensitive assays become available, PSA might be used as biochemical marker of peripheral androgen excess in women with hirsutism.

  7. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Nastaran; Izadi, Anahita; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Javadinia, Shima; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Ashouri, Sarvenaz; Asgarian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead elements have an adverse effect on human health. The most important complications of lead poisoning are disorders of nervous system particularly seizure .This study aimed to evaluate the blood lead levels and its association with convulsion in a group of hospitalized febrile children. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 60 hospitalized febrile children with 1- 60 month old participated in the study via non-probability convenience sampling method. All of the infor...

  8. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman Herbert; Shen Xiaoming; Yan Chonghuai; Compher Charlene; McCauley Linda; Liu Jianghong; Pinto-Martin Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb) is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods P...

  9. Antigen-binding site protection during radiolabeling leads to a higher immunoreactive fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the immunointegrity of an antibody (Ab) depends on the preservation of its antigen-binding sites. Our goal was to radiolabel an antibody at several iodine:antibody molar ratios under conditions protecting its combining site and to compare its immunoreactive fraction (IRF) and electrophoretic mobility with those of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection. The data indicate that an antibody radiolabeled while its antigen-binding site is occupied by its antigen had the same IRF, regardless of the number of iodine atoms per antibody molecule. On the other hand, even at an I:Ab ratio of 1:1, the IRF of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection was lower than that of a protected one and decreased with increasing I:Ab ratios. In addition, the iodination of these Ab changes their electrophoretic mobility; however, when the Ab is labeled in the protected state, the degree of change is less. The binding of an antibody to its antigen prior to radiolabeling, therefore, enhances its immuno-integrity and prevents major conformational changes as reflected by electrophoresis

  10. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  11. Environmental lead levels in a coastal city of India: The lead burden continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization, rapid industrialization, increased vehicular traffic, and consequent increase in the use of petroleum fuels in India are constantly emitting lead along with other pollutants into the environment. Apart from atmospheric lead, this element is the most widely used in everyday life. Although infants and children are the most susceptible to the effects of lead, adults are also affected to varying degrees and it had ranked as one of the most serious environmental threats to human health. Hence, we must understand the benefits of preventing lead exposure as it reduces treatment costs, increases productivity in industry, and also reduces infant mortality. These are good enough reasons for a nation wide program to prevent lead poisoning. Objectives: In the view of elevated blood lead levels (BLL in majority of the school children in the city of Mangalore, we aimed to identify the potential sources of lead in the environment which would have probably caused the elevated BLL. Materials and Methods: More than 600 readings were taken throughout the city of Mangalore using X-ray fluorimeter. Results: Our results showed that there were elevated levels of lead in the environment surrounding the battery repair shops, battery recyclers, automotive workshops, and tyre retreaders, but interestingly, the soil around the petrol bunks did not show elevated levels of lead. Among the paints, the yellow paint showed high levels of lead. Conclusion: Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries in order to identify the potential sources of lead and to prevent lead poisoning.

  12. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil.

  13. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  14. Blood lead levels in children and environmental lead contamination in Miami inner city, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M; Siegel, Kristy A; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-09-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 microg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 microg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 microg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  15. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophile Niyonsenga

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg /dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05. However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  16. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  17. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  18. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jessica J., E-mail: park16@fas.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Loffredo, Marian; D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  19. Differentiation induced by physiological and pharmacological stimuli leads to increased antigenicity of human neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lena-Maria Carlson; Sven P(a)hlman; Anna De Geer; Per Kogner; Jelena Levitskaya

    2008-01-01

    Sympathetic neuronal differentiation is associated with favorable prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of early childhood. Differentiation agents have proved useful in clinical protocols of NB treatment, but using them as a sole treatment is not sufficient to induce tumor elimination in patients. Therefore, complementary approaches, such as immunotherapy, are warranted. Here we demonstrate that differentiation of NB cell lines and ex vivo isolated tumor cells in response to physiological or pharmacological stimuli is associated with acquisition of increased antigenicity. This manifests as increased expression of surface major histocompatibility class I complexes and ICAM-1 molecules and translates into increased sensitivity of NB cells to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. The latter is paralleled by enhanced ability of differentiated cells to form immune conjugates and bind increased amounts of granzyme B to the cell surface. We demonstrate, for the first time, that, regardless of the stimulus applied, the differentiation state in NBs is associated with increased tumor antigenicity that enables more efficient elimination of tumor cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes and paves the way for combined application of differentiation-inducing agents and immunotherapy as an auxiliary approach in NB patients.

  20. Prohepcidin Levels in Refractory Anaemia Caused by Lead Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayantha Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research evidence suggests a central role for hepcidin in iron homeostasis. Hepcidin is a hormone synthesized in the liver. Hepcidin is also thought to play a vital role in the pathogenic mechanism of anaemia in patients with inflammation or chronic disease. A 38-year-old female who presented with recurrent abdominal pain was found to have raised urinary porphyrins and a blood lead level of 779 µg/l. Her haemoglobin level was 8.3 g/dl. Her MCV was normal. Serum ferritin, B12 and folate were normal. Her serum prohepcidin level was 2,489 ng/ml (normal <450 ng/ml . To our knowledge, this is the first report of raised prohepcidin levels in a patient with anaemia of chronic disease resulting from lead poisoning.

  1. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  2. An investigation of dust lead sampling locations and children's blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jonathan; Dixon, Sherry; Galke, Warren; McLaine, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide guidance on where to collect dust lead wipe samples in homes to best characterize the risk of a resident child having a blood lead level at or above the CDC level of concern (10 microg/dl). In 1998, the Milwaukee Health Department enrolled 72 children living in pre-1950 buildings: 34 had elevated (i.e., > or = 10 microg/dl) blood lead levels (EBL); and 38 had non-elevated blood lead levels (non-EBL). This study explored dust lead sampling locations by examining loading differences between homes where children with EBL and non-EBL lived. Floor, windowsill, and window trough samples were collected in the living room, kitchen, bathroom, and child's bedroom and play area. Floor samples were collected at four locations: room entry; center of the room; under a window; and against the wall opposite the window (perimeter). Geometric mean floor dust lead levels were generally two to three times higher in homes of EBL children than homes of non-EBL children. Sampling the floor at the room entry or center is preferable to sampling under the window or from the perimeter of the room. When the central floor average was used, the room combinations that had the greatest differences between homes of EBL children and non-EBL children all included a sample from the child's bedroom and excluded the bathroom. When the entry floor average was used, the greatest differences also excluded bathrooms, but otherwise included a mix of all of the other rooms. Window samples did not distinguish where children with EBLs versus non-EBLs resided. This paper is based on Milwaukee alone, so generalizing results to other locations should be done with caution. PMID:16823397

  3. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  4. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  5. Blood lead levels in Japanese children: Effects of passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaji, Masayuki; Gotoh, Mikio; Takagi, Yasuko; Masuda, Hiroyuki

    1997-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) of 188 pediatric patients were measured and their parents were queried as to the smoking style in their home. Their mean BLL was 3.16 μg/dl, which was among the lowest levels in the world, and none of them had levels of over 10 μ g/dl. Preschool children ( 1 to 6 years of age) with parents who smoked in the same room had a significantly higher BLL (mean; 4.15 μ g/dl) than those with parents who never smoked (mean; 3.06 μ g/dl) (P

  6. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  7. Effects of low level lead ingestion in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, T.L.; Van Gelder, G.A.; Buck, W.B.; Hoffman, L.J.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty adult sheep of Columbia-Rambouilet cross were fed 0, 2.3, and 4.5 mg lead/kg body weight to control, low and high groups, respectively, for 27 weeks. This ingestion resulted in mean blood lead levels of 0.06, 0.17, and 0.30 ppm. Blood lead concentration, total red blood cells, total white blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, blood sugar, BUN, serum inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and SGOT were determined at biweekly intervals. Four weeks after the start of lead exposure, the ewes were bred. The experiment continued throughout gestation. Half of the animals in each group were tested on behavioral tasks throughout the study. The apparent added stress of the behavioral testing significantly reduced reproductive performance, while lead alone had no significant effect on reproductive performance. Significant group differences observed for hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and alkaline phosphatase were not linear with lead exposure and were attributed to change. No significant differences between groups were demonstrated for total red blood cells, total white blood cells, blood sugar, BUN, inorganic phosphorus, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and SGOT. 28 references, 4 figures, 12 tables.

  8. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  9. The Level of Evidence in Two Leading Endodontic Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiei, Leila; Shahravan, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The successful practice of dentistry, including endodontics, relies on a wide spectrum of dental research. The quantity and quality of research evidence in endodontics have seldom been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence in current leading endodontic journals. Materials and Methods All the articles published in 2000, 2006 and 2010 in two major endodontic journals (Journal of Endodontics and International Endodontic Journal) were evaluated. These...

  10. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  11. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature

  12. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Needleman Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not, demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02. Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children.

  13. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  14. Monitoring human leukocyte antigen class I molecules by micro-Raman spectroscopy at single-cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gobind; La Rocca, Rosanna; Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Gentile, Francesco; Tallerico, Rossana; Zambetti, Lia P.; Devitt, J.; Candeloro, Patrizio; de Angelis, Francesco; Carbone, Ennio; di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2010-03-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules are formed by three immunoglobulin-like domains (α1, α2, and α3) once folded by peptide and β2-microglobulin show the presence of two α-helix streams and one β-sheet limiting the pocket for the antigenic peptide. The loss of HLA class I expression in tumors and virus-infected cells, on one hand, prevents T cell recognition, while on the other hand, it leads to natural killer (NK) cell mediated cytotoxicity. We propose the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to measure the relative expression of HLA class I molecules at the single-cell level. Raman spectra are recorded for three cell lines (K562, T2, and T3) and monomers (HLA class I folded, unfolded and peptide+β2-microlobulin refolded) using 830 nm laser line. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that in the Raman spectra, ranging from 1600 to 1800 cm-1, the intensity variation of cells associated with HLA class I molecules could be measured.

  15. Prime-boost vaccination with toxoplasma lysate antigen, but not with a mixture of recombinant protein antigens, leads to reduction of brain cyst formation in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wagner

    Full Text Available Infection with the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a threat for immunocompromised patients and pregnant women and effective immune-prophylaxis is still lacking.Here we tested a mixture of recombinant T. gondii antigens expressed in different developmental stages, i.e., SAG1, MAG1 and GRA7 (SMG, and a lysate derived from T. gondii tachyzoites (TLA for prophylactic vaccination against cyst formation. Both vaccine formulations were applied systemically followed by an oral TLA-booster in BALB/c mice.Systemic priming with SMG and oral TLA-booster did not show significant induction of protective immune responses. In contrast, systemic priming and oral booster with TLA induced higher levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in sera as well as high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG1 in small intestines. Furthermore, high levels of Toxoplasma-specific Th1-, Th17- and Th2-associated cytokines were only detected in restimulated splenocytes of TLA-vaccinated mice. Importantly, in mice orally infected with T. gondii oocysts, only TLA-vaccination and booster reduced brain cysts. Furthermore, sera from these mice reduced tachyzoites invasion of Vero cells in vitro, indicating that antibodies may play a critical role for protection against Toxoplasma infection. Additionally, supernatants from splenocyte cultures of TLA-vaccinated mice containing high levels of IFN-γ lead to substantial production of nitric oxide (NO after incubation with macrophages in vitro. Since NO is involved in the control of parasite growth, the high levels of IFN-γ induced by vaccination with TLA may contribute to the protection against T. gondii.In conclusion, our data indicate that prime-boost approach with TLA, but not with the mixture of recombinant antigens SMG, induces effective humoral and cellular Toxoplasma-specific responses and leads to significant reduction of cerebral cysts, thereby presenting a viable strategy for further vaccine development against T

  16. Quantitating Antibody Uptake In Vivo: Conditional Dependence on Antigen Expression Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Antibodies form an important class of cancer therapeutics, and there is intense interest in using them for imaging applications in diagnosis and monitoring of cancer treatment. Despite the expanding body of knowledge describing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of antibodies in vivo, discrepancies remain over the effect of antigen expression level on tumoral uptake with some reports indicating a relationship between uptake and expression and others showing no correlation. Procedures Using a cell line with high EpCAM expression and moderate EGFR expression, fluorescent antibodies with similar plasma clearance were imaged in vivo. A mathematical model and mouse xenograft experiments were used to describe the effect of antigen expression on uptake of these high affinity antibodies. Results As predicted by the theoretical model, under subsaturating conditions, uptake of the antibodies in such tumors is similar because localization of both probes is limited by delivery from the vasculature. In a separate experiment, when the tumor is saturated, the uptake becomes dependent on the number of available binding sites. In addition, targeting of small micrometastases is shown to be higher than larger vascularized tumors. Conclusions These results are consistent with the prediction that high affinity antibody uptake is dependent on antigen expression levels for saturating doses and delivery for subsaturating doses. It is imperative for any probe to understand whether quantitative uptake is a measure of biomarker expression or transport to the region of interest. The data provide support for a predictive theoretical model of antibody uptake, enabling it to be used as a starting point for the design of more efficacious therapies and timely quantitative imaging probes. PMID:20809210

  17. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  18. Effective Delivery of Antigen-Encapsulin Nanoparticle Fusions to Dendritic Cells Leads to Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Activation and Tumor Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongseo; Moon, Hyojin; Hong, Sung Joon; Shin, Changsik; Do, Yoonkyung; Ryu, Seongho; Kang, Sebyung

    2016-08-23

    In cancer immunotherapy, robust and efficient activation of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell immune responses is a promising, but challenging task. Dendritic cells (DCs) are well-known professional antigen presenting cells that initiate and regulate antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that kill their target cells directly as well as secrete IFN-γ, a cytokine critical in tumor rejection. Here, we employed recently established protein cage nanoparticles, encapsulin (Encap), as antigenic peptide nanocarriers by genetically incorporating the OT-1 peptide of ovalbumin (OVA) protein to the three different positions of the Encap subunit. With them, we evaluated their efficacy in activating DC-mediated antigen-specific T cell cytotoxicity and consequent melanoma tumor rejection in vivo. DCs efficiently engulfed Encap and its variants (OT-1-Encaps), which carry antigenic peptides at different positions, and properly processed them within phagosomes. Delivered OT-1 peptides were effectively presented by DCs to naïve CD8(+) T cells successfully, resulting in the proliferation of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. OT-1-Encap vaccinations in B16-OVA melanoma tumor bearing mice effectively activated OT-1 peptide specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells before or even after tumor generation, resulting in significant suppression of tumor growth in prophylactic as well as therapeutic treatments. A large number of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that actively produce both intracellular and secretory IFN-γ were observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes collected from B16-OVA tumor masses originally vaccinated with OT-1-Encap-C upon tumor challenges. The approaches we describe herein may provide opportunities to develop epitope-dependent vaccination systems that stimulate and/or modulate efficient and epitope-specific cytotoxic T cell immune responses in nonpathogenic diseases.

  19. Synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in colon cancer with normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xiaofang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synuclein gamma (SNCG, initially identified as a breast cancer specific gene, is aberrantly expressed in many different malignant tumors but rarely expressed in matched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic potential of SNCG in colon cancer particularly in the patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels. Methods SNCG levels were assessed immunohistochemically in cancer tissues from 229 colon adenocarcinoma patients with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Correlations between SNCG levels and clinicopathologic features, preoperative serum CEA level, and clinical outcome were analyzed statistically using SPSS. Results SNCG levels in colon adenocarcinoma were closely associated with intravascular embolus and tumor recurrence but independent of preoperative serum CEA levels. SNCG expression was an independent prognostic factor of a shorter disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (P P = 0.001, P = 0.001, 0.002 for 97 patients with normal preoperative serum CEA level. Conclusions Our results suggest for the first time that SNCG is a new independent predicator for poor prognosis in patients with colon adenocarcinoma, including those with normal CEA levels. Combination of CEA with SNCG improves prognostic evaluation for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

  20. The levels of lead in some vegetables in Makarfi, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead(Pb) serves no useful purpose in the human body and its presence can lead to toxic effects. Human activities have dramatically increased the environmental load of Pb. This study reports the concentrations of Pb in Moringa oleifera, Venonia amygdalina, Teilferia occidentalis Adansonia digitata, Lactuca serriola, Amaranthus tricolor, Moringa oleifera and Brassica olaracea sampled from five sites in Makarfi Local Government Area, Nigeria. The samples were digested using a tri-acid mixture (HNO3:HCIO4:H2SO4 25:4:2). The Pb content of the digests obtained was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The results showed that 100% of the samples contained Pb in concentrations ranging from 0.035±0.052 to 0.624±0.001mg/g, with Adasonia digitata recording the highest concentration and Venonia amygdalina recording the least. The Pb concentration recorded in all the samples were above the WHO limit (0.01mg/g dry weight of drug) with no significant difference (P<0.05) among them. The study indicated that the samples analyzed were contaminated with abnormal levels of Pb sufficient to expose residents of the area to adverse health effects of the metal.

  1. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-speciifc antigen (PSA) level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheryl K Lau; Maggie Guo; Jeannine A Viczko; Christopher T Naugler

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations(DREs), biopsies and serum prostate‑speciifc antigen(PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services(CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01January 2010 and 31March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  2. Advanced prostatic carcinomas with low serum levels of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Snežana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA represent a significant diagnostic and monitoring parameter of prostatic carcinoma (PC. The aim of the study was to establish correlation of serum PSA level in addition to grade, histological type, and clinical stage of PC in patients with normal or intermediary PSA serum level. In 37 untreated PC patients with preoperative serum PSA levels ranging between 0.1 and 9.6 ng/ml, paraffin-embedded tissue and serum samples were immunohistological studied and immunoassay for PSA was done. The most representative was poorly differentiated PC with D stage In serum samples from PC patients 27 (73.7% normal (≤ 4.0 ng/ml, and 10 (27.3% intermediate (4.1-10 ng/ml PSA levels were found Immunohistochemistry, in 36 PC (97.3% had demonstrated the expression of PSA. Our study results had shown low serum PSA levels in some patients with advanced poorly differentiated PC.

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Full and Partial Lead Service Line Replacement on Lead Levels in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Camara, Eliman; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-19

    Lead service line replacement (LSLR) is an important strategy for reducing lead exposure via drinking water, but jurisdictional issues can sometimes interfere with full replacement of the lead line. The effects of full and partial LSLR on lead levels were assessed using 5 × 1-L sample profiles collected at more than 100 single-unit residences. Profiles comprised four sequential standing samples (L1-L4) and a free-flowing sample (L5) drawn after a 5 min flush of the outlet. At 45 sites with full lead service lines, 90th percentile lead levels in standing samples ranged from 16.4 to 44.5 μg L(-1) (L1 and L4, respectively). In the free-flowing sample (L5), 90th percentile lead was 9.8 μg L(-1). Within 3 days, full LSLR had reduced L3-L5 lead levels by more than 50%, and within 1 month, lead levels were significantly lower in every liter of the sample profile. Conversely, partial LSLR more than doubled premises plumbing (L1, L2) lead release in the short term and did not reduce L1, L2 lead release in the long term. Even 6 months after partial LSLR, 27% of first-draw lead levels were greater than 15 μg L(-1) (the U.S. EPA action level), compared with 13% pre-replacement.

  4. Pregnancy-Related Human Leukocyte Antigen Sensitization Leading to Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy and Graft Failure in a Heart Transplant Recipient: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ginwalla, M.; Pando, M.J.; Khush, K. K.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present a heart transplant recipient who developed cross-reactive paternal and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II antibodies during pregnancy, leading to accelerated cardiac allograft vasculopathy and severe allograft dysfunction 17 years after transplantation. This resulted in acute heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias requiring repeat heart transplantation.

  5. The Effects of PPI Use on Clostridium Difficile Serum Antigen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü Beriat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the effects of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI use on distrubtion of intestinal flora  by measuring serum Clostridium Difficile antigen levels before and at the end of a three-months treatment  in patients with Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LFR treatment . Material and Methods The study covers 32 patients with LFR, out of which 24 were female (75% and 8 were male (25%. The mean age of the patients was 34.13 ± 11.59. All patients included in the study were administered Lansoprazole 30 mgr tablets perorally before meals and twice a day for treatment. Reflux Symptom Index (RSI, Reflux Finding Score (RFS, white blood cell count, CRP and serum Clostridium Difficile toxin A, B measurement results were comparatively evaluated through the blood serum samples drawn from the patients before and at the end of the three-months treatment. Results While the mean values of pre-treatment RSI and RFI were 20.81±4.05 and 13.31±3.30 respectively, the mean values were measured to be 3.41±2.37 and 1.50±1.88 respectively following the three-months treatment (p< 0.05. The pre-treatment mean value of serum Clostridium Difficile Ag was 140.56±11.74, while it was seen that the same value became 114.94±10.70 after the three-months treatment (p< 0.05. There was, however, no statistically significant change in the other parameters. Discussion According to the results obtained, it was seen that the treatment with PPI was not cause to  increase Clostridium difficile toxin A, B serum antigen levels. So these drugs could be used in long time therapies confidently. 

  6. Acute Cholecystitis with Significantly Elevated Levels of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Akimoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, a marker of malignant tumors, is generally slightly elevated in benign conditions. We report a case of acute cholecystitis with a significantly elevated level of serum CA 19-9 based on positron emission tomography (PET-computed tomography (CT findings. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and fever. A CT image revealed an enlarged gallbladder without tumor shadows. The C-reactive protein (CRP level was elevated to 7.66 mg/dl. Moreover, the serum CA 19-9 level was significantly elevated to 19,392 U/ml. We started antibiotic treatment, because we suspected acute cholecystitis, but still, we could not ignore the possible presence of malignant tumors. After 11 days of antibiotic treatment, serum CRP and CA 19-9 levels decreased to 0.11 mg/dl and 1,049 U/ml, respectively. There was an accumulation of fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (maximum standardized uptake value, 9.3 without tumor shadows in the liver, near the gallbladder, on the PET-CT examination. We considered the possibility that the inflammation had spread from the gallbladder to the liver, made a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and performed a cholecystectomy 33 days after treatment initiation. The serum CA 19-9 level decreased to 45 U/ml after the surgery. One year after the surgery, the patient was alive, and the serum CA 19-9 level was 34 U/ml. Acute cholecystitis with a significantly high elevation of the serum CA 19-9 level is rare. In such cases, it is important to confirm the change in the serum CA 19-9 level over time after antibiotic treatment and perform imaging studies to distinguish between inflammation and malignancy.

  7. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, Fnu; Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  8. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community. PMID:22782519

  9. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  10. The Serum Level of Prostate Specific Antigen in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level are increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 40 patients with PCOS, and 50 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study.The subjects were compared by means of serum PSA T SHBG DHEA-S levels. The correlations between PSA and T SHBG DHEA-S were evaluated.Serum PSA levels were found to be significantly higher in PCOS (PSA: 15.64±3.36 pg/mL, in PCOS; PSA: 3.56±0.44pg/mL, in control; P<0.01). Positive correlations between PSA and T (r=0.467, P<0.01) and between PSA and DHEA-S (r=, 0.205 P<0.05) were found. A negative correlation between PSA and SHBG was apparent (r=-0.260, P<0.05). Females with PCOS tended to have higher PSA than females without PCOS (P<0.01). PSA appears to be a promising marker of androgen excess in females suffering from PCOS. (authors)

  11. Clinical significance of venom antigen levels in patients envenomed by the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M; Warrell, D A; Looareesuwan, S; Phillips, R E; Chanthavanich, P; Karbwang, J; Supanaranond, W; Viravan, C; Hutton, R A; Vejcho, S

    1986-05-01

    Serial venom antigen levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 46 patients with systemic envenoming by the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), a major cause of snake bite in Southeast Asia. The principal effects of the venom are defibrination, hemorrhage and local tissue necrosis. Admission venom levels, which varied between 0 and 595 ng/ml, correlated with the incidence of spontaneous systemic bleeding, blood incoagulability and concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum fibrin degradation products. The presence or absence of nonclotting blood also correlated with the time elapsed between the bite and hospital admission. The development of nonclotting blood may be delayed by up to 72 hr after the bite even though circulating venom and raised FDP may be detected at presentation. This is probably explained by a temporary equilibrium between synthesis and consumption of fibrinogen. Venom antigenemia recurred in 12 patients (26%) suggesting continuous absorption of venom from the wound or saturation of extravascular binding sites. Admission venom levels also correlated with the extent of local swelling and the occurrence of tissue necrosis at the site of the bite. Venom was detected in 87% of wound aspirates and 88% of urine specimens taken on admission. Tourniquets, of the type used in rural Thailand, did not delay the absorption of venom into the circulation. PMID:3706625

  12. Circulating Antigens Levels in Different Clinical Forms of the Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA levels in relation to the different clinical phases of Schistosoma sp. infection a sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibody 5H11 was performed. The sera of three groups of 25 Brazilian patients with acute, intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of S. mansoni infection were tested and compared to a non-infected control group. Patients and control groups were matched for age and sex and the number of eggs per gram of feces was equally distributed among the three patient groups. Sensitivity of 100%, 72%, 52% of the assay was observed for the intestinal, hepatosplenic and acute toxemic groups respectively. The specificity was 100%. Intestinal and hepatosplenic groups presented CCA levels significantly higher in comparison to those observed for acute patients (F-ratio = 2,524; p = 0.000 and F-ratio = 6,314; p = 0.015 respectively. There was no significant difference of CCA serum levels between hepatosplenic and intestinal groups (F-ratio = 1,026; p = 0.316.

  13. A common SNP in ER aminopeptidase 2 induces a specificity switch that leads to altered antigen processing

    OpenAIRE

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Birtley, James; Seregin, Sergey; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Giastas, Petros; Petrakis, Olivia; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Amalfitano, Andrea; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Mavridis, Irene M.; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    ER aminopeptidases 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) cooperate to trim antigenic peptide precursors for loading onto MHC class I molecules and help regulate the adaptive immune response. Common coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 and ERAP2 have been linked with predisposition to human diseases ranging from viral and bacterial infections to autoimmunity and cancer. It has been hypothesized that altered antigen processing by these enzymes is a causal link to disease etiology but the ...

  14. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05. Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  15. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  16. Effects of experimental immunosuppression in cattle with persistently high antibody levels to Salmonella Dublin lipopolysaccharide O-antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Liza R

    2007-08-01

    transportation stress or dexamethasone treatment did not lead to excretion of S. Dublin in milk or faeces from infected animals. The study questions the general conception that cattle with persistently high antibody levels against S. Dublin O-antigens in naturally infected herds should be considered high risk for transmission and therefore culled as part of effective intervention strategies. It is suggested that the location of S. Dublin infected foci in the animal plays a major role for the risk of excreting bacteria.

  17. Biliary carcinoembryonic antigen levels in diagnosis of occult hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaques Waisberg; Rog(e)rio T. Palma; Lu(i)s Contim Neto; Lourdes C. Martins; Maur(i)cio S. L. Oliveira; Carlos A. Nagashima; Antonio C. Godoy; Fabio S. Goffi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively explore the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in gallbladder bile in patients with colorectal carcinoma and the morphological and clinical features of neoplasia and the occurrence of hepatic metastases.METHODS: CEA levels in the gallbladder and peripheral blood were studied in 44 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 10 patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis. CEA samples were collected from the gallbladder bile and peripheral blood during the operation, immediately before extirpating the colorectal neoplasia or cholecystectomy.Values of up to 5 ng/ml were considered normal for bile and serum CEA.RESULTS: In the 44 patients with colorectal carcinoma who underwent operation with curative intent, the average level of serum CEA was 8.5 ng/ml (range: 0.1 to 111.0 ng/ml) and for bile CEA it was 74.5 ng/ml (range: 0.2 to 571.0ng/ml). In the patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis who underwent cholecystectomy, the average level of serum CEA was 1.9 ng/ml (range: 1.0 to 3.5 ng/ml) and for bile CEA it was 1.2 ng/ml (range: 0.3 to 2.9 ng/ml).The average duration of follow-up time was 16.5 months (range: 6 to 48 months). Four patients who underwent extirpation of the colorectal carcinoma without evidence of hepatic metastasis and with an average bile CEA value of 213.2 ng/ml presented hepatic metastases between three and seventeen months after removal of the primary colorectal neoplasia. Three of them successfully underwent extirpation of the hepatic lesions.CONCLUSION: High CEA levels in gallbladders of patients undergoing curative operation for colorectal carcinoma may indicate the presence of hepatic metastases. Such patients must be followed up with special attention to the diagnosis of such lesions.

  18. Blood lead level and seizure: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shah Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the most serious and fast-growing problems in the world of today. Lead poisoning is a threatening environmental situation with the potential of causing irreversible health issues and serious negative consequences in adults and children. Lead proves to have almost no clear biological function. However, once it enters the body, it is known to cause severe health effects, which might be irreversible. In this article, we aimed to review the related literature to find evidence concerning the effect of lead toxicity on CNS, particularly its role in febrile convulsion. In this review, PubMed database was searched using MeSH terms. One hundred and fifty seven articles were retrieved, most of which were irrelevant to the topic. After a thorough search in PubMed and Google Scholar, seizure was shown to be one of the consequences of lead toxicity, but there was no evidence of epilepsy or febrile convulsion, induced by this metal contamination.

  19. The distribution of blood lead levels and job titles among lead-acid battery workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kun-Yu; Shin, Wen-Yi; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2002-07-01

    There were several reports about elevated blood lead levels in lead battery workers. However, their subjects came from only one or several plants. We visited all the 23 registered lead-acid battery plants in Taiwan and collected their health examination records in 1992, the blood lead analyses of which were completed in 3 medical college hospitals. In total, we have obtained 1726 records. The average blood lead concentration was 37.1 ug/dl, and 37% of blood lead levels were more than 40 ug/dl (action level). The overall participation rate for health examination among employees was 69.4%. The participation rates were different among both plant sizes and job titles. Assuming that there was no peculiar variation within the four working zones (plate manufacture jobs, assembly jobs, part-time exposure jobs, and office jobs) in each plant, and that blood lead levels of our samples were stable after deleting newly hired workers, we estimated that the blood lead distributions of 2486 employees in these plants were 63.3%, 26.4%, 9.25% and 1.05% for below 40, 40-59, 60-79, and above 80 ug/dl respectively. We conclude that such an analysis should be performed each year to monitor the effectiveness of occupational hygiene in workplace of lead battery plants.

  20. Fusion to green fluorescent protein improves expression levels of Theileria parva sporozoite surface antigen p67 in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Nene, V.; Musoke, A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2002-01-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) is a fatal disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The development of a subunit vaccine, based on the sporozoite-specific surface antigen p67, has been hampered by difficulties in achieving high-level expression of recombinant p67 in a near-authenti

  1. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  2. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  3. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen levels in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients given total parenteral nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Pauw, B.E. de

    2002-01-01

    False-positive tests for Aspergillus galactomannan have been reported in neutropenic patients. We failed to detect any circulating antigen during the 2 weeks following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation of 12 patients who had severe mucositis but were unable to eat.

  5. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  6. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  7. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  8. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  9. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD. PMID:27338097

  10. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD.

  11. Physiological level Production of Antigen-Specific Human Immunoglobulin in Cloned Transchromosomic Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Sano; Hiroaki Matsushita; Hua Wu; Jin-An Jiao; Poothappillai Kasinathan; Eddie J. Sullivan; Zhongde Wang; Yoshimi Kuroiwa

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human...

  12. Decreasing trend in prostate cancer with high serum prostate-specific antigen levels detected at first prostate-specific antigen-based population screening in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhide Kitagawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the recent trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA distribution in men in Japan, we analyzed the PSA distributions of men undergoing PSA-based population screening. We summarized the annual individual data of PSA-based population screening in Kanazawa, Japan, from 2000 to 2011, and analyzed baseline serum PSA values of the participants at the first population screening. Serum PSA distributions were estimated in all participants and those excluding prostate cancer patients according to age. From 2000 to 2011, 19 620 men participated aged 54-69 years old in this screening program. Mean baseline serum PSA level of all participants at the first screening was 2.64 ng ml−1 in 2000, and gradually decreased to approximately 1.30 ng ml−1 in 2006. That of participants excluding prostate cancer patients was 1.46 ng ml−1 in 2000, and there was no remarkable change during the study period. The 95 th percentiles in the participants excluding prostate cancer patients detected at the first population screening of men aged 54-59, 60-64, and 65-69 years old were 2.90, 3.60, and 4.50 ng ml−1 , respectively. After the commencement of population screening, the proportion of prostate cancer patients with high serum PSA levels decreased. However, there were no changes in serum PSA levels in men without prostate cancer. Age-specific PSA reference level of men without prostate cancer in Japan was similar to that in China and Korea.

  13. RHAMM (CD168 Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian M. Gust

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Localized prostate cancer (CaP can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID, which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidate antigens were screened by DNA microarrays. Genes were then validated at the protein level by tissue microarrays, representing various stages of CaP disease. Of 43 targets identified by CID, 10 showed an overexpression on the complementary DNA array in CaP metastases. The RHAMM (CD168 gene, earlier identified by our group as an immunogenic antigen in acute and chronic leukemia, also showed highly significant overexpression in CaP metastases compared with localized disease and benign prostatic hyperplasia. At the protein level, RHAMM was highest in metastatic tissue samples and significantly higher in neoplastic localized disease compared with benign tissue. High RHAMM expression was associated with clinical parameters known to be linked to better clinical outcome. Patients with high RHAMM expression in the primaries had a significantly lower risk of biochemical failure. The number of viable cells in cell cultures was reduced in blocking experiments using hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive metastatic CaP cell lines. Acknowledging the proven immunogenic effects of RHAMM in leukemia, this antigen is intriguing as a therapeutic target in far-advanced CaP.

  14. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research. PMID:26987160

  15. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered. PMID:27135573

  16. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author)

  17. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  18. Clinical significance of hepatitis B e antigen level measurement during long-term lamivudine therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with e antigen positive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Woo Shin; Neung Hwa Park; Seok Won Jung; Byung Chul Kim; Sung Ho Kwon; Jae Serk Park; In Du Jeong; Sung-Jo Bang; Do Ha Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the changes of quantitative hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) that predicts early detection of nonresponse or breakthrough to long-term lamivudine (LAM)therapy.METHODS: Among HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients who failed to achieve HBeAg seroconversion within 12 mo, we retrospectively analyzed 220 patients who had received LAM more than 24 mo.RESULTS: The mean duration of LAM therapy was 36(range, 24-72) mo. HBeAg seroconversion after the first 12 mo of LAM therapy was achieved in 53 (24.1%)patients. Viral breakthrough was observed in 105 (47.7%)patients. To find out whether the changing patterns of HBeAg levels can predict the outcome of LAM therapy,we analyzed the reduction rates of HBeAg levels during LAM therapy. Using the decrease more than 90% of pretreatment HBeAg levels, the sensitivity and specificity of response were 96.2% and 70.1%, respectively.Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the reduction patterns of the decrease of quantitative HBeAg: decrescendo, decrescendo-crescendo, no change or fluctuating groups. The optimal time to predict nonresponse or breakthrough was the first 9 mo of therapy.At 9 mo of therapy, 49 (92.5%) of 53 patients who had achieved HBeAg seroconversion were included in the decrescendo group. On the contrary, in the no change or fluctuating group, only four (7.5%) had achieved HBeAg seroconversion. Among patients who did not show the continuous decrease of HBeAg levels at 9 mo, 95.2%(negative predictive value) failed to achieve HBeAg seroconversion.CONCLUSION: Almost all patients who failed to show a continuous decrease of HBeAg levels at 9 mo of LAM therapy were non-response or breakthrough. Therefore,monitoring changes of HBeAg levels during LAM therapy in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B may be valuable for identifying patients who are at high risk of non-response or breakthrough.

  19. Mapping the antigenic structure of porcine parvovirus at the level of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Langeveld, Jan; Bøtner, Anette;

    1998-01-01

    located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein VP2. Based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and used to immunise rabbits. Most antisera were able to bind viral protein......The antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was investigated. A total of nine linear epitopes were identified by Pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-PPV antisera. No sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All epitopes were...

  20. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: Could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes of environmental media and children's blood and urine were analyzed. • Pb exposure and pollution source were studied in lead-acid battery and coking areas. • Pb isotope ratios in blood and urine were similar to those of food, water and PM. • Urine Pb level may not be used as a proxy for indicating the lead levels in blood. • Urine Pb isotope ratios is an alternative to identify source and exposure pathways. - Urinary lead is not a preferable proxy to estimate blood lead level, but urinary lead isotope ratios could be an alternative for identifying the sources of lead exposure in children

  1. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  2. Unusual prostate carcinoma characterized by extensive metastasis, significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen, and neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuxin; YE Juan; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Qin-fang; WU Yue-long; CHEN Yue-yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Some rare variants of prostate carcinoma have been described in recent years.1-3 In this article we report a man with uncommon prostate carcinoma with the following three pathological characteristics: (a) extensive metastasis to bone and lymph nodes of the abdomen, pelvis, and supraclavicular area; (b) significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) as high as 1800 ng/ml; and (c) partial neuroendocrine differentiation in cancer tissue. The patient died 7 months after pathological diagnosis or 22 months after appearance of initial signs. This case has drawn our attention to the fact that pathological diversity of prostate neoplasm might easily lead to misdiagnosis or to delayed diagnosis, and moreover, reasonable therapy for such a case should be based on a thorough investigation. On the other hand, early initiation of appropriate treatment of advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma may improve the prognosis.

  3. Persistent High Level of Urinary Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Prenatally Diagnosed Dysplastic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khorramirouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 level has gained clinical significance in gastrointestinal malignancies and in various solid and cystic diseases. Dysplastic kidney is a congenital abnormality resulting from atresia of the ureteral bud during the embryogenesis which can be unilateral or bilateral. We report unilateral dysplastic kidney with extremely large cyst diagnosed by routine ultrasonography in the 32nd week of gestational age with high levels of CA 19-9 in cystic and amniotic fluid, as well as persistent high urinary levels of this tumor marker during the 1-year follow-up. Persistent high urinary CA 19-9 level even after cyst aspiration may be attributable to remained function of dysplastic kidney due to remained epithelial lining.

  4. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  5. Probing hybridization of a single energy level coupled to superconducting leads

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zanten, David; Balestro, F; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Electron transport through a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads shows a sharp con-ductance onset when a quantum dot orbital level crosses the superconducting coherence peak of one lead. We study superconducting single electron transistors in the weak coupling limit by connecting individual gold nanoparticles with aluminum leads formed by electromigration. We show that the transport features close to the conductance onset threshold can be accurately described by the quantum dot level...

  6. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  7. SLAP deficiency increases TCR avidity leading to altered repertoire and negative selection of cognate antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Samantha F; Peterson, Lisa K; Kedl, Ross M; Dragone, Leonard L

    2013-03-01

    How T cell receptor (TCR) avidity influences CD8(+) T cell development and repertoire selection is not yet fully understood. To fill this gap, we utilized Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP)-deficient mice as a tool to increase TCR avidity on double positive (DP) thymocytes. We generated SLAP(-/-) mice with the transgenic MHC class I-restricted TCR (OT-1) and SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice, expressing only the β-chain of the TCR OT-1 transgene, to examine the effects of increased TCR surface levels on CD8(+) T cell development and repertoire selection. In comparing SLAP(-/-) OT-1 and Vβ5 mice with wild-type controls, we performed compositional analysis and assessed thymocyte signaling by measuring CD5 levels. In addition, we performed tetramer and compositional staining to measure affinity for the cognate antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) peptide, presented by MHC. Furthermore, we quantified differences in α-chain repertoire in SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice. We have found that SLAP(-/-) OT-1 mice have fewer CD8(+) thymocytes but have increased CD5 expression. SLAP(-/-) OT-1 mice have fewer DP thymocytes expressing Vα2, signifying increased endogenous α-chain rearrangement, and more non-OVA-specific CD8(+) splenocytes upon tetramer staining. Our data demonstrate that SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice also have fewer OVA-specific cells and increased Vα2 usage in the peripheral Vβ5 CD8(+) T cells that were non-OVA-specific, demonstrating differences in α-chain repertoire. These studies provide direct evidence that increased TCR avidity in DP thymocytes enhances CD8(+) T cell negative selection deleting thymocytes with specificity for cognate antigen, an antigen the mature T cells may never encounter. Collectively, these studies provide new insights into how TCR avidity during CD8(+) T cell development influences repertoire selection.

  8. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  9. Virus-like particle production with yeast: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical insights into Pichia pastoris producing high levels of the Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protective immune response against Hepatitis B infection can be obtained through the administration of a single viral polypeptide, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Thus, the Hepatitis B vaccine is generated through the utilization of recombinant DNA technology, preferentially by using yeast-based expression systems. However, the polypeptide needs to assemble into spherical particles, so-called virus-like particles (VLPs, to elicit the required protective immune response. So far, no clear evidence has been presented showing whether HBsAg assembles in vivo inside the yeast cell into VLPs or later in vitro during down-stream processing and purification. Results High level production of HBsAg was carried out with recombinant Pichia pastoris using the methanol inducible AOX1 expression system. The recombinant vaccine was isolated in form of VLPs after several down-stream steps from detergent-treated cell lysates. Search for the intracellular localization of the antigen using electron microscopic studies in combination with immunogold labeling revealed the presence of HBsAg in an extended endoplasmic reticulum where it was found to assemble into defined multi-layered, lamellar structures. The distance between two layers was determined as ~6 nm indicating that these lamellas represent monolayers of well-ordered HBsAg subunits. We did not find any evidence for the presence of VLPs within the endoplasmic reticulum or other parts of the yeast cell. Conclusions It is concluded that high level production and intrinsic slow HBsAg VLP assembly kinetics are leading to retention and accumulation of the antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum where it assembles at least partly into defined lamellar structures. Further transport of HBsAg to the Golgi apparatus is impaired thus leading to secretory pathway disfunction and the formation of an extended endoplasmic reticulum which bulges into irregular cloud-shaped formations. As VLPs were

  10. Probing hybridization of a single energy level coupled to superconducting leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, D. M. T.; Balestro, F.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.

    2015-11-01

    Electron transport through a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads shows a sharp conductance onset when a quantum dot orbital level crosses the superconducting coherence peak of one lead. We study superconducting single electron transistors in the weak coupling limit by connecting individual gold nanoparticles with aluminum leads formed by electromigration. We show that the transport features close to the conductance onset threshold can be accurately described by the quantum dot levels' hybridization with the leads, which is strongly enhanced by the divergent density of states at the superconducting gap edge. This highlights the importance of electron cotunneling effects in spectroscopies with superconducting probes.

  11. Efficient targeting of protein antigen to the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 in the steady state leads to antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I products and peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Laura; Bonnyay, David; Mahnke, Karsten; Rivera, Miguel; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Steinman, Ralph M

    2002-12-16

    To identify endocytic receptors that allow dendritic cells (DCs) to capture and present antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I products in vivo, we evaluated DEC-205, which is abundant on DCs in lymphoid tissues. Ovalbumin (OVA) protein, when chemically coupled to monoclonal alphaDEC-205 antibody, was presented by CD11c+ lymph node DCs, but not by CD11c- cells, to OVA-specific, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Receptor-mediated presentation was at least 400 times more efficient than unconjugated OVA and, for MHC class I, the DCs had to express transporter of antigenic peptides (TAP) transporters. When alphaDEC-205:OVA was injected subcutaneously, OVA protein was identified over a 4-48 h period in DCs, primarily in the lymph nodes draining the injection site. In vivo, the OVA protein was selectively presented by DCs to TCR transgenic CD8+ cells, again at least 400 times more effectively than soluble OVA and in a TAP-dependent fashion. Targeting of alphaDEC-205:OVA to DCs in the steady state initially induced 4-7 cycles of T cell division, but the T cells were then deleted and the mice became specifically unresponsive to rechallenge with OVA in complete Freund's adjuvant. In contrast, simultaneous delivery of a DC maturation stimulus via CD40, together with alphaDEC-205:OVA, induced strong immunity. The CD8+ T cells responding in the presence of agonistic alphaCD40 antibody produced large amounts of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma, acquired cytolytic function in vivo, emigrated in large numbers to the lung, and responded vigorously to OVA rechallenge. Therefore, DEC-205 provides an efficient receptor-based mechanism for DCs to process proteins for MHC class I presentation in vivo, leading to tolerance in the steady state and immunity after DC maturation.

  12. Efficient Targeting of Protein Antigen to the Dendritic Cell Receptor DEC-205 in the Steady State Leads to Antigen Presentation on Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Products and Peripheral CD8+ T Cell Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Laura; Bonnyay, David; Mahnke, Karsten; Rivera, Miguel; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2002-01-01

    To identify endocytic receptors that allow dendritic cells (DCs) to capture and present antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I products in vivo, we evaluated DEC-205, which is abundant on DCs in lymphoid tissues. Ovalbumin (OVA) protein, when chemically coupled to monoclonal αDEC-205 antibody, was presented by CD11c+ lymph node DCs, but not by CD11c− cells, to OVA-specific, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Receptor-mediated presentation was at least 400 times more efficient than unconjugated OVA and, for MHC class I, the DCs had to express transporter of antigenic peptides (TAP) transporters. When αDEC-205:OVA was injected subcutaneously, OVA protein was identified over a 4–48 h period in DCs, primarily in the lymph nodes draining the injection site. In vivo, the OVA protein was selectively presented by DCs to TCR transgenic CD8+ cells, again at least 400 times more effectively than soluble OVA and in a TAP-dependent fashion. Targeting of αDEC-205:OVA to DCs in the steady state initially induced 4–7 cycles of T cell division, but the T cells were then deleted and the mice became specifically unresponsive to rechallenge with OVA in complete Freund's adjuvant. In contrast, simultaneous delivery of a DC maturation stimulus via CD40, together with αDEC-205:OVA, induced strong immunity. The CD8+ T cells responding in the presence of agonistic αCD40 antibody produced large amounts of interleukin 2 and interferon γ, acquired cytolytic function in vivo, emigrated in large numbers to the lung, and responded vigorously to OVA rechallenge. Therefore, DEC-205 provides an efficient receptor-based mechanism for DCs to process proteins for MHC class I presentation in vivo, leading to tolerance in the steady state and immunity after DC maturation. PMID:12486105

  13. Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre-eclampsia in Dakahlia, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    AM El-Mansoury; MA El-Harouny; HE Gouda; SM Attalla; SM Motawei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead toxicity is a prevalent health problem in both developed and developing countries. One of the proposed mechanisms for lead-induced organ damage is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is well-associated with the pregnancy disorder, pre-eclampsia. Exposure to lead may be one of the sources of the oxidative stress that leads to development of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.Objective: To test if blood lead level of pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia is higher than the no...

  14. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer. Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively. Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  15. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI; Jokha Sultan ALGHARIBI; Amna Salim ALSHUKAILI; Ahmed Khalifa ALSHUKAILI

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer.Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively.Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  16. Transmission Dynamics of a Driven Two-Level System Dissipated by Leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; FAN Wen-Bin; ZHAO Xian-Geng

    2001-01-01

    We study the transmission dynamics of a driven two-level system dissipated by the two leads. Using the nonequilibrium Green function, we derive an analytical transmission formula for an electron incident from the left lead,through the double quantum dots, to the right lead. The Landauer-type conductance and current are also given.A discussion of the internal tunnelling dynamics reveals crucial effects of the localization and delocalization on the transport of the system.

  17. D-Dimer and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels: Useful Indicators for Predicting the Tumor Stage and Postoperative Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeşin, Kemal; Bayrak, Savaş; Esatoğlu, Varol; Özdemir, Ebru; Özel, Leyla; Melih Kara, Veli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the preoperative plasma D-dimer and serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) levels of patients scheduled for curative surgical resection for colorectal cancer and to evaluate the significance of these levels on the prognosis and postoperative survival rate. One hundred sixty-five patients with colorectal cancer, who were scheduled to have elective resection between January 2008 and January 2011, were included in the study. A significant increase was observed in the D-dimer levels, particularly in poorly differentiated tumors. The distance covered by the tumor inside the walls of the colon and rectum (T-stage) was significant for both D-dimer and CEA levels. As the T-stage increased, there was also a significant increase in the D-dimer and CEA levels. A high significance and correlation level was detected between the TNM staging and both D-dimer and CEA. A significant relationship was found between the advanced tumor stage and short postoperative survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, the analysis of preoperative D-dimer and CEA levels can be useful in predicting the stage and differentiation of the tumor and the postoperative survival rate. PMID:27651789

  18. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouachi Kamal; Sajid Khan; Mahmood Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared b...

  19. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  20. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  1. High antigen levels induce an exhausted phenotype in a chronic infection without impairing T cell expansion and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Daniel T; Alfei, Francesca; Roelli, Patrick; Barras, David; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Darbre, Stephanie; Delorenzi, Mauro; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Zehn, Dietmar

    2016-08-22

    Chronic infections induce T cells showing impaired cytokine secretion and up-regulated expression of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1. What determines the acquisition of this chronic phenotype and how it impacts T cell function remain vaguely understood. Using newly generated recombinant antigen variant-expressing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) strains, we uncovered that T cell differentiation and acquisition of a chronic or exhausted phenotype depend critically on the frequency of T cell receptor (TCR) engagement and less significantly on the strength of TCR stimulation. In fact, we noted that low-level antigen exposure promotes the formation of T cells with an acute phenotype in chronic infections. Unexpectedly, we found that T cell populations with an acute or chronic phenotype are maintained equally well in chronic infections and undergo comparable primary and secondary expansion. Thus, our observations contrast with the view that T cells with a typical chronic infection phenotype are severely functionally impaired and rapidly transition into a terminal stage of differentiation. Instead, our data unravel that T cells primarily undergo a form of phenotypic and functional differentiation in the early phase of a chronic LCMV infection without inheriting a net survival or expansion deficit, and we demonstrate that the acquired chronic phenotype transitions into the memory T cell compartment.

  2. Interaction of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen With DNA at the Single Molecule Level

    KAUST Repository

    Raducanu, Vlad-Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key factor involved in Eukaryotic DNA replication and repair, as well as other cellular pathways. Its importance comes mainly from two aspects: the large numbers of interacting partners and the mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA. The large numbers of interacting partners makes PCNA a necessary factor to consider when studying DNA replication, either in vitro or in vivo. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA, i.e. sliding along the duplex, reduces the six degrees of freedom of the molecule, three degrees of freedom of translation and three degrees of freedom of rotation, to only two, translation along the duplex and rotational tracking of the helix. Through this mechanism PCNA can recruit its partner proteins and localize them to the right spot on the DNA, maybe in the right spatial orientation, more effectively and in coordination with other proteins. Passive loading of the closed PCNA ring on the DNA without free ends is a topologically forbidden process. Replication factor C (RFC) uses energy of ATP hydrolysis to mechanically open the PCNA ring and load it on the dsDNA. The first half of the introduction gives overview of PCNA and RFC and the loading mechanism of PCNA on dsDNA. The second half is dedicated to a diffusion model and to an algorithm for analyzing PCNA sliding. PCNA and RFC were successfully purified, simulations and a mean squared displacement analysis algorithm were run and showed good stability and experimental PCNA sliding data was analyzed and led to parameters similar to the ones in literature.

  3. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobinprotect the population in West Africa. PMID:26866471

  4. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gi Kim

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.79, digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33-7.86, and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07-7.81 were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10-20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06-13.06. The RRs of females with 10-20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16-3.20 and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21-149.4. The RRs of females with BLL 10-20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74-62.93 and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69-147.86 was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender.

  5. Fecal Calprotectin levels and Serological Responses to Microbial Antigens among Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashorn, Sara; Honkanen, Teemu; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Ashorn, Merja; Välineva, Tuuli; Wei, Bo; Braun, Jonathan; Rantala, Immo; Luukkaala, Tiina; Iltanen, Sari

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Non-invasive, sensitive and specific tools for early identification of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are needed for clinical practice. The aim was to identify new non-invasive test combinations for characterization of IBD in children and adolescents by comparing serological responses to microbial antigens and fecal calprotectin, a new promising marker for intestinal inflammation. Patients and methods Our study included 73 children who underwent endoscopies because of suspicion of IBD. Their sera were tested for antibodies to the Pseudomonas fluorescens-associated sequence I2, a Bacteroides caccae TonB-linked outer membrane protein, OmpW and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA). Simultaneously, samples for fecal calprotectin measurements were obtained from 55 subjects. Results IBD was diagnosed in 60 patients (CD in 18 patients, UC in 36 and IC in six). Thirteen children had a non-IBD disease. Fecal calprotectin levels were elevated (≥ 100ug/g) more frequently in IBD patients (89%, 39/44) compared to non-IBD cases (9%, 1/11, p<0.001). ASCA antibodies in sera were detected in 67% (12/18) of patients with CD, in 14% (5/36) of the children with UC and in 50% (3/6) of patients with IC. Seroreactivity for I2 was observed in 42% of the IBD patients, this frequency being higher than in non-IBD cases (7,7% seropositive; p=0.025). Serum anti-I2 IgA levels (median absorbances) were higher in those with IBD compared to those without gut inflammation (p=0.039). The combination of the measurements of fecal calprotectin and serological responses to microbial antigens (ASCA, I2 and OmpW) identified 100% of CD patients (sensitivity 100%, specificity 36%, PPV 66%, NPV 100%) and 89% of UC patients (sensitivity 89%, specificity 36%, PPV 77%, NPV 57%). Conclusions Increased levels of serological responses to microbial antigens (ASCA, I2 and OmpW) and fecal calprotectin are evident in both CD and UC patients. The combination of these markers provides valuable

  6. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  7. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  8. Our Prostate Biopsy Results in The Patients with Prostate Specific Antigen Levels Below 4 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydemir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the re¬sults of prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml. Material and Method: The medical records of 524 pa¬tients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy be¬tween January 2010 and February 2013 in our clinic, due to suspi¬cion of prostate cancer were evaluated and histopathologic results of 43 patients whose PSA levels under 4 ng/ml were retrospectively revieved. Results: The mean age of patients was 64.63 ±7:42 and the mean level of PSA was 2.89 ±0.88ng /ml. A digital rectal examination (DRE had suspicious findings in 41(95.34% patients. Prostate adenocarcinoma was determined in 13 of (30.23% patients according to the biopsy result. The mean PSA value of these patients was 2.89 ±0.88 ng/ml and the mean gleason score of these patients was 6.41 ±0.87. The mean prostate volume of these patients was 41.46 ±11.95 cm3. Discussion: In our study, prostate cancer was identified in 30.3% of patients whose PSA levels were below 4 ng/ml. DRE, is still important for the evaluation of the prostate. According to our results, significant number of cancers can be detected in PSA below 4 ng/ml levels.

  9. Cutaneous antigen priming via gene gun leads to skin-selective Th2 immune-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, David; Harder, Greg; Fattouh, Ramzi; Sun, Jiangfeng; Goncharova, Susanna; Stämpfli, Martin R; Coyle, Anthony J; Bramson, Jonathan L; Jordana, Manel

    2005-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the compartmentalization of immune responses is governed, in part, by tissue-selective homing instructions imprinted during T cell differentiation. In the context of allergic diseases, the fact that "disease" primarily manifests in particular tissue sites, despite pervasive allergen exposure, supports this notion. However, whether the original site of Ag exposure distinctly privileges memory Th2 immune-inflammatory responses to the same site, while sparing remote tissue compartments, remains to be fully investigated. We examined whether skin-targeted delivery of plasmid DNA encoding OVA via gene-gun technology in mice could generate allergic sensitization and give rise to Th2 effector responses in the skin as well as in the lung upon subsequent Ag encounter. Our data show that cutaneous Ag priming induced OVA-specific serum IgE and IgG1, robust Th2-cytokine production, and late-phase cutaneous responses and systemic anaphylactic shock upon skin and systemic Ag recall, respectively. However, repeated respiratory exposure to aerosolized OVA failed to instigate airway inflammatory responses in cutaneous Ag-primed mice, but not in mice initially sensitized to OVA via the respiratory mucosa. Importantly, these contrasting airway memory responses correlated with the occurrence of Th2 differentiation events at anatomically separate sites: indeed cutaneous Ag priming resulted in Ag-specific proliferative responses and Th2 differentiation in skin-, but not thoracic-, draining lymph nodes. These data indicate that Ag exposure to the skin leads to Th2 differentiation within skin-draining lymph nodes and subsequent Th2 immunity that is selectively manifested in the skin. PMID:15661930

  10. Surveillance of Childhood Blood Lead Levels in 14 Cities of China in 2004-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI-MING ZHANG; YAO-HUA DAI; XIAO-HUA XIE; ZHAO-YANG FAN; ZANG-WEN TAN; YAN-FENG ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the blood lead level in children aged 0-6 years in urban areas of China. Methods Fourteen cities were selected as sites under surveillance. A total of 44 045 peripheral blood specimens were collected from 2004 to 2006, during which 15 727, 14 737, and 13 584 specimens were tested in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. Tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead level. Results The geometric mean blood lead level in the tested children was 47.10μg/L with 10.10% ≥100μg/L, 46.17μg/L with 7.78%≥100μg/L, and 47.03μg/L with 7.30% ≥ 100μg/L in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. The blood lead levels seemed to tend to rise in parallel with the increase of age of the children and were higher in boys (48.84μg/L, 47.56μg/L, and 47.78μg/L in the 3 respective years) than in girls (45.00 μg/L 44.53μg/L, and 46.13μg/L). Conclusion The blood lead levels in children in cities of China are lower than those in previous national studies, but higher than those in developed countries. Childhood lead poisoning remains a public health problem in China.

  11. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  12. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO(3) (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products. PMID:19765804

  13. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure.

  14. Malaria vaccine candidate antigen targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum produced at high level in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voepel, Nadja; Boes, Alexander; Edgue, Güven; Beiss, Veronique; Kapelski, Stephanie; Reimann, Andreas; Schillberg, Stefan; Pradel, Gabriele; Fendel, Rolf; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Spiegel, Holger; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    Plants have emerged as low-cost production platforms suitable for vaccines targeting poverty-related diseases. Besides functional efficacy, the stability, yield, and purification process determine the production costs of a vaccine and thereby the feasibility of plant-based production. We describe high-level plant production and functional characterization of a malaria vaccine candidate targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. CCT, a fusion protein composed of three sporozoite antigens (P. falciparum cell traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites [PfCelTOS], P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein [PfCSP], and P. falciparum thrombospondin-related adhesive protein [PfTRAP]), was transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, accumulated to levels up to 2 mg/g fresh leaf weight (FLW), was thermostable up to 80°C and could be purified to >95% using a simple two-step procedure. Reactivity of sera from malaria semi-immune donors indicated the immunogenic conformation of the purified fusion protein consisting of PfCelTOS, PfCSP_TSR, PfTRAP_TSR domains (CCT) protein. Total IgG from the CCT-specific mouse immune sera specifically recognized P. falciparum sporozoites in immunofluorescence assays and induced up to 35% inhibition in hepatocyte invasion assays. Featuring domains from three promising sporozoite antigens with different roles (attachment and cell traversal) in the hepatocyte invasion process, CCT has the potential to elicit broader immune responses against the pre-erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum and represents an interesting new candidate, also as a component of multi-stage, multi-subunit malaria vaccine cocktails. PMID:25200253

  15. Gastric dilatation syndrome associated with chronic nephropathy, hypergastrinemia, and gastritis in mice exposed to high levels of environmental antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Erdman, S; Sheppard, B J; Murphy, J C; Fox, J G

    2001-06-01

    Gastric dilatation (GD) has been observed in Tac:(SW)fBR surveillance mice, with mean age of 10 months, that are exposed to high levels of environmental antigens during routine exposure to dirty bedding. The aim of the study reported here was to determine whether GD was associated with other systemic conditions affecting mice. Three groups of nine animals including-surveillance mice not exposed to dirty bedding (control), surveillance mice with out GD (NGD), and surveillance mice with GD (group GD)-had mean stomach weight with ingesta of 0.5 +/- 0.02 g, 1.09 +/- 0.07 g (P < 0.0001), and 2.54 +/- 0.4 g (P < 0.0001), respectively. Mean serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in GD (1.6 +/- 0.25 mg/dl), compared with NGD (0.17 +/- 0.22 mg/dl, P < 0.0001) and control (0.2 +/- 0.16 mg/ dl, P < 0.0001) mice. In addition, lesions consistent with severe chronic nephropathy and mild gastritis were common in GD, compared with NGD and control mice. Finally, serum amidated gastrin concentration was significantly high in GD (179.37 +/- 53.86 pM, P < 0.03) and NGD (264.89 +/- 115.89 pM, P < 0.009), compared with control (60.77 +/- 8.39 pM) mice. Gastric dilatation syndrome is associated with chronic nephropathy, hypergastrinemia, and gastritis in surveillance mice exposed to high levels of environmental antigens. PMID:11924783

  16. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  17. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Imer Haziri; Muhamed Zogaj; Fatgzim Latifi; Jetmira Abeshi; Dorjana Beqiraj; Luljeta Dhaskali; Enkelejda Ozuni

    2011-01-01

    A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg). Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21...

  18. Soil lead levels in parks and playgrounds: an environmental risk assessment in Newcastle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, P; Jingda, L

    1995-04-01

    In June 1993 the National Health and Medical Research Council set a national goal for blood lead of below 10 micrograms/dl. There is a need to know if the lead contamination of the urban environment is so high as to put community health at risk. Decisions, including whether soil should be removed and replaced, will have to be made. During the second half of 1993, an environmental assessment of lead contamination of soil within the City of Newcastle was conducted. Samples, 108 from surface soil and 10 from subsurface soil, were taken from public parks and playgrounds in the city area and analysed for lead content. The proportion within and the proportion above the guidelines for soil contamination were reported. Lead concentrations ranged from 25 to 2400 parts per million (ppm); 21 per cent of samples had concentrations higher than the 300 ppm action level, and the geometric mean was 134 ppm. Both the range and the average lead levels were typically no more than, or were even less than, soil lead levels documented for other cities in Australia, the United States and United Kingdom. Although each sampling site was noted, it was not our intention to focus in on individual sites. Indeed, to draw health-risk implications from any one result may be misleading and inaccurate. The results indicated moderate lead contamination of soil that could be controlled by regular top-dressing of soils, the use of bark chip on playground surfaces and by government initiatives aimed at lowering lead levels in petrol.

  19. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah

  20. Bone scans in conjunction with prostata-specific antigen levels in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of the determination of PSA for primary diagnosis, follow-up, and therapy-monitoring of prostatic cancer is undebatable. It has been shown that more than 50% of the patients with stage A and B and about 90% of the patients with stage D demonstrate PSA-levels above the cut-off-level (4.0 ng/ml). Detection of bone metastases by bonescans is regarded as a marker for an extensive disease. In this stage, numerous groups have reported on PSA-levels >20 ng/ml in more than 98% of the patients. For PSA-levels 10 ng/ml or in cases of locally advanced stages with highly undifferentiated tumors. For follow-up purposes, the use of bonescans should be restrictes to patients with PSA-levels >20 ng/ml. Nevertheless, a bone-scan is mandatory for the evaluation of bone-pain, before surgery for local recurrence and before local radiation therapy. (orig.)

  1. Correlation between Blood Lead Levels and Anaemia in Commercial Enamel Paint Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazumdar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead causes acute, sub-acute or chronic poisoning through occupational exposure along with decrease in some trace elements like iron, whose absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination being affected. Iron deficiency is a serious problem especially in developing countries and lead toxicity can augment anaemia directly by decreasing absorption of Iron and also by inhibiting enzymes of heme synthesis. Aim and Objectives: To assess haematological indices and serum iron and ferritin levels in Enamel paint industry workers who are exposed to very high Lead levels due to their occupation, and determine iron deficiency anaemia. Materials and Methods: Blood lead concentration was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS method. Haematological tests were performed using cell counter to measure haemoglobin, red blood cell and white blood cell count, etc. Mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were calculated. Serum ferritin and iron levels were assayed by chemilumenescence and spectrophotometric methods respectively. Results: All the parameters measured and calculated were found to be altered in paint workers as compared to healthy controls, with significant increase in blood lead level and decrease in the haematological as well as other analyte values. Conclusion: There seems to be a direct relationship between chronic lead exposure and the haematological disturbances, resulting in iron deficiency anaemia. Hence awareness about this association should be increased and protective measures should be implied accordingly.

  2. The results of transrectal prostate biopsy in patients with low levels of prostate specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the resultsof prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostatespecificantigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml.Material and methods: The medical records of 63 patientswho underwent transrectal prostate biopsy, betweenJanuary 2005 and December 2011, due to suspicionof prostate cancer with the PSA levels under 4 ng/mlwere retrospectively reviewed.Results: Transrectal Prostate biopsy was performed to63 patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 12 (19%patients. The mean value of PSA was 2.5 ng/ml. TheGleason score of Prostate cancer patients was 6,8 (5-7and the number of positive cores were 3.Conclusions: The rate of prostate cancer was found as19% in patients with levels of PSA under 4 ng/ml and thisratio is compatible with the results of previous reports.

  3. The effect of genetic variants in the thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) gene on TAFI-antigen levels, clot lysis time and the risk of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Martini (C.); A. Brandts (A.); E.L.E. de Bruijne; A. van Hylckama Vlieg (Astrid); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); T. Lisman (Ton); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is an important inhibitor of fibrinolysis. High TAFI antigen levels are associated with an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Because TAFI levels are partly determined genetically, we assessed the association between three T

  4. Serum levels of ficolin-3 (Hakata antigen) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Munthe-Fog, L.; Garred, P.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ficolin-3 is a serum protein of putative importance in autoimmunity. Our objective was to investigate any differential expression of ficolin-3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or its clinical subsets. METHODS: Serum levels of ficolin-3 (S-ficolin-3) were determined...

  5. Study on the neurotoxic effects of low-level lead exposure in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-wei; YANG Ru-Lai; DONG Gui-juan; ZHAO Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of developmental lead exposure on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in different brain regions and on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNA expression in the hippocampus of rats. On the basis of these observations, we explored possible mechanisms by which lead exposure leads to impaired learning and memorizing abilities in children. Methods: A series of rat animal models exposed to low levels of lead during the developing period was established (drinking water containing 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075% lead acetate). NOS activities in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the brain stem were determined with fluorescence measurement and levels of mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor 2A (NR2A) subunit and NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in the rat hippocampus were measured with Retro-translation (RT-PCR). Results: There were no differences in the body weight of rat pups between any of the groups at any given time (P>0.05). The blood lead level of Pb-exposed rat pups showed a systematic pattern of change: at 14 d of age, it was lower than that at 7 d of age, then rising to the peak level at 21 d and finally falling to lower levels at 28 d. The hippocampal NOS activities of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.01). NOS activities in the cerebellum of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.001) and the NOS activity of the 0.025% group was significantly lower than that of the 0.05% and 0.075% groups on the 28th day (P<0.05).NOS activity in the cerebral cortex of the 0.075% group was significantly lower than that of the control, 0.025% and 0.05% groups on the four day spans (P<0.001). There was no significant difference of NOS activity in the brain stem between any lead-exposed group and the control group on the four day spans. In the 0.05% and the 0.075% groups, the level of NR2A mRNA expression was

  6. Probing Hybridization of a Single Energy Level Coupled to Superconducting Leads

    OpenAIRE

    van Zanten, D. M. T.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Electron transport through a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads shows a sharp conductance onset when a quantum dot orbital level crosses the superconducting coherence peak of one lead. We study superconducting single electron transistors in the weak coupling limit by connecting individual gold nanoparticles with aluminum junctions formed by electromigration. We show that the transport features close to the conductance onset threshold can be accurately described by the quantum dot le...

  7. Environmental determinants of different Blood Lead Levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in childre...

  8. Optimal Decision for Fashion Supply Chains with Service Level Constraint and Controllable Lead Time

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Li; Yu-chen Kang; Guan Xu

    2015-01-01

    We study a two-echelon supply chain inventory model with controllable lead time and service level constraint in fashion supply chains, in which we assume that the unit cost of compressing lead time follows exponential distribution. Under these conditions we investigate the optimal ordering quantity and production quantity in the fashion supply chain by minimizing the joint total cost. Simultaneously, we work out the boundaries of ordering quantity and production quantity, which simplify the ...

  9. Utility of endoscopic ultrasound, cytology and fluid carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 levels in pancreatic cystic lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), fluid tumor markers and cytology in distinguishing benign from (pre)malignant pancreatic cystic lesions.METHODS: 46 consecutive patients, referred to a gastroenterologist and surgeon for a symptomatic or incidental pancreatic cyst, were reviewed. EUS, cytology,and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) levels were compared with the final diagnosis, based on surgical pathology and/or imaging follow-up of at least 12 mo. Cysts were classified as benign (pseudocyst, serous cystadenoma) or malignant/pre-malignant (mucinous cystic neoplasm). Receiveroperator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed.RESULTS: The mean age was 56 years; 29% were male and median cyst diameter was 3 cm. Final outcome was obtained in 41 (89%) patients. Twenty-three (56%) of these 41 had surgical pathology. Twenty-three (56%)had benign lesions and 18 (44%) had malignant/premalignant lesions. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value of EUS alone to distinguish benign from malignant/premalignant pancreatic cystic lesions were 50%, 56%, 36% and 54% and for cytology were 71%, 96%, 92% and 85%, respectively. The corresponding values for the ROC-derived ideal cutoffs were 75%, 90%, 75%, 90% for CA 19-9 (> 37 U/mL)and 70%, 85%, 79% and 78% for CEA (> 3.1 ng/mL).Subgroup analysis of those with surgical pathology yielded almost identical performance and cutoffs.CONCLUSION: Cytology and cyst fluid tumor marker analysis is a very useful tool in distinguishing benign from (pre)malignant pancreatic cystic lesions.

  10. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged water advisory) than during the period before the water switch to FWS. Although unrelated to lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions. PMID:27359350

  11. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  12. Negative Relationship between Erythropoietin Dose and Blood Lead Level in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effects of increased blood lead levels have been well discussed. Several antioxidant agents have been reported to offer protection from lead toxicity and to reduce blood lead levels (BLL). Given that erythropoietin (EPO) also has antioxidant properties, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the role of EPO and other clinical variables on BLL in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We recruited 931 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients who had undergone HD for at least 6 months and who had ever received blood lead level (BLL) study. Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents followed the The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI) Clinical Practice Guideline. We estimated demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data based on this study. In the group with EPO, 7% had high BLL. In the group without EPO, 22% had high BLL. From the stepwise liner regression, urban areas, hemodialysis duration, and clearance of urea (KT/Vurea) were positively associated with log BLL. In contrast, diabetes (DM), and monthly EPO dose were negatively associated with log BLL. This study showed that EPO dose might be negatively associated with blood lead levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:27680289

  13. A Feasibility Study of Lead Free Solders for Level 1 Packaging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the lead free ternary combinations that satisfied the solidification requirement for a solder used in level 1 packaging applications, using the CALPHAD approach. The segregation profiles of the promising candidates were analyzed after scrutinizing the equilib......An attempt has been made to determine the lead free ternary combinations that satisfied the solidification requirement for a solder used in level 1 packaging applications, using the CALPHAD approach. The segregation profiles of the promising candidates were analyzed after scrutinizing...

  14. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  15. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  16. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  17. Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Malkin, J.; Weber, J.P.

    An analysis of reported symptoms and their relationship with indicators of lead absorption - blood lead (Pb-B) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) - and of arsenic absorption - urinary arsenic (As-U) - was undertaken among 680 active copper smelter workers. Lead and arsenic absorption in the copper smelter employees were characterized by the median values of 30.4 ..mu..g/dl for Pb-B, 41.5 ..mu..g/dl for ZPP, and 26 ..mu..g/L for As-U. Blood lead was 40 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 16.7% or cases, ZPP was 50 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 31.2%, and urinary arsenic was 50 ..mu..g/L or higher in 16.4% of currently active copper smelter workers. The number of reported symptoms (from a total of 14 symptoms) increased with ZPP levels; the relationship with Pb-B was less marked. Arsenic contributed relatively little. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, and As-U levels for subjects reporting each of the 14 symptoms were compared with those of subjects who did not report the symptoms. Mean Pb-B was found to differ significantly for one symptom, fatigue. Significant differences in mean ZPP levels were found for fatigue, sleep disturbances, weakness, paresthesia, and joint pain. Prevalence rates for these symptoms rose more markedly with increasing ZPP than with Pb-B levels. The results indicate a relationship between certain CNS and musculo-skeletal symptoms and increased lead absorption in this population. Adherence to exposure standards that preclude undue lead absorption and appropriate biological monitoring including ZPP levels, are necessary to prevent adverse, especially long-term, health effects.

  18. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  19. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  20. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nourmoradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  1. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación

    2003-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  2. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E and vitamin C (Vit. C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal growth at the lower community exposure levels. The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH with or without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR and 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl as compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl at P0.00l Vit.E concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ± 0.055 mg/dl respectively when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl. Regarding Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030 mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl. We observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead levels and Vit.C in both studied groups. We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated

  3. Effect of dose level and pregnancy on the distribution and toxicity of intravenous lead in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female Wistar rats were injected intravenously with tracer levels of 210Pb, alone or combined with carrier Pb(NO3)2 at 5 or 25 mg/kg body weight at 9 or 15 days of gestation (dg). Tissue 210Pb distribution and retention, and lead excretion, were measured several times during the first 30 h and at 20 dg. Toxic effects following the administration of 25 mg/kg (a teratogenic dose) included an early decrease in hematocrit, hematuria, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and diarrhea, as well as an eventual loss of body weight and an increase in spleen and kidney weights. The stage of pregnancy at injection did not affect the retention and distribution of lead in major organs other than the reproductive system. Following injection of the 25-mg/kg dose, deposition of lead in the liver, kidney, spleen, and lung was elevated. Disproportionately high plasma lead levels were also observed at early times after the injection of the 25-mg/kg dose, and may act as a significant factor in placental lead transfer and subsequent malformations or fetal mortality

  4. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  5. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  6. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.

  7. First evaluation of the serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen after vaccination in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madour, A; Alkout, A; Vanin, S

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination schedule in Libya follows international recommendations (1st dose at birth, 2nd after 1 month and 3rd after 6 months). This research aimed to evaluate the long-term protection of the HBV immunization programme in Tripoli and to determine the best age to administer booster doses. Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen were determined in 277 randomly selected children aged 1-12 years. The response to HBV vaccine in 1-3-year-olds was 93.2%, but this declined with age and at 7-9 years after initial vaccination only 53.1% of children had protective titres (> or = 10 mIU/mL). No significant differences between males and females in antibody persistence or response to vaccine were observed. We recommend continuing the HBV vaccination programme and that a booster dose be given to 6-year-old children to ensure maximum protection during the period of school entry and beyond.

  8. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  9. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures. PMID:23528234

  10. Low-level lead exposure effects on spatial reference memory and working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Yang; Ping Zhou; Yonghui Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that lead exposure can result in cognitive dysfunction and behavior disorders. However, lead exposure impairments vary under different experimental conditions.OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in spatial learning and memory following low-level lead exposure in rats, in Morris water maze test under the same experimental condition used to analyze lead exposure effects on various memory types and learning processes.DESIGN AND SETTING: The experiment was conducted at the Animal Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science between February 2005 and March 2006. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and behavioral observations were performed.MATERIALS: Sixteen male, healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into normal control and lead exposure groups (n = 8).METHODS: Rats in the normal control group were fed distilled water, and those in the lead exposure group were fed 250 mL of 0.05% lead acetate once per day. At day 28, all rats performed the Morris water maze test, consisting of four phases: space navigation, probe test, working memory test, and visual cue test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Place navigation in the Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, probe trials for spatial reference memory, working memory test for spatial working memory, and visual cue test for non-spatial cognitive function. Perkin-Elmer Model 300 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was utilized to determine blood lead levels in rats.RESULTS: (1) In the working memory test, the time to reach the platform remained unchanged between the control and lead exposure groups (F(1,1) = 0.007, P = 0.935). A visible decrease in escape latencies was observed in each group (P = 0.028). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (F(1,1) = 1.869, P = 0.193). The working memory probe test demonstrated no change between the two groups in the time spent in the target quadrant during the working memory probe test

  11. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imer Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg. Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21 mg/kg (Hg; 0.01-0.16 mg/kg (Pb; nd - 0.002 (Cd, and 0.01-0.03 (Cr mg/kg wet weight. The results collected from this monitoring process revealed that these groups of cultivated fish species show low levels of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and chrome (Cr. This monitoring process is very important to safeguard the health of Tirana consumers.

  12. Using the current Brazilian value for the biological exposure limit applied to blood lead level as a lead poisoning diagnostic criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, biological exposure limits are only used for the promotion and preservation of workers' health and are not applied for diagnostic purposes. However, the issue is controversial for certain types of occupational poisoning. This paper proposes the utilization of biological exposure limits currently applied to blood lead levels in Brazil as an important criterion for diagnosing occupational lead poisoning. The author argues that contrary to the traditional clinical criterion, one should deal with the diagnostic problem of lead poisoning from an epidemiological perspective, using the current Brazilian value for the biological exposure limit applied to blood lead level as an indicator of high relative risk.

  13. Ubiquitin Conjugation of Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen DNA Vaccine Leads to Enhanced Cell-Mediated Immune Response in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Yu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Hong-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Xi, Min; ZANG, GUO-QING; Tang, Zheng-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Background Nearly 350 million persons worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Ubiquitin (Ub) is a highly conserved small regulatory protein, ubiquitous in eukaryotes, that usually serves as a signal for the target protein that is recognised and degraded in proteasomes . The Ub-mediated processing of antigens is rapid and efficient and stimulates cell-mediated immune responses. Accordingly, Ub-mediated processing of antigens has been widely used in chronic-infection an...

  14. Correlation of the Serum Level of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Prolactin with Different Stages of Colorectal Carcinoma According to Dukes' Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M R; Sheikh, S H; Lima, I J; Islam, M R; Faisal, M; Islam, M S; Faruk, M O; Jalal, M T

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is well established tumor marker for colorectal cancers worldwide. Recent studies show that serum prolactin level is also raised in colorectal cancers. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the correlation of serum CEA and Prolactin with Dukes' staging of colorectal carcinomas. Between January 2013 and June 2013, Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay from 103 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as colorectal carcinomas. Evaluation of the stages of the colorectal cancers was done on the basis of preoperative investigations and postoperative histopathology and correlated with Preoperative Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin. Results were presented as median value, range and percentage. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with median age of 42.26 years (range 17-78 years). Most of the patients in this series presented with carcinoma rectum (42%). Most of the patients (52%) were found in Dukes' stage C and 27% and 15% cases were found as Dukes' stage B and Dukes' stage D respectively. Stage of the disease is directly proportionate to percentage of the patient with high serum prolactin except early stage (Dukes' A-50%, Dukes' B-28.6%, Dukes' C-33.3% & Dukes' D-46.7%). Similarly serum CEA level is directly proportionate to tumor stage (Dukes' A-0%, Dukes' B-32%, Dukes' C-40.7% & Dukes' D-74.7%). A preoperative high serum CEA value suggests advanced disease either locally or with distant metastasis. In contrast preoperative high serum prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia) did not suggest advanced disease as it can be elevated even in early stage of disease. Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin both are valuable tumor markers but serum CEA could not be replaced by serum Prolactin. Serum Prolactin may be a helpful marker in earlier stages of the colorectal cancer.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes autophagy and apoptosis leading to cellular redistribution of the autoantigens Ro/Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) and La/SSB in salivary gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiougiannis, S; Tenta, R; Skopouli, F N

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in minor salivary glands, to investigate the interplay between ER stress-induced autophagy and apoptosis in human salivary gland (HSG) cells and to test the effect of ER stress-induced apoptosis on the cellular redistribution of the two major Sjögren's syndrome (SS) autoantigens Ro/Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) and La/Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen B (SSB). Minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients and sicca controls were examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BiP) as an indicator of unfolded protein response (UPR). HSG cells were treated with thapsigargin (TG) and cell viability, autophagy and apoptosis were assessed. Immunoblot was applied to detect the conversion of LC3I to LC3II and the protein levels of GRP78/BiP and X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1). Apoptosis was evaluated by a single-stranded DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ro/SSA and La/SSB localization was visualized using immunofluorescence. GRP78/BiP was expressed by acinar and ductal epithelial cells in salivary glands of patients and sicca controls. TG treatment induced autophagy, as indicated by enhanced protein expression of LC3II. The protein levels of UPR marker XBP-1 were increased after TG treatment, while GRP78/BiP levels were decreased. TG treatment resulted in induction of HSG apoptosis. Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantigens were localized predominantly to the cytoplasm in resting cells, while they were redistributed to cell membrane and blebs in the apoptotic cells. In conclusion, ER stress is activated in minor salivary gland epithelial cells from SS patients and controls. ER stress-induced apoptosis in HSG cells leads to cell surface and apoptotic blebs relocalization of Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantigens.

  16. Telomere length in children environmentally exposed to low-to-moderate levels of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlas, Natalia, E-mail: n-pawlas@wp.pl [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Płachetka, Anna [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa str. 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kozłowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Broberg, Karin [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kasperczyk, Sławomir [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, SMDZ in Zabrze, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-09-01

    Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007–2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and blood rTL was measured by quantitative PCR. The geometric mean of B-Pb was 3.28 μg/dl (range: 0.90–14.2), and the geometric mean of rTL was 1.08 (range: 0.49–2.09). B-Pb was significantly inversely associated with rTL in the children (r{sub S} = − 0.25, p = 0.013; in further analyses both log-transformed-univariate regression analysis β = − 0.13, p = 0.026, and R{sup 2}adj 4%; and β = − 0.12, p = 0.056 when adjusting for mothers' smoking during pregnancy, Apgar score, mother's and father's ages at delivery, sex and mother's education, R{sup 2}adj 12%, p = 0.011). The effect of lead remained significant in children without prenatal tobacco exposure (N = 87, r{sub S} = − 0.24, p = 0.024; in further analyses, β = − 0.13, p = 0.029, and R{sup 2}adj 4%). rTL was not affected by sex, the concentrations of other elements in the blood (i.e., cadmium and selenium concentrations), or oxidative injury parameters (total antioxidant status, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Lead exposure in childhood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres, which might contribute to diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The inverse association between blood lead level and the telomeres in children emphasizes the importance of further reducing lead levels in the environment. - Highlights: • This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between

  17. Telomere length in children environmentally exposed to low-to-moderate levels of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007–2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and blood rTL was measured by quantitative PCR. The geometric mean of B-Pb was 3.28 μg/dl (range: 0.90–14.2), and the geometric mean of rTL was 1.08 (range: 0.49–2.09). B-Pb was significantly inversely associated with rTL in the children (rS = − 0.25, p = 0.013; in further analyses both log-transformed-univariate regression analysis β = − 0.13, p = 0.026, and R2adj 4%; and β = − 0.12, p = 0.056 when adjusting for mothers' smoking during pregnancy, Apgar score, mother's and father's ages at delivery, sex and mother's education, R2adj 12%, p = 0.011). The effect of lead remained significant in children without prenatal tobacco exposure (N = 87, rS = − 0.24, p = 0.024; in further analyses, β = − 0.13, p = 0.029, and R2adj 4%). rTL was not affected by sex, the concentrations of other elements in the blood (i.e., cadmium and selenium concentrations), or oxidative injury parameters (total antioxidant status, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Lead exposure in childhood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres, which might contribute to diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The inverse association between blood lead level and the telomeres in children emphasizes the importance of further reducing lead levels in the environment. - Highlights: • This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between environmental lead exposure and

  18. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  19. Bucky-gel coated glassy carbon electrodes, for voltammetric detection of femtomolar leveled lead ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qijin; Yu, Fen; Zhu, Lina; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Nianjun

    2010-10-15

    Femtomolar (fM) leveled lead ions were electrochemically detected using a bucky-gel coated glassy carbon electrode and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The bucky-gel was composed of dithizone, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The fabrication of the bucky-gel coated electrode was optimized. The modified electrode was characterized with voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and chronoamperometry. After the accumulation of lead ions into the bucky-gel modified electrode at -1.2V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) for 5 min in a pH 4.4 sodium acetate-acetate acid buffer solution, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammograms of the accumulated lead show an anodic wave at -0.58 V. The anodic peak current is detectable for lead ions in the concentration range from 1.0 μM down to 500 fM. The detection limit is calculated to be 100 fM. The proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of lead ions in lake water. PMID:20875583

  20. 铅作业工人293名血铅水平的调查%Investigation on The Blood Lead Levels of 293 Workers with Lead Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆丰; 顾庆华; 沈美枫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the in vivo lead levels of workers with lead exposure.[Methods]Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer and blood analyzer XS - 1000i were used for determination of blood lead level and hemoglobin level respectively.[Results]Of 293 workers, the blood lead level of 192 workers ( 65.5% ) was over 1.9 μmol/L.The results showed negative correlations between blood lead level and hemoglobin level on male and female workers.[Conclusion]The blood lead level is relatively high in 293 lead-exposed workers.The enterprises should improve manufacturing technique, enhance protective measures,eliminate lead in workers with high lead level and perform health examination on workers regularly.%目的:了解铅作业工人体内铅含量水平.方法:采用石墨原子吸收法测定血铅含量,采用希斯美康1000 i血球仪测定血红蛋白含量.结果:293名铅作业工人中血铅超过1.9 μmol/L有192人;超标率为65.53%;男工和女工的血铅水平和血红蛋白水平都存在负相关.结论:293铅作业工人血铅水平较高,企业应改进生产工艺,增强防护措施,对血铅超标者进行驱铅治疗,定期对工人进行体检.

  1. Optimal Decision for Fashion Supply Chains with Service Level Constraint and Controllable Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a two-echelon supply chain inventory model with controllable lead time and service level constraint in fashion supply chains, in which we assume that the unit cost of compressing lead time follows exponential distribution. Under these conditions we investigate the optimal ordering quantity and production quantity in the fashion supply chain by minimizing the joint total cost. Simultaneously, we work out the boundaries of ordering quantity and production quantity, which simplify the computation. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented to test the feasibility of the model. The results show that assuming the unit cost of compressing lead time in accordance with exponential distribution is realistic. It also notices that the optimal order and production decision for fashion supply chains are constrained obviously by the service level and safety factors. What is more, the holding cost rate of both the service level and safety factors has a certain influence on it. And by further analyzing on some references in the last part, we have done some extensions and found some interesting results.

  2. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, CEA ratio, and treatment outcome of rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiation and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Between 2000 and 2009, 138 patients with advanced rectal cancer receiving CRT before surgery at our hospital were retrospectively classified into 3 groups: pre-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group L; n = 87); pre-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml and post-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group H-L; n = 32); and both pre- and post-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml (group H-H; n = 19). CEA ratio (defined as post-CRT CEA divided by pre-CRT CEA), post-CRT CEA level and other factors were reviewed for prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was better in groups L (69.0%) and H-L (74.5%) than in group H-H (44.9%) (p = 0.024). Pathologic complete response was observed in 19.5%, 21.9% and 5.3% of groups L, H-L and H-H respectively (p = 0.281). Multivariate analysis showed that ypN stage and pCR were independent prognostic factors for DFS and that post-CRT CEA level was independently predictive of pCR. As a whole, post-CRT CEA <2.61 ng/ml predicted pCR (sensitivity 76.0%; specificity 58.4%). For those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml, post-CRT CEA and CEA ratio both predicted pCR (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 76.7%). In patients with pre-CRT serum CEA ≥6 ng/ml, those with “normalized” CEA levels after CRT may have similar DFS to those with “normal” (<6 ng/ml) pre-CRT values. Post-CRT CEA level is a predictor for pCR, especially in those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml

  3. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  4. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  5. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  6. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  7. Lymphatic endothelial cells induce tolerance via PD-L1 and lack of costimulation leading to high-level PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Eric F.; Cohen, Jarish N.; Rouhani, Sherin J.; Guidi, Cynthia J.; Qiao, Hui; Fahl, Shawn P.; Conaway, Mark R.; Bender, Timothy P.; Tung, Kenneth S.; Vella, Anthony T.; Adler, Adam J.; Chen, Lieping

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) induce peripheral tolerance by direct presentation to CD8 T cells (TCD8). We demonstrate that LECs mediate deletion only via programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) ligand 1, despite expressing ligands for the CD160, B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator, and lymphocyte activation gene-3 inhibitory pathways. LECs induce activation and proliferation of TCD8, but lack of costimulation through 4-1BB leads to rapid high-level expression of PD-1, which in turn inhibits up-regulation of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor that is necessary for TCD8 survival. Rescue of tyrosinase-specific TCD8 by interference with PD-1 or provision of costimulation results in autoimmune vitiligo, demonstrating that LECs are significant, albeit suboptimal, antigen-presenting cells. Because LECs express numerous peripheral tissue antigens, lack of costimulation coupled to rapid high-level up-regulation of inhibitory receptors may be generally important in systemic peripheral tolerance. PMID:22993390

  8. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in Nanjing, China: lead and cadmium levels in the duration of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kang-sheng; MAO Xiao-dong; HAO Jia-hu; SHI Juan; DAI Chun-fang; CHEN Wen-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal lead and cadmium exposure will not only influence the mother's organ systems,but also will provide an environment that may influence the fetus and neonate in a harmful way.In the present study,we detected the blood lead levels (BLLS) and cadmium levels for the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery and to analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.Methods A cohort study survey was carried out.We recruited 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group,and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group.Results The lead concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and in the postpartum period were:(5.98±2.43),(5.54±2.01),(5.59±1.97),and (6.76±1.74) μg/dl; and (6.75±2.13) μg/dl in the control group.The cadmium concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum period were 1.61±0.45,1.63±0.46,1.64±0.49,and 1.67±0.57.We found that the BLLs in the gravida group were lower than in the control group during all three trimesters.Occupations,supplement nutritional elements (dietary supplements and nutritional (food) elements),and the time of house painting could affect BLLs in pregnant women.Lead-related occupations,using cosmetics,and living in a house painted more recently than one year previously are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women,while calcium,iron,zinc,and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusions These findings may help people,especially pregnant women,to reduce lead exposure via supplements of calcium,iron,zinc,and milk or avoiding contacting risk factors.

  9. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  10. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults

  11. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  12. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  13. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  14. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves (Columba livia) treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.C.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-06-01

    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. Studies of lead accumulation in U.K. rock doves imply that use of this species as a pollution indicator would facilitate periodic monitoring of chronic lead exposure conditions in the urban environment. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove (Columbia livia) populations: two groups (males and females) were dosed with lead acetate in the laboratory and two groups of males were housed in different parts of the city of Alcala de Henares. Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: the first was in a laboratory with controlled amounts of lead, while in the second situation the amounts reflected the actual environmental levels in Alcala de Henares. Lead levels were determined in two tissues: blood, which is the target of first impact in possible acute situations; and bone, which is the main tissue where lead accumulates and, therefore, very important during chronic exposure. The study focused on the following three items: (1) lead tissue distribution; (2) variation with habitat; and (3) an evaluation of the levels of lead contamination in the city of Alcala de Henares. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  16. Using a genomic assay for the detection of SNPs of Knops blood group antigens leads to the identification of two caucasians homozygous for the SNP associated with the knops SL3 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. A.; Sprogoe, U.

    2015-01-01

    designed a genomic assay based on sequencing targeting the SNPs underlying the antigens of the Knops system. Study Design/Methods: Samples from a total of 105 blood donors and 2 patients were examined for polymorphisms in CR1 exon 29 by using PCR and subsequent Sanger sequencing. Results....../Findings: With regard to Kn a and b antigens, we found SNP frequencies to be 90.5% for G/G (4681)* associated with Kn(a+b-) and 9.5% for G/A associated with Kn(a+b+). None of the 107 patients/donors were found to be homozygous for A/A associated with Kn(ab+). The frequencies of SNPs associated with the KCAM antigen...... were 57.1% for KCAM homozygotes (A/A (4843), p.1615Iso. Heterozygosity for KCAM (A/G) were found in 36.2% and 6.7% were KCAM- (G/G). One donor was homozygous for 4768 G (p.1590Glu) associated with McC(a-b+). The rest were all homozygous for 4768 A (p.1590Lys) associated with McC(a+b- ). One donor...

  17. High levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA antigen precede the development of type 2 diabetes in a longitudinal population study. The Northern Sweden MONICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jan-Håkan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired fibrinolysis is found in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, associated with components of the metabolic syndrome. There are no data concerning fibrinolysis in subjects with normal glucose tolerance that convert to diabetes. Methods We studied the activities of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and the levels of tPA antigen (a marker of endothelial dysfunction in 551 subjects with normal glucose tolerance in 1990 in relation to incident diabetes during nine years of follow-up. Results Subjects with diabetes at follow-up (n = 15 had significantly lower baseline tPA activity and higher PAI-1 activity and tPA antigen than non-converters. The risk of diabetes increased linearly across quartiles of PAI-activity (p = 0.007 and tPA antigen (p p = 0.026. The risk of diabetes with low tPA activity or high PAI-1 activity persisted after adjustment for age and sex but diminished to a non-significant level after further adjustments. The odds ratio of diabetes for high tPA antigen was 10.4 (95% confidence interval 2.7–40 adjusted for age and sex. After further adjustment for diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, insulin, triglycerides, fasting and post load glucose the odds ratio was 6.5 (1.3–33, p = 0.024. Conclusions Impaired fibrinolysis and endothelial dysfunction are evident in subjects with normal glucose tolerance who later develop diabetes. High tPA antigen is predictive of future diabetes independent from the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  19. Targeting human dendritic cells via DEC-205 using PLGA nanoparticles leads to enhanced cross-presentation of a melanoma-associated antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandeep S Saluja,1 Douglas J Hanlon,1 Fiona A Sharp,2 Enping Hong,2 David Khalil,1 Eve Robinson,1 Robert Tigelaar,1 Tarek M Fahmy,2,3 Richard L Edelson1 1Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 3Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs is a powerful and novel strategy for vaccination. Priming or loading DCs with antigen controls whether subsequent immunity will develop and hence whether effective vaccination can be achieved. The goal of our present work was to increase the potency of DC-based antitumor vaccines by overcoming inherent limitations associated with antigen stability and cross-presentation. Nanoparticles prepared from the biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid have been extensively used in clinical settings for drug delivery and are currently the subject of intensive investigation as antigen delivery vehicles for vaccine applications. Here we describe a nanoparticulate delivery system with the ability to simultaneously carry a high density of protein-based antigen while displaying a DC targeting ligand on its surface. Utilizing a targeting motif specific for the DC-associated surface ligand DEC-205, we show that targeted nanoparticles encapsulating a MART-127–35 peptide are both internalized and cross-presented with significantly higher efficiency than isotype control-coated nanoparticles in human cells. In addition, the DEC-205-labeled nanoparticles rapidly escape from the DC endosomal compartment and do not colocalize with markers of early (EEA-1 or late endosome/lysosome (LAMP-1. This indicates that encapsulated antigens delivered by nanoparticles may have direct access to the class I cytoplasmic major histocompatibility complex loading machinery, overcoming the need for “classical” cross-presentation and facilitating heightened DC

  20. Environmental determinants of different blood lead levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in children in France. We enrolled 484 children aged from 6months to 6years, in a nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2008-2009. We measured lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, household settled dusts, paints, cosmetics and traditional cookware). We performed two models: a multivariate generalized additive model on the geometric mean (GM), and a quantile regression model on the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantile of BLLs. The GM of BLLs was 13.8μg/L (=1.38μg/dL) (95% confidence intervals (CI): 12.7-14.9) and the 90th quantile was 25.7μg/L (CI: 24.2-29.5). Household and common area dust, tap water, interior paint, ceramic cookware, traditional cosmetics, playground soil and dust, and environmental tobacco smoke were associated with the GM of BLLs. Household dust and tap water made the largest contributions to both the GM and the 90th quantile of BLLs. The concentration of lead in dust was positively correlated with all quantiles of BLLs even at low concentrations. Lead concentrations in tap water above 5μg/L were also positively correlated with the GM, 75th and 90th quantiles of BLLs in children drinking tap water. Preventative actions must target household settled dust and tap water to reduce the BLLs of children in France. The use of traditional cosmetics should be avoided whereas ceramic cookware should be limited to decorative purposes.

  1. Environmental factors predicting blood lead levels in pregnant women in the UK: the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Taylor

    Full Text Available Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL of 5-10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy.Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women.Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC in 1991-1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285. Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19.The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41-19.14 µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.42; p<0.001. Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects.The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

  2. Teratoma during Pregnancy with Positive Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors and Elevated Ca19-9 Antigen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Kanlioglu Kuman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 27-year-old female patient admitted with an anterior mediastinal mass. She complained of chest discomfort and hemoptysis which began seven months prior. She had given birth five months prior. Thoracic X-ray showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Thorax computed tomography (CT confirmed a well-defined anterior mediastinal mass with  cm diameter, extending to the right hemithorax. It was composed of cystic spaces and discrete areas like soft tissue and fat. Serum Ca 19-9 level was elevated. CT features were consistent with a mature teratoma. During median sternotomy, the tumor revealed adhesions to the right lung and the right subclavian artery. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a mature teratoma. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were detected to be positive in the resected tissue. We conclude that alterations in hormone levels during pregnancy might be the cause of rapid tumor growth which leads to hemoptysis.

  3. Preoperative serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels in clinical decision making for patients with early-stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; van der Velden, J; ten Hoor, KA; Boezen, HM; de Vries, EGE; Schilthuis, MS; Mourits, MJE; Nijman, HW; Aalders, JG; Hollema, H; Pras, E; Duk, JM; van der Zee, AGJ

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prevent morbidity associated with double modality treatment, early-stage cervical cancer patients should only be offered surgery when there is a low likelihood for adjuvant radiotherapy. We analyzed whether serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) analysis allows better preoperativ

  4. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.;

    2011-01-01

    to calculate the Pb levels in the various body systems. Our results showed a low health risk from Pb exposures. It also identified that ingestion of leafy vegetables (i.e. lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and fruits contribute the most to total Pb blood levels. This full chain assessment approach of the 2FUN......The multi-causality interactions between environment and health are complex and call for an integrated multidisciplinary study approach. Emerging computational toxicology tools that link toxicology, chemistry, environmental sciences, biostatistics, and computer sciences are proving to be very...... useful for integrated full-chain human health risk assessments. In this study we use a newly developed computational tool – the 2FUN player to conduct a full-chain assessment combining measured ambient air lead concentrations with multi-media modelling and PBPK simulations to estimate the health risks...

  5. Occurrence of high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal plants of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Plants can contain heavy metals from their presence in the soil, water or air. High levels of toxic metals can occur when the plants are grown in polluted areas, such as near roadways or metal mining and smelting operations. In addition, high levels can be found when agricultural expedients are used, including Cadmium containing fertilizers, organic mercury or lead based pesticides, and contaminated irrigation water. Quality has to be built into the whole process beginning from the selection of starting material to the final product reaching the consumer. In the present study were carried out, to evaluate the quality and safety of crude drug. The result shows that Indian herbal drug industry needs to ensure procurement of standardized authentic raw material free from toxic contaminants. Such approaches remain important in global promotion of medicinal plants & herbal medicinal products from India.

  6. Oxidative stress at low levels can induce clustered DNA lesions leading to NHEJ mediated mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard B; Chen, Ting-Huei; Herr, Natalie; Takeda, Shunichi; Sun, Wei; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-05-01

    DNA damage and mutations induced by oxidative stress are associated with various different human pathologies including cancer. The facts that most human tumors are characterized by large genome rearrangements and glutathione depletion in mice results in deletions in DNA suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause gene and chromosome mutations through DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the generation of DSBs at low levels of ROS is still controversial. In the present study, we show that H2O2 at biologically-relevant levels causes a marked increase in oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) with a significant elevation of replication-independent DSBs. Although it is frequently reported that OCDLs are fingerprint of high-energy IR, our results indicate for the first time that H2O2, even at low levels, can also cause OCDLs leading to DSBs specifically in G1 cells. Furthermore, a reverse genetic approach revealed a significant contribution of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway in H2O2-induced DNA repair & mutagenesis. This genomic instability induced by low levels of ROS may be involved in spontaneous mutagenesis and the etiology of a wide variety of human diseases like chronic inflammation-related disorders, carcinogenesis, neuro-degeneration and aging. PMID:27015367

  7. Relationship between lead concentration in the air and blood lead levels of people living and working in the center of a city (Frankfurt blood lead study). II. Correlations and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinn, W.

    1981-01-01

    The correlation analysis of the relationship between blood lead levels and lead-in-air concentrations measured in three winter periods showed a highly significant association despite a generally loose dependence of the variables. The regression equations statistically yield results which compare convincingly with ones obtained from model calculations based on studies of metabolism and respiratory physiology. The correlation between the observed changes in blood lead and the initial absolute values of blood lead concentration demonstrates with high statistical centainty that the higher the initial level, the greater was the observed change.

  8. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    G subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non-cytophilic to cytophilic...... subclasses against blood-stage parasite antigens as a likely mechanism for induction of protective immunity against malaria....

  9. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  10. RHAMM (CD168) Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian M. Gust; Hofer, Matthias D; Sven R. Perner; Robert Kim; Arul M. Chinnaiyan; Sooryanarayana Varambally; Peter Moller; Ludwig Rinnab; Rubin, Mark A; Jochen Greiner; Michael Schmitt; Rainer Kuefer; Mark Ringhoffer

    2009-01-01

    Localized prostate cancer (CaP) can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID), which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidat...

  11. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  12. Changing of expression level of fas-antigen (CD95), cytokines synthesis and production after irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that bone marrow progenitor (CD34+), tymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are most radiosensitive than other cell types. Even low doses of radiation induce apoptosis. The investigators suggest that it is possible relationship between synthesis and production of cytokines and apoptotic process. With the purpose to determine correlation between expression of Fas-antigen and synthesis of cytokines after low doses irradiation the experiments by irradiation PBL of healthy persons in vitro were held. Cells were X-irradiated by 12,5, 25 and 50 cGy. In consequence of the experiments increasing of Fas-antigen was revealed. This increasing correlated with changing in synthesis and production of cytokines. Also the Chernobyl's accident liquidators (CAL) were investigated. After comparison data in the group CAL (I) with data in the control group (II) increasing of Fas-antigen expression was revealed. Also in I group was discovered increasing of the cell number sinthesied interleukine-4 (IL-4) and interleukine-6 (IL-6). Interleukine-lβ (IL-1 β) producing pell were decreased. These changes have been correlated with degree of immunodeficiency at CAL. These data allow to consider the apoptosis as cell mechanism included in pathogenesis of diseases, which can be showed later long time after irradiation. (author)

  13. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam Saliu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U test. Seventy-three (40.3% of the organised compared to 59 (34.3% of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05. There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation, and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  14. An adenoviral cancer vaccine co-encoding a tumor associated antigen together with secreted 4-1BBL leads to delayed tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Pedersen, Anders Elm;

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown promising results when using an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody treatment against established tumors. While this is promising, this type of treatment can induce severe side effects. Therefore, we decided to incorporate the membrane form of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL......) in a replicative deficient adenovirus vaccine expressing the invariant chain (Ii) adjuvant fused to a tumor associated antigen (TAA). The Ii adjuvant increases and prolongs TAA specific CD8+ T cells as previously shown and local expression of 4-1BBL was chosen to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic...... presenting cells, but it did not enhance T cell responses in mice towards the Ii linked antigen. In tumor-bearing mice, our vaccine was found to decrease the frequency of TAA specific CD8+ T cells, but this difference did not alter the therapeutic efficacy. In order to reconcile our findings...

  15. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  16. A neuropsychological study of children with elevated dentine lead level: Assessment of the effect of lead in different socio-economic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, O.N.; Trillingsgaard, A.; Beese, I.; Lyngbye, T.; Grandjean, P. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-05-01

    The study was carried out in the municipality of Aarhus, a city of 250,000 inhabitants. The study was designed as a cross-sectional cohort study of school children in first grade in 1982-83. A total of 2,412 children were contacted and asked to submit their shed teeth to the teacher, and 1,291 children delivered at least one usable tooth (response rate, 54 percent). The lead level in circumpulpal dentin showed an average of 10.7 micrograms/g. Eight percent of the children (N = 110) had a lead level above 18.7 micrograms/g and were selected as a high lead exposure group. This group was matched by sex and socio-economic status of the parents with control children with a dentin lead level below 5 micrograms/g. Following a detailed interview with the parents, children were excluded from the study if medical risk factors were present. A clinical psychologist, blind to the lead data, administered selected psychometric tests to 162 of the children selected. The high-lead children scored lower on the WISC when compared to low-lead children, especially on the Verbal IQ (p less than 0.001) and Full Scale IQ (p less than 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the high- and low-exposure groups on the Performance IQ and on several experimental tests. Impaired function associated with lead exposure was also found on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (p less than 0.001) and on a behavioral rating scale (p less than 0.01). These results remained statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic status and other confounding variables.

  17. Blood Lead Levels During Pregnancy and Its Influencing Factors in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Xi-rong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the blood lead levels (BLLs) in the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery, and analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.MethodsPregnant women were recruited from September 2009 to February 2010 at the prenatalclinic inNanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. Altogether 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnant or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were enrolled as the gravidagroup, and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group. BLLs during pregnancy were determinedby flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.ResultsBLLs in all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were 59.8±24.3, 55.4±20.1,55.9±19.7, and 67.6±17.4 μg/L, respectively, and the mean BLL in control group was 67.5±21.3 μg/L. BLLs during all the three trimesters were lower in the gravida group than in the control group (P=0.043, 0.021, and 0.028). Furthermore, occupations, nutrients supplementation, and time ofhouse/apartmentpainted were associated with BLLs in pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, cosmetics use, and livingin a house painted less than 1 year beforeare risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusion Supplementing calcium, iron, zinc, and milk, or avoiding contact with risk factors may help people, especially pregnant women, to reduce lead exposure.

  18. Breast Milk Lead and Cadmium Levels in Suburban Areas of Nanjing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu-qing Xu; Xiao-qi Gu; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Fei Xu; Rong Shen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk in the second post-partum month,to investigate the relationship between Pb/Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemo-graphic parameters,and to explore whether these levels affect the infants' physical status or the mothers' psychological status (postpartum depression). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and December 2010. Al-together 170 healthy mothers were enrolled from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. The inclusion criteria were: voluntary to participate in this study,healthy,with no chronic disease,breastfeeding in the second postpartum month,living in a suburban but not non-industrial area of Nanjing,and not occupa-tionally exposed to toxic metals. All the mothers completed a questionnaire and were evaluated based on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to identify the risk of postpartum depression. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The infants of these mothers were examined for their z scores of weight for age,length for age,head circumference for age,and body mass index for age. Results The median breast milk levels of Pb and Cd were 40.6 μg/L and 0.67 μg/L,respectively. In 164 (96.5%) of the 170 samples,Pb levels were higher than the limit reported by the World Health Or-ganization (> 5 μg/L). Breast milk Cd level was > 1 μg/L in 54 (31.8%) mothers. The mothers with a his-tory of anemia had a higher breast milk Pb level than those without a history of anemia (41.1 μg/L vs. 37.9 μg/L,P = 0.050). The median breast milk Cd level in those who were active and passive smokers dur-ing pregnancy was significantly higher than that in non-smokers (0.88 μg/L vs. 0.00 μg/L,P = 0.025). The breast milk Cd level in the mothers not taking iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum was higher than in those taking the supplements (iron supplement: 0.74

  19. Elevated serum levels of fetal antigen 1,a member of the epidermal growth factor superfamily, in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harken Jensen, C; Drivsholm, L; Laursen, I;

    1999-01-01

    Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were quantified pretherapeutically in 16 patients with pneumonia, 30 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 10 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compared to the normal reference interval (n = 177). Serum FA1 levels were significantly...... of limited/extensive disease. Immunohistochemical analysis of a biopsy from 1 SCLC patient with an elevated serum FA1 also showed the presence of FA1 in tumor cells. FA1 in serum from SCLC patients was identical to that of FA1 in normal serum/amniotic fluid with respect to size distribution and also revealed...

  20. Cadmium and lead levels consumed by patients with oral hospital diets prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia S. Manzoli de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in foods should be monitored as a function of health risks. Objective: To evaluate Cd and Pb levels in oral hospital diets and in an oral food complement (OFC according to their respective consumption by patients, and to estimate the patient's exposition risk. Methods: The levels of Cd and Pb were determined by ICP-OES in samples of regular, blend, soft and renal diets and OFC, collected on 6 weekdays. About 14.3% of the diets and OFC served were analyzed. Results and discussion: 163 patients participated, with mean weights and ages of 62.7 kg and 56.5 years, respectively, the majority being men (59.5%. The mean Cd content consumed was greater for men fed the regular and blend diets and similar amongst the sexes for the soft diet. The consumption of Cd (max. 21.02 µg/day was below the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. The mean Pb ingested (max. 199.49 µg/day was similar amongst the sexes. The soft diet showed the highest Pb content in September/2010, whereas the other showed no variation according to season. In September/2010 and January/2011, the soft and regular diets associated with the OFC offered 207.50 and 210.50 µg/day of Pb, respectively. Conclusions: The combination of the diet with the OFC increased the risk of an excessive ingestion of Pb, and the vulnerability of the patients to an excessive exposition to Pb could be greater due to water and medications. It was concluded that whereas the calculated ingestion of Cd conformed to the PTMI, the Pb level and ingestion represented a risk to the health of the patients.

  1. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  2. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  3. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  4. In silico design, cloning and high level expression of L7/L12-TOmp31 fusion protein of Brucella antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Golshani, Maryam; Rafati, Sima; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Nejati-Moheimani, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Globally, Brucella melitensis and B. abortus are the most common cause of human brucellosis. The outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) and L7/L12 are immunodominant and protective antigens conserved in human Brucella pathogens which are considered as potential vaccine candidates. We aimed to design the fusion protein from Brucella L7/L12 and truncated Omp31proteins, in silico, clone the fusion in pET28a vector, and express it in Escherichia coli host. Two possible fusion forms, L7/L12-TOmp31 and ...

  5. Influencing factors of colostrum exposure to low-level lead and their relationship with early neural development of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to low-level lead has a toxic effect on the development of neonates, which has attracted wide attention. Colostrum lead level can be used as the indication of lead exposure.OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship of colostrum lead level and the neurobehavioral development of infants.DESIGN: A prospective control observation.SETTING: Center for Maternal and Child Health, Shanxi Provincial Children's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 128 neonates of full-term normal delivery, 76 male and 52 female, from Shanxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Center and Jiexiu Maternal and Child Health Center were involved in this study. All the involved neonates had no peripartal ischemic/hypoxic history or fetus intrauterine developmental lag. Pregnant women had no various acute and chronic diseases in pregnancy, family history of neurological disease or occupational lead exposure. 128 portions of colostrum sample of full-term normal delivery were collected. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the puerperants and their relatives.METHODS: ①Experimental grouping: Lead level in the colostrum was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. According to lead level in the colostrum, the neonates were classified into two exposure groups of greater than or equal to 0.24 μ mol/L in a high-level lead group and less than 0.24 μ mol/L in a low-level lead group. ② Experimental evaluation: Mental developmental index (MDI) and psychological developmental index (PDI) of 3-month-old infants were evaluated with Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). The relationships of MDI, PDI and colostrum lead level were performed correlation regression analysis; The relationship of colostrum lead level and development was performed multi-factor analysis with family environment and health questionnaires.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Evaluation results of MDI and PDI. ② Multi-factor analysis results.RESULTS: Totally 128 neonates were involved in the study. Ten

  6. High environmental ozone levels lead to enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. METHODS: Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS: The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. CONCLUSION: It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.

  7. High-Level Expression of Functionally Active Dengue-2 Non-Structural Antigen 1 Production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gowri Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of nonstructural protein (NS1 is an important diagnostic marker during acute phase of dengue infection. Not only for diagnostic purpose, the protein had important role in vaccine design as well, as a candidate for studying virus assembly and maturation. Various researchers employed different expression systems and strategies for recombinant NS1 protein production. Attempts to express NS1 protein in prokaryotic and yeast expression system result in formation of insoluble protein which needs to undergo refolding to attain native structural and functional forms. Here, we report the production of soluble NS1 protein in E. coli by using appropriate vector and employing suitable culture conditions to maximize protein production. Proteins were purified using metal affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis reveal the native structure of NS1 protein. Solid phase ELISA using the recombinantly expressed antigen with positive and negative dengue samples showed that the expressed protein retains its antigenic and immunological properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful production of functionally active recombinant dengue-2 NS1 protein production without undergoing any in vitro posttranslational modification process.

  8. Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb): a compendium of antigen-antibody interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Raskar-Renuse, Snehal; Natekar-Kalantre, Girija; Saxena, Smita A

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb) is an immunoinformatics resource developed at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune, and is available online at http://bioinfo.net.in/AgAbDb.htm. Antigen-antibody interactions are a special class of protein-protein interactions that are characterized by high affinity and strict specificity of antibodies towards their antigens. Several co-crystal structures of antigen-antibody complexes have been solved and are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). AgAbDb is a derived knowledgebase developed with an objective to compile, curate, and analyze determinants of interactions between the respective antigen-antibody molecules. AgAbDb lists not only the residues of binding sites of antigens and antibodies, but also interacting residue pairs. It also helps in the identification of interacting residues and buried residues that constitute antibody-binding sites of protein and peptide antigens. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction Finder (AAIF), a program developed in-house, is used to compile the molecular interactions, viz. van der Waals interactions, salt bridges, and hydrogen bonds. A module for curating water-mediated interactions has also been developed. In addition, various residue-level features, viz. accessible surface area, data on epitope segment, and secondary structural state of binding site residues, are also compiled. Apart from the PDB numbering, Wu-Kabat numbering and explicit definitions of complementarity-determining regions are provided for residues of antibodies. The molecular interactions can be visualized using the program Jmol. AgAbDb can be used as a benchmark dataset to validate algorithms for prediction of B-cell epitopes. It can as well be used to improve accuracy of existing algorithms and to design new algorithms. AgAbDb can also be used to design mimotopes representing antigens as well as aid in designing processes leading to humanization of antibodies. PMID:25048123

  9. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  10. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Montes Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when

  11. Levels of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) stranded on the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Hacon, Sandra S; Campos, Reinaldo C; do Couto Jacob, Silvana; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of liver and breast muscles of first-year Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), from two different areas on the Brazilian coast, 35 on the Rio de Janeiro coast and 12 on the Rio Grande do Sul coast. In both areas, Cd concentrations in muscle samples were <0.025 microg/g. However, the Cd and Hg concentrations found in liver and Hg concentrations found in muscle showed a significant difference between the two regions. The geometric mean of the concentrations was higher in the specimens from Rio de Janeiro (Cd--6.8 microg/g; Hg--liver, 1.6 microg/g, and muscle, 0.4 microg/g wet weight) than in those from Rio Grande do Sul (Cd--2.3 microg/g; Hg--liver, 0.9 microg/g, and muscle, 0.1 microg/g wet weight). The site differences could be related to differences in diet influenced by geographic factors. Brazil's southeastern coast is highly urbanized, and its coastal waters are contaminated by the waste of agricultural and industrial activities. There is a lack of information on the levels of heavy metals in S. magellanicus, however, their wide distribution and top position in the trophic chain make the use of stranded specimens an attractive source of information for monitoring heavy metals in the South Atlantic coast. PMID:19582498

  12. Bone remodeling during pregnancy and post-partum assessed by metal lead levels and isotopic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan; Eisman, John

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling is normally evaluated using bone turnover markers/indices as indicators of bone resorption and formation. However, during pregnancy and post-partum, there have been inconsistent results between and within biomarkers for bone formation and resorption. These differences may relate to pregnancy-related changes in metabolism and/or hemodilution altering measured marker levels. An alternative approach to evaluating bone remodeling is to use the metal lead (Pb) concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions in blood. These measurements can also provide information on the amount of Pb that is mobilized from the maternal skeleton. Despite some similarities with accepted bone turnover markers, the Pb data demonstrate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy that further continues post-partum independent of length of breast-feeding, dietary intake and resumption of menses. Furthermore the isotopic measurements are not affected by hemodilution. These data confirm calcium balance studies that indicate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy and lactation. They also indicate potentially major public health implications of the transfer of maternal Pb burden to the fetus and new born. PMID:27233973

  13. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  14. Study on Lead Pollution and Blood Lead Level in Lead Workers of Storage Battery Plant%蓄电池厂铅污染与铅作业工人血铅水平研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭轩; 彭建明; 关德玲; 张宏光; 刘志东; 严伟兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the situation of lead pollution and blood lead level of lead workers in storage battery plant,to explore the relations which might affect the blood lead level of workers and lead density in the air,and provide evidence for formulation of appropriate occupational health countermeasures.Methods The occupational health check was performed on 103 workers with lead exposure,and Determines the blood lead concentrations,and monitoring concentrations of lead in the air of workplace,Results The over standard rales of air lead concentration were 41.7 % in working places,that of blood lead were 38.8% in lead workers,while the mean blood lead level of those lead workers was (381.81 ± 180.75) μ g/L; The differences of blood lead density between lengths of service and genders were not significance( P> 0.05 ) The blood lead level of lead worker was good correlation with the air lead density (r=0.9663,P<0.05).Conclusion The lead-exposure is proved to be the obvious occupational hazard for the workers in this battery plant,and the higher lead concentrations in the air of work-place were the hazardous factor for elevated blood lead level.%目的 了解蓄电池厂铅污染状况和铅作业工人血铅水平,探讨接铅作业工人血铅水平与空气中铅浓度的关系,为制定相应的职业卫生对策提供依据.方法 对蓄电池厂103名接铅工人进行职业健康检查,测定其血铅浓度,并对其工作场所空气中铅浓度进行现场检测,分析血铅浓度与工作场所空气中铅浓度的关系.结果 工作场所空气中铅浓度超标41.7%,接铅作业工人血铅超标38.8%,工人的血铅均值为(381.81 ±180.75)μ g/L;不同性别、工龄之间血铅浓度差异无显著性(P>0.05);随着工作场所空气中铅浓度的升高,铅作业工人血铅值也随之升高,两者呈正相关(r=0.9663,P<0.05).结论 该蓄电池厂的接铅作业工人受到一定的职业危害;工作场所空气中铅浓度较

  15. Five Major State-Level Copper,Lead, Zinc Resource Succession Bases in Tibet Have Initially Taken Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    According to the Chengdu Center of China Geological Survey,five major state-level copper-lead-zinc resource succession bases in Tibet have initially taken shape,featuring tremendous resource potentials.It has been learned that these five major resource succession bases are respectively copper-lead-zinc molybdenum iron prospecting development base in Central Tibet,chromite

  16. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R2=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV1/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV1/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations

  17. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  18. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  19. Human serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1/Dlk1) increase with obesity, are negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and modulate inflammation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacón, M R; Miranda, M; Jensen, C H;

    2008-01-01

    -to-hip ratio, waist circumference, fat-free mass and fat mass. Clinical parameters: lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides), glycemic profile (fasting glucose, insulin, S(i), HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment......OBJECTIVE:To investigate fetal antigen 1 (FA1) protein within the context of human obesity and its relation with insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study that analyses circulating levels of FA1 in two selected human cohorts: n=127 men for the study of FA1 circulating levels...... of Insulin Resistance), cytokines (sIL-6), adipokines (adiponectin) and circulating soluble fractions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2). RESULTS: IN the obesity study, levels of FA1 in serum were found to increase with obesity. The S(i) index was negatively dependent on FA1...

  20. Milk trace elements in lactating cows environmentally exposed to higher level of lead and cadmium around different industrial units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, R.C. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122 (India); College of Veterinary Science and AH, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhuabneswar - 751 003 (India)], E-mail: rcpatra@gmail.com; Swarup, D.; Kumar, P.; Nandi, D.; Naresh, R. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122 (India); Ali, S.L. [College of Veterinary Science and AH, Rajiv Gandhi Agricultural University, Anjora, Durg (India)

    2008-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the trace mineral profile of milk from lactating cows reared around different industrial units and to examine the effect of blood and milk concentration of lead and cadmium on copper, cobalt, zinc and iron levels in milk. Respective blood and milk samples were collected from a total of 201 apparently healthy lactating cows above 3 years of age including 52 cows reared in areas supposed to be free from pollution. The highest milk lead (0.85 {+-} 0.11 {mu}g/ml) and cadmium (0.23 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/ml) levels were recorded in lactating cows reared around lead-zinc smelter and steel manufacturing plant, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of milk copper, cobalt, zinc and iron compared to control animals was recorded in cows around closed lead cum operational zinc smelter. Analysis of correlation between lead and other trace elements in milk from lactating cows with the blood lead level > 0.20 {mu}g/ml (n = 79) revealed a significant negative correlations between milk iron and milk lead (r = - 0.273, P = 0.015). However, such trend was not recorded with blood lead level < 0.20 {mu}g/ml (n = 122). The milk cobalt concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.365, P < 0.001) with cadmium level in milk and the highest milk cadmium (> 0.10 to 0.39 {mu}g/ml) group had significantly (P < 0.05) increased milk cobalt. It is concluded that increased blood and milk lead or cadmium level as a result of natural exposure of lactating cows to these environmental toxicants significantly influences trace minerals composition of milk and such alterations affect the milk quality and nutritional values.

  1. Low Blood Lead Levels and educational achievement in 7-8 year old children in the Community of Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez Iriarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead affects the behavioral and cognitive functions of children. The current lead safety level for avoiding these adverse effects is still controversial.Methods of study: A cross-sectional study included 511 children from 23 primary schools within the Comunidad de Madrid (the Madrid Region –including the city of Madrid and the large urban-industrial conurbation of satellite towns surrounding it, Spain. The children’s blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, the teachers completed an eight-item questionnaire about the children’s behavior and academic achievement. Parents filled in a self-completion survey about the sociodemographic variables of the children and the family.Results: The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL of the children was 4.1 μg/dL SD 1.6 μg/dL (log transformed 3.8 μg/dL SD 0.2 μg/dL. Multivariate analysis controlling for relevant sociodemographic cofactors (among others, sex, age and educational level of the parents showed a negative association, but this was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Despite the low blood lead levels found in the children of the Comunidad de Madrid (Spain and the design limitations of the study, the results obtained suggest the existence of a harmful, but not statistically significant, effect of blood lead on the behavior and academic achievement of children.

  2. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nourmoradi, H.; M. Foroghi; Farhadkhani, M.; M Vahid Dastjerdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2  µ g/g and 4.08–60.20  µ g/g, respectiv...

  3. Experimental manipulation of dietary lead levels in great tit nestlings: limited effects on growth, physiology and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeva, T.; Rainio, M.; Berglund, A.; Kanerva, M.; Stauffer, J.; Stowe, M.; Ruuskanen, S.

    2014-01-01

    We manipulated dietary lead (Pb) levels of nestlings in wild populations of the great tit (Parus major L) to find out if environmentally relevant Pb levels would affect some physiological biomarkers (haematocrit [HT], fecal corticosterone metabolites [CORT], heat shock proteins [HSPs], erythrocyte d

  4. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-01-01

    Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E) and vitamin C (Vit. C) are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect altera...

  5. Clinical indicators of envenoming and serum levels of venom antigens in patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique. Research Group on Snake Bites in Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, B; Canonge, D; Thomas, L; Tyburn, B; Robbe-Vincent, A; Choumet, V; Bon, C; Ketterlé, J; Lang, J

    1997-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure venom antigen levels in the serum of 40 patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus. The grading system used for the severity of envenomation (grades 1 to 4, minor to major) was predominantly based on the presence of local signs. Serum venom levels increased with the grade of severity (P or = 15 ng/mL were observed in all patients with progressive aggravation of swelling despite the use of early antivenom therapy. No venom was detectable in blood samples taken after completion of serotherapy. All patients recovered. These results confirm the efficacy of both the clinical severity scoring system used and the therapeutic regimen. PMID:9196765

  6. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from water.

  7. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  8. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  9. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  10. Expressing Redundancy among Linear-Epitope Sequence Data Based on Residue-Level Physicochemical Similarity in the Context of Antigenic Cross-Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Eugenio C. Caoili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitope-based design of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and immunodiagnostics is complicated by structural changes that radically alter immunological outcomes. This is obscured by expressing redundancy among linear-epitope data as fractional sequence-alignment identity, which fails to account for potentially drastic loss of binding affinity due to single-residue substitutions even where these might be considered conservative in the context of classical sequence analysis. From the perspective of immune function based on molecular recognition of epitopes, functional redundancy of epitope data (FRED thus may be defined in a biologically more meaningful way based on residue-level physicochemical similarity in the context of antigenic cross-reaction, with functional similarity between epitopes expressed as the Shannon information entropy for differential epitope binding. Such similarity may be estimated in terms of structural differences between an immunogen epitope and an antigen epitope with reference to an idealized binding site of high complementarity to the immunogen epitope, by analogy between protein folding and ligand-receptor binding; but this underestimates potential for cross-reactivity, suggesting that epitope-binding site complementarity is typically suboptimal as regards immunologic specificity. The apparently suboptimal complementarity may reflect a tradeoff to attain optimal immune function that favors generation of immune-system components each having potential for cross-reactivity with a variety of epitopes.

  11. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  12. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai ZX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  13. Low-level lead exposure and children's IQ: A meta-analysis and search for a threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    To assess the strength of the association between blood lead and children's IQ, a meta-analysis of the studies examining the relationship in school age children was performed. Emphasis was given to the size of the effect, since that allow comparisons that are informative about potential confounding and effect modifiers. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A highly significant association was found between lead exposure and children's IQ (P < 0.001). An increase in blood lead from 10 to 20 [mu]g/dl was associated with a decrease of 2.6 IQ points in the meta-analysis. This result was robust to inclusion or exclusion of the strongest individual studies and to relaxing the age requirements (school age children) of the meta-analysis. Adding eight studies with effect estimates of O would still leave a significant association with blood lead (P < 0.01). There was no evidence that the effect was limited to disadvantaged children and there was a suggestion of the opposite. The studies with mean blood lead levels of 15 [mu]g/dl or lower in their sample had higher estimated blood lead slopes, suggesting that a threshold at 10 [mu]g/dl is implausible. The study with the lowest mean blood lead level was examined using nonparametric smoothing. It showed no evidence of a threshold down to blood lead concentrations of 1 [mu]g/dl. Lead interferes with GABAergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. It has been shown to bind to the NMDA receptor and inhibit long-term potentiation in the hippocampal region of the brain. Moreover, experimental studies have demonstrated that blood levels of 10 [mu]g/dl interfere with a broad range of cognitive function in primates. Given this support, these associations in humans should be considered causal. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K

    2011-04-15

    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  17. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Eric W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63. Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50 but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers.

  18. Parasitic infection leads to decline in hemolymph sugar levels in honeybee foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayack, Christopher; Naug, Dhruba

    2010-11-01

    Parasites by drawing nutrition from their hosts can exert an energetic stress on them. Honeybee foragers with their high metabolic demand due to flight are especially prone to such a stress when they are infected. We hypothesized that infection by the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema ceranae can lower the hemolymph sugar level of an individual forager and uncouple its energetic state from its normally tight correlation with the colony energetic state. We support our hypothesis by showing that free-flying foragers that are infected have lower trehalose levels than uninfected ones but the two do not differ in their trehalose levels when fed until satiation. The trehalose level of infected bees was also found to decline at a faster rate while their glucose level is maintained at a quantity comparable to uninfected bees. These results suggest that infected foragers have lower flying ability and the intriguing possibility that the carbohydrate levels of an individual bee can act as a modulator of its foraging behavior, independent of social cues such as colony demand for nectar. We discuss the importance of such pathophysiological changes on foraging behavior in the context of the recently observed colony collapses.

  19. Correlations between blood lead levels and some physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in some Nigerian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is one of the common toxic materials widely occurring in the Nigerian environment. Even with the change to unleaded petrol, other significant sources still remain to be addressed. The deleterious impact of lead on human health, is well documented. The effects range from attention-grabbing mass mortality - as happened in Zamfara State recently, to no less serious but grossly neglected neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects, including lowered intelligence quotient scores. All these impacts are most serious in children, especially fetuses who receive their burden from their mothers. Ninety percent of lead in most adults resides in the bones with a half-life measured in decades. Therefore, fetuses and breast-fed children in this generation will remain seriously at risk of exposure to damaging lead levels no matter the efforts to rid our external environment of lead in the years to come. In this work, we have investigated the correlation between Blood Lead Levels (BLL) and up to 35 physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in 62 women of child-bearing age from lIe-lfe, Nigeria. BLL was determined in venous blood using Inductively- coupled plasma Mass Spectrometry. Our results show that BLL significantly correlates with Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Creatine Clearance, and the ratio of Low-density Lipids to High density Lipids in these women. When the subjects were stratified into different Nutritional Status group based on their Body Mass Index, significant correlation was found between BLL and Age but only in Obese subjects.

  20. Determining Prenatal, Early Childhood and Cumulative Long-Term Lead Exposure Using Micro-Spatial Deciduous Dentine Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Austin, Christine; Sarrafpour, Babak; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb) levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal ...

  1. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  2. Dose-response association between hepatitis B surface antigen levels and liver cancer risk in Chinese men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yu-Ting; Rothman, Nat; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the risk of liver cancer in different levels of HBsAg among Chinese men and women. We carried out a nested case-control study including 363 cases and 3,511 controls in two population-based cohorts in Shanghai. Plasma samples collected at enrollment were quantified for HBsAg levels using the Architect QT assay. Conditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for liver cancer, with adjustment for potential confounders. HBsAg was detected in 6.29% of control subjects overall (7.02% in men and 4.98% in women). HBsAg levels were positively associated with liver cancer risk in a dose-response manner (Ptrend<0.001). Such association showed a significant gender disparity. With increasing levels of HBsAg, liver cancer risks rose more steeply in men than in women. In men, the adjusted ORs increased from 7.27 (95%CI: 3.49–15.15) at the lowest detectable level of HBsAg (5–9 IU/ml) to 7.16 (95%CI: 3.21–15.96), 34.30 (95%CI: 16.94–69.44), and 47.33 (95%CI: 23.50–95.34) at the highest level of HBsAg (≥1,000 IU/ml) compared to those negative for HBsAg. The corresponding ORs were much lower for women, from 1.37 (95%CI: 0.25–7.47) to 3.81 (95%CI: 1.09–13.28), 7.36 (95%CI: 2.41–22.46), and 16.86 (95%CI: 7.24–39.27), respectively. HBsAg quantification has potential to distinguish individuals at different risks of liver cancer. Men with the lowest detectable level of HBsAg should still pay attention to their liver cancer risks, but those with a higher level may be given a higher priority in future liver cancer surveillance program. PMID:26990915

  3. Normal dietary levels of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, and polonium-210 for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements on the levels in man's diet of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po are presented. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the United States, but in localized populations the 226Ra intake can be 8 or more pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show that intake of this nuclide is about 80% that of 226Ra except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi 228Ra/day are reported. Drinking water contributes less than 5% to daily intake except in special areas. For 210Pb, higher levels have been noted for Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics than for the United States. Persons in the Arctic who consume reindeer or caribou meat may ingest 210Pb at the rate of 10 to 40 pCi/day. Normal dietary levels of 210Po are about 20 to 30% higher than those of 210Pb, except in the Arctic. The levels of these nuclides in classes of foods are compared to show that the higher levels observed in certain diets are due to the levels in particular foods. Because of the high levels of 210Pb intake in Japan, total skeletal dose rates in that country are estimated to be more than twice those in the United States. The use of dietary intake for estimating metabolic parameters, such as intestinal absorption of 226Ra and 210Pb, is discussed

  4. A 1500-year record of lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium, zinc level in Antarctic seal hairs and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuebin; Liu, Xiaodong; Sun, Liguang; Zhu, Renbin; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Yuhong

    2006-12-01

    To reconstruct the profiles of heavy metal levels in the South Ocean ecosystem of Antarctica, the concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in seal hairs and lake sediments spanning the past 1500 years from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and in weathering lake sediments from Nelson Island of West Antarctica were determined. The lead contents in the seal hairs and the weathering sediments show a sharp increase since the late 1800s, very likely due to anthropogenic contamination from modern industries. After the 1980s, the Pb content in seal hairs dropped by one-third, apparently due to the reduced usage of leaded gasoline in the Southern Hemisphere. Copper arises mainly from the weathering process, and its level may be substantially affected by climatic conditions. The concentrations of Cd, As, and Zn do not show any clear temporal trends.

  5. Cell surface expression level variation between two common Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles, HLA-A2 and HLA-B8, is dependent on the structure of the C terminal part of the alpha 2 and the alpha 3 domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellgren, Christoffer; Nehlin, Jan O; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive cell surface expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I antigens vary extremely from tissue to tissue and individual antigens may differ widely in expression levels. Down-regulation of class I expression is a known immune evasive mechanism used by cancer cells and viruses....... Moreover, recent observations suggest that even minor differences in expression levels may influence the course of viral infections and the frequency of complications to stem cell transplantation. We have shown that some human multipotent stem cells have high expression of HLA-A while HLA-B is only weakly...... expressed, and demonstrate here that this is also the case for the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T. Using quantitative flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction we found expression levels of endogenous HLA-A3 (median 71,204 molecules per cell) 9.2-fold higher than the expression of...

  6. DETERMINATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN RAW AGRICULTURAL CROPS BY USING DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of ultratrace levels of lead and cadmium in selected agricultural crop samples by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry. Samples are dry ashed at high temperature with H2SO4 as an ashing aid. Techniques are describ...

  7. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip;

    2014-01-01

    of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most...

  8. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  9. Selected Morphological Characteristics, Lead Uptake and Phytochelatin Synthesis by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf. Grown in Elevated Levels of Lead-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. T. Begonia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb, and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted.

  10. Selected morphological characteristics, lead uptake and phytochelatin synthesis by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.) grown in elevated levels of lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria F T

    2011-06-01

    Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb), and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods) were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted.

  11. Study of lead level during pregnancy by application of synchrotron radiation micro XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yongpeng; Sun, Huibin; Luo, Qi; Feng, Jinxing; Liu, Xiaohong; Liang, Feng; Yan, Fen; Yang, Ke; Yu, Xiaohan; Li, Yulan; Chen, Jianmin

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the daily Pb absorption in fetus and to monitor the main Pb sources in prenatal fetus, we have investigated several cases of Pb distribution along the longitudinal axis of fetal hair. The changes of Pb levels in the pregnancy period, even the daily changes of Pb levels can be detected in the hair. Therefore, by analyzing the Pb distribution curves in the fetal hair and the living habits of their mothers, the main sources of Pb in the prenatal fetus can be evaluated. In our study, the main sources of Pb in the two cases of prenatal fetus studied here should be from the polluted aquatics. PMID:20714823

  12. National Food Contamination Monitoring Programmes—Levels of Mercury,Lead and Cadmium in Chinese Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAGHui-Fen; LUOXue-Yun; 等

    1994-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty-four food samples of six kinds were collected from beijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,Sichuan,Jilin and Guangdong areas,China and Hg,Pb,Cd contents were determined.The results showed that their levels in the Chinese foods were low;their levels in meat,egg,milk and fish ewere generally below the national hygienic standard.The average daily dietary intake of Hg,Pb,Cd were 7.25μg ,103.77μg and 30.72μg respectively and they were all less than the ADI established by WHO.

  13. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: an alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Novak, A.J.; Seidl, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some

  14. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinye Lim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26 and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83 for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67 and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74 for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father, with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53 than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59, and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father, with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches

  15. Fragile X and autism: Intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagerman Randi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (> 200 repeats in the 5' untranslated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1, leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of several other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS occurs in an additional 30% of cases. Premutation repeat expansions (55 to 200 CGG repeats may also give rise to autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including both autism and PDD-NOS, through a different molecular mechanism that involves a direct toxic effect of the expanded CGG repeat FMR1 mRNA. RNA toxicity can also lead to aging effects including tremor, ataxia and cognitive decline, termed fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, in premutation carriers in late life. In studies of mice bearing premutation expansions, there is evidence of early postnatal neuronal cell toxicity, presenting as reduced cell longevity, decreased dendritic arborization and altered synaptic morphology. There is also evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in premutation carriers. Many of the problems with cellular dysregulation in both premutation and full mutation neurons also parallel the cellular abnormalities that have been documented in autism without fragile X mutations. Research regarding dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems in FXS, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5 pathway and γ aminobutyric acid (GABAA pathways, have led to new targeted treatments for FXS. Preliminary evidence suggests that these new targeted treatments will also be beneficial in non-fragile X forms of autism.

  16. Deviating the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in Trypanosoma brucei elicits distinct mechanisms for inhibiting proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, Ana L; Ramsey, Aaron C; Mackey, Zachary B

    2015-01-01

    The DNA replication machinery is spatially and temporally coordinated in all cells to reproduce a single exact copy of the genome per division, but its regulation in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is not well characterized. We characterized the effects of altering the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a key component of the DNA replication machinery, in bloodstream form T. brucei. This study demonstrated that tight regulation of TbPCNA levels was critical for normal proliferation and DNA replication in the parasite. Depleting TbPCNA mRNA reduced proliferation, severely diminished DNA replication, arrested the synthesis of new DNA and caused the parasites to accumulated in G2/M. Attenuating the parasite by downregulating TbPCNA caused it to become hypersensitive to hydroxyurea. Overexpressing TbPCNA in T. brucei arrested proliferation, inhibited DNA replication and prevented the parasite from exiting G2/M. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms of cell cycle arrest are associated with upregulating or downregulating TbPCNA. The findings of this study validate deregulating intra-parasite levels of TbPCNA as a potential strategy for therapeutically exploiting this target in bloodstream form T. brucei.

  17. Contribution of allelic variability in prostate specific antigen (PSA & androgen receptor (AR genes to serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant V Chavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer. Methods: Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques. Results: A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (P<0.001 in the proximal promoter region and -3845G/A (P<0.001 in enhancer region showed significant association with serum PSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (P<0.001 at both of these polymorphic sites showed higher expression of PSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (P<0.001 carriers demonstrated lower PSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression.

  18. Genome-wide association replicates the association of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) polymorphisms with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Smith, C Wayne; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low inflammatory state characterized by elevated levels of chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine family and is increased in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify loci regulating serum MCP-1 in obese Hispanic children from the Viva La Familia Study. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed in 815 children, ages 4-19 years, using genotypes assayed with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad v1.0 BeadChips. All analyses were performed in SOLAR using a linear regression-based test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for the relatedness of family members via a kinship variance component. The strongest association for MCP-1 levels was found with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12075, resulting in an amino acid substitution (Asp42Gly) in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene product (minor allele frequency=43.6%, p=1.3 × 10(-21)) on chromosome 1. Four other DARC SNPs were also significantly associated with MCP-1 levels (p<10(-16)-10(-6)). The Asp42Gly variant was associated with higher levels of MCP-1 and accounted for approximately 10% of its variability. In addition, MCP-1 levels were significantly associated with SNPs in chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9). In summary, the association of the DARC Asp42Gly variant with MCP-1 levels replicates previous GWA results substantiating a potential role for DARC in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23017229

  19. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 µg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology. PMID:24769258

  20. Leading to transformation?: The case of participatory budgeting at local level in Ayacucho, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Lanao, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    textabstractParticipation in development claims to have a transformative potential. Does it really live up to such claim? To answer such question we must look at how change occurs in spaces where citizen participation is encouraged. This paper studies the case of participatory budgeting at local level in Ayacucho, Peru. Through this case the author assesses whether and how political capabilities of citizens are enhanced, as well as the change in dynamics of power relations that occur in regul...

  1. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The decline in children’s Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008–2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child’s address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria. PMID:26633457

  2. Risk factors associated with the blood lead levels of children in the Community of Madrid in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez-Iriarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a toxic element for humans, with children being the most vulnerable population.Objective: To find out the risk factors associated to the existing blood lead levels (BLLs of children in the Community of Madrid, after 9 years of lead being banned in gasoline.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 with a sample of 85 children, less than 15 years of age, recruited via the outpatients’ service of the Pediatrics Department of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos in Madrid. Routine blood tests provided the opportunity for determining other blood parameters. Lead levels were measured using electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with the Zeeman-effect background correction. In addition, a survey was undertaken directed to the parents for gathering information about a series of socioeconomic and environmental variables.Results: The arithmetic mean of the BLLs in the children was 1.1 μg/dL (SD=0.7 μg/dL with a range from 0.1 μg/dL to 3.4 μg/dL. The geometric mean was 0.9 μg/dL (SD= 1.1 μg/dL. The risk factors associated to these BLLs are the following: playing in the street; low educational level of the parents; leisure activities of one of the parents linked to lead; tobacco smoking of the father; and drinking tap water.Conclusions: The BLLs of the children in the Community of Madrid have decreased, but there are still sociodemographic and environmental risk factors associated to the present levels.

  3. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  4. Low-level measurement of alpha-particle emitting nuclei in ceramics and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly all natural materials contain trace quantities of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) and their daughter nuclides, many of which emit α-particles in their decay. Lead, at the end of the U-decay chain, typically contains some radioactive 210Pb which is chemically inseparable from the other Pb isotopes. α-particle emission from these decays can affect sensitive electronic components, such as memory chips or processors. Measurement of α-particle emitters can be accomplished by direct detection of the α-particles (which typically provides no positive identification of the emitting isotope because of energy loss in the sample) or by low-background γ-ray spectroscopy (which does provide positive identification via characteristic γ-rays). The latter is by far the best method for screening kg-sized samples of materials like ceramics, aluminum, iron, or copper. The difference between α counting and γ-ray spectroscopy is less for measuring 210Pb in Pb since the 46.5 keV characteristic γ-rays directly following the 210Pb decay are strongly absorbed and both methods are limited to thin layers. This paper discusses these two cases and concludes that a large n-type germanium γ-ray spectrometer is probably the best overall system for both measurements. (author)

  5. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  6. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Expressed by Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Attenuates Viral Replication and Increases the Level of Pulmonary Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Belyakov, Igor M.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    An obstacle to developing a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is that natural infection typically does not confer solid immunity to reinfection. To investigate methods to augment the immune response, recombinant RSV (rRSV) was constructed that expresses murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from a transcription cassette inserted into the G-F intergenic region. Replication of rRSV/mGM-CSF in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of BALB/c mice was reduced 23- to 74- and 5- to 588-fold, respectively, compared to that of the parental rRSV. Despite this strong attenuation of replication, the level of RSV-specific serum antibodies induced by rRSV/mGM-CSF was comparable to, or marginally higher than, that of the parental rRSV. The induction of RSV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was moderately reduced during the initial infection, which might be a consequence of reduced antigen expression. Mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF had elevated levels of pulmonary mRNA for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) p40 compared to animals infected by wild-type rRSV. Elevated synthesis of IFN-γ could account for the restriction of RSV replication, as was observed previously with an IFN-γ-expressing rRSV. The accumulation of total pulmonary mononuclear cells and total CD4+ T lymphocytes was accelerated in animals infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to that in animals infected with the control virus, and the level of IFN-γ-positive or IL-4-positive pulmonary CD4+ cells was elevated approximately twofold. The number of pulmonary lymphoid and myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages was increased up to fourfold in mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to those infected with the parental rRSV, and the mean expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, a marker of activation, was significantly increased in the two subsets of dendritic cells. Enhanced antigen presentation likely accounts for the

  7. Evaluation of chemotherapy response with serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level in cervical cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yin

    Full Text Available MRI does not always reflect tumor response after chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to explore additional parameters to more accurately evaluate tumor response for the subsequent clinical determination about radiotherapy or radical surgery. A training cohort and an external validation cohort were used to examine the predictive performance of SCC-ag to evaluate tumor response from teaching hospital of Harbin Medical University. The study included 397 women with SCC (age: 28-73 years. Patients consecutively enrolled between August 2008 and January 2010 (n = 205 were used as training cohort. Patients consecutively enrolled between February 2010 and May 2011 (n = 192 were used as validation cohort. A multivariate regression analysis of the data from the training cohort indicated that serum SCC-ag level is an independent factor for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT response. Analysis of the data from the validation cohort suggested that chemotherapy response could be more accurately predicted by SCC-ag than by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (sensitivity (Se: 0.944 vs. 0.794; specificity (Sp: 0.727 vs. 0.636; positive predictive value (PPV: 0.869 vs. 0.806; negative predictive value (NPV: 0.873 vs. 0.618; the area under ROC curve (AUC: 0.898 vs. 0.734. Combining SCC-ag with MRI was more powerful than MRI alone (Se: 0.952 vs. 0.794; Sp: 0.833 vs. 0.636; PPV: 0.916 vs. 0.806; NPV: 0.902 vs. 0.618; AUC: 0.950 vs. 0.734. Our study indicates that serum SCC-ag level is a sensitive and reliable measure to evaluate cervical cancer response to chemotherapy. Using SCC-ag in combination with MRI findings further improves the predictive power.

  8. Potential Association of Lead Exposure During Early Development of Mice With Alteration of Hippocampus Nitric Oxide Levels and Learning Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI SUN; ZHENG-YAN ZHAO; JIAN HU; XIE-LAI ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Objective Chronic lead (Pb) exposure during development is known to produce learning deficits. Nitric oxide participates in the synaptic mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. This study was designed to clarify whether Pb-induced impairment in learning and memory was associated with the changes of nitric oxide levels in mice brains.Methods Sixty Balb/c mice aged 10 days were chosen. A model of lead exposure was established by drinking 0.025%, 0.05%,0.075% lead acetate, respectively for 8 weeks. The controls were orally given distilled water. The ability to learn and memorize was examined by open field test, T-water maze test. In parallel with the behavioral data, NO level of hippocampus tissue was detected by biochemical assay. Results Compared with control groups, (1) the weight of 0.075% group was significantly reduced (P<0.05); (2) The number of times in mice attaining the required standards in T-water maze test was lower in 0.075%group (P<0.01). No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in open field test (P>0.05); (3)NO level of mouse hippocampus tissue was decreased in 0.075% group (P<0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that decreased hippocampus NO level may contribute to the Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory processes.

  9. Prostate-specific antigen levels are higher in African-American than in white patients in a multicenter registration study: Results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a national sample of African-American and white men with prostate cancer, and to attempt to explain any differences by using self-reported individual-level socioeconomic status adjustments. Methods and Materials: During 4((1)/(2)) months in 1994-95, 709 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study; 17.5% were African-American and 82.5% were white. Information about clinical stage, tumor grade, pretreatment PSA, type of insurance, and educational and income status was obtained. Serum PSA levels were measured and racial differences were found; how the differences were influenced by other patient- or tumor-related factors and if the differences could be explained by socioeconomic status disparities were determined. In univariate analyses, factors associated with the mean PSA levels were studied; log-converted values were used to yield a normal distribution. Multivariate analyses were done on log-linear models for description of association patterns among various categorical variables; a perfectly fitted model should have a correlation value (CV) of 1.0. Results: The mean PSA level was higher in African-Americans (14.68 ng/ml) than in whites (9.82 ng/ml) (p = 0.001). Clinical stage (p = 0.001), Gleason sum tumor grade (p = 0.0001), educational level (p = 0.001), and household income (p = 0.03) were also associated with mean PSA levels; age, type of biopsy, and insurance status were not. Disease stage (p = 0.0001), grade (p 0.0001), education (p = 0.07), and income (p = 0.02) were all associated with PSA levels for whites, but none of these factors were important for African-Americans (all p values > 0.1). The best fitted log-linear model (CV = 0.99) contained PSA ( 20), Gleason sum grade (2-5, 6-7, and 8-10), race, and two interactions: PSA by race (p = 0.0012) and PSA by Gleason sum (p = 0.0001). Models replacing race for either income (CV = 0.82) or education

  10. Prostate cancer detection upon transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen level: what to expect in the Chinese population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate cancer detection rates upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and risk factors of prostate cancer detection in the Chinese population. Data from all consecutive Chinese men who underwent first TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from year 2000 to 2013 was retrieved from our database. The prostate cancer detection rates with reference to DRE finding and PSA level of 50 ng ml−1 were investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate for potential risk factors of prostate cancer detection. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. In patients with normal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 8.6%, 13.4%, 21.8%, 41.7% and 85.2% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. In patients with abnormal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 12.4%, 30.2%, 52.7%, 80.6% and 96.4% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. Older age, smaller prostate volume, larger number of biopsy cores, presence of abnormal DRE finding and higher PSA level were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer detection upon multivariate logistic regression analyses (P < 0.001. Chinese men appeared to have lower prostate cancer detection rates when compared to the Western population. Taking the different risk factors into account, an individualized approach to the decision of TRUS-guided biopsy can be adopted.

  11. Pretreatment Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Level Indicates Tumor Response, Early Distant Metastasis, Overall Survival, and Therapeutic Selection in Localized and Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The use of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for localized and unresectable pancreatic cancer has been disputed because of high probability of distant metastasis. Thus, we analyzed the effect of clinical parameters on tumor response, early distant metastasis within 3 months (DM3m), and overall survival to identify an indicator for selecting patients who would benefit from CRT. Methods and Materials: This study retrospectively analyzed the data from 84 patients with localized and unresectable pancreatic cancer who underwent CRT between August 2002 and October 2009. Sex, age, tumor size, histological differentiation, N classification, pre- and post-treatment carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level, and CA 19-9 percent decrease were analyzed to identify risk factors associated with tumor response, DM3m, and overall survival. Results: For all 84 patients, the median survival time was 12.5 months (range, 2–31.9 months), objective response (complete response or partial response) to CRT was observed in 28 patients (33.3%), and DM3m occurred in 24 patients (28.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment CA 19-9 level (≤400 vs. >400 U/ml) was significantly associated with tumor response (45.1% vs. 15.2%), DM3m (19.6% vs. 42.4%), and median overall survival time (15.1 vs. 9.7 months) (p 3m, and overall survival and identifying patients who will benefit from CRT.

  12. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader.

  13. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  14. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  16. Hepatitis B core-related antigen levels are associated with response to entecavir and peginterferon add-on therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campenhout, M J H; Brouwer, W P; van Oord, G W; Xie, Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, N; Guo, S; Tabak, F; Streinu-Cercel, A; Wang, J; Pas, S D; Sonneveld, M J; de Knegt, R J; Boonstra, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), a new serum marker, may be useful in monitoring chronic hepatitis B infection. HBcrAg was measured in 175 hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients treated with entecavir (ETV) with or without peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on therapy. Decline in HBcrAg was stronger in patients with vs. without combined response (ETV: -3.22 vs. -1.71 log U/mL, p HBcrAg was associated with combined response (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.5, p <0.001), but was not superior to quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg).

  17. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels in the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasoumy, B; Wiegand, S B; Jaroszewicz, J; Bremer, B; Lehmann, P; Deterding, K; Taranta, A; Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H; Glebe, D; Cornberg, M

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been suggested as an additional marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBcrAg combines the antigenic reactivity resulting from denatured hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV core antigen and an artificial core-related protein (p22cr). In Asian patients, high levels of HBcrAg have been suggested to be an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, while low levels could guide safe cessation of treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues. We here studied HBcrAg levels in different phases of HBV infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D: HBeAg-positive immune tolerance (n = 30), HBeAg-positive immune clearance (IC) (n = 60), HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) (n = 50), HBeAg-negative inactive/quiescent carrier phase (c) (n = 109) and acute hepatitis B (n = 8). Median HBcrAg levels were high in the immune tolerance and immune clearance phases (8.41 and 8.11 log U/mL, respectively), lower in ENH subjects (4.82 log U/mL) but only 2.00 log U/mL in ENQ subjects. Correlation between HBcrAg and HBV DNA varied among the different phases of HBV infection, while HBcrAg moderately correlated with hepatitis B surface antigen in all phases. ENQ patients had HBcrAg levels HBcrAg levels vary significantly during the different phases of HBV infection. HBcrAg may serve as valuable marker for virus replication and reflect the transcriptional activity of intrahepatic cccDNA. In HBeAg-negative patients, HBcrAg may help to distinguish between inactive carriers (ENQ) and those with active disease (ENH).

  18. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand J Teeuw

    Full Text Available Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD, and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively. Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007. This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent.

  19. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J; Laine, Marja L; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent. PMID:26348353

  20. Two-Year Follow-up Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen-Driven IFN-γ Responses and Macrophage sCD14 Levels After Tuberculosis Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druszczynska, Magdalena; Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Kawka, Malwina; Rudnicka, Wieslawa

    2016-06-01

    Clinical data regarding the prediction of active tuberculosis (TB) development in close TB contacts are scarce. To address this problem, we performed a 2-year follow-up study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen-driven IFN-gamma responses and serum levels of soluble macrophage CD14 receptor in individuals with recent or prolonged M.tb exposure. Between June 2011 and June 2013, we studied 60 healthy Polish adults with recent household or long-term work TB contact and individuals without known M.tb exposure. All of them underwent baseline and repeated testing with IGRA (IFN-gamma release assay) and serum sCD14 ELISA quantification. Frequencies of IGRA results differed at the baseline and follow-up testing. IGRA reversions were noticed in almost one-third of Work TB Contacts and no participants from the Household TB Contact group. IGRA conversions were found in 40 % of Household TB Contacts. No correlation between the IGRA result and the sCD14 level was observed. IFN-γ variability has important implications for clinical practice and requires caution in interpreting the results to distinguish new infections from nonspecific inter-individual variations in cytokine responses. The impairment of IFN-γ response in some individuals with prolonged M.tb exposure representing a resistant immune status does not allow considering IGRA results as reliable and credible. Monitoring the serum sCD14 level can reduce the likelihood of a false prediction of active TB development in close TB contacts showing an M.tb-specific increase in the IFN-gamma production in repeated IGRA testing. PMID:27570313

  1. Application of high-resolution, massively parallel pyrosequencing for estimation of haplotypes and gene expression levels of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yuki F; Ando, Asako; Tanaka, Keiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Ozaki, Yuki; Uenishi, Hirohide; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Shiina, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    The swine is an important animal model for allo- and xeno-transplantation donor studies, which necessitates an extensive characterization of the expression and sequence variations within the highly polygenic and polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) region. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is potentially an effective new 2ndGen method for simultaneous high-throughput genotyping and detection of SLA class I gene expression levels. In this study, we compared the 2ndGen method using the Roche Genome Sequencer 454 FLX with the conventional method using sub-cloning and Sanger sequencing to genotype SLA class I genes in five pigs of the Clawn breed and four pigs of the Landrace breed. We obtained an average of 10.4 SLA class I sequences per pig by the 2ndGen method, consistent with the inheritance data, and an average of only 6.0 sequences by the conventional method. We also performed a correlation analysis between the sequence read numbers obtained by the 2ndGen method and the relative expression values obtained by quantitative real-time PCR analysis at the allele level. A significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.899, P SLA class I genes SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, suggesting that the sequence read numbers closely reflect the gene expression levels in white blood cells. Overall, five novel class I sequences, different haplotype-specific expression patterns and a splice variant for one of the SLA class I genes were identified by the 2ndGen method at greater efficiency and sensitivity than the conventional method.

  2. Influences of phosphate nutritional level on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium and lead in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su; SUN Tie-heng; SUN Li-na; ZHOU Qi-xing; CHAO Lei

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the influence of phosphate levels on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) in soil. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was selected as the tested plant. There were 5phosphate fertilizer(Ca(H2PO4)2) levels including 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg P2O5/kg soil, marked by P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4, respecby TI, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that the P fertilizer promoted the dry weight of wheat in all treatments and alleviated the contamination induced by Cd and Pb. With increasing levels of the additional P fertilizer, Cd concentration in different parts (root, haulm, chaffand grain) of wheat decreased at the P1 level at first and then increased. The soluble plus exchangeable (SE)fraction of Cd in soil decreased at the P1 level and then increased from P2 to P4 levels. The moderate P fertilizer reduced the phytoavailability of Cd. The application of P could obviously restrain the uptake of Pb by wheat and there were significantly negative correlations between the levels of P and the uptake of Pb. Phosphorus supply resulted in a decrease in the SE fraction of Pb and there was a significantly negative correlation between the levels of P and the SE fraction of Pb in soil. All the levels of the P fertilizer in this experiment could reduce the phytoavailability of Pb. Thus, it is feasible to apply the P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2) to Pb contaminated soils.However, the levels of P application should be restricted in case that redundant P may increase the phytoavailability of Cd.

  3. Simple high-cell density fed-batch technique for high-level recombinant protein production with Pichia pastoris: Application to intracellular production of Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Anton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is a serious global public health concern. Though a safe and efficacious recombinant vaccine is available, its use in several resource-poor countries is limited by cost. We have investigated the production of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg using the yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 by inserting the HBsAg gene into the alcohol oxidase 1 locus. Results Large-scale production was optimized by developing a simple fed-batch process leading to enhanced product titers. Cells were first grown rapidly to high-cell density in a batch process using a simple defined medium with low salt and high glycerol concentrations. Induction of recombinant product synthesis was carried out using rather drastic conditions, namely through the addition of methanol to a final concentration of 6 g L-1. This methanol concentration was kept constant for the remainder of the cultivation through continuous methanol feeding based on the on-line signal of a flame ionization detector employed as methanol analyzer in the off-gas stream. Using this robust feeding protocol, maximum concentrations of ~7 grams HBsAg per liter culture broth were obtained. The amount of soluble HBsAg, competent for assembly into characteristic virus-like particles (VLPs, an attribute critical to its immunogenicity and efficacy as a hepatitis B vaccine, reached 2.3 grams per liter of culture broth. Conclusion In comparison to the highest yields reported so far, our simple cultivation process resulted in an ~7 fold enhancement in total HBsAg production with more than 30% of soluble protein competent for assembly into VLPs. This work opens up the possibility of significantly reducing the cost of vaccine production with implications for expanding hepatitis B vaccination in resource-poor countries.

  4. A binderless, covalently bulk modified electrochemical sensor: Application to simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium at trace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunigollahalli Kempegowda, Raghu [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India); Malingappa, Pandurangappa, E-mail: mprangachem@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed sensor is a new type of binderless covalent bulk modified electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface can be easily renewed by simple mechanical polishing using emery sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free from modifier leaching during electrochemical measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides long term storage stability with good reproducibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanomolar level detection limit achieved with selectivity. - Abstract: A new type of covalent binderless bulk modified electrode has been fabricated and used in the simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium ions at nanomolar level. The modification of graphitic carbon with 4-amino salicylic acid was carried out under microwave irradiation through the amide bond formation. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated electrode has been carried out to decipher the interacting ability of the functional moieties present on the modifier molecules toward the simultaneous determination of Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The possible mode of interaction of functional groups with metal ions is proposed based on the pKa values of the modifier functionalities present on the surface of graphitic carbon particles. The analytical utility of the proposed sensor has been validated by measuring the lead and cadmium content from pretreated waste water samples of lead acid batteries.

  5. Relationship of Thyroid Hormone Levels to Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, p,p′- DDE, and Other Toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Denham, Melinda; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is well documented that acute exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p′-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), can affect human health including thyroid function. Chronic exposure to multiple toxicants is common but difficult to analyze, and most prior studies have focused on adults or newborns, creating a gap in our understanding of multitoxicant effects among adolescents. Objective We investigated whether levels of PCBs, p,p′-DDE, HCB, mirex, lead, and mercury reflecting past chronic exposure are associated with alterations in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (TT4), and free thyroxine (FT4) among older children and adolescents. Methods The sample consists of youth from the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation (n = 232) who reside in proximity to several industries that have contaminated the local environment. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the effect of PCB groupings, p,p′-DDE, HCB, lead, and mercury on thyroid hormones after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and controlling for all other toxicants. Results Exposure to PCBs affects the thyroid hormone profile in adolescents. The group of persistent PCBs was positively associated with TSH but inversely related to FT4. Nonpersistent PCBs were significantly and negatively related to FT4 only. HCB was negatively associated with T4, and lead was positively associated with T3. Breast-fed adolescents had higher levels of persistent PCBs and p,p′-DDE but not of nonpersistent PCBs or any other toxicant when compared with non-breast-fed adolescents. Though having lower levels of persistent PCBs and p,p′-DDE, non-breast-fed adolescents exhibited significant relationships between persistent PCBs and TSH and FT4, but breast-fed adolescents did not. It appears that PCBs from breast milk obscure the relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and

  6. A nomogram based on age,prostate-specific antigen level,prostate volume and digital rectal examination for predicting risk of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Hui Chen; Matthew Uhlman; Yu-Rong Lin; Xiang-Rong Deng; Bin Wang; Wen-Jun Yang; Ke-Ji Xie

    2013-01-01

    Nomograms for predicting the risk of prostate cancer developed using other populations may introduce sizable bias when applied to a Chinese cohort.In the present study,we sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Chinese population.A total of 535 Chinese men who underwent a prostatic biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in the past decade with complete biopsy data were included.Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of a positive initial biopsy.Age,prostate-specific antigen (PSA),prostate volume (PV),digital rectal examination (DRE) status,% free PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings were included in the analysis.A nomogram model was developed that was based on these independent predictors to calculate the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy.A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of using the nomogram and PSA levels alone for predicting positive prostate biopsy.The rate for positive initial prostate biopsy was 41.7% (223/535).The independent variables used to predict a positive initial prostate biopsy were age,PSA,PV and DRE status.The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for a positive initial prostate biopsy for PSA alone and the nomogram were 79.7% and 84.8%,respectively.Our results indicate that the risk of a positive initial prostate biopsy can be predicted to a satisfactory level in a Chinese population using our nomogram.The nomogram can be used to identify and Counsel patients who should consider a prostate biopsy,ultimately enhancing accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer.

  7. Optimizing patient selection for dose escalation techniques using the prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy gleason score, and clinical T-stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Ideal candidates for 3D dose escalation conformal radiation or external beam + implant therapy are identified on the basis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 American Joint Commission Cancer (AJCC) clinical T-stage. Methods and Materials: The pathologic findings of 1742 men with clinical stage T1c,2 prostate cancer managed with a radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 1998 were subjected to a logistic regression multivariable analysis. The endpoints examined included pathologic organ-confined (OC), specimen-confined (SC), and margin (M) or seminal vesicle (SV) positive disease. SC disease was defined as extracapsular extension (ECE) with a negative surgical margin. The clinical factors tested included PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 AJCC clinical T-stage. PSA failure-free (bNED) survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: Significant negative predictors of pathologic OC-disease or positive predictors of M+ or SV+ disease included a PSA > 10 ng/ml (p + or SV+ disease respectively. Conclusions: Patients most likely to derive a survival benefit from the improved local control possible using dose escalation techniques were those who had both a low risk of having occult micrometastatic disease (+ or SV+) and a reasonable likelihood of remaining disease-free after RP (>50% 5-year bNED). These patients included those having T1c, 2a, PSA > 10-15 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤6 or T1c, 2a, 2b, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤ 7 prostate cancer

  8. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  9. Expression, purification, and molecular analysis of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1): a production process developed for a lead candidate recombinant hookworm vaccine antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Gaddam Narsa; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Tsao, Eric I; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1) belongs to a unique Nu class of GSTs and is a lead candidate antigen in a bivalent human hookworm vaccine. Here we describe the expression of Na-GST-1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris at the 20 L manufacturing scale and its purification process performed by three chromatographic steps, comprised of a Q Sepharose XL anion exchange column, followed by a Butyl Sepharose HP hydrophobic affinity column and a Superdex 75 size-exclusion column. Approximately 1.5 g of recombinant protein was recovered at an overall process yield of 51%, with a purity grade of 98% and the absence of detectable host cell protein. By mass spectrometry the recombinant protein exhibits a mass of 23,676Da, which closely matches the predicted molecular mass of the protein. The expression and purification methods described here are suitable for further scale-up product development and for its use to design formulation processes suitable to generate a vaccine for clinical testing. PMID:22503665

  10. Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal bone, umbilical cord blood, and childhood serial blood samples collected from the ages of 3 months to ≥6 years. We found that Pb levels (as 208Pb:43Ca in dentine formed at birth were significantly associated with cord blood Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.69; n = 27; p<0.0001. The association of prenatal dentine Pb with maternal patella Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.48; n = 59; p<0.0001 was stronger than that observed for tibia Pb levels (Spearman ρ = 0.35; n = 41; p<0.03. When assessing postnatal exposure, we found that Pb levels in dentine formed at 3 months were significantly associated with Pb concentrations in children's blood collected concurrently (Spearman ρ = 0.64; n = 55; p<0.0001. We also found that mean Pb concentrations in secondary dentine (that is formed from root completion to tooth shedding correlated positively with cumulative blood lead index (Spearman ρ = 0.38; n = 75; p<0.0007. Overall, our results support that micro-spatial measurements of Pb in dentine can be reliably used to reconstruct Pb exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods, and secondary dentine holds the potential to estimate long-term exposure up to the time the tooth is shed.

  11. Determining of the level of lead and cadmium contamination in pregnant women living in an exposed mining area of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the objective of this study to determine in the first year the level of acute pollution and their nutritional status in pregnant women living in a lead and cadmium exposed mining area of Peru. The complete project will focus on delivering women and their infants who are one of the most vulnerable groups of the life cycle. It is of particular interest to investigate the impact of pollution not only in the mother but also the possible transfer to the infant. (author)

  12. High-level expression of the ER-MP58 antigen on mouse bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells marks commitment to the myeloid lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, M F; Ploemacher, R E; Mayen, A E; Voerman, J S; Slieker, W A; van Ewijk, W; Leenen, P J

    1996-12-01

    Studies on the early events in the differentiation of the nonspecific immune system require the identification and isolation of myeloid-committed progenitor cells. Using the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) ER-MP12 and ER-MP20, generated against immortalized macrophage precursors, we have shown previously that the earliest macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-responsive cells in the bone marrow have the ER-MP12hi 20- phenotype. In addition, we found that the ER-MP12hi 20- subset (comprising about 2 % of total nucleated marrow) contains progenitor cells of all hematopoietic lineages. Aiming at the identification and purification of the myeloid progenitor cells within the ER-MP12hi 20-subset, we used ER-MP58, a marker expressed at high level by all M-CSF-responsive bone marrow progenitors. With this marker the ER-MP12hi 20- cell population could be divided into three subfractions: one with absent or low level ER-MP58 expression, one with intermediate, and one with high ER-MP58 expression. These subfractions were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and tested in vitro and in vivo for their differentiation capacities. In addition, the expression of ER-MP58 on stem cell subsets was examined in the cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) assay. Our data indicate that in the ER-MP12hi 20- subpopulation myeloid-committed progenitors are characterized by high-level expression of the ER-MP58 antigen, whereas cells with other or broader differentiation capacities have an ER-MP58 negative/low or intermediate phenotype. These myeloid-committed progenitors have no significant repopulating ability in vivo, in contrast to the ER-MP58 intermediate cells. Primitive CAFC-28/35, corresponding to cells providing long-term hematopoietic engraftment in vivo, also did not express the ER-MP58 Ag at a high level. Thus, cells committed to the myeloid lineage can be separated from progenitor cells with other differentiation capacities by means of multiparameter cell sorting using

  13. Influences of phosphate nutritional level on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium and lead in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Sun, Tie-heng; Sun, Li-na; Zhou, Qi-xing; Chao, Lei

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the influence of phosphate levels on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) in soil. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was selected as the tested plant. There were 5 phosphate fertilizer(Ca(H2PO4)2) levels including 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg P2O5/kg soil, marked by PO, P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively. CdCl2 x 2.5H2O and Pb(NO3)2 were added to soil as the following levels: Cd + Pb = 25+0, 0+1000, and 25+1000 mg/kg, marked by T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that the P fertilizer promoted the dry weight of wheat in all treatments and alleviated the contamination induced by Cd and Pb. With increasing levels of the additional P fertilizer, Cd concentration in different parts (root, haulm, chaffand grain) of wheat decreased at the P1 level at first and then increased. The soluble plus exchangeable (SE) fraction of Cd in soil decreased at the P1 level and then increased from P2 to P4 levels. The moderate P fertilizer reduced the phytoavailability of Cd. The application of P could obviously restrain the uptake of Pb by wheat and there were significantly negative correlations between the levels of P and the uptake of Pb. Phosphorus supply resulted in a decrease in the SE fraction of Pb and there was a significantly negative correlation between the levels of P and the SE fraction of Pb in soil. All the levels of the P fertilizer in this experiment could reduce the phytoavailability of Pb. Thus, it is feasible to apply the P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2) to Pb contaminated soils. However, the levels of P application should be restricted in case that redundant P may increase the phytoavailability of Cd.

  14. Engineered mutations in fibrillin-1 leading to Marfan syndrome act at the protein, cellular and organismal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Karina A; Reinhardt, Dieter P

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are the major components of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix of elastic and non-elastic tissues. They are multi-domain proteins, containing primarily calcium binding epidermal growth factor-like (cbEGF) domains and 8-cysteine/transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-like (TB) domains. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene give rise to Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder with clinical complications in the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular and other organ systems. Here, we review the consequences of engineered Marfan syndrome mutations in fibrillin-1 at the protein, cellular and organismal levels. Representative point mutations associated with Marfan syndrome in affected individuals have been introduced and analyzed in recombinant fibrillin-1 fragments. Those mutations affect fibrillin-1 on a structural and functional level. Mutations which impair folding of cbEGF domains can affect protein trafficking. Protein folding disrupted by some mutations can lead to defective secretion in mutant fibrillin-1 fragments, whereas fragments with other Marfan mutations are secreted normally. Many Marfan mutations render fibrillin-1 more susceptible to proteolysis. There is also evidence that some mutations affect heparin binding. Few mutations have been further analyzed in mouse models. An extensively studied mouse model of Marfan syndrome expresses mouse fibrillin-1 with a missense mutation (p.C1039G). The mice display similar characteristics to human patients with Marfan syndrome. Overall, the analyses of engineered mutations leading to Marfan syndrome provide important insights into the pathogenic molecular mechanisms exerted by mutated fibrillin-1. PMID:26281765

  15. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample.

  16. An investigation of environmental levels of cadmium and lead in airborne matter and surface soils within the locality of a municipal waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, R S; Oduyemi, K; Lill, D E

    1998-01-19

    The results of an investigation into the environmental impact of heavy metals in the airborne emissions from the Baldovie municipal waste incinerator, Scotland, are presented. A sampling network of 1-km grid squares covering a 7 x 9 km area was established over the incinerator plant and its surroundings. Surface soil core samples were collected from within each 1 km2 and analysed for cadmium and lead content. The spatial distribution of lead levels in soils showed a marked variation downwind from the Baldovie incinerator in comparison with the background level for the area but remained well within the typical range of lead in rural, unpolluted, British soils. A comparison of the observed levels of lead in local soils, with the predicted downwind long-term ground level lead distribution in air indicates that atmospheric emissions of lead originating from the Baldovie incinerator directly determine concentrations of lead in soils within a radius of 5 km of the incinerator. An empirical relationship between the levels of lead in soils and the long-term levels in air was established. In the case of cadmium, the spatial distribution of the heavy metal showed neither a marked nor extensive contamination of the sampled area around the incinerator and remained within the typical range of cadmium levels in rural, unpolluted, British soils. The work concludes that atmospheric emissions of lead from the Baldovie incinerator significantly determines the local distribution of lead in soils within the immediate vicinity of the incinerator. PMID:9514037

  17. Experimental manipulation of dietary lead levels in great tit nestlings: limited effects on growth, physiology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Miia; Berglund, Åsa; Kanerva, Mirella; Stauffer, Janina; Stöwe, Mareike; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2014-07-01

    We manipulated dietary lead (Pb) levels of nestlings in wild populations of the great tit (Parus major L) to find out if environmentally relevant Pb levels would affect some physiological biomarkers (haematocrit [HT], fecal corticosterone metabolites [CORT], heat shock proteins [HSPs], erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity [ALAd]), growth (body mass, wing length), phenotype (plumage coloration) or survival of nestlings. The responses to three experimental manipulation (control, low and high: 0, 1 and 4 μg/g body mass/day) are compared with those in a P. major population breeding in the vicinity of a heavy metal source, a copper smelter. Our Pb supplementation was successful in raising the fecal concentrations to the levels found in polluted environments (high: 8.0 μg/g d.w.). Despite relatively high range of exposure levels we found only few effects on growth rates or physiology. The lack of blood ALAd inhibition suggests that the circulating Pb levels were generally below the toxic level despite that marked accumulation of Pb in femur (high: 27.8 μg/g d.w.) was observed. Instead, birds in the metal polluted environment around the smelter showed decreased growth rates, lower HT, higher CORT, less colorful plumage and lower survival probabilities than any of the Pb treated groups. These effects are likely related to decreased food quality/quantity for these insectivorous birds at the smelter site. In general, the responses of nestlings to metal exposure and/or associated resource limitation were not gender specific. One of the stress proteins (HSP60), however, was more strongly induced in Pb exposed males and further studies are needed to explore if this was due to higher accumulation of Pb or higher sensitivity of males. In all, our results emphasize the importance of secondary pollution effects (e.g. via food chain disruption) on reproductive output of birds. PMID:24700183

  18. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  19. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure

  20. High preoperative and postoperative levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and CYFRA 21-1 indicate poor prognosis in patients with pathological Stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and the soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21-1 are supposed to have a prognostic role in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC after surgery, but it has not been used as an adjunct to the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging system to provide therapy options for patients with pathological Stage I NSCLC. This study was designed to investigate the effect of serum levels of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 before and after surgery on the prognosis of patients with Stage I NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed regarding the medical records and follow-ups of 169 patients with Stage I NSCLC before and after surgery. The patients were divided into three groups based on levels of serum CEA and CYFRA 21-1 before and after surgery: (1 continuously normal-level groups (CEA [NN] and CYFRA 21-1 [NN] groups; (2 declined to normal-level groups (CEA [HN] and CYFRA 21-1 [HN] groups; and (3 continuously high-level groups (CEA [HH] and CYFRA 21-1 [HH] groups. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method for each group. The Chi-square or Fisher exact test was employed to compare clinical and pathologic factors at the level of P < 0.05. The prognostic factor was evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Compared with the continuously normal-level groups, the CEA [HN] group was significantly correlated to tumor size (P = 0.011, and the CYFRA 21-1 [HN] group was significantly correlated to tumor type and pathological TNM in addition to tumor size. Five-year survivals were significantly lower (P = 0.004 in the CEA [HH] group (67.3% and the CEA [HN] group (86.5% than in the CEA [NN] group (85.7% and were significantly lower (P < 0.001 in the CYFRA 21-1 [HH] group (47.2% and the CYFRA 21-1 [HN] group (70.1% than in the CYFRA 21-1 [NN] group (90.1%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size (21-50 mm, CEA [HH], and CYFRA 21-1 [HH] were independent

  1. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  2. Tumor-targeted delivery of IL-2 by NKG2D leads to accumulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor loci and enhanced anti-tumor effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Heung Kang

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has been shown to promote tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and differentiation but systemic administration of IL-2 results in significant toxicity. Therefore, a strategy that can specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location may alleviate concerns of toxicity. Because NKG2D ligands have been shown to be highly expressed in many cancer cells but not in healthy cells, we reason that a chimeric protein consisting of NKG2D linked to IL-2 will lead to the specific targeting of IL-2 to the tumor location. Therefore, we created chimeric proteins consisting of NKG2D linked to Gaussia luciferase (GLuc; a marker protein or IL-2 to form NKG2D-Fc-GLuc and NKG2D-Fc-IL2, respectively. We demonstrated that NKG2D linked to GLuc was able to deliver GLuc to the tumor location in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that TC-1 tumor-bearing mice intramuscularly injected with DNA encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2, followed by electroporation, exhibited an increased number of luciferase-expressing E7-specific CD8+ T cells at the tumor location. More importantly, treatment with the DNA construct encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2 significantly enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects generated by intradermal vaccination with therapeutic HPV DNA in tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, by linking NKG2D to IL2, we are able to specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location, enhancing antigen-specific T-cell immune response and controlling tumor growth. Our approach represents a platform technology to specifically deliver proteins of interest to tumor loci.

  3. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  4. Association between blood lead levels and environmental exposure among Saudi schoolchildren in certain districts of Al-Madinah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Adnan Zolaly1, Manal Ibrahim Hanafi2,3, Nashaat Shawky4, Khalid el-Harbi1, Ahmed M Mohamadin5,61Pediatric Department, 2Family and Community Medicine Department, Medical College, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 3Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Ophthalmology Department, Medical College, 5Chemistry for Health Sciences Department, Deanery of Academic Services, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 6Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptIntroduction: Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries. When humans are exposed to high levels of lead, there is damage to almost all organs and organ systems (most importantly, the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood, which often culminates in death.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs and to identify the sources of environmental exposure and potential risk factors for elevated BLLs among Saudi schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2010. The study population included 557 Saudi school students of both sexes. A multistage random sampling technique was used. Information about socioeconomic status, house and school construction, and parents' education and employment was collected using questionnaires. Lead was analyzed in a blood sample using an atomic absorption technique and hemoglobin was measured using a Sysmex hematological analyzer.Results: The mean BLL was 4.94 ± 3.38 µg/dL (range 0.45–26.3 µg/dL. A total of 19% had BLLs <1.0 µg/dL, 16% had BLLs <2.5 µg/dL, 15% had BLLs <5.0 µg/dL, 20% had BLLs <7.5 µg/dL, 25% had BLLs <10.0 µg/dL, and about 6% had BLLs >10.0 µg/dL. Analysis of odds by controlling all risk factors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] that affect BLLs (≥10 µg/dL indicated

  5. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantity positively correlates with plasma levels of microRNAs differentially expressed in immunological phases of chronic hepatitis B in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Heiberg, Ida Louise; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner;

    2013-01-01

    Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles are produced in large excess over...

  6. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m2 day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0. 024, and 0.023 microg/m2 day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home, and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  7. Effect of Interfacial Reactions on the Reliability of Lead-Free Assemblies after Board Level Drop Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanghua; Lu, Chuanyan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2007-09-01

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies after board level drop tests was investigated. Thin small outline package (TSOP) components with 42 FeNi alloy leads were reflow soldered on FR4 printed circuit boards (PCBs) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes [organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)], multiple reflow (once and three times), and isothermal aging (500 h at 125°C after one time reflow) were studied. The ENIG finish showed better performance than its OSP counterparts. With the OSP finish, solder joints reflowed three times showed obvious improvement compared to those of the sample reflowed once, while aging led to apparent degradation. The results showed that intermetallic compound (IMC) types, IMC microstructure and solder microstructure compete with each other, all playing very important roles in the solder joint lifetime. The results also showed that it is important to specify adequate conditions for a given reliability assessment program, to allow meaningful comparison between results of different investigators.

  8. A follow-up comparison of blood lead levels between foreign and native workers of battery manufacturing in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign workers employed in industries in Taiwan have been found at elevated risk of injuries. Less well known is whether the elevated risk persists in chemical exposure such as lead exposure at battery manufacturing. A cohort of 70 Thai workers and 55 native workers employed at a battery plant were followed up, after an education of job safety, from 2000 until 2002. This study compared the change of blood lead levels (BLLs) between these two groups of workers. With informed consent, BLLs were measured annually for participants and compared. The average baseline BLLs were approximately at similarly high levels between Thai workers and native workers with means ± standard deviations of 36.9 ± 16.4 and 36.2 ± 12.4 μg/dl, respectively (p = 0.79). At the end of 2002, the average concentration was higher in Thai workers than in native workers. Using mixed models, Thai workers had an average of 5.95 μg/dl increase in BLLs over native workers during the 3-year study. Further measurements revealed that the average BLL for workers in the assembly department was 3.57 ± 1.83 μg/dl in excess, compared with workers in the plate engineering department. Thai workers were more likely to drink alcohol but less likely to wear gloves at work and wash hands before meals. The BLL disparities between Thai workers and native workers can partly be explained by differences in risk-taking behaviors. Higher BLLs in Thai workers suggest the need of language appropriate health education to improve their personal hygiene. Workplace smoking ceasing program may be needed both in Thai and native workers

  9. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  10. Stress leads to contrasting effects on the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Lakshminarasimhan

    Full Text Available Recent findings on stress induced structural plasticity in rodents have identified important differences between the hippocampus and amygdala. The same chronic immobilization stress (CIS, 2 h/day causes growth of dendrites and spines in the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but dendritic atrophy in hippocampal area CA3. CIS induced morphological changes also differ in their temporal longevity--BLA hypertrophy, unlike CA3 atrophy, persists even after 21 days of stress-free recovery. Furthermore, a single session of acute immobilization stress (AIS, 2 h leads to a significant increase in spine density 10 days, but not 1 day, later in the BLA. However, little is known about the molecular correlates of the differential effects of chronic and acute stress. Because BDNF is known to be a key regulator of dendritic architecture and spines, we investigated if the levels of BDNF expression reflect the divergent effects of stress on the hippocampus and amygdala. CIS reduces BDNF in area CA3, while it increases it in the BLA of male Wistar rats. CIS-induced increase in BDNF expression lasts for at least 21 days after the end of CIS in the BLA. But CIS-induced decrease in area CA3 BDNF levels, reverses to normal levels within the same period. Finally, BDNF is up regulated in the BLA 1 day after AIS and this increase persists even 10 days later. In contrast, AIS fails to elicit any significant change in area CA3 at either time points. Together, these findings demonstrate that both acute and chronic stress trigger opposite effects on BDNF levels in the BLA versus area CA3, and these divergent changes also follow distinct temporal profiles. These results point to a role for BDNF in stress-induced structural plasticity across both hippocampus and amygdala, two brain areas that have also been implicated in the cognitive and affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  11. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA. PMID:25724617

  12. Plant growth, development and change in GSH level in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. exposed to copper and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shufen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure to heavy metals, copper (Cu and lead (Pb in the soil, separately and in combination, were examined in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.. Plant growth and development, GSH level and GSH2 expression at seedling, branching, and flowering stages were studied. Cu at lower concentrations had a stimulating effect on seedling height and root length. A significant positive correlation was observed between heavy metal concentrations and inhibition of plant growth. Plant height, root length and lateral root numbers decreased progressively with increasing concentrations of Cu and Pb. Except at the seedling stage, the metal mixture elicited a synergistic effect on safflower growth and development. The GSH content was significantly reduced in both safflower roots and leaves at increased concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the treatment with a low concentration of Cu that resulted in a slightl increase in GSH content at the seedling and branching stages. RT-PCR analysis revealed a negative correlation between GSH2 expression levels and metal concentration. Short exposure to low concentrations of Cu induce an increase in GSH synthesis to preserve normal plant growth, whereas prolonged exposure and large Cu and Pb concentrations affect the GSH metabolic chain, and are severely toxicity. The findings obtained in this study enhance our understanding of the role of the GSH pool in the response of plants to heavy metal-induced stress, and serve as a basis for improved cultivation of safflower.

  13. Canavanine Alters ROS/RNS Level and Leads to Post-translational Modification of Proteins in Roots of Tomato Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Andrzejczak, Olga; Staszek, Paweł; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Canavanine (CAN), a structural analog of arginine (Arg), is used as a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS in mammals. CAN is incorporated into proteins’ structure in the place of Arg, leading to the formation of aberrant compounds. This non-protein amino acid is found in legumes, e.g., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. or Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. and acts as a strong toxin against herbivores or plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were treated for 24–72 h with CAN (10 or 50 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect. We determined ROS level/production in root extracts, fluorescence of DAF-FM and APF derivatives corresponding to RNS level in roots of tomato seedlings and linked CAN-induced restriction of root growth to the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins: carbonylation and nitration. Both PTMs are stable markers of nitro-oxidative stress, regarded as the plant’s secondary response to phytotoxins. CAN enhanced H2O2 content and superoxide radicals generation in extracts of tomato roots and stimulated formation of protein carbonyl groups. An elevated level of carbonylated proteins was characteristic for the plants after 72 h of the culture, mainly for the roots exposed to 10 μM CAN. The proteolytic activity was stimulated by tested non-protein amino acid. CAN treatment led to decline of fluorescence of DAF-FM derivatives, and transiently stimulated fluorescence of APF derivatives. Short-term exposure of tomato seedlings to CAN lowered the protein nitration level. Activity of peroxidase, polyamine oxidase and NADPH oxidase, enzymes acting as modulators of H2O2 concentration and governing root architecture and growth were determined. Activities of all enzymes were stimulated by CAN, but no strict CAN concentration dependence was observed. We conclude, that although CAN treatment led to a decline in the nitric oxide level, PTMs observed in roots of plants exposed to CAN are linked rather to the

  14. Canavanine Alters ROS/RNS Level and Leads to Post-translational Modification of Proteins in Roots of Tomato Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Andrzejczak, Olga; Staszek, Paweł; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Canavanine (CAN), a structural analog of arginine (Arg), is used as a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS in mammals. CAN is incorporated into proteins' structure in the place of Arg, leading to the formation of aberrant compounds. This non-protein amino acid is found in legumes, e.g., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. or Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. and acts as a strong toxin against herbivores or plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were treated for 24-72 h with CAN (10 or 50 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect. We determined ROS level/production in root extracts, fluorescence of DAF-FM and APF derivatives corresponding to RNS level in roots of tomato seedlings and linked CAN-induced restriction of root growth to the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins: carbonylation and nitration. Both PTMs are stable markers of nitro-oxidative stress, regarded as the plant's secondary response to phytotoxins. CAN enhanced H2O2 content and superoxide radicals generation in extracts of tomato roots and stimulated formation of protein carbonyl groups. An elevated level of carbonylated proteins was characteristic for the plants after 72 h of the culture, mainly for the roots exposed to 10 μM CAN. The proteolytic activity was stimulated by tested non-protein amino acid. CAN treatment led to decline of fluorescence of DAF-FM derivatives, and transiently stimulated fluorescence of APF derivatives. Short-term exposure of tomato seedlings to CAN lowered the protein nitration level. Activity of peroxidase, polyamine oxidase and NADPH oxidase, enzymes acting as modulators of H2O2 concentration and governing root architecture and growth were determined. Activities of all enzymes were stimulated by CAN, but no strict CAN concentration dependence was observed. We conclude, that although CAN treatment led to a decline in the nitric oxide level, PTMs observed in roots of plants exposed to CAN are linked rather to the formation of

  15. Simple high-cell density fed-batch technique for high-level recombinant protein production with Pichia pastoris: Application to intracellular production of Hepatitis B surface antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Anton; Lünsdorf Heinrich; Gäbel Thomas; Adnan Ahmad; Gurramkonda Chandrasekhar; Nemani Satish; Swaminathan Sathyamangalam; Khanna Navin; Rinas Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B is a serious global public health concern. Though a safe and efficacious recombinant vaccine is available, its use in several resource-poor countries is limited by cost. We have investigated the production of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using the yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 by inserting the HBsAg gene into the alcohol oxidase 1 locus. Results Large-scale production was optimized by developing a simple fed-batch process leading to enhanced product ...

  16. Blood lead levels for Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus migrating between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kenny

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, we have been determining blood lead levels (BLLs for Eurasian black vulture (EbVs, Aegypius monachus in Mongolia. Since EbVs migrated from Mongolia to the Republic (R. of Korea in 2012, we started comparing BLLs from Mongolia to Korean birds [Mongolia; mean=2.72±0.09 μg/dL standard error (SE, n=181, R. of Korea; mean=6.68±0.58 μg/dL SE, n=124]. In Korea we also analyzed birds by comparing BLLs for free-ranging birds (mean=7.54±0.50 μg/dL SE, n=44 to rehabilitation center birds (mean=6.21±0.86 μg/dL SE, n=80, and for birds fed rescued water deer (Hydropotes inermis (mean=11.26±1.66 μg/dL SE, n=7 to birds fed livestock (mean=1.97±0.27 μg/dL, n=4. Finally, we analyzed BLLs from Mongolia and the R. of Korea according to the following categories: background=<10.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 100%, n=181; R. of Korea 83.1%, exposure=≥10.0 μg/dL to <45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 16.1%, n=20, and diagnostic=≥45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 0.8%, n=1. Our research indicates that EbVs are acquiring lead while migrating to the R. of Korea.

  17. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  18. Virus-like particle production with yeast: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical insights into Pichia pastoris producing high levels of the Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Ahmad; Gurramkonda Chandrasekhar; Lünsdorf Heinrich; Khanna Navin; Rinas Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A protective immune response against Hepatitis B infection can be obtained through the administration of a single viral polypeptide, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Thus, the Hepatitis B vaccine is generated through the utilization of recombinant DNA technology, preferentially by using yeast-based expression systems. However, the polypeptide needs to assemble into spherical particles, so-called virus-like particles (VLPs), to elicit the required protective immune ...

  19. RHAMM (CD168) Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian M. Gust; Hofer, Matthias D; Sven R. Perner; Kim, Robert; Arul M. Chinnaiyan; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Moller, Peter; Rinnab, Ludwig; Rubin, Mark A; Greiner, Jochen; Schmitt, Michael; Kuefer, Rainer; Ringhoffer, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Localized prostate cancer (CaP) can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID), which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidat...

  20. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    OpenAIRE

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  1. Use of novel recombinant antigens in the interferon gamma assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, C.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2012-01-01

    Early stage Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection may be detected by measuring antigen specific cell-mediated immune responses by the interferon-gamma (IFN-¿) assay. Available IFN-¿ assay use purified protein derivate of Johnin (PPDj) leading to low specificity. The objectives...... antigens and PPDj. The study included blood samples from 26 heifers of a MAP infected herd, collected three times with 4 and 5 week interval and blood samples from 60 heifers of a MAP noninfected herd collected once. The IFN-¿ responses of the non-infected heifers were used to establish cutoff values...... for each antigen. A case was defined as an animal with =2 positive tests for =4 antigens, resulting in 13 cases and 13 non-cases. Based on the case-definition, immunogenicity and specificity of each antigen were calculated. IFN-¿ levels against each of the antigens of the infected and non-infected herds...

  2. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells with Greater Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) Expression Exhibit Higher Levels of Metalloproteinase Activity and Are More Aggressive In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chiao Hsu; Kurt Mildenstein; Kordell Hunter; Olena Tkachenko; Mullen, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) is a gene that is expressed in activated lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and stem cells of a variety of tissues in mice. Despite decades of study its functions remain poorly defined. These studies explored the impact of expression of this stem cell associated gene in acute lymphoid leukemia. Higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 expression led to more aggressive leukemia growth in vivo and earlier death of hosts. Leukemias expressing higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 ex...

  3. Dormancy alleviation by NO or HCN leading to decline of protein carbonylation levels in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Dębska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos can be overcome by short-term pre-treatment with nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Dormancy alleviation of embryos modulated by NO or HCN and the first step of germination depend on temporary increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct oxidative attack on some amino acid residues or secondary reactions via reactive carbohydrates and lipids can lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives. Protein carbonylation is a widely accepted covalent and irreversible modification resulting in inhibition or alteration of enzyme/protein activities. It also increases the susceptibility of proteins to proteolytic degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate protein carbonylation in germinating apple embryos, the dormancy of which was removed by pre-treatment with NO or HCN donors. It was performed using a quantitative spectrophotometric method, while patterns of carbonylated protein in embryo axes were analyzed by immunochemical techniques. The highest concentration of protein carbonyl groups was observed in dormant embryos. It declined in germinating embryos pre-treated with NO or HCN, suggesting elevated degradation of modified proteins during seedling formation. A decrease in the concentration of carbonylated proteins was accompanied by modification in proteolytic activity in germinating apple embryos. A strict correlation between the level of protein carbonyl groups and cotyledon growth and greening was detected. Moreover, direct in vitro carbonylation of BSA treated with NO or HCN donors was analyzed, showing action of both signaling molecules as protein oxidation agents.

  4. Effective Investment to Reduce Setup Cost in a Mixture Inventory Model Involving Controllable Backorder Rate and Variable Lead Time with a Service Level Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Hsien-Jen Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of setup cost reduction on an inventory policy for a continuous review mixture inventory model involving controllable backorder rate and variable lead time with a service level constraint, in which the order quantity, setup cost, and lead time are decision variables. Our objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the optimal order quantity, setup cost, and lead time simultaneously, so that the total expected annual cost incurred has a minimum value. F...

  5. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Söylemez, Esma [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Middle Black Sea Passage Generation of Agricultural Research Station Director, Tokat (Turkey); Söylemezoğlu, Tülin [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  6. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  7. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  8. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  9. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan M. Draid

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ability of camel milk to reduce lead toxicity may relate to its antioxidant actions or enhancing, the metal chelating action. In conclusion, Supplementation of daily diets with camel milk may be recommended to improve the body in case of lead contamination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1125-1130

  10. Lead levels and cognitive abilities in Peruvian children Níveis de chumbo e funções cognitivas em crianças peruanas

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann M.; Joel E Salinas-Piélago; María del Rosario Gutiérrez-Campos; Ricardo D Mandamiento-Ayquipa; María del Carmen Yara-Hokama; Johny Ponce-Canchihuamán; Jorge Castro-Morales

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To study the relationship between blood lead levels and cognitive abilities of children exposed to this metal. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study that included 134 children aged 6 to 8.5 years old from 3 schools with different risks of lead exposure located in El Callao (Peru). Cognitive assessments were made by means of the Graphic Test of Reasoning (GTR) and the Kohs Block Design Test (KBDT). Blood lead levels and other laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Children with ...

  11. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  12. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  13. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-07-01

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother-placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR-RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. PMID:25981872

  14. 蓄酸电池厂铅作业工人血铅异常回顾性队列研究%A retrospective cohort study on abnormal blood lead levels in lead-exposed workers in a storage battery factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周齐红; 付风云; 俞慧娟; 任阳春; 叶海朋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influencing factors of high blood lead levels in lead-exposed workers of a storage battery factory .Methods By the typical sampling method , lead-exposed workers were chosen as study subjects for a three-year retrospective cohort study starting from September of 2011 and ending in September of 2014.The starting blood lead level was <400.0μg/L and ending blood lead level was ≥400.0μg/L ( abnormal level ) .The influencing factors of abnormal blood lead level were analyzed by the COX regression analysis method .Results There were 244 lead-exposed workers included in this study .The median (M) working years of baseline lead exposure was 6.3 (0.7-35.9) years, the M of baseline blood lead level was 321.5 (215.7-398.7) μg/L by September of 2011.During the 3 years, there were 78 workers found to have abnormal blood lead levels , with an abnormality rate of 32.0%.The multivariable COX regression analysis indicated that the workers with following situations had relative higher incidences of abnormal blood lead level :working without masks , baseline blood lead level over 300.0 μg/L, the air concentration of lead in workplace beyond the standard and the workers exposed to lead for over 5.0 years, their relative risk ratios were 6.89, 4.00, 9.02 and 2.93 times of those workers with the opposite situations , respectively ( P<0.01 ) .Conclusion Measures should be taken to prevent and control the occupational chronic lead poisoning especially in those lead -exposed workers who don ’t wear masks during work, whose baseline blood lead level was over 300.0 μg/L, whose air concentrations of lead in workplace were beyond the standard and whose lead exposure year was over 5.0 years.%目的:分析蓄电池厂铅作业工人血铅异常的影响因素。方法采用典型抽样方法,以某蓄电池厂的铅作业工人为研究对象,进行为期3年的回顾性队列研究。起点时间为2011年9月,起点事件为血铅水平<400.0μg

  15. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations. PMID:22580791

  16. 铅作业工人血铅水平与膳食营养素关系研究%Study on the correlation between blood lead level and dietary nutrition in lead exposed workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈榕芳; 谢克锦; 林征; 祖庆; 郑嘉华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨铅作业工人体内血铅水平与膳食营养素的关系。方法以福建省南平市某蓄电池厂427名铅作业工人为调查对象,采用自行设计问卷调查作业工人工龄、接铅方式和膳食情况,测定其血铅水平。结果铅作业工人血铅水平中位数为340.1μg/L,血铅水平超标率为45.9%(196/427)。铁摄入过量的铅作业工人血铅超标率高于铁摄入适宜的铅作业工人( P<0.0125);维生素B2摄入过量的铅作业工人血铅超标率高于维生素B2摄入适宜的铅作业工人( P<0.0125)。 Logistic回归分析结果显示:蛋白质摄入过量的铅作业工人发生血铅超标的风险低于蛋白质摄入适宜者(P<0.01),硒摄入不足的铅作业工人发生血铅超标的风险低于硒摄入适宜者(P<0.01);男性铅作业工人发生血铅超标的风险高于女性(P<0.01),工龄越长的铅作业工人发生血铅超标的风险越高(P<0.01),单纯接触铅尘的铅作业工人发生血铅超标的风险高于接触混合铅者(P<0.01),能量摄入不足或过量的铅作业工人发生血铅超标的风险高于能量摄入适宜者(P<0.01)。结论应建立膳食平衡、健康促进和工作环境控制的复合式干预模式。平衡铅作业工人膳食营养,增加能量和维生素B2的摄入。%Objective To explore the correlation between blood lead level and dietary nutrition in workers exposed to lead. Methods Four hundred and twenty-seven lead exposed workers were selected as the investigation objects from a battery factory in Nanping city, Fujian province.By self-designed questionnaire, the workers were investigated on the length of service, lead exposure types and dietary situation status, to determine their blood lead levels.Results The median blood lead level of lead exposed workers was 340.1μg/L, and the over standard rate of blood lead was 45.9%(196/427) .The

  17. Tales of Antigen Evasion from CAR Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Both T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors and tumor-specific antibodies can successfully target some malignancies, but antigen escape can lead to relapse. Two articles in this issue of Cancer Immunology Research explore what effective countermeasures may prevent it. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 473-473. ©2016 AACRSee articles by Zah et al., p. 498, and Rufener et al., p. 509. PMID:27252092

  18. Misplaced Inventory and Lead-Time in the Supply Chain: Analysis of Decision-Making on RFID Investment with Service Level

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hao Zhang; Ti-Jun Fan; Wen-Chyuan Chiang; Feng Tao

    2014-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID), as the key technology of Internet of Things (IoT), has been hailed as a major innovation to solve misplaced inventory and reduce lead-time. Many retailers have been pushing their suppliers to invest this technology. However, its associated costs seem to prohibit its widespread application. This paper analyzes the situation of service level in a retail supply chain, which has resulted from misplaced inventory and lead-time. By newsvendor model, we analyze...

  19. Alterations in thyroid hormones, lipid peroxidation, glutathione content and protein plasma levels of male rats and their male offspring treated with lead acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a pervasive environmental pollutant known to induced a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunction in both laboratory animals as well as in human. The present work was directed to study the impact of lead (Pb) contamination on blood levels of thyroid hormones. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, total protein, albumin and globulin in male albino rats and whether this impact extends to their offspring growing up in same conditions. Animals were classified into three main groups; 1- control. 2- painter's (fathers). 3- first generation of male rats yielded from Pb-contaminated parents (fathers and mothers). groups 2 and 3 were levels; 100 and 200 mg l, drinking water with lead acetates at two dose levels; 100 and 200 mg l. drinking water for two months. The results revealed that lead contamination induced significant elevations (P4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in both fathers and offspring. Yet, lead significantly increase the plasma lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) with concomitant decreased in glutathione blood content in both fathers and male offspring. The plasma levels of total; protein were significantly increased as a response to the plasma albumin elevations and in turn the albumin / globulin ratio in both fathers and male offspring. Collectively, it was evident that lead high dose (200 mg) dose and the male offspring were highly contaminated than their fathers. The present investigation recommended that urban population ad persons whose work is associated with exposure to lead. Would expected to be at increased risk for lead exposure that will extend to their offspring, and they should be submitted with antioxidants and subjected to periodical medical examinations

  20. Distribution-Free Continuous Review Inventory Model with Controllable Lead Time and Setup Cost in the Presence of a Service Level Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wei-min; Bing-Bing QIU

    2012-01-01

    Based on the mean and the standard deviation of lead time demand, and also taking the difficulty in measuring shortage cost into consideration, we investigate the joint decision problem of continuous review inventory in which a service level constraint should be satisfied. Under the assumption of controllable lead time and setup cost, a mathematical programming model is established. The objective function of the proposed model is the total expected annual cost and the constraint guarantees th...

  1. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  2. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  3. Blood lead levels and sexual maturation in U.S. girls: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tiejian; Buck, Germaine M; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we assessed measures of puberty in U.S. girls in relation to blood lead levels to determine whether sexual maturation may be affected by current environmental lead exposure. The study sample included 1,706 girls 8-16 years old with pubic hair and breast development information; 1,235 girls 10-16 years old supplied information on menarche. Blood lead concentrations (range = 0.7-21.7 micro g/dL) were categorized into th...

  4. Effective Investment to Reduce Setup Cost in a Mixture Inventory Model Involving Controllable Backorder Rate and Variable Lead Time with a Service Level Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Jen Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of setup cost reduction on an inventory policy for a continuous review mixture inventory model involving controllable backorder rate and variable lead time with a service level constraint, in which the order quantity, setup cost, and lead time are decision variables. Our objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the optimal order quantity, setup cost, and lead time simultaneously, so that the total expected annual cost incurred has a minimum value. Furthermore, four numerical examples are provided to illustrate the results, and the effects of system parameters are also included for decision making.

  5. Investigation on blood lead levels of 3 528 children in Hangzhou city%杭州市3528例儿童血铅水平调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 李卫娟; 汪燕; 孙博

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the blood lead levels and detection rate of lead poison among children under ten years in Hangzhou city. Methods: Atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis was used to detect blood lead contents of 3 528 children, the differences of blood lead content among children of different genders and children in different age groups were compared. Results: The mean value of blood lead in 3 528 children was 24. 91 μg/L, the blood lead levels of 37 children were more than 100 μg/L, accounting for 1. 04% ; there was statistically significant difference in geometric mean value of blood lead between boys and girls, but there was no statistically significant difference in detection rate of lead poison between boys and girls; there was statistically significant difference in geometric mean value of blood lead among children in different age groups, but there was statistically significant difference in detection rate of lead poison among children in different age groups. Conclusion: The blood lead levels of children in Hangzhou city is relatively low, but lead poisoning still exists, further measures should be taken to reduce lead exposure in children.%目的:了解杭州市10岁以下儿童血铅水平及高血铅检出率.方法:用原子吸收光谱分析法对3 528例儿童进行血铅含量测定,比较不同性别和年龄组之间的差异.结果:3 528例儿童血铅平均值为24.91 μg/L,其中>100 μg/L有37例,占1.04%;不同性别儿童间血铅水平几何均值差异有统讲学意义,而高血铅检出率差异无统计学意义;不同年龄儿童的血铅水平几何均值差异无统计学意义,高血铅检出率有统计学差异.结论:杭州市儿童血铅水平较低,但铅中毒情况依然存在,应采取进一步措施减少儿童铅接触.

  6. 广州市学龄儿童血铅水平分析%Investigation on Blood Lead Level among school-aged children in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓉; 林国桢; 吴家刚; 林琳; 杜琳; 柳玉瑶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between children blood lead level and academic achievement, and to provide scientific evidence for establishing or modifying the related law or rules. Methods Blood lead level, academic achievement and the relationship between them were investigated among 1 570 children aged 6-14 years. The investigation was carried out in Baiyun district, Liwan district and Zengcheng city of Guangzhou. Results The median blood lead level was 58.00 μg/L, and 2.40% of the children were found with a blood lead lever≥ 100 μg/L.Blood lead level of boys was higher than girls( Z = - 9.033,P < 0.001 ). The children's blood lead level was negatively correlated with the academic achievement in some grades ( rgrade tree = -0. 154,P = 0.016, rgrade six = -0. 139, P = 0. 038 ). Conclusion The blood lead level are relatively low among children in Guangzhou but still higher than that in some developed countries. More evidence is needed to prove the association between blood lead level and academic achievement in children.%目的 探讨学龄儿童血铅水平与学习成绩之间的相关性,为建立和完善相关法律法规提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法调查广州市白云区、荔湾区和增城市1 570名6~14岁儿童的血铅水平和学习成绩,并进行相关分析.结果 广州市学龄儿童血铅中位数为58.00μg/L,其中高于铅中毒诊断标准100μg/L的比例是2.40%,男生血铅水平高于女生(Z=-9.033,P<0.001),在部分年级血铅水平与成绩呈负相关(T二年级=-0.154,P三年级=0.016;r六年级=-0.139,P六年级=0.038).结论 广州市学龄儿童血铅水平在国内处于较低水平,但仍高于发达国家.儿童血铅水平与儿童学习成绩的相关性尚需进一步研究.

  7. 稽留流产与血铅水平的关系探讨%Missed Abortion and Blood Lead Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱素优; 贺惠琼; 钟继生

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析稽留流产与孕妇血铅的相关性,了解惠州市铅污染对孕妇的影响,为预防稽留流产寻找依据。方法选取于2011年2月至2013年3月在我院妇科确诊为稽留流产的患者506例为研究对象,同时选取同期早期妊娠健康孕妇500例作对照研究,分别记为观察组和对照组,取样上述两组孕妇静脉血,给予血铅检验,观察和对比两组孕妇血铅检测值,分析血铅与稽留流产之间的关系。结果观察组孕妇血铅检测值明显高于对照组孕妇,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论稽留流产与血铅水平有紧密的联系,可通过对孕前妇女血铅测定,防止稽留流产,指导优生优育。%Objective To analyze the correlation between missed abortion and blood lead level in pregnant women, to understand the impact of lead pollution in Huizhou on pregnant women, and to provide a basis for the prevention of missed abortion. Methods 506 cases of missed abortion as well as 500 cases of healthy pregnant women in our hospital from February 2011 to March 2013 were selected as the observation group and the control group. We assigned blood lead level test to both groups and the results were compared. The correlation between the blood lead level and missed abortion were analysed. Results The blood lead level of the observation group are significantly higher than that of the control group (P <0.01). Conclusions Missed abortion is closely related to the blood lead level. By detecting the blood lead level in pregnant women, missed abortion can be prevented. Prenatal and postnatal care can be guided according to the blood lead level test result..

  8. A screening-level assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc in fish and crayfish from Northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Brumbaugh, William G; Linder, Gregory L; Hinck, Jo Ellen

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential human and ecological risks associated with metals in fish and crayfish from mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Crayfish (Orconectes spp.) and fish of six frequently consumed species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; spotted bass, M. punctulatus; and white crappie, Pomoxis annularis) were collected in 2001--2002 from the Oklahoma waters of the Spring River (SR) and Neosho River (NR), which drain the TSMD. Samples from a mining-contaminated site in eastern Missouri and from reference sites were also analyzed. Individual fish were prepared for human consumption in the manner used locally by Native Americans (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc. Whole crayfish were analyzed as composite samples of 5--60 animals. Metals concentrations were typically higher in samples from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. Within the TSMD, most metals concentrations were higher at sites on the SR than on the NR and were typically highest in common carp and crayfish than in other taxa. Higher concentrations and greater risk were associated with fish and crayfish from heavily contaminated SR tributaries than the SR or NR mainstems. Based on the results of this and previous studies, the human consumption of carp and crayfish could be restricted based on current criteria for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and the consumption of channel catfish could be restricted due to lead. Metals concentrations were uniformly low in Micropterus spp. and crappie and would not warrant restriction, however. Some risk to carnivorous avian wildlife from lead and zinc in TSMD fish and invertebrates was also indicated, as was risk to the fish themselves. Overall, the wildlife assessment is consistent with previously reported biological effects attributed to metals

  9. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 μg/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 μg/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  10. 高血铅对幼儿智力发育的影响%Impact of High Blood Lead Levels on Intelligence in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 邹时朴; 李国林

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高血铅对幼儿智力发育的影响。方法用 Gesell发育量表分别对33例高血铅儿童和33例对照儿童进行测试。结果不同血铅水平与儿童适应性行为发育商、大运动发育商、精细动作发育商、语言发育商和个人-社交行为发育商呈明显的负相关(均P<0.01);高血铅组适应性行为发育商、大运动发育商、精细动作发育商、语言发育商和个人-社交行为发育商比对照组分别落后19.36、12.12、17.76、20.88和14.19分,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01)。结论高血铅影响幼儿智力发育,应给予足够的重视。%Objective To investigate the effect of high blood lead levels on the intelligence in children.Methods The intelligence was determined by Gesell Development Schedules in 3 3 chil-dren with high blood lead levels(high blood lead group)and 33 children with normal blood lead levels(control group).Results The blood lead levels were negatively correlated with adaptive be-havior developmental quotient(DQ),big movement DQ,fine movement DQ,language DQ and per-sonal-social behavior DQ(P<0.01 ).Compared with control group,adaptive behavior DQ,big movement DQ,fine movement DQ,language DQ and personal-social behavior DQ decreased by 19.36,12.12,17.76,20.88 and 14.19 in high blood lead group,respectively(P<0.01).Conclusion High blood lead levels can influence the intelligence development of children.Therefore,enough attention should be paid to the levels of blood lead in children.

  11. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  12. Correlation analysis of the long latency auditory evoked potential N2 and cognitive P3 with the level of lead poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of lead on children's health have been widely studied. Aim: To analyze the correlation between the long latency auditory evoked potential N2 and cognitive P3 with the level of lead poisoning in Brazilian children. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 20 children ranging in age from 7 to 14 years at the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations. We performed periodic surveys of the lead concentration in the blood and basic audiological evaluations. Furthermore, we studied the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 by analyzing the absolute latency of the N2 and P3 potentials and the P3 amplitude recorded at Cz. At the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations, the average concentration of lead in the blood was less than 10 ug/dL. Results: In conventional audiologic evaluations, all children had hearing thresholds below 20 dBHL for the frequencies tested and normal tympanometry findings; the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 were present in 95% of children. No significant correlations were found between the blood lead concentration and latency (p = 0.821 or amplitude (p = 0.411 of the P3 potential. However, the latency of the N2 potential increased with the concentration of lead in the blood, with a significant correlation (p = 0.030. Conclusion: Among Brazilian children with low lead exposure, a significant correlation was found between blood lead levels and the average latency of the auditory evoked potential long latency N2; however, a significant correlation was not observed for the amplitude and latency of the cognitive potential P3.

  13. Use of Novel Recombinant Antigens in the Interferon Gamma Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    Early stage Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection can be detected by measuring antigen specific cell mediated immune responses by the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay. Available IFN-γ assay use purified protein derivate of Johnin (PPDj) leading to low specificity. The objectives....... The study included blood samples from 26 heifers of a MAP infected herd, collected three times with 4 and 5 week interval and blood samples from 60 heifers of a MAP non-infected herd collected once. The IFN-γ responses of the non-infected heifers were used to establish cut-off values for each antigen....... Animals of the MAP infected herd were grouped as cases or non-cases by a case definition that was: an animal with ≥2 positive tests for ≥4 antigens, which resulted in 13 cases and 13 non-cases. Based on the case-definition, immunogenicity and specificity of each antigen were calculated. IFN-γ levels...

  14. Do changes in socialization lead to decline in reading level? How parents, literary education, and popular culture affect the level of books read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboord, Marc; Rees, Kees van

    2003-01-01

    The influence of reading socialization on the level of books read in adult life was investigated for birth cohorts who finished secondary education between 1975 and 1998. Three forms of reading socialization were taken into account: socialization in the parental home, literary socialization at secon

  15. 92例母乳中铅含量调查分析%Analysis of the lead level of breast milk in shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗红; 程蔚蔚

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究铅在母血、母乳及脐血三者间的关系,揭示铅在母乳中的分布,为婴儿母乳喂养提供依据.方法 用石墨炉原子光谱吸收法测定128对母婴的母血、脐血的铅浓度及92份产妇初乳中的铅浓度,用线性回归分析三者之间的关系.结果 母血、脐血的铅浓度分别是(33.29±9.49)μg/L和(26.93±9.34)μg/L,母乳铅浓度为1.54(0.02~22.86)μg/L,无一例铅浓度超过铅中毒诊断标准(>100μg/L).母乳铅浓度明显低于母血与脐血铅浓度(P<0.05);母乳铅浓度血与母血铅浓度无明显的线性相关关系(P>0.05),母乳铅浓度与脐血铅浓度无明显线性相关关系(P>0.05).结论 母乳中的铅浓度水平较低,在非职业性低水平铅暴露范围内,应鼓励母乳喂养.%Objective To research the lead level in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk, to demonstrate the distribution of lead in breast milk and to provide reference of breast feeding. Methods We determined 128 mother-infant pairs' lead concentration in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and 92 colostrums puerperarum by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. We used linear regression to analyze the relationship of lead concentration a-mong them. Results Lead concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk were (33. 29±9. 49) μg/L, (26. 93±9. 34) μg/L and 1. 54 (0. 02-22. 86)μg/L respectively. All of the lead concentrations were lower than 100μg/L. The lead level in breast milk was significantly lower than maternal blood and umbilical cord blood lead level. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood lead levels are not significantly correlation with breast milk lead level (P> 0. 05). Conclusion The lead level in breast milk is low in shanghai. Unless maternal blood lead level is excessively high, breastfeeding should be encouraged.

  16. Levels of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead in fruits and vegetables grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteef, Mohammed D Y; Fawy, Khaled F; Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S M; Idris, Abubakr M

    2015-11-01

    The levels of four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were evaluated in two fruit types (apricot and fig), a fruity vegetable (tomato), and three leafy vegetables (arugula, spinach, and lettuce) that are commonly grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for quantification. The quality of results was checked by a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1570a). Good recovery values in the range of 87-104% were achieved. Metals were quantified in washed and unwashed samples to evaluate the effect of washing. Statistically, no significant difference was noticed (p>0.05), except for Zn in arugula and Cu in apricot and spinach. The levels of metals found in the analyzed fruits and vegetables were in their normal ranges in crops and not posing any serious risks to the consumers in Aseer Region. The toxic elements Pb and Cd were well below the maximum levels set in the Saudi and international food standards. Zn and Cu levels were comparable to the ranges reported in worldwide previous studies.

  17. Contribution of environmental lead exposure to blood lead level among infants based on IEUBK model%基于IEUBK模型研究环境铅对婴儿血铅的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 邵迪初; 项张华; 叶虹; 倪为民; 杨水莲; 吴翠娥; 李凭健; 傅华

    2011-01-01

    concentration were above 100μg/L. Lead in soil, atmosphere and drink-water were 45.57mg/kg,0. 023μg/m3 and 3.25μg/L respectively. While based on the calculation of the IEUBK model,the value attributed to environmental lead exposure was 12.4μg/L, accounting for 22.7% of the real blood lead level. Conclusion The results indicated that environmental lead contamination in the rural area might not be the main reason of elevation in blood lead among infants,other lead resources such as food lead exposure might be the major sources for the intake of lead among infants and should be paid more attentions in future.

  18. Relationship of Thyroid Hormone Levels to Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, p,p′- DDE, and Other Toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Denham, Melinda; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is well documented that acute exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p′-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), can affect human health including thyroid function. Chronic exposure to multiple toxicants is common but difficult to analyze, and most prior studies have focused on adults or newborns, creating a gap in our understanding of multitoxicant effects among adolescents. Objective ...

  19. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, pacid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  20. Immunogenic salivary proteins of Triatoma infestans: development of a recombinant antigen for the detection of low-level infestation of triatomines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schwarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. The most effective vector, Triatoma infestans, has been controlled successfully in much of Latin America using insecticide spraying. Though rarely undertaken, surveillance programs are necessary in order to identify new infestations and estimate the intensity of triatomine bug infestations in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Since hosts exposed to triatomines develop immune responses to salivary antigens, these responses can be evaluated for their usefulness as epidemiological markers to detect infestations of T. infestans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. infestans salivary proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and tested for their immunogenicity by Western blotting using sera from chickens and guinea pigs experimentally exposed to T. infestans. From five highly immunogenic protein spots, eight salivary proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS and comparison to the protein sequences of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and expressed sequence tags of a unidirectionally cloned salivary gland cDNA library from T. infestans combined with the NCBI yeast protein sub-database. The 14.6 kDa salivary protein [gi|149689094] was produced as recombinant protein (rTiSP14.6 in a mammalian cell expression system and recognized by all animal sera. The specificity of rTiSP14.6 was confirmed by the lack of reactivity to anti-mosquito and anti-sand fly saliva antibodies. However, rTiSP14.6 was recognized by sera from chickens exposed to four other triatomine species, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. sordida, Rhodnius prolixus, and Panstrongylus megistus and by sera of chickens from an endemic area of T. infestans and Chagas disease in Bolivia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The recombinant rTiSP14.6 is a suitable and promising

  1. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace level lead in biological samples in the presence of aqueous micellar solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Humaira; AHMED, M. Jamaluddin; Bhanger, M. Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    A very simple, ultra-sensitive and fairly selective new spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of lead(II) at ultra-trace level using 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) in presence of aqueous micellar solutions. The proposed method enabled the determination of lead down to µg l−1 in human blood and urine in aqueous media without resource of any “clean-up” step. The most remarkable point of this method is that the presence of micellar system avoids the prev...

  2. Defining the antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and the requirements for a multi-allele vaccine against malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien R Drew

    Full Text Available Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate and a target of naturally-acquired human immunity. Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 is polymorphic and in vaccine trials it induces strain-specific protection. This antigenic diversity is a major roadblock to development of AMA1 as a malaria vaccine and understanding how to overcome it is essential. To assess how AMA1 antigenic diversity limits cross-strain growth inhibition, we assembled a panel of 18 different P. falciparum isolates which are broadly representative of global AMA1 sequence diversity. Antibodies raised against four well studied AMA1 alleles (W2Mef, 3D7, HB3 and FVO were tested for growth inhibition of the 18 different P. falciparum isolates in growth inhibition assays (GIA. All antibodies demonstrated substantial cross-inhibitory activity against different isolates and a mixture of the four different AMA1 antibodies inhibited all 18 isolates tested, suggesting significant antigenic overlap between AMA1 alleles and limited antigenic diversity of AMA1. Cross-strain inhibition by antibodies was only moderately and inconsistently correlated with the level of sequence diversity between AMA1 alleles, suggesting that sequence differences are not a strong predictor of antigenic differences or the cross-inhibitory activity of anti-allele antibodies. The importance of the highly polymorphic C1-L region for inhibitory antibodies and potential vaccine escape was assessed by generating novel transgenic P. falciparum lines for testing in GIA. While the polymorphic C1-L epitope was identified as a significant target of some growth-inhibitory antibodies, these antibodies only constituted a minor proportion of the total inhibitory antibody repertoire, suggesting that the antigenic diversity of inhibitory epitopes is limited. Our findings support the concept that a multi-allele AMA1 vaccine would give broad coverage against the diversity of AMA1 alleles and establish new tools to

  3. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice.

  4. Comparison of the Level of Cadmium and Lead between the Cigarette Filters of Different Iranian and non-Iranian Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Pashapour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts have been shown to release numerous kinds of chemicals such as heavy metals in water and may be a continual source of aquatic environments contamination after discarding. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of Cd and Pb in cigarette filters of different Iranian and non-Iranian brands in smoked and non-smoked samples. Methods: Ten different brands of cigarettes were collected from Tehran, Iran local markets in 2014. Standardized international protocols were followed for preparation of the materials and analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Cd contents. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 18 software by ANOVA and Student T tests. Results: The average concentration of Cd in Iranian cigarette filters was 0.42±0.03mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 0.31±0.05mg/kg (p=0.4. The average concentration of Pb in Iranian cigarette filters was 22.32±1.15mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 23.62±3.17mg/kg (p=0.072. The Cadmium concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 0.18 to 0.48μg/g before and 0.25 to 0.88μg/g after smoking. The Lead concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 16.63 to 33.52μg/g before and 20.14 to 53.55μg/g after smoking. Conclusion: Smoked cigarette filters have more concentrations of Cd and Pb than non-smoked cigarette filters and these concentrations are also different between Iranian and non-Iranian cigarette brands.

  5. COMPARE THE LEVEL OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA ANTIGEN IN SERUM AND LOCAL IMMUNITY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE FORM OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Baturina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cervical cancer continues to take a leading position in the structure of cancer pathology in women. This situation calls for the search for new diagnostic criteria for prognosis of the disease. The study found that tumor marker SCCA is immunologically dependent and its detection should be carried out in conjunction with immunological parameters of cervical mucus. This is important not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring of anticancer therapy conducted to determine prognosis of the disease and preclinical detection recurrence of cervical cancer.

  6. Meningococcal vaccine antigen diversity in global databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehony, Carina; Hill, Dorothea M; Lucidarme, Jay; Borrow, Ray; Maiden, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    The lack of an anti-capsular vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease has necessitated the exploration of alternative vaccine candidates, mostly proteins exhibiting varying degrees of antigenic variation. Analysis of variants of antigen-encoding genes is facilitated by publicly accessible online sequence repositories, such as the Neisseria PubMLST database and the associated Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL). We investigated six proposed meningococcal vaccine formulations by deducing the prevalence of their components in the isolates represented in these repositories. Despite high diversity, a limited number of antigenic variants of each of the vaccine antigens were prevalent, with strong associations of particular variant combinations with given serogroups and genotypes. In the MRF-MGL and globally, the highest levels of identical sequences were observed with multicomponent/multivariant vaccines. Our analyses further demonstrated that certain combinations of antigen variants were prevalent over periods of decades in widely differing locations, indicating that vaccine formulations containing a judicious choice of antigen variants have potential for long-term protection across geographic regions. The data further indicated that formulations with multiple variants would be especially relevant at times of low disease incidence, as relative diversity was higher. Continued surveillance is required to monitor the changing prevalence of these vaccine antigens. PMID:26676305

  7. 铅作业工人血清NO水平检测研究%Detection of seurm NO level in workers exposed to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小玉; 王新朝; 李志远; 马玉英; 张巧

    2001-01-01

    Objective In order to explore the relationship between the serum NO level and laed intoxication. Methods The contents of serum NO and blood lead in 30 battery workers exposed to lead and in 33 controls without lead exposure were studied. The blood was determined using differential potentiometriic stripping analysis (DPSA). The level of NO was determined using nitrate reductase. Results The content of serum NO was remarkably higher in lead exposure group than that in control group (P<0.05). No difference of NO content was found in different work-age groups. Also, no linear correlation could be shown between content of serum NO and blood lead, and urinary or δ-ALA. Conclusion The serum NO might play certain role in lead intoxication but need further study.%目的 探讨NO与铅的毒作用之间的关系。方法 某个体蓄电池厂30名铅作业工人为研究对象,以33名非铅接触者为对照组,以微分电位溶出法测定血铅;以硝酸还原酶法测定血清NO含量。结果 铅接触组血清NO含量高于对照组(P<0.05)。但不同工龄组间血清NO含量无显著性差异(P>0.05)。血清NO含量与血铅浓度及尿δ-ALA含量无直线相关关系(P>0.05)。结论 一氧化氮在铅毒作用机制中可能有一定的意义。

  8. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  9. Distribution-Free Continuous Review Inventory Model with Controllable Lead Time and Setup Cost in the Presence of a Service Level Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Min MA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mean and the standard deviation of lead time demand, and also taking the difficulty in measuring shortage cost into consideration, we investigate the joint decision problem of continuous review inventory in which a service level constraint should be satisfied. Under the assumption of controllable lead time and setup cost, a mathematical programming model is established. The objective function of the proposed model is the total expected annual cost and the constraint guarantees that the service level requirement can be satisfied at the worst case. Subsequently, an equivalent nonlinear programming model is derived. By constructing Lagrange function, the analysis regarding the solution procedure is conducted, and a solution algorithm is then provided. Moreover, a numerical example is introduced to illustrate the proposed model and solution algorithm. Through sensitivity analysis, some observations and managerial implications are provided.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus infection leads to elevated levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse aortic xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele-Ohl, S; Leis, M; Wollin, M; Mahmoudian, S; Hoffmann, J; Müller, R; Heim, C; Spriewald, B M; Weyand, M; Stamminger, T; Ensminger, S M

    2012-07-01

    Recent findings emphasized an important role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mouse-xenograft-model to investigate both immunological as well as viral effector mechanisms in the progression of transplant arteriosclerosis. For this, sidebranches from the internal mammary artery were recovered during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, tissue-typed and infected with HCMV. Then, size-matched sidebranches were implanted into the infrarenal aorta of Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice. The animals were reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 7 days after transplantation. HCMV-infection was confirmed by Taqman-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Arterial grafts were analyzed by histology on day 40 after transplantation. PBMC-reconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) animals showed splenic chimerism levels ranging from 1-16% human cells. After reconstitution, Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice developed human leukocyte infiltrates in their grafts and vascular lesions that were significantly elevated after infection. Cellular infiltration revealed significantly increased ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression after HCMV-infection of the graft. Arterial grafts from unreconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) recipients showed no vascular lesions. These data demonstrate a causative relationship between HCMV-infection as an isolated risk factor and the development of transplant-arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse arterial-transplant-model possibly by elevated ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression.

  11. Calorie restriction at increasing levels leads to augmented concentrations of corticosterone and decreasing concentrations of testosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Tammer, Amanda H; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2010-05-01

    The influence of calorie restriction (CR) on increasing life span, enhancing immunocompetence, and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases is well established. Evidence points to the involvement of neuroendocrine alterations in these beneficial effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that CR will result in significant alterations to the hormones investigated. Little attention has been directed toward ascertaining the doses of CR required to obtain such alterations and, indeed, whether a dose-response exists. Adult rats were subjected to 1 of 5 dietary regimens: control, CR12.5%, CR25%, CR37.5%, or CR50%. Rats were decapitated 3 weeks following the onset of restriction; and trunk blood was collected and assayed for concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and testosterone, as well as plasma concentrations of noradrenalin and adrenalin. No effect was found as a result of dietary manipulation for serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, all doses of CR resulted in increased serum corticosterone in a dose-response trend. A dose-response was also observed for serum testosterone, with higher doses of CR associated with lower testosterone. Concentrations of noradrenalin were not found to be altered by any CR dose, although a trend toward a down-regulation at CR50% was observed. Plasma adrenalin displayed a biphasic distribution with reductions observed at CR25% and CR50%, although the down-regulations only attained statistical significance relative to the CR37.5% and not the control group. As well as reporting the effect of CR on multiple hormones within individual animals, these results go some way in determining the optimal levels of CR needed to induce neuroendocrinologic alterations.

  12. Genome-wide association replicates the association of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) polymorphisms with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in Hispanic children

    OpenAIRE

    Voruganti, V. Saroja.; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R.; Smith, C. Wayne; Cole, Shelley A.; Butte, Nancy F.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low inflammatory state characterized by elevated levels of chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine family and is increased in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify loci regulating serum MCP-1 in obese Hispanic children from the Viva La Familia Study. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed in 815 children, ages 4-19 years, using genotypes assayed with the Illumin...

  13. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  14. 儿童贫血与血铅及微量元素水平的关系%Relationship between anemia and blood lead level and trace elements levels in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家云; 王晓梅; 刘瑜; 艾洪武; 申志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究儿童贫血与血铅、铁、铜、钙、镁、锌水平之间的关系.方法:随机选择武汉市妇女儿童医疗保健中心就诊儿童90例,采集静脉血分别检测血常规及血铅的含量,采集末梢血检测铁、铜、钙、镁、锌的浓度.根据血常规的结果将研究对象分为贫血组和对照组,贫血组又进一步分为轻度、中度、重度3组.同时,根据血铅的检测结果将研究对象分为低铅组和高铅组.结果:血铅范围在100~200 μg/L范围与轻度贫血有明显的相关性.低铅组和对照组与高血铅组和贫血组相比较,铁和锌的水平明显偏低,但钙、镁、铜含量无统计学差异.血铅的水平与Hb、Hct、MCV、MCH呈现明显的负相关性,与RDW-CV呈现正相关性.结论:血铅水平>100μg/L明显与贫血相关,高血铅降低铁和锌的吸收,从负面影响血液学参数.%Objective: To research the relationship between anemia and blood lead, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and zinc levels in children. Methods-. 90 children were selected randomly from the hospital, then venous blood samples were obtained to detect blood routine examination and the content of blood lead; the concentrations of iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and zinc in peripheral blood were detected. The study objects were divided into anemia group and control group according to the results of blood routine examination, then the children in anemia group were divided into mild anemia group, moderate anemia group and severe anemia group further. At the same time, the study objects were divided into low lead group and high lead group according to the detection results of blood lead. Results; There was a significant correlation between blood lead level (within 100 -200 ug/L) and mild anemia Compared with anemia group and high lead group, the levels of iron and zinc in low lead group and control group were low, but there was no significant difference in calcium, magnesium and copper levels

  15. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  16. Exposure to low level of arsenic and lead in drinking water from Antofagasta city induces gender differences in glucose homeostasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Javier; Roman, Domingo; Cifuentes, Fredi

    2012-08-01

    Populations chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water often have increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the glucose homeostasis of male and female rats exposed to low levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Treated groups were Sprague-Dawley male and female rats exposed to drinking water from Antofagasta city, with total arsenic of 30 ppb and lead of 53 ppb for 3 months; control groups were exposed to purified water by reverse osmosis. The two treated groups in both males and females showed arsenic and lead in the hair of rats. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic toxicity and lead. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was reduced only in treated male rats, compared to the control group. Treated males showed a significantly sustained increase in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test compared to control group. The oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated that male rats were insulin resistant, and females remained sensitive to insulin after treatment. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol increased in treated male rats vs. the control, and triglyceride increased in treated female rats vs. the control. The activity of intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in male rats increased compared to female rats, suggesting a significant increase in intestinal glucose absorption. The findings indicate that exposure to low levels of arsenic and lead in drinking water could cause gender differences in insulin resistance.

  17. THF1 mutations lead to increased basal and wound-induced levels of oxylipins that stimulate anthocyanin biosynthesis via COI1 signaling in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gan; Hong Li; Ye Xie; Wenjuan Wu; Maoyin Li; Xuemin Wang; Jirong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Mutants defective in chloroplast development or photosynthesis are liable to accumulate higher levels of anthocyanin in photo-oxidative stress. However, regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the mutants remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the deletion of thylakoid formation1 (THF1) leads to an increased level of anthocyanin in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Physiological and genetic evidence showed that the increased level of anthocya-nin in thf1 is dependent on coronatine-insensitive1 (COI1) signaling. Our data showed that thf1 had higher levels of basal a-linolenic acid (a-LeA), and methyl jasmonate (JA)-induced a-LeA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) than the wild type (WT). Consistently, expression levels of phospholipase genes including pPLAIIa and PLA-Ig1 were elevated in thf1. Further-more, inhibition of lipase activity by bromoenol lactone, a specific inhibitor of plant pPLA, led to producing identical levels of anthocyanins in WT and thf1 plants. Interestingly, OPDA biosynthesis was triggered by light il umination in isolated chloroplasts, indicating that new protein import into chlor-oplasts is not required for OPDA biosynthesis. Thus, we conclude that the elevated anthocyanin accumulation in thf1 is attributed to an increase in JA levels. This JA-mediated signaling to coordinate plant metabolism and growth in stress may be conserved in other photosensitive mutants.

  18. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sediment fraction. Background levels were successfully reached for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, compared to various literature references. Nevertheless, in the case of lead, the normalized data depicted a general enrichment in all samples, and the natural levels could only be reached when concentrations were corrected for the atmospheric contribution by analysing lead isotope ratios. Also for Zn, a general enrichment was found in our samples, although less important. - Among several potential normalizers, stable Cs (133Cs) depicted the best ability to correct for the grain-size effect of shelf sediments and was used to estimate regional background levels of heavy metals

  19. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis: specific detection of free and complex-dissociated antibodies anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Susana Imaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic test characteristics of detecting free and complex-dissociated IgG to three recombinant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B, singly and in combination, were evaluated in sera from 161 tuberculous patients [smear-positive pulmonary TB (50, smear-negative pulmonary TB (pTBsm- (60 and extrapulmonary TB (51 and 214 control patients (mycobacteriosis (14, mycoses(14, leprosy(4, other underlying diseases (82 and healthy people (100]. The individual antigens ranged from 25% to 42% in sensitivity and from 93% to 96% in specificity, while considering free IgG response. Addition of complex-dissociated antibodies against each individual antigen improved the sensitivity up to 55%. The number and levels of specific antibodies varied greatly from individual to individual. Combination of individual results for free and complex-dissociated IgG to 38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B offered 76% sensitivity and 83% specificity. When the three antigens were placed in the same well, the sensitivity was lower than that expected on the basis of single antigen (63% but with a good specificity (95%, even in the group of mycobacteriosis or mycoses. The highest contribution of complex-dissociated IgG results to free IgG results was seen for the diagnosis of pTBsm- patients. In conclusion, although neither single recombinant antigen was reactive with most sera from TB patients even after the measurement of both free and complex-dissociated antibodies, the use of multi-antigen cocktails improved the diagnostic utility of the ELISA assay, allowing the identification of almost 70% of pTBsm-, with a high level of specificity; the use of additional, well selected antigens should lead to the detection of almost all patients with TB.

  20. Passive Smoking and Blood Lead Level%被动吸烟与幼儿血铅水平关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建安; 静进; 易欢琼; 王梦龙; 陈学彬; 刘德华

    2000-01-01

    To research the relationship between passive smoking and blood lead level, the sitution of passive smoking were investigate in 395 preschool children aged 2~6 years with self-designed Ques- tionnaire and their blood lead level were measured to analyze the the relationship between passive smoking and blood lead level. The results showed that the blood lead level and the prevalence rate of lead poisoning ( 26.98ug/dl, 87.45 % ) in the observation group were higher than that in the contral group(22.24μg/dl, 60.81% ) significiantly, as the passive smoking increasing, they increased gradually(P<0.05), the Bpb was the highest in 2 year old obser- vation group than in the others, multiple regression analysis showed that passive smoking were associated with blood lead lev- els. It were obvious that passive smoking affected the blood lead levels of preschool children, 2 year old was probably the critical pe- riod of passive smoking exposure.%随机抽取太原市居民区某幼儿园2~6岁395名儿童 为研究对象,用自拟问卷调查儿童被动吸烟情况,采指端末梢 血20μl,原子吸收石墨炉法测定血铅。结果表明:家庭成员中 吸烟无任何限制者高达89.37%,来访客人是否吸烟同家庭成 员是否吸烟密切相关(r=0.6182,P=0.0181),62.53%幼儿存 在ETS暴露。暴露组幼儿血铅水平(26.98μg/dl)及铅中毒流 行率(87.45%)明显高于非暴露组(22.24μg/dl,60.81%)。幼 儿血铅水平及铅中毒流行率随家庭成员吸烟量与时间增加明 显升高(P<0.05),被动吸烟对2岁年龄组的影响存在较其他 年龄组严重的趋势,多元逐步回归分析显示被动吸烟与血铅值 相关。据此推导:被动吸烟影响幼儿血铅水平,可能年龄越小, 越易感和脆弱。

  1. Societal benefits from EU reduction measures to decrease lead levels in the environment; Combining results from the EU funded projects INTARESE and HEIMTSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens J. G. E. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper combines the results of two Sixth Framework Program EU research projects aimed at developing and testing methods for integrated assessment of health risks from environmental stressors, i.e. the INTARESE and the HEIMTSA project, both of which covered a case study on environmental lead. The INTARESE case study on lead in Europe was meant to illustrate the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. The HEIMTSA case study on the other hand involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR in response to current and future legislation. Analysing environmental data, significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 μg/m3 (P95: 0.94; n=98 prior to 1990 to 0.045 μg/m3 (P95:0.11; n=256 in 2007 (latest

  2. Cyst Fluid Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level Is not Predictive of Invasive Cancer in Patients with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kucera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Cyst fluid CEA concentration >192ng/mL has proven accurate to differentiate mucinous from non-mucinous pancreatic cystic neoplasms. It is unclear whether the degree of cyst fluid CEA elevation is predictive of malignant behavior in IPMNs. Objectives To determine whether elevated cyst fluid CEA concentrations were predictive of invasive cancer. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Single National Cancer Institute comprehensive cancer care center experience. Patients Forty-seven patients underwent preoperative EUS-FNA with cyst fluid analysis and surgical resection of an IPMN over a 9 year period. Main outcome measurements Cyst fluid CEA concentrations among the four grades associated with IPMN (low grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Results The mean±standard deviation cyst fluid CEA concentration increased as the pathology progressed from low grade dysplasia (1,261±1,679 ng/mL to moderate dysplasia (7,171±22,210 ng/mL to high grade dysplasia (10,807±36,203 ng/mL. However, the mean CEA level decreased (462±631 ng/mL once invasive cancer developed (P=0.869. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of a cyst fluid CEA concentration greater than 200 ng/mL for the diagnosis of malignant IPMN (cases of high grade dysplasia and invasive IPMN was 52.4%, 42.3%, 42.3%, 52.4% and 46.8%, respectively. Limitations Single center experience, small patient numbers, retr ospective data collection. Conclusion The degree of cyst fluid CEA elevation is a poor predictor of malignant degeneration within IPMNs. Clinical management decisions regarding surgical resection should not be based upon degree of cyst fluid CEA elevation.

  3. СAPSULAR ANTIGEN OF YERSINIA PESTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kadnikova

    2015-01-01

    . Molecular usher Caf1A responsible for capsular antigen anchoring on the surface of bacterial cell has a high affinity to human interleukin 1β. Caf1 can compete with interleukins 1α, 1β, and 1ra in binding to receptors on lymphoid cells preventing development of adequate immune response. Immunodiagnosis of plague is based on detection of Caf1 or anti-Caf1 antibodies since this Y. pestis antigen is species specific. Covering bacterial surfaces capsular antigen is also the paramount component of all modern plague vaccines. Its leading role in induction of intense immunity in mice, rats, monkeys, and men was shown clearly. However, non-capsulated (Caf1– variants of Y. pestis keeping their virulence at the level of the wild-type strains might be selected and accumulated in immune animals. This indicates inadmissibility of application of monoantigen plague vaccines and necessity for design of immunoprophylactic preparations aimed at two or three molecular targets. 

  4. Renal and Neurologic Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in Children: Evidence of Early Effects and Multiple Interactions at Environmental Exposure Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Burbure, Claire; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Leroyer, Ariane; Nisse, Catherine; Haguenoer, Jean-Marie; Mutti, Antonio; Smerhovský, Zdenek; Cikrt, Miroslav; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Razniewska, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Marek; Bernard, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic are common environmental pollutants in industrialized countries, but their combined impact on children’s health is little known. We studied their effects on two main targets, the renal and dopaminergic systems, in > 800 children during a cross-sectional European survey. Control and exposed children were recruited from those living around historical nonferrous smelters in France, the Czech Republic, and Poland. Children provided blood and urine samples for the determination of the metals and sensitive renal or neurologic biomarkers. Serum concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, and β2-microglobulin were negatively correlated with blood lead levels (PbB), suggesting an early renal hyperfiltration that averaged 7% in the upper quartile of PbB levels (> 55 μg/L; mean, 78.4 μg/L). The urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein, Clara cell protein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase was associated mainly with cadmium levels in blood or urine and with urinary mercury. All four metals influenced the dopaminergic markers serum prolactin and urinary homovanillic acid, with complex interactions brought to light. Heavy metals polluting the environment can cause subtle effects on children’s renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, which reinforces the need to control and regulate potential sources of contamination by heavy metals. PMID:16581550

  5. Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) → Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) → Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) → Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products. PMID:21082317

  6. The absence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprF protein leads to increased biofilm formation through variation in c-di-GMP level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffartigues, Emeline; Moscoso, Joana A; Duchesne, Rachel; Rosay, Thibaut; Fito-Boncompte, Laurène; Gicquel, Gwendoline; Maillot, Olivier; Bénard, Magalie; Bazire, Alexis; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Lerouge, Patrice; Dufour, Alain; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Overhage, Joerg; Filloux, Alain; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    OprF is the major outer membrane porin in bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonas genus. In previous studies, we have shown that OprF is required for full virulence expression of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we describe molecular insights on the nature of this relationship and report that the absence of OprF leads to increased biofilm formation and production of the Pel exopolysaccharide. Accordingly, the level of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger in biofilm control, is elevated in an oprF mutant. By decreasing c-di-GMP levels in this mutant, both biofilm formation and pel gene expression phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels. We further investigated the impact on two small RNAs, which are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, and found that expression of rsmZ but not of rsmY was increased in the oprF mutant and this occurs in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Finally, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors AlgU and SigX displayed higher activity levels in the oprF mutant. Two genes of the SigX regulon involved in c-di-GMP metabolism, PA1181 and adcA (PA4843), were up-regulated in the oprF mutant, partly explaining the increased c-di-GMP level. We hypothesized that the absence of OprF leads to a cell envelope stress that activates SigX and results in a c-di-GMP elevated level due to higher expression of adcA and PA1181. The c-di-GMP level can in turn stimulate Pel synthesis via increased rsmZ sRNA levels and pel mRNA, thus affecting Pel-dependent phenotypes such as cell aggregation and biofilm formation. This work highlights the connection between OprF and c-di-GMP regulatory networks, likely via SigX (ECF), on the regulation of biofilm phenotypes.

  7. The absence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprF protein leads to increased biofilm formation through variation in c-di-GMP level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline eBouffartigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OprF is the major outer membrane porin in bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonas genus. In previous studies, we have shown that OprF is required for full virulence expression of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we describe molecular insights on the nature of this relationship and report that the absence of OprF leads to increased biofilm formation and production of the Pel exopolysaccharide. Accordingly, the level of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger in biofilm control, is elevated in an oprF mutant. By decreasing c-di-GMP levels in this mutant, both biofilm formation and pel gene expression phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels. We further investigated the impact on two small RNAs, which are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, and found that expression of rsmZ but not of rsmY was increased in the oprF mutant and this occurs in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Finally, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF sigma factors AlgU and SigX displayed higher activity levels in the oprF mutant. Two genes of the SigX regulon involved in c-di-GMP metabolism, PA1181 and adcA (PA4843, were up-regulated in the oprF mutant, partly explaining the increased c-di-GMP level. We hypothesized that the absence of OprF leads to a cell envelope stress that activates SigX and results in a c-di-GMP elevated level due to higher expression of adcA and PA1181. The c-di-GMP level can in turn stimulate Pel synthesis via increased rsmZ sRNA levels and pel mRNA, thus affecting Pel-dependent phenotypes such as cell aggregation and biofilm formation. This work highlights the connection between OprF and c-di-GMP regulatory networks, likely via SigX (ECF, on the regulation of biofilm phenotypes.

  8. Recognition of antigen-specific B-cell receptors from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients by synthetic antigen surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-12-18

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe nonpeptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used to identify other classes of antigen surrogates.

  9. Antigen sampling in the fish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkka, Guro; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2016-11-01

    Antigen uptake in the gastrointestinal tract may induce tolerance, lead to an immune response and also to infection. In mammals, most pathogens gain access to the host though the gastrointestinal tract, and in fish as well, this route seems to be of significant importance. The epithelial surface faces a considerable challenge, functioning both as a barrier towards the external milieu but simultaneously being the site of absorption of nutrients and fluids. The mechanisms allowing antigen uptake over the epithelial barrier play a central role for maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and regulate appropriate immune responses. Such uptake has been widely studied in mammals, but also in fish, a number of experiments have been reported, seeking to reveal cells and mechanisms involved in antigen sampling. In this paper, we review these studies in addition to addressing our current knowledge of the intestinal barrier in fish and its anatomical construction. PMID:26872546

  10. Effect of L-arginine, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and the association of L-arginine and DMSA on tissue lead mobilization and blood pressure level in plumbism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvezzi C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb-induced hypertension is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO. In the present study we evaluated the effect of L-arginine (NO precursor, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a chelating agent and ROS scavenger, and the association of L-arginine/DMSA on tissue Pb mobilization and blood pressure levels in plumbism. Tissue Pb levels and blood pressure evolution were evaluated in rats exposed to: 1 Pb (750 ppm, in drinking water, for 70 days, 2 Pb plus water for 30 more days, 3 Pb plus DMSA (50 mg kg-1 day-1, po, L-arginine (0.6%, in drinking water, and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA for 30 more days, and 4 their respective matching controls. Pb exposure increased Pb levels in the blood, liver, femur, kidney and aorta. Pb levels in tissues decreased after cessation of Pb administration, except in the aorta. These levels did not reach those observed in nonintoxicated rats. All treatments mobilized Pb from the kidney, femur and liver. Pb mobilization from the aorta was only effective with the L-arginine/DMSA treatment. Blood Pb concentrations in Pb-treated groups were not different from those of the Pb/water group. Pb increased blood pressure starting from the 5th week. L-arginine and DMSA treatments (4th week and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA (3rd and 4th weeks decreased blood pressure levels of intoxicated rats. These levels did not reach those of nonintoxicated rats. Treatment with L-arginine/DMSA was more effective than the isolated treatments in mobilizing Pb from tissues and in reducing the blood pressure of intoxicated rats.

  11. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P < 0.05) than alum except for BmVAH antigen. In vitro ADCC assay showed that inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P < 0.01 and as cocktail P < 0.05, respectively) than alum. The results had confirmed the capability of inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. PMID:25041426

  12. Aluminium, lead, cadmium and mercury levels in human food chain (in Karnataka, India) and their interaction with micronutrients - Copper, iron, zinc and vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronutrient elements are indispensable for the survival of life. Nature and food habits govern the uptake, deposition, metabolic involvement and excretion of metals in human body. In this process, certain non-essential metals like Aluminium (Al), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) may accumulate in various organs during the life cycle. Essential trace elements like Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn), play dual role and they have beneficiary action at biologically optimum concentrations, whereas they affect biological function at very low or higher concentration. High concentration of lead (Pb) arising from automobile exhaust, pesticides, solders, water, dairy products; cadmium (Cd) arising from tanneries, nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers in plastic, glazed potteries, and mercury (Hg) arising from refineries, batteries, pesticides, amalgams, paints and industrial waste; are found in food. High concentration of Pb, Cd, Hg and Al are also reported in leafy vegetables grown on sewage run-off in urban areas. Main source of Al in our diet is from drinking water and through use of aluminium utensils for cooking of food. There is a growing concern regarding the human health in developed and developing countries with respect to neurodegenerative disorders and carcinogenic potential caused by heavy metals when their levels exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI). The PTWI levels (mg/kg body weight) are 7 for Al, 0.025 for Pb, 0.007 for Cd and 0.005 for Hg. Dietary exposure of humans to toxic trace elements leads to their accumulation in various tissues and consequently influence functional ability of essential elements. Studies show that Al, Pb and Cd alter or impair the optimal biological and physiological functions of Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu

  13. Three-step laser excitation of the 6p3/2ns, nd, ng autoionizing Rydberg levels via the 6p5f 1/2[5/2]2 level of lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, A.; Nadeem, A.; Bhatti, S. A.; Baig, M. A.

    2005-03-01

    Odd parity autoionizing Rydberg levels of atomic lead in the energy region above the 6p1/2 ionization threshold have been investigated using three-step laser excitation in conjunction with an atomic beam apparatus. The 6p3/2ns (J = 1, 2), 6p3/2nd (J = 1, 2, 3) and 6p3/2ng (J = 2, 3) levels have been observed from the 6p5f 1/2[5/2]2 intermediate level. Energy values and FWHM of forty levels belonging to the 6p3/2ns, 6p3/2nd and 6p3/2ng configurations are presented. Six levels based on the 6p3/2ng (5, 13 ≤n ≤15) configurations and three levels attached to the 6p3/28d configuration are reported for the first time. The present study of the low-lying autoionizing levels attached to the 6p3/25g (J = 2, 3) configuration completes the series adjacent to the 6p1/2 limit.

  14. Predicting the Mutating Distribution at Antigenic Sites of the Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyang Xu; Yiyan Yang; Shuning Wang; Ruixin Zhu; Tianyi Qiu; Jingxuan Qiu; Qingchen Zhang; Li Jin; Yungang He; Kailin Tang; Zhiwei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the influenza virus lead to antigenic changes that cause recurrent epidemics and vaccine resistance. Preventive measures would benefit greatly from the ability to predict the potential distribution of new antigenic sites in future strains. By leveraging the extensive historical records of HA sequences for 90 years, we designed a computational model to simulate the dynamic evolution of antigenic sites in A/H1N1. With templates of antigenic sequences, the model can effectively pred...

  15. 儿童高血铅对视力、立体视及视觉诱发电位的影响%Visual acuity,stereoacuity and visual evoked potentials in children with high blood lead level Visual acuity,stereoacuity and visual evoked potentials in children with high blood lead level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文珲; 廖瑞端; 苏毅华; 陈咏冲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To find out the influences of high blood lead level on visual acuity,stereoacuity,visual evoked potentials in children. [Method] 172 children aged 4 to 10 were randomly selected and their serum concentration of lead were detected. They were divided into normal blood lead group and high blood lead group by the blood lead level. [Results] The difference of cases with abnormal corrected visual acuity between high blood lead group and normal blood lead group was statistically significant(P0. 05). [Conclusions] High blood lead level has bad influence on visual acuity,stereoacuity, visual evoked potentials in children. More attention should be paid to the prevention of the lead pollution and the abnormal development of visual function.%[目的]了解铅对儿童视力、立体视及视觉诱发电位有无影响,为防治其对儿童视功能发育的损害提供科学依据. [方法]随机选择4~10岁的儿童172例,检测血清铅浓度,按正常和超过正常分为正常血铅组和高血铅组.并分别比较两组间矫正视力、立体视锐度及视觉诱发电位的差异. [结果]高血铅组矫正视力异常人数与血铅正常组相比,差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01);两组间P100潜伏期及矫正立体视锐度比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组间P100振幅比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论]高血铅对儿童视力、立体视及视觉诱发电位都有不利影响,需重视防治铅污染及其导致的儿童视功能发育异常.

  16. Relationship between blood lead level and abnormal eye blinking in children%儿童异常瞬目症与血铅水平相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜芬; 罗俊; 龙琦; 肖志刚; 陶利娟

    2015-01-01

    •AlM:To study the relationship between blood lead level and abnormal eye blinking in children. • METHODS: The patients with chief complaint of frequent eye blinking, whose diagnosis of abnormal eye blinking, were randomized to experimental group. The patients in this group carried out vision and the slit-lamp examination, detected corneal fluorescein staining and tear break-up time, and improved the level of blood lead and trace elements examination. The patients in control group with chief complaint of health physical examination in our hospital, excepted of blood lead level, the other body check results were normal and were divided into boys group and girls group according to the gender. The changes of the experimental group and control group in blood lead level were compared. •RESULTS: Totally 371 cases ( male:295 cases; female:76 cases) with mean age was 6. 56±2. 41 years and 6. 08±2. 82 years respectively were in experimental groupe. ln control group, there were 300 cases ( male: 186 cases;female:114 cases) with mean age was 6. 99±3. 01 years and 6. 56±2. 80 years respectively. The average of blood lead level of boys in experimental group was 63. 82 ±24. 56μg/L and 53. 98±15. 42μg/L in control group. The average of blood lead level in experimental group was higher than that in control group. The difference between of the two group was statistically significant (χ2=16. 96, P6 years children were 48. 73±11. 67μg/L, 51. 39 ± 14. 87μg/L, 52. 98 ± 14. 45μg/L respectively. ln expirement group, the results were 56. 57±17. 89μg/L, 59. 92±18. 46μg/L and 67. 00±32. 55μg/L in 6 children, respectively. There was no significant difference with 6 years children were statistically significant (χ2 = 9. 62, P = 0. 008 ) and (χ2 = 19. 22, P = 0. 000 ) respectively. The blood lead level were divided into three grades: 100μg/L, and relative risk (RR) were 0. 65, 1. 22, and 10. 11 respectively. •CONCLUSlON: Blood lead level of experimental group is

  17. Methods for examination of antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To choose and establish the methods for examination of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin in order to offer the reference for evaluating the antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin against human. Methods: Antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin was examined for hypersensitivity, cell-mediated immunity reaction, humoral immunity reaction and cross-reaction of antigen. Results: The rabbit and guinea pig did not give rise to hypersensitivity. In immunized rabbits, the level of serum total IgG was normal, but the level of serum specific IgG was high. The examination of B lymphocytes showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with control. Cross-reaction of antigen proved that bovine hemoglobin had cross-reaction with human hemoglobin. Suggesting that they may be homologous, the level of the serum specific antibody is high in the immunized animal. According to the immunology theories, the polymerized hemoglobin has antigenicity. (authors)

  18. The Quantified Level of Circulating Prostate Stem Cell Antigen mRNA relative to GAPDH Level Is a Clinically Significant Indictor for Predicting Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Han Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study quantified the relative absolute PSCA level in relation to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH level in the peripheral blood of 478 hormone-naive prostate cancer (PC patients who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2005 to 2012 and evaluated its prognostic significance as a risk factor for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR, compared to known parameters. Nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis detected PSCA levels and measured the PSCA/GAPDH ratio. Clinicopathological data from the institutional database were examined to determine the adequate cut-off level to predict postoperative BCR. A total of 110 patients had a positive PSCA result (23.0% via RT-PCR (mean blood ratio 1.1 ± 0.4. The BCR was significantly higher in the PSCA-positive detection group (p=0.009. A multivariate model was created to show that a PSCA/GAPDH ratio between 1.0 and 1.5 (HR 12.722, clinical T2c stage (HR 0.104, preoperative PSA (HR 1.225, extraprostatic capsule extension (HR 0.006, lymph node dissection (HR 16.437, and positive resection margin (HR 27.453 were significant predictive factors for BCR (p<0.05. The study showed successful quantification of PSCA with its significance for BCR-related risk factor; however, further studies are needed to confirm its clinical predictive value.

  19. PAIgG and PAIgM levels in secondary dengue virus infections lead to thrombocytopenia in patients from KP, Pakistan简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar; Alam; Said; Hassan; Iftikhar; Alam; Rahmat; Gul; Farhad; Ali; Ijaz; Ali; Sana; Ullah; Imtiaz; Ali; Khan; Aasif; Awan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the impact of platelet associated immunoglobulin G(PAIg G)/platelet associated immunoglobulin M(PAIg M) on severity of dengue virus infection leading to thrombocytopenia.Methods: In this study we examined a total of 52 patients who were having secondary infection of dengue in acute phase by using competitive ELISA.Results: A decrease in the platelet count was observed at the acute phase of infection while all along the recovery stage the count of platelet was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed in PAIg G and PAIg M in these subjects. Inverse correlation was found between platelets count and PAIg G/PAIg M among the subjects studied. In the platelets elution from ten subjects, anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were observed. PAIg G and PAIg M with inclined levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than the classical dengue fever. In the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever PAIg M inclined level was independently associated with high specificity, showing a possible indication of dengue hemorrhagic fever.Conclusions: This study suggests that in secondary dengue virus infection, the PAIg G and PAIg M levels, and the activity of anti-dengue virus play key roles, both in the development and severity of the disease.

  20. PAIgG and PAIgM levels in secondary dengue virus infections lead to thrombocytopenia in patients from KP, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Alam; Said Hassan; Iftikhar Alam; Rahmat Gul; Farhad Ali; Ijaz Ali; Sana Ullah; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Aasif Awan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the impact of platelet associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG)/ platelet associated immunoglobulin M (PAIgM) on severity of dengue virus infection leading to thrombocytopenia. Methods: In this study we examined a total of 52 patients who were having secondary infection of dengue in acute phase by using competitive ELISA. Results: A decrease in the platelet count was observed at the acute phase of infection while all along the recovery stage the count of platelet was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed inPAIgG andPAIgM in these subjects. Inverse correlation was found between platelets count andPAIgG/PAIgM among the subjects studied. In the platelets elution from ten subjects, anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were observed.PAIgG andPAIgM with inclined levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than the classical dengue fever. In the development of dengue hemorrhagic feverPAIgM inclined level was independently associated with high specificity, showing a possible indication of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Conclusions: This study suggests that in secondary dengue virus infection, thePAIgGand PAIgM levels, and the activity of anti-dengue virus play key roles, both in the development and severity of the disease.

  1. Effect of salinity levels and lead and cadmium heavy metals on growth, photosynthetic pigments and sodium and potassium content in spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals (HMs are hazardous environmental pollutants which by entering the food chain cause harm to humans, plants and other organisms. In order to study the effects of salinity and lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd HMs on spinach plant, a factorial, pot experiment, based on complete randomized blocks design, was carried out in 2013 in College of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 dS/m as factor A and HMs at four levels (control, Cd, Pb and Cd+Pb as Factor B. results revealed that salinity had no significant effect on fresh and dry weight of spinach; but HMs treatment caused significant changes in these traits. Minimum and maximum fresh and dry weights were obtained in the Cd and Cd+Pb treatments, respectively. Besides photosynthetic pigments of flavonoids and anthocyanin, salinity had significant effect only on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, cartenoid contents and reduced them at 8 dS/m level. Salinity treatment, without affecting potassium content, increased sodium and soluble carbohydrates in spinach leaves. Interaction between salinity and HMs was only significant for carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The highest amount of carbohydrate was obtained in the Cd+Pb and 8 dS/m treatment and the highest amount of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b was obtained in the no salinity (control and Pb treatment.

  2. Evaluated the levels of lead and cadmium in scalp hair of adolescent boys consuming different smokeless tobacco products with related to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Asma J; Afridi, Hassan I; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Ali, Jamshed; Memon, G Zuhra

    2015-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the scalp hair samples of adolescent boys age ranged 12-15 years, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group who did not consume any SLT products were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in SLT products and the scalp hair samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The difference between experimental and certified values of both elements was not significant (p > 0.05). The resulted data indicated that the adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have two- to threefold higher levels of Cd and Pb in the scalp hair samples as compared to the referent boys (p < 0.01). The adolescent chewing different SLT products have 82.2-110 and 60.6-94.5% higher levels of Cd and Pb, respectively, in their scalp hair as related to the referents. PMID:25537077

  3. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa-Jurado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA or chemiluminescent (CMIA were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26 were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079 were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1. Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing

  4. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD = 6.06 in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61 and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83. Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.09 and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59 were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

  5. Murine antigen-induced arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; Joosten, L.A.B.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Antigen induced arthritis is a unilateral T-cell driven model caused by direct injection of an antigen into the knee joint of a FCA preimmunized animal. The chronicity is determined by antigen retention in avascular structures of the joint through charge mediated binding or antibody mediated trappin

  6. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  7. Transgene sequences free of CG dinucleotides lead to high level, long-term expression in the lung independent of plasmid backbone design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, Reto P; Pringle, Ian A; Connolly, Mary M; Davies, Lee A; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Schleef, Martin; Hyde, Stephen C; Gill, Deborah R

    2016-07-01

    Non-viral aerosol gene therapy offers great potential for treating chronic lung diseases of the airways such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Early clinical trials showed that transgene expression in the airways was transient whereas maximal duration of transgene expression is essential in order to minimise the frequency of aerosol treatments. Improved vector design, such as careful selection of the promoter/enhancer, can lead to more persistent levels of transgene expression, but multiple factors affect expression in vivo. Following aerosol delivery to the lungs of mice, we measured reporter gene expression from a CpG-free luciferase transgene cassette in the context of both a plasmid and minicircle vector configuration and showed that the vector backbone had no effect on expression. Transgene activity was affected by the vector backbone however, when a similar, but sub-optimal CpG-containing transgene was used, suggesting that aspects of the plasmid backbone had a negative impact on transgene expression. Similar studies were performed in Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) knockout mice to investigate a potential role for the TLR9 signalling pathway in detecting CpGs in the vector sequence. Even in the absence of TLR9, persistent expression could only be achieved with a CpG-free transgene. Together, these data indicate that in order to achieve high levels of persistent expression in vivo, a CpG-free transgene cassette is required. PMID:27061267

  8. Effects of low level lead exposure on associative learning and memory in the rat: Influences of sex and developmental timing of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D W; Mettil, W; Schneider, J S

    2016-03-30

    Lead (Pb) exposure during development impairs a variety of cognitive, behavioral and neurochemical processes resulting in deficits in learning, memory, attention, impulsivity and executive function. Numerous studies have attempted to model this effect of Pb in rodents, with the majority of studies focusing on hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory processes. Using a different paradigm, trace fear conditioning, a process requiring coordinated integration of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, we have assessed the effects of Pb exposure on associative learning and memory. The present study examined both female and male long evans rats exposed to three environmentally relevant levels of Pb (150 ppm, 375 ppm and 750 ppm) during different developmental periods: perinatal (PERI; gestation-postnatal day 21), early postnatal (EPN; postnatal days 1-21) and late postnatal (LPN; postnatal days 1-55). Testing began at postnatal day 55 and consisted of a single day of acquisition training, and three post training time points (1, 2 and 10 days) to assess memory consolidation and recall. All animals, regardless of sex, developmental window or level of Pb-exposure, successfully acquired conditioned-unconditioned stimulus association during training. However, there were significant effects of Pb-exposure on consolidation and memory recall at days 1-10 post training. In females, EPN and LPN exposure to 150 ppm Pb (but not PERI exposure) significantly impaired recall. In contrast, only PERI 150 ppm and 750 ppm-exposed males had significant recall deficits. These data suggest a complex interaction between sex, developmental window of exposure and Pb-exposure level on consolidation and recall of associative memories.

  9. Megavoltage pituitary irradiation lowers but seldom leads to safe GH levels in acromegaly: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalassinos, N C; Tsagarakis, S; Ioannides, G; Tzavara, I; Papavasiliou, C

    1998-02-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) has long been used in the treatment of acromegaly, but confusion regarding the definition of biochemical cure has hampered interpretation of previous reports on the outcome of this treatment. In the present study we present additional data using the currently accepted criteria of biochemical cure in a large group of patients followed up by our department. Forty-six acromegalic patients were treated with external beam megavoltage RT and followed up for a mean of 7.6 years (range 2-22 years). Only four patients had had previous surgical treatment by either transsphenoidal or transfrontal routes. Following RT, mean basal GH levels decreased from 30.9 ng/ml (5-96 ng/ml) to 11.5 ng/ml (1-36 ng/ml) at 10 years of follow up with a further fall to 6.1 ng/ml (1-29 ng/ml) in those patients followed up for more than 10 years. As a result, although mean GH levels of less than 5 ng/ml were achieved in 9/28 (30.1%) at 5 years, 6/19 (31.6%) at 10 years, and in 6/11 (54.5%) of those patients followed up for more than 10 years post-RT, only 0/28 (0%), 7/28 (25%), 4/19 (21%) and 1/11 (1%) achieved GH levels of 10 years following RT. Thus, in the whole series only 10/48 (20.8%) patients showed a decrease of GH level to less than 2.5 ng/ml at their latest follow up. Hypopituitarism as a result of RT was only infrequently observed in this series; gonadal deficiency developed in 12 (26.6%) patients, thyrotrophin (TSH) deficiency in 3 (6.6%) and adrenocorticotrophin deficiency in 2 (4.4%). In conclusion, megavoltage RT is an effective treatment for the control of GH hypersecretion in acromegaly, with a continuing lowering effect for several years following RT but seldom leads to safe GH levels. PMID:9506859

  10. Antigenic community between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata: on the search of candidate antigens for vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chacón

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously confirmed the presence of common antigens between Schistosoma mansoni and its vector, Biomphalaria glabrata. Cross-reactive antigens may be important as possible candidates for vaccine and diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Sera from outbred mice immunized with a soluble Biomphalaria glabrata antigen (SBgA of non-infected B. glabrata snails recognized molecules of SBgA itself and S. mansoni AWA by Western blot. Recognition of several molecules of the SBgA were inhibited by pre-incubation with AWA (16, 30, 36, 60 and 155 kDa. The only specific molecule of AWA, inhibited by SBgA, was a 120 kDa protein. In order to determine which epitopes of SBgA were glycoproteins, the antigen was treated with sodium metaperiodate and compared with non-treated antigen. Molecules of 140, 60 and 24 kDa in the SBgA appear to be glycoproteins. Possible protective effects of the SBgA were evaluated immunizing outbred mice in two different experiments using Freund's Adjuvant. In the first one (12 mice/group, we obtained a significant level of protection (46% in the total worm load, with a high variability in worm recovery. In the second experiment (22 mice/group, no significant protection was observed, neither in worm load nor in egg production per female. Our results suggest that SBgA constitutes a rich source of candidate antigens for diagnosis and prophylactic studies.

  11. Nanovaccines for malaria using Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pfs25 attached gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Ray, Paresh C; Datta, Dibyadyuti; Bansal, Geetha P; Angov, Evelina; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2015-09-22

    Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) targeting sexual stages of the parasite represent an ideal intervention to reduce the burden of the disease and eventual elimination at the population level in endemic regions. Immune responses against sexual stage antigens impair the development of parasite inside the mosquitoes. Target antigens identified in Plasmodium falciparum include surface proteins Pfs230 and Pfs48/45 in male and female gametocytes and Pfs25 expressed in zygotes and ookinetes. The latter has undergone extensive evaluation in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials and remains one of the leading target antigens for the development of TBV. Pfs25 has a complex tertiary structure characterized by four EGF-like repeat motifs formed by 11 disulfide bonds, and it has been rather difficult to obtain Pfs25 as a homogenous product in native conformation in any heterologous expression system. Recently, we have reported expression of codon-harmonized recombinant Pfs25 in Escherichia coli (CHrPfs25) and which elicited highly potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies in mice. In the current study, we investigated CHrPfs25 along with gold nanoparticles of different shapes, size and physicochemical properties as adjuvants for induction of transmission blocking immunity. The results revealed that CHrPfs25 delivered with various gold nanoparticles elicited strong transmission blocking antibodies and suggested that gold nanoparticles based formulations can be developed as nanovaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens.

  12. Distinct effects of endogenous interleukin-23 on eosinophilic airway inflammation in response to different antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Ogawa; Yusuke Suzuki; Shizuko Kagawa; Katsunori Masaki; Koichi Fukunaga; Akihiko Yoshimura; Seitaro Fujishima; Takeshi Terashima; Tomoko Betsuyaku; Koichiro Asano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of interleukin (IL)-23 in asthma pathophysiology is still controversial. We examined its role in allergic airway inflammation in response to two distinct antigens using IL-23-deficient mice. Methods: Allergic airway inflammation was evaluated in wild-type and IL-23p19−/− mice. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) by intraperitoneal injection of antigen and their airways were then exposed to the same antigen. Levels of antigen-specific immuno...

  13. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (pcement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (pcement dust and clinker (pMercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (pcement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

  14. Independent prognostic value of preoperative serum markers CA 242, specific tissue polypeptide antigen and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta, but not of carcinoembryonic antigen or tissue polypeptide antigen in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpelan-Holmström, M; Haglund, C.; Lundin, J; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U H; Roberts, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The prognostic value of preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), specific tissue polypeptide antigen (TPS) and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (hCG beta) in 251 patients with colorectal cancer (39 Dukes' A, 98 Dukes' B, 56 Dukes' C and 58 Dukes' D) was investigated. When using the cut-off levels recommended for diagnostic purposes, there was a significantly longer overall survival in patients with low tumour marker level...

  15. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or ... avoid exposure to soil. Is there a medical test for lead exposure? • Blood samples can be tested ...

  16. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  17. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  18. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  19. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  20. Study on the relationship of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children's blood lead level%注意缺陷多动障碍与儿童血铅水平的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛晓昱; 吴媛; 冀永娟; 周长虹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To confer attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children's blood lead level of relationship.[Methods]Using atomic absorption spectrometry, for the same period 162 cases of ADHD children and child health care clinic in the medical examination of 181 cases of healthy children's blood lead level of statistical analysis.[Results]The results of ADHD children, the boy's high blood lead level was higher than that of girls (P<0.01), the boy 's lead poisoning rate was also higher than that of girls (P<0.05).More dynamic, attention-impaired children's blood lead level of children's blood lead level was significantly higher (P<0.01).[Conclusions]The children's hyperactivity, attention disorder related to the high blood lead level of children.Therefore, it is significant to carry out a wide range of children blood lead ADHD and children's blood lead level%[目的]探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)与儿童血铅水平的关系.[方法]使用原子吸收光谱法,对162例ADHD儿童和同期在儿保门诊进行体检的181例健康儿童的血铅水平进行比较分析.[结果]ADHD儿童的血铅明显高于对照组儿童的血铅水平(P<0.01).ADHD儿童中男童的高血铅率显著高于女童(P<0.05),不同年龄阶段铅中毒率具差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]ADHD与儿童高血铅水平相关,积极开展儿童防铅工作对ADHD的治疗具有一定的意义.

  1. Expression and immunoactivity of chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jie Yang; Ning-Shao Xia; Min Chen; Tong Cheng; Shui-Zhen He; Shao-Wei Li; Bao-Quan Guan; Zi-Heng Zhu; Ying Gu; Jun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To improve the immunogenicity of receptor binding site of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on preS1 antigen using HBV core antigen as an immuno-carrier.METHODS: One to 6 tandem copies of HBV preS1 (21-47)fragment were inserted into HBcAg at the sites of aa 78 and 82, and expressed in E. coli. ELISA, Western blot and animal immunization were used to analyze the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of purified particulate antigens. The ability to capture HBV by antibodies elicited by chimeric partides was detected with immuno-capture PCR.RESULTS: Recombinant antigens CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ carrying 1-3 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) individually could form viruslike particles (VLPs), similar to HBcAg in morphology. But recombinant antigens carrying 4-6 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) were poorly expressed in E.coli. Chimeric antigens were lacking of immunoreactivity with anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), but still reserved good immunoreactivity with anti-HBe McAbs. CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ could strongly react with anti-preS1 McAb, suggesting that preS1 (21-47) fragment was well exposed on the surface of chimeric VLPs. Three chimeric VLP antigens (CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ) could stimulate mice to produce high-level antibody responses, and their immunogenicity was stronger than non-particulate antigen 21-47*6, containing 6 copies of preS1 (21-47). Mouse antibodies to CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ were able to capture HBV virions in immuno-capture PCR assay in vitro.CONCLUSION: Chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of HBV can elicit strong antibody responses to preS1. They have a potential to be developed into prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection.

  2. Increased blood glycohemoglobin A1c levels lead to overestimation of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin. Objectives We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2 in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy. Methods Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation. Results Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6% and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8% were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p 2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94% and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92% in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p  Conclusions Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia.

  3. Valores sangüíneos de chumbo em bovinos nelore suplementados com sal mineral naturalmente contaminado por chumbo Blood levels of lead in nelore cattle supplemented with mineral salt naturally contaminated with lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Sachetin Marçal

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada em 8 propriedades rurais com regime de criação extensiva, situadas às margens da represa de Barra Bonita, no município de Anhembi, estado de São Paulo. Amostras de sal mineral, capim e sangue animal foram colhidas para análise laboratorial, para se investigar a presença de chumbo. Foram utilizados 160 bovinos, machos e fêmeas, da raça Nelore, divididos em dois grupos de 80 animais. A finalidade precípua foi realizar um estudo comparativo entre os dois grupos, sendo que no primeiro os animais recebiam sal mineral sabidamente contaminado com chumbo. O segundo grupo serviu como lote para efeito comparativo. O critério de comparação foi a análise sangüínea que revelou valores aquém do limite de tolerância biológico atribuído à espécie bovina, em ambos os grupos. Os resultados permitem a conclusão de que, aos níveis de chumbo detectados nas amostras mineralizadas, ainda não há risco de efeito cumulativo e tóxico para os bovinos avaliados.This study was performed at the beef cattle region at Anhembi County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Eight beef farms where cattle were raised at pasture were selected. These farms were located around Barra Bonita dam. One-hundred-and-sixty Nelore cattle, males and females, were divided into two groups of 80 cattle each. One group received mineral salt naturally contaminated with lead, whereas the other group received lead-free mineral salt. The main goal of this study was to compare both groups. Blood samples, and samples from the mineral salt and grass were collected and analyzed for the presence of lead. Blood lead concentration was found to be below the "tolerance limit" for this species in both groups. It was concluded that the lead concentration detected in the mineral salt did not present a risk for toxicity and cumulative effects in the population studied.

  4. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  5. Survey of lead levels in blood of 13 851 preschool children in Shenzhen City%深圳市13851例学龄前儿童血铅水平调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚; 刘秋菊; 黄宝兴; 肖丽霞

    2011-01-01

    Aim To estimate the lead levels in blood of children in Shenzhen and provide scientific basis for formulationg effective intervention measures. Methods BH2100 atomic absorption spectrometer was used to detect the lead levels in venous blood of 13 851 preschool children aged 0~6years. Results The mean lead level in venous blood was 47.87μg/L,and the mean incidence of lead poisoning was 2.642%. Although the lead levels in venous blood Lead were increased with age,there were no statistical differences in lead poisoning among different age group and genders (P<0.05).Conclusion The lead levels in venous blood of children in Shenzhen were lower,but control of blood lead should still be strengthened.%目的 了解深圳市学龄前儿童的血铅水平,为制定积极有效的干预措施提供科学依据.方法 对13 851例0~6岁儿童采集静脉血,用BH2100型原子吸收光谱法测定血铅水平.结果 13 851名儿童血铅均值为47.87μg/L,铅中毒发生率2.642%.血铅水平随年龄递增,总体有差异(P<0.05),各年龄组铅中毒发生率总体差异无统计学意义,男女性别间差异无统计学意义.结论 深圳市儿童血铅水平处于低水平,但仍需加强血铅控制.

  6. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  7. Expression of Fas Antigen (CD95 on Human Leukemic Cells and Assessment of Apoptosis on Fas+ and Fas-Samples by Flowcytometry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Zieh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of normal cell growth and turnover is balanced between cell pro¬liferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis.A disruption of this balance is thought to be an important event leading to carcinogenesis .One of the effector molecules in apoptosis is Fas antigen . Cross-linking of Fas by its ligand (Fas L or agonistic anti Fas antibodies induces apoptosis of cells expressing Fas on the membrane by triggering cascade of caspaces.The aim of this research was to study the percent of expression of Fas antigen on bone marrow and peripheral blood cells in 100 patients suffering from acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemia by flow cytometry method. Sample were obtained at the time of diagnosis before antileukemic therapy. Expression of Fas antigen on normal control peripheral leukocytes was also analysed.From these data, it was found that Fas antigen is expressed in all cases, but the expression level varied widely.The percentage of Fas antigen expression in all of acute lymphoid leukemia samples was below 20%, but in acute myeloid leukemia samples, 8 out of 50 cases was above 20%. In normal control samples, the mean value for monocytes was higher than granulocytes and in granulocytes higher than lymphcytes.Expression of Fas antigen in most of the leukemic cells was low and the preliminary results showed that increase in Fas antigen expression above 20% after treatment, is a favorable prognostic sign associated with increase relapse free and total survival. Thus evaluation of this antigen before, during and after treatment is recommended.

  8. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  9. Lead determination at ng/mL level by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a tantalum coated slotted quartz tube atom trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, İlknur; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) still keeps its importance despite the relatively low sensitivity; because it is a simple and economical technique for determination of metals. In recent years, atom traps have been developed to increase the sensitivity of FAAS. Although the detection limit of FAAS is only at the level of µg/mL, with the use of atom traps it can reach to ng/mL. Slotted quartz tube (SQT) is one of the atom traps used to improve sensitivity. In atom trapping mode of SQT, analyte is trapped on-line in SQT for few minutes using ordinary sample aspiration, followed by the introduction of a small volume of organic solvent to effect the revolatilization and atomization of analyte species resulting in a transient signal. This system is economical, commercially available and easy to use. In this study, a sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of lead with the help of SQT atom trapping flame atomization (SQT-AT-FAAS). 574 Fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained at a sample suction rate of 3.9 mL/min for 5.0 min trapping period with respect to FAAS. Organic solvent was selected as 40 µL of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). To obtain a further sensitivity enhancement inner surface of SQT was coated with several transition metals. The best sensitivity enhancement, 1650 fold enhancement, was obtained by the Ta-coated SQT-AT-FAAS. In addition, chemical nature of Pb species trapped on quartz and Ta surface, and the chemical nature of Ta on quartz surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. Raman spectrometric results indicate that tantalum is coated on SQT surface in the form of Ta2O5. XPS studies revealed that the oxidation state of Pb in species trapped on both bare and Ta coated SQT surfaces is +2. For the accuracy check, the analyses of standard reference material were performed by use of SCP SCIENCE EnviroMAT Low (EU-L-2) and results for Pb were to be in good agreement with

  10. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI Neurocisticercose: relação entre antígeno da Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano e ressonância magnética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC. METHOD: Sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. RESULTS: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%. A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions. Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions, 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. CONCLUSION: According to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: (1 TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; (2 in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; (3 TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; (4 TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC.OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre a detecção de antígeno de Taenia (TA no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR e achados de ressonância magnética (RM em pacientes com diagnóstico definitivo de neurocisticersose. MÉTODO: Sessenta e três pacientes com diagnóstico de NC foram submetidos a exame de RM e exame de LCR com pesquisa de antígeno de Taenia por método imunoenzimático. RESULTADOS: A detecção de TA foi positiva em 36 pacientes (57,1%. Um total de 836 lesões foram analizadas sendo 98

  11. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Patel, Devesh Kumar

    2010-04-15

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 microL) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 microL of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL(-1) lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL(-1). The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility. PMID:20004520

  12. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 μL) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 μL of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL-1 lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL-1. The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility.

  13. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  14. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has also been associated with juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior. In adults, lead can increase blood pressure ... and-forth manner, but rather from left to right (or vise-versa), or from the top of ...

  15. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  16. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  17. A study on relationship between blood lead level in children and fetal umbilical cord%儿童血铅与胎儿期铅污染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斐然; 陈雅芬; 蒋新液; 诸华; 印永祥

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between blood lead level in children and fetus.Methods Blood specimens were collected from the fingers of children aged one to five years and from umbilical cord when the babies were born, to determine their lead level with atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Results The average blood lead level was (0.42±0.15) μmol/L in 1 122 children.Blood lead level in 27.54% of the children was above ≥0.483 μmol/L.The average umbilical blood lead level was (0.16±0.12) μmol/L in 127 neonates.Blood lead level in 0.79% of the new-born babies were greater than ≥0.483 μmol/L.Conclusion Higher blood lead level in children was mainly caused by environmental pollution and unhealthy life behaviors.Background blood lead in fetuses has already reached a higher level, so prevention from lead poisoning in children should begin during pregnancy.%目的了解儿童血铅水平与胎儿期铅污染的关系。方法采集1~5岁儿童手指血和新生儿出生时的脐带血,用原子吸收石墨炉法测定血铅浓度。结果 1 122例儿童血铅平均为(0.42±0.15)μmol/L,血铅值≥0.483 μmol/L的儿童占27.54%;127例新生儿脐带血铅平均为(0.16±0.12)μmol/L,血铅值≥0.483 μmol/L的新生儿占0.79%。结论儿童血铅水平高主要是环境污染和生活行为引起,儿童在胎儿期血铅的本底水平已较高,所以预防儿童铅中毒应从孕妇做起。

  18. Blood lead levels and related factors analysis of children in hongshan district of Wuhan city%武汉市洪山区儿童血铅水平及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆继红

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解洪山区0~6岁儿童血铅水平分布状况及相关因素,为预防儿童铅中毒提供依据。方法:0~6岁儿童手指末梢血1227例按年龄分为两组,采用原子吸收光谱仪检测两组血铅水平。结果:Ⅰ组铅超标率1.11%,铅中毒率0.16%。Ⅱ组铅超标率0.67%,铅中毒率0。结论:洪山区儿童血铅水平处于国内中等水平,但仍高于发达国家。%Objective:To explore the blood lead levels and related factors of from 0 to 6 years old children in hongshan district and to provide basis for the prevention of lead poisoning in children.Methods:1 227 cases from 0 to 6 years old children were divided into two groups according to the age,and the blood lead levels of two groups were detected by atomic absorption spectrometer.Results:The over-standard lead of Ⅰ group was 1.11%,and the lead poisoning rate was 0.16%.The over-standard lead of Ⅱ group was 0.67%,and the lead poisoning rate was 0%.Conclusion:The blood lead level of children in hongshan district was medium level in domestic,but still higher than the developed countries.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BLOOD LEAD LEVEL AMONG CHILDREN IN MEIZHOU AREA%广东省梅州地区0~6岁儿童血铅浓度检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗擎英; 赵巍; 张凤; 张遵真

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 了解广东梅州地区儿童的血铅水平以及铅中毒率,为该地区预防儿童铅中毒提供依据.[方法]应用ICP2MS法对2009年1~12月在某妇幼医院进行常规体检的该地区2 650例6岁以下儿童的血铅含量进行测定.[结果] 2 560名儿童的血铅浓度水平范围为12.56-198.56μg/L,平均值为66.58μg/L,标准差为24.31μg/L,其中男童血铅水平为(71.23±25.23)μg/L,女童血铅水平为(60.67±22.23)μg/,男女童之间血铅水平差异有统计学意义,各年龄组之间血铅水平分布差异有统计学意义.铅中毒儿童共400例,总检出率为15.63%,其中男童铅中毒率为20.59%,女童铅中毒率为10.00%,男女童之间差异有统计学意义,各年龄组之间铅中毒率分布差异有统计学意义.儿童血铅水平及铅中毒率随年龄的增大呈上升趋势.[结论] 本地区儿童血铅浓度低于全国平均水平,铅中毒有一定检出率;随着年龄的增大,儿童血铅浓度及铅中毒率均呈增高趋势,应重视儿童铅中毒的预防.%[Objective] To understand the blood lead level. and lead poisoning incidence of children in Meizhou aera,then further provide a basis for the prevention of lead poisoning. [Methods] ICP2MS was used to measure the blood lead level.2560 children aged 0-6 years with physical examination during January 2009-December 2009 in Meizhou were selected to test children blood lead level. [Resutts] The suhject ran ge of 2 560 cases of children blood lead ranged from 12.56 μg/L to 198.56 μS/L The average of whole children hlood lead was 66.58±24.31 μg/L. The male and female average blood lead was 71.23±25.23 μg/L and 60.67±22.23 μg/L respechvely. The children lead poisoning incidence was 15.63%, and the male and female lead poisoning incidence was 20.59% and 10% , respectively. The male blood lead levels and lead poisoning incidence were significantly higher than the female 's. The blood lead levels and the lead poisoninS rate

  20. δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and Peptide Transporter 2*2 Haplotype (hPEPT2*2) Differently Influence Neurobehavior in Low-Level Lead Exposed Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sobin, Christina; Gisel Flores-Montoya, Mayra; Gutierrez, Marisela; Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-01-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and peptide transporter haplotype 2*2 (hPEPT2*2) through different pathways can increase brain levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid and are associated with higher blood lead bur