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Sample records for antigen levels leading

  1. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  2. Heterozygous Mutation in IκBNS Leads to Reduced Levels of Natural IgM Antibodies and Impaired Responses to T-Independent Type 2 Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gabriel K; Ádori, Monika; Stark, Julian M; Khoenkhoen, Sharesta; Arnold, Carrie; Beutler, Bruce; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in central components of classical NF-κB signaling have low levels of circulating natural IgM antibodies and fail to respond to immunization with T-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens. A plausible explanation for these defects is the severely reduced numbers of B-1 and marginal zone B (MZB) cells in such mice. By using an ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen, we identified a role for the atypical IκB protein IκBNS in humoral immunity. IκBNS-deficient mice lack B-1 cells and have severely reduced numbers of MZB cells, and thus resemble several other strains with defects in classical NF-κB signaling. We analyzed mice heterozygous for the identified IκBNS mutation and demonstrate that these mice have an intermediary phenotype in terms of levels of circulating IgM antibodies and responses to TI-2 antigens. However, in contrast to mice that are homozygous for the IκBNS mutation, the heterozygous mice had normal frequencies of B-1 and MZB cells. These results suggest that there is a requirement for IκBNS expression from two functional alleles for maintaining normal levels of circulating natural IgM antibodies and responses to TI-2 antigens.

  3. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  4. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai S; Apiwathnasorn C; Leemingsawat S; Wongwit W; Overgaard HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods: Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 μg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions: The Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques.

  5. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  6. Continual Antigenic Diversification in China Leads to Global Antigenic Complexity of Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiaodan; Zhou, Hongbo; Wu, Aiping; Dong, Libo; Zhang, Ye; Gao, Rongbao; Bo, Hong; Yang, Lei; Wang, Dayan; Lin, Xian; Jin, Meilin; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus poses a significant potential threat to human society due to its wide spread and rapid evolution. In this study, we present a comprehensive antigenic map for HPAI H5N1 viruses including 218 newly sequenced isolates from diverse regions of mainland China, by computationally separating almost all HPAI H5N1 viruses into 15 major antigenic clusters (ACs) based on their hemagglutinin sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 12 of these 15 ACs originated in China in a divergent pattern. Further analysis of the dissemination of HPAI H5N1 virus in China identified that the virus’s geographic expansion was co-incident with a significant divergence in antigenicity. Moreover, this antigenic diversification leads to global antigenic complexity, as typified by the recent HPAI H5N1 spread, showing extensive co-circulation and local persistence. This analysis has highlighted the challenge in H5N1 prevention and control that requires different planning strategies even inside China. PMID:28262734

  7. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  8. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  9. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  10. Lead level in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos

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    Ioan Macinic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on a hunting ground belonging to AJVPS Arad, county Arad. Lead (Pb was determined in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos tissues (muscles and organs (liver, kidneys to see the contamination level of this tissues and organs and also the impact on humans health because in our days more and more wild game meat take a increasing percentage in humans food ratio. The Mallard is one of the most widespread duck species. Mallard has 50-62 cm length, 800-1400 g weight and lives about 11 years. It prefers rivers and shallow pounds with a lot of reed. It is a migratory species that is flying long distances to find food and unfrozen water, so it is a exposed to lead contamination that is under dust form in atmosphere. But another reason why lead level in Mallard can be higher that in other flying specie (pheasant, woodcock, quail, and pigeons are the lead shot shells that are used for duck hunting. It is known that the ducks can ingest these lead shot shells and so they are often exposed to lead intoxications. This is why in our days more ammunition for waterfowl are steel made or different type of alloys. Lead is known to be one of the most common pollutants with a large range of effects on human health: lead affects nervous system, digestive tract, kidneys, bones, enzymes. Lead has also mutagenic effect, carcinogenic effect, teratogenic effect.

  11. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Differing patterns of selection and geospatial genetic diversity within two leading Plasmodium vivax candidate vaccine antigens.

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    Christian M Parobek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Plasmodium vivax is a leading cause of malaria around the world, only a handful of vivax antigens are being studied for vaccine development. Here, we investigated genetic signatures of selection and geospatial genetic diversity of two leading vivax vaccine antigens--Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1 and Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp. Using scalable next-generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced amplicons of the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1 (n = 44 and the complete gene of pvcsp (n = 47 from Cambodian isolates. These sequences were then compared with global parasite populations obtained from GenBank. Using a combination of statistical and phylogenetic methods to assess for selection and population structure, we found strong evidence of balancing selection in the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1, which varied significantly over the length of the gene, consistent with immune-mediated selection. In pvcsp, the highly variable central repeat region also showed patterns consistent with immune selection, which were lacking outside the repeat. The patterns of selection seen in both genes differed from their P. falciparum orthologs. In addition, we found that, similar to merozoite antigens from P. falciparum malaria, genetic diversity of pvmsp-1 sequences showed no geographic clustering, while the non-merozoite antigen, pvcsp, showed strong geographic clustering. These findings suggest that while immune selection may act on both vivax vaccine candidate antigens, the geographic distribution of genetic variability differs greatly between these two genes. The selective forces driving this diversification could lead to antigen escape and vaccine failure. Better understanding the geographic distribution of genetic variability in vaccine candidate antigens will be key to designing and implementing efficacious vaccines.

  13. Carbohydrate 19.9 Antigen Serum Levels in Liver Disease

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    Gaetano Bertino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbohydrate 19.9 antigen (CA19.9 has been used in the diagnosis and followup of gastrointestinal tumours. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was the evaluation of CA19.9 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis hepatitis C virus and B virus correlated. Materials and Methods. 180 patients were enrolled, 116 with HCV-related chronic liver disease (48% chronic hepatitis, 52% cirrhosis and 64 with HBV-related chronic liver disease (86% chronic hepatitis, 14% cirrhosis. Patients with high levels of CA19.9 underwent abdominal ecography, gastroendoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scan. Results. 51.7% of patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease and 48.4% of those with HBV-related chronic liver disease presented high levels of CA19.9. None was affected by pancreatic or intestinal neoplasia, cholestatic jaundice, or other diseases potentially able to induce Ca19.9 elevations. CA19.9 levels were elevated in 43.3% of HCV chronic hepatitis, in 56.3% of HCV cirrhosis, in 45.1% of HBV chronic hepatitis, and in 58% of HBV cirrhosis. Conclusions. CA19.9 commonly increases in the serum of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Elevation of CA 19.9 is not specific for neoplastic disease and is related to the severity of fibrosis and to the viral aetiology of hepatitis.

  14. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

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    Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  15. Prostate specific antigen levels following transurethral resection of the prostate

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    Roberto C. Fonseca

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine how serum prostate-specific antigen (t-PSA levels and free PSA (f/t PSA ratio change following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty men with a mean age of 67.0 + 4.2 years (range 46 to 84 years underwent TURP for BPH between May 2005 and October 2005. Preoperative assessment included symptom evaluation with the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS and the prostate volume estimation by transrectal ultrasound. Total PSA and f/t PSA ratio were assessed before the procedure, as well as 30, 60 and 180 days after the TURP. RESULTS: Clinical improvement after TURP, reflected by I-PSS score, was demonstrated as early as 30 days and remained stable until the end of the follow-up. Mean t-PSA declined 71% after TURP and 60 days after surgery the reduction reached its peak, stabilizing afterwards. It varied from 6.19 + 7.06 ng/mL before surgery to 1.75 + 1.66 ng/mL on day 60 (p < 0.001. The mean baseline f/t PSA ratio was 18.2% + 3.4% and was not significantly changed at any given time point in the postoperative period (p = 0.91. There were also no statistically significant differences in t-PSA or f/t PSA between patients with and without prostatitis at any time point (p = 0.23. Resected prostate fragments weighed 29.9 + 19.6 g, corresponding to 39.1% of the estimated preoperative prostate volume. Each gram of tissue resected decreased PSA by 0.15 + 0.11 ng/mL, while 1% prostate volume resected led to a reduction of 2.4% + 0.4% in serum PSA from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: PSA decreases drastically in patients who undergo TURP. These low levels stabilize within 60 days after surgery. The f/t PSA ratio did not change, and the finding of chronic prostatitis did not affect the levels of these variables.

  16. Evaluation of the use of salivary lead levels as a surrogate of blood lead or plasma lead levels in lead exposed subjects

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    Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Correa Rodrigues, Maria H.; Buzalaf, Maria R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-15

    We conducted a study to evaluate the use of parotid salivary lead (Pb-saliva) levels as a surrogate of the blood lead (Pb-B) or plasma lead levels (Pb-P) to diagnose lead exposure. The relationship between these biomarkers was assessed in a lead exposed population. Pb-saliva and Pb-P were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while in whole blood lead was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. We studied 88 adults (31 men and 57 women) from 18 to 60 years old. Pb-saliva levels varied from 0.05 to 4.4 {mu}g/l, with a mean of 0.85 {mu}g/l. Blood lead levels varied from 32.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/l in men (mean 112.3 {mu}g/l) and from 25.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/l (mean 63.5 {mu}g/l) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.50 {mu}g/l (mean 0.77 {mu}g/l) and 0.03-1.6 {mu}g/l (mean 0.42 {mu}g/l) in men and women, respectively. A weak correlation was found between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-B (r=0.277, P<0.008), and between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-P (r=0.280, P=0.006). The Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio ranged from 0.20 to 18.0. Age or gender does not affect Pb-saliva levels or Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio. Taken together, these results suggest that salivary lead may not be used as a biomarker to diagnose lead exposure nor as a surrogate of plasma lead levels at least for low to moderately lead exposed population. (orig.)

  17. Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin B; Laden, Francine; Guller, Ulrich; Shankar, Anoop; Kazani, Shamsah; Garshick, Eric

    2005-05-15

    Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as > or = 10 microg/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 microg/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level Lead levels lead levels > or = 10-19.9 microg/dl and 97 (9%) had levels > or = 20 microg/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels > or = 10 microg/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.

  18. A Molecular-Level Account of the Antigenic Hantaviral Surface

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    Sai Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV, a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses.

  19. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

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    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  20. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  1. Lead level in foremilk and neurobehavioral development of neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been reported that blood lead level lower than 24 μ mol/L can lead to learning and cognitive deficits.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of lead level in foremilk and early neurobehavioral development of neonates taking lead level in foremilk as lead exposure index.DESIGN: A controlled observation.SETTING: Maternal and Child Health Center, Shanxi Children's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 128 neonates of full-term normal delivery, 76 male and 52 female, from ShanxiProvincial Maternal and Child Health Center and Jiexiu Maternal and Child Health Center were involved inthis study. All the involved neonates had no peripartal ischemic/hypoxic history. The corresponding puerperants were aged (27± 5 ) years. They had no various acute and chronic diseases during pregnancy, and family history of neurological disease as well as occupational lead exposure. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the puerperants.METHODS: ① Determination of lead level in foremilk: Altogether 128 foremilk samples, 1 mL each,were collected between January and February 2005. The same amount of violet acid was added to each sample. After foremilk was fully dissolved, 0.2 mL solution was taken for determining lead level with atomic absorption spectrometer in graphite stove. The determined process strictly followed the internal quantity control of laboratory and was involved in the blind quality control of Institute of Environmental Health of Chinese Academy. ② Participants grouping: Totally 128 neonates were involved, and the normal reference value of lead level of foremilk was 0.06- 0.48 μ mol/L. The involved neonates were assigned into high-level lead group (≥ 0.24 μ mol/L, n =60) and low-level lead group (< 0.24 μ mol/L, n =68). ③Assessment of neurobehavioral development of neonates: Neurobehavioral development level of neonates who was born 24 to 72 hours was assessed with 20-item neonatal neurobehavioral determination method

  2. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

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    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  3. Influence of social and environmental factors on dust, lead, hand lead, and blood lead levels in young children

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    Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.; Dietrich, K.N.; Clark, C.S.; Que Hee, S.; Hammond, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The roles of environmental and behavioral factors in determining blood lead levels were studied in a cohort of young children living in an urban environment. The subjects were observed at 3-month intervals from birth to 24 months of age. Repeated measurements were made of the children's blood lead levels, environmental levels of lead in house dust, and in the dust found on the children's hands. A qualitative rating of the residence and of the socioeconomic status of the family was obtained. Interviews and direct observation of parent and child at home were used to evaluate various aspects of caretaker-child interactions. Data analysis consisted of a comparison of results obtained by (a) simple correlational analysis, (b) multiple regression analysis, and (c) structural equations analysis. The results demonstrated that structural equation modeling offers a useful approach to unraveling the complex interactions present in the data set. In this preliminary analysis, the suspected relationship between the levels of lead in house dust and on hands and the blood lead level was clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, the analyses indicated an important interplay between environmental sources and social factors in the determination of hand lead and blood lead levels in very young children.

  4. Pregnancy hypertension and umbilical cord blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Needleman, H. (Children' s Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Schoenbaum, S. (Harvard Community Health Plan, Brookline Village, MA (USA))

    Pregnancy hypertension, blood pressure during labor, and the umbilical cord blood lead concentration were assessed in 3,851 women for whom additional demographic, medical, and personal information was available. Lead levels correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure during labor. The incidence of clinically defined pregnancy hypertension, nearly 11% overall, increased with lead level. A series of multivariate models of pregnancy hypertension and of systolic blood pressure as a function of maternal age, parity, hematocrit, ponderal index, race, season, and diabetes were improved by including lead as a predictor variable. These other risk factors are not affected by the lead term. The relative risk for pregnancy hypertension doubles when lead increases from 2 to 15 {mu}g/dl. The effect is statistically strong, with a magnitude of about 3 mm for a 10 {mu}g/dl range, about the same magnitude associated with diabetes. At these observed levels (mean blood lead = 6.0 {mu}g/dl, SD = 3.3, range 0 > 35), not currently recognized as overtly toxic, lead has a small but demonstrable association with pregnancy hypertension and blood pressure at the time of delivery, but not with pre-eclampsia nor toxemia. Although this association is not likely to influence the clinical management of hypertension, it indicates that lead at typical contemporary urban levels, does effect multiple physiological functions.

  5. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; Esterman, A; Lewis, M; Roder, D; Calder, I

    1986-01-01

    This survey included 1,239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's "level of concern." There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members who worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.

  6. Low level exposures to lead and neurobehavioral development: the Sydney lead study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooney, G.H.; Bell, A.; McBride, W.; Carter, C.

    1988-01-01

    The Sydney lead study is a prospective five year study investigating the relationship between low level lead exposures and neurobehavioral development during the first five years of life. From an initial cohort of 318 children, 207 remained at the end of the fourth year. Average blood lead levels at 42 and 48 months were 10.6 ug/dL and 10.1 ug/dL respectively, with only a minority of the observations exceeding 15 ug/dL. The series of regression analyses reported in this paper support earlier findings from the study, that exposures to lead which give rise to the range of blood lead levels found in this cohort of children are not associated with cognitive or motor deficits in the preschool years.

  7. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil.

  8. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  9. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophile Niyonsenga

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg /dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05. However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  10. Blood lead levels in children and environmental lead contamination in Miami inner city, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M; Siegel, Kristy A; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-09-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 microg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 microg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 microg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  11. Health and safety - the downward trend in lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.G.; Wilson, D.N. [Lead Development Association International, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-18

    Lead has been known and used by man for thousands of years and its toxic properties have been known for almost as long. In consequence, a wide body of legislation has built up and is designed to protect individuals in both the occupational and the general environments. At the occupational level, two types of controls are widely employed, namely, lead-in-air and lead-in-blood. Limits placed on the amount of lead-in-air are designed to ensure that individuals are not exposed to unsafe levels of lead via inhalation. Currently, the most common standard is 0.15 mg m{sup -3} but there is a clear downward trend and levels as low as 0.05 mg m{sup -3} are mandatory in some countries. Controls on the amount of lead-in-blood give a more direct indication of the exposure experienced by individuals. The most common level presently employed is 70 {mu}g m{sup -3} but, as knowledge of the health effects of lead improves, lower levels are being introduced and 50 {mu}g m{sup -3} is now fairly common. While women are no more sensitive to lead than men, some countries do employ lower blood-lead limits for women in the workplace in order to protect any developing foetus. This paper examines the levels currently in force in various countries and describes developments which are now taking place in the legislation that is being enacted in several parts of the world. As far as the general public is concerned, only a relatively small number of countries employ controls. Where controls do exist, however, they are set at much lower levels than for the occupational environment in order to protect the most sensitive members of the population. Several countries employ limits on lead in ambient air. Traditionally, these have been set at either 1.5 or 2.0 {mu}g m{sup -3}, but several countries are currently considering sharp downward revisions to levels of the order of 0.5 {mu}g m{sup -3}. A few countries offer guidance on acceptable blood levels for the general population, most commonly for

  12. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  13. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  14. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained.

  15. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  16. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  17. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  18. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  19. Differentiation induced by physiological and pharmacological stimuli leads to increased antigenicity of human neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lena-Maria Carlson; Sven P(a)hlman; Anna De Geer; Per Kogner; Jelena Levitskaya

    2008-01-01

    Sympathetic neuronal differentiation is associated with favorable prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of early childhood. Differentiation agents have proved useful in clinical protocols of NB treatment, but using them as a sole treatment is not sufficient to induce tumor elimination in patients. Therefore, complementary approaches, such as immunotherapy, are warranted. Here we demonstrate that differentiation of NB cell lines and ex vivo isolated tumor cells in response to physiological or pharmacological stimuli is associated with acquisition of increased antigenicity. This manifests as increased expression of surface major histocompatibility class I complexes and ICAM-1 molecules and translates into increased sensitivity of NB cells to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. The latter is paralleled by enhanced ability of differentiated cells to form immune conjugates and bind increased amounts of granzyme B to the cell surface. We demonstrate, for the first time, that, regardless of the stimulus applied, the differentiation state in NBs is associated with increased tumor antigenicity that enables more efficient elimination of tumor cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes and paves the way for combined application of differentiation-inducing agents and immunotherapy as an auxiliary approach in NB patients.

  20. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  1. [Use of urine lead level as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to verify whether there are statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of lead in blood (Pb-B) and urine (Pb-U). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. Venous blood and spot urine were collected from workers occupationally exposed (95), adults (130) and children up to 15 years old (22) environmentally exposed. After a test showing significant differences between Pb-U and the three categories previously determined, cutting points for Pb-U were established to predict Pb-B values by the ROC curve. Thus, it is expected that Pb-B is lower than 10 microg.dL-(1) with Pb-U up to 0.55 microg.dL-(1), whereas lead levels in blood below 27.6 microg.dL-(1) are expected when the amount of the metal in urine is lower than 2.05 microg.dL-(1). So, urine can be used to replace blood for the assessment of the occupational exposure to lead. However, caution is advised in the case of environmental exposure, since urinary lead should be used just as an estimation of the metal content in blood.

  2. Fast, antigen-saving multiplex immunoassay to determine levels and avidity of mouse serum antibodies to pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Rachel M; Smits, Mieke; Kuipers, Betsy; Kessen, Sabine F M; Boog, Claire J P; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2011-04-01

    To enhance preclinical evaluation of serological immune responses to the individual diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) components of DTP combination vaccines, a fast hexavalent bead-based method was developed. This multiplex immunoassay (MIA) can simultaneously determine levels of specific mouse serum IgG antibodies to P antigens P.69 pertactin (P.69 Prn), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertussis toxin (Ptx), and combined fimbria type 2 and 3 antigens (Fim2/3) and to diphtheria toxin (Dtx) and tetanus toxin (TT) in a single well. The mouse DTP MIA was shown to be specific and sensitive and to correlate with the six single in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for all antigens. Moreover, the MIA was expanded to include avidity measurements of DTP antigens in a multivalent manner. The sensitivities of the mouse DTP avidity MIA per antigen were comparable to those of the six individual in-house avidity ELISAs, and good correlations between IgG concentrations obtained by both methods for all antigens tested were shown. The regular and avidity mouse DTP MIAs were reproducible, with good intra- and interassay coefficients of variability (CV) for all antigens. Finally, the usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in a longitudinal study of the development and avidity maturation of specific IgG antibodies in mice having received different DTP vaccines. We conclude that the hexaplex mouse DTP MIA is a specific, sensitive, and high-throughput alternative for ELISA to investigate the quantity and quality of serological responses to DTP antigens in preclinical vaccine studies.

  3. A strategy of antigen incorporation into exosomes: comparing cross-presentation levels of antigens delivered by engineered exosomes and by lentiviral virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Laura; Federico, Maurizio

    2012-11-26

    Among strategies aimed at developing new nanoparticle-based vaccines, exosomes hold much promise. They are nanovesicles released by basically all eukaryotic cell types originating from intraluminal vesicles which accumulate in multivesicular bodies. Exosomes have immunogenic properties whose strength correlates with the amounts of associated antigens. Engineering antigens to target them in exosomes represents the last frontier in terms of nanoparticle-based vaccines. Here we report a new method to incorporate protein antigens in exosomes relying on the unique properties of a mutant of the HIV-1 Nef protein, Nef(mut). This is a biologically inactive mutant we found incorporating into exosomes at high levels also when fused at its C-terminus with foreign proteins. We compared both biochemical and antigenic properties of Nef(mut) exosomes with those of previously characterized Nef(mut) -based lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs). We found that exosomes incorporate Nef(mut) and fusion protein derivatives with similar efficiency of VLPs. When an envelope fusion protein was associated with both exosomes and VLPs to favor cross-presentation of associated antigens, Nef(mut) and its derivatives incorporated in exosomes were cross-presented at levels at least similar to what observed when the antigens were delivered by engineered VLPs. This occurred despite exosomes entered target cells with an apparent lower efficiency than VLPs. The unique properties of HIV-1 Nef(mut) in terms of exosome incorporation efficiency, carrier of foreign antigens, and lack of anti-cellular effects open the way toward the development of a flexible, safe, cost-effective exosome-based CD8(+) T cell vaccine platform.

  4. Significance of correlation between levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen and C-reactive protein, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-1 antitrypsin in gastric and colon cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bagaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recent progress in proteomics studies profiled that serum proteins of cancer patients and those of normal individuals have altered cancer antigen and acute phase protein expression for distinct types and stages of cancer. In our study, correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9, CEA and C-reactive protein (CRP, CEA and alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT were evaluated in gastric and colon cancer patients. Materials and Methods: CEA was estimated by solid phase, two-site sequential chemiluminescent immunometric assay, CA19-9 by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CRP by latex turbidimetry method and A1AT by turbidimetry method. Results: A significant correlation was seen in levels of CEA and CA19-9 in gastric (r = 0.457, P < 0.001 and colon cancer (r = 0.451, P < 0.001 patients. Correlation between CEA and CRP was significant in gastric (r = 0.462, P < 0.001 and colon cancer (r = 0.759, P < 0.001 patients and between CEA and A1AT also, correlation was found to be significant in gastric (r = 0.631, P < 0.001 and colon cancer patients (r = 0.516, P ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Serum acute-phase protein concentrations, when combined with CEA increases the sensitivity of CEA and provide substantial information concerning the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers. They have a definite role as a significant prognostic indicator which undoubtedly correlates with progression of cancer. Combined CEA and CA19-9 positivity reflected more biologic malignant properties and were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, hepatic metastasis and lower rates of curative resection. Surgical outcomes of patients who were CEA and CA19-9 positive were poorer than those of patients with normal CEA and CA19-9 levels.

  5. Elevated levels of a glycoprotein antigen (P-80) in gray and white matter of brain from victims of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, T F; Quackenbush, E J; Letarte, M; Moscarello, M A

    1986-06-01

    The levels of a glycoprotein reactive with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 44D10 in white and gray matter from brains of victims of several neurological diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, were compared to that of normal individuals. The concentration of antigen reactive with MAb 44D10 was elevated in both gray and white matter of all MS brains examined, but not in brains with other neurological diseases. The increase in the concentration of antigen varied amongst the MS brains, such that the levels of antigen were only slightly increased in 2 of the 6 MS brains whereas 2 to 4 fold higher levels were found in the other 4 brains. Increased levels of antigen were detected in gray matter of MS brains, whereas this antigen was either not detected or present in very low levels in gray matter homogenates prepared from age-matched normal brains. MAb Leu 1, which reacts with T lymphocytes, was not absorbed by normal and MS brain tissue suggesting the increase in antigen reactive with MAb 44D10 in MS brain homogenates was not associated with non-specific infiltration by T lymphocytes. Comparison of the purified antigen from MS gray matter and normal white matter by gel electrophoresis demonstrated that MAb 44D10 was reacting with a similar protein in both tissues with an apparent molecular weight of 80K. We have named this molecule P-80 glycoprotein.

  6. The Relationship Between Blood Lead Level and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Fatemeh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Dabirioskoei, Atousa; Nasiri, Malihe; Mellati, Aliosat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lead is a heavy metal to which people are commonly exposed. One of the possible mechanisms of tissue damages caused by this toxic metal is oxidative stress, which in turn may cause numerous pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal Blood Lead Level (BLL) and preeclampsia. Methods The present case-control study was conducted on 158 pregnant women admitted to a hospital in Zanjan, Iran, from August 2015 to March 2016. To measure their BLL, 1.5 cc of blood was drawn from each participant. The demographic and obstetric details of the patients were recorded in a form. The potentiometric method was used to test the samples. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using Mann-Whitney U test, the Chi square, independent-samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simple linear regression analysis. Results The mean BLL was 6.24±1.74 μg/dl in the control group and 8.04±3.4 μg/dl in the preeclampsia group. The two groups were matching in terms of the mother’s age and education and the household income. A significant relationship was observed between BLL and preeclampsia (p=0.028), as per every unit of increase (1 μg/dl) in BLL, systolic blood pressure increased by 0.014 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 0.013 mm Hg (p=0.004). Conclusion The results obtained suggest a relationship between BLL and preeclampsia. Global health measures should be taken to remove the exposure to lead so as to reduce its absorption by pregnant women. PMID:28163864

  7. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  8. Prime-boost vaccination with toxoplasma lysate antigen, but not with a mixture of recombinant protein antigens, leads to reduction of brain cyst formation in BALB/c mice.

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    Angelika Wagner

    Full Text Available Infection with the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a threat for immunocompromised patients and pregnant women and effective immune-prophylaxis is still lacking.Here we tested a mixture of recombinant T. gondii antigens expressed in different developmental stages, i.e., SAG1, MAG1 and GRA7 (SMG, and a lysate derived from T. gondii tachyzoites (TLA for prophylactic vaccination against cyst formation. Both vaccine formulations were applied systemically followed by an oral TLA-booster in BALB/c mice.Systemic priming with SMG and oral TLA-booster did not show significant induction of protective immune responses. In contrast, systemic priming and oral booster with TLA induced higher levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in sera as well as high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG1 in small intestines. Furthermore, high levels of Toxoplasma-specific Th1-, Th17- and Th2-associated cytokines were only detected in restimulated splenocytes of TLA-vaccinated mice. Importantly, in mice orally infected with T. gondii oocysts, only TLA-vaccination and booster reduced brain cysts. Furthermore, sera from these mice reduced tachyzoites invasion of Vero cells in vitro, indicating that antibodies may play a critical role for protection against Toxoplasma infection. Additionally, supernatants from splenocyte cultures of TLA-vaccinated mice containing high levels of IFN-γ lead to substantial production of nitric oxide (NO after incubation with macrophages in vitro. Since NO is involved in the control of parasite growth, the high levels of IFN-γ induced by vaccination with TLA may contribute to the protection against T. gondii.In conclusion, our data indicate that prime-boost approach with TLA, but not with the mixture of recombinant antigens SMG, induces effective humoral and cellular Toxoplasma-specific responses and leads to significant reduction of cerebral cysts, thereby presenting a viable strategy for further vaccine development against T

  9. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies)

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  10. MAGE-A Cancer/Testis Antigens Inhibit MDM2 Ubiquitylation Function and Promote Increased Levels of MDM4.

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    Lynnette Marcar

    Full Text Available Melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A proteins comprise a structurally and biochemically similar sub-family of Cancer/Testis antigens that are expressed in many cancer types and are thought to contribute actively to malignancy. MAGE-A proteins are established regulators of certain cancer-associated transcription factors, including p53, and are activators of several RING finger-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligases. Here, we show that MAGE-A2 associates with MDM2, a ubiquitin E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitylation of more than 20 substrates including mainly p53, MDM2 itself, and MDM4, a potent p53 inhibitor and MDM2 partner that is structurally related to MDM2. We find that MAGE-A2 interacts with MDM2 via the N-terminal p53-binding pocket and the RING finger domain of MDM2 that is required for homo/hetero-dimerization and for E2 ligase interaction. Consistent with these data, we show that MAGE-A2 is a potent inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of MDM2, yet it does not have any significant effect on p53 turnover mediated by MDM2. Strikingly, however, increased MAGE-A2 expression leads to reduced ubiquitylation and increased levels of MDM4. Similarly, silencing of endogenous MAGE-A expression diminishes MDM4 levels in a manner that can be rescued by the proteasomal inhibitor, bortezomid, and permits increased MDM2/MDM4 association. These data suggest that MAGE-A proteins can: (i uncouple the ubiquitin ligase and degradation functions of MDM2; (ii act as potent inhibitors of E3 ligase function; and (iii regulate the turnover of MDM4. We also find an association between the presence of MAGE-A and increased MDM4 levels in primary breast cancer, suggesting that MAGE-A-dependent control of MDM4 levels has relevance to cancer clinically.

  11. MAGE-A Cancer/Testis Antigens Inhibit MDM2 Ubiquitylation Function and Promote Increased Levels of MDM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcar, Lynnette; Ihrig, Bianca; Hourihan, John; Bray, Susan E.; Quinlan, Philip R.; Jordan, Lee B.; Thompson, Alastair M.; Hupp, Ted R.; Meek, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) proteins comprise a structurally and biochemically similar sub-family of Cancer/Testis antigens that are expressed in many cancer types and are thought to contribute actively to malignancy. MAGE-A proteins are established regulators of certain cancer-associated transcription factors, including p53, and are activators of several RING finger-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligases. Here, we show that MAGE-A2 associates with MDM2, a ubiquitin E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitylation of more than 20 substrates including mainly p53, MDM2 itself, and MDM4, a potent p53 inhibitor and MDM2 partner that is structurally related to MDM2. We find that MAGE-A2 interacts with MDM2 via the N-terminal p53-binding pocket and the RING finger domain of MDM2 that is required for homo/hetero-dimerization and for E2 ligase interaction. Consistent with these data, we show that MAGE-A2 is a potent inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of MDM2, yet it does not have any significant effect on p53 turnover mediated by MDM2. Strikingly, however, increased MAGE-A2 expression leads to reduced ubiquitylation and increased levels of MDM4. Similarly, silencing of endogenous MAGE-A expression diminishes MDM4 levels in a manner that can be rescued by the proteasomal inhibitor, bortezomid, and permits increased MDM2/MDM4 association. These data suggest that MAGE-A proteins can: (i) uncouple the ubiquitin ligase and degradation functions of MDM2; (ii) act as potent inhibitors of E3 ligase function; and (iii) regulate the turnover of MDM4. We also find an association between the presence of MAGE-A and increased MDM4 levels in primary breast cancer, suggesting that MAGE-A-dependent control of MDM4 levels has relevance to cancer clinically. PMID:26001071

  12. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

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    Sybilski AJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  13. Effective Delivery of Antigen-Encapsulin Nanoparticle Fusions to Dendritic Cells Leads to Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Activation and Tumor Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongseo; Moon, Hyojin; Hong, Sung Joon; Shin, Changsik; Do, Yoonkyung; Ryu, Seongho; Kang, Sebyung

    2016-08-23

    In cancer immunotherapy, robust and efficient activation of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell immune responses is a promising, but challenging task. Dendritic cells (DCs) are well-known professional antigen presenting cells that initiate and regulate antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that kill their target cells directly as well as secrete IFN-γ, a cytokine critical in tumor rejection. Here, we employed recently established protein cage nanoparticles, encapsulin (Encap), as antigenic peptide nanocarriers by genetically incorporating the OT-1 peptide of ovalbumin (OVA) protein to the three different positions of the Encap subunit. With them, we evaluated their efficacy in activating DC-mediated antigen-specific T cell cytotoxicity and consequent melanoma tumor rejection in vivo. DCs efficiently engulfed Encap and its variants (OT-1-Encaps), which carry antigenic peptides at different positions, and properly processed them within phagosomes. Delivered OT-1 peptides were effectively presented by DCs to naïve CD8(+) T cells successfully, resulting in the proliferation of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. OT-1-Encap vaccinations in B16-OVA melanoma tumor bearing mice effectively activated OT-1 peptide specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells before or even after tumor generation, resulting in significant suppression of tumor growth in prophylactic as well as therapeutic treatments. A large number of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that actively produce both intracellular and secretory IFN-γ were observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes collected from B16-OVA tumor masses originally vaccinated with OT-1-Encap-C upon tumor challenges. The approaches we describe herein may provide opportunities to develop epitope-dependent vaccination systems that stimulate and/or modulate efficient and epitope-specific cytotoxic T cell immune responses in nonpathogenic diseases.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Full and Partial Lead Service Line Replacement on Lead Levels in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Camara, Eliman; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-19

    Lead service line replacement (LSLR) is an important strategy for reducing lead exposure via drinking water, but jurisdictional issues can sometimes interfere with full replacement of the lead line. The effects of full and partial LSLR on lead levels were assessed using 5 × 1-L sample profiles collected at more than 100 single-unit residences. Profiles comprised four sequential standing samples (L1-L4) and a free-flowing sample (L5) drawn after a 5 min flush of the outlet. At 45 sites with full lead service lines, 90th percentile lead levels in standing samples ranged from 16.4 to 44.5 μg L(-1) (L1 and L4, respectively). In the free-flowing sample (L5), 90th percentile lead was 9.8 μg L(-1). Within 3 days, full LSLR had reduced L3-L5 lead levels by more than 50%, and within 1 month, lead levels were significantly lower in every liter of the sample profile. Conversely, partial LSLR more than doubled premises plumbing (L1, L2) lead release in the short term and did not reduce L1, L2 lead release in the long term. Even 6 months after partial LSLR, 27% of first-draw lead levels were greater than 15 μg L(-1) (the U.S. EPA action level), compared with 13% pre-replacement.

  15. Synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in colon cancer with normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xiaofang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synuclein gamma (SNCG, initially identified as a breast cancer specific gene, is aberrantly expressed in many different malignant tumors but rarely expressed in matched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic potential of SNCG in colon cancer particularly in the patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels. Methods SNCG levels were assessed immunohistochemically in cancer tissues from 229 colon adenocarcinoma patients with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Correlations between SNCG levels and clinicopathologic features, preoperative serum CEA level, and clinical outcome were analyzed statistically using SPSS. Results SNCG levels in colon adenocarcinoma were closely associated with intravascular embolus and tumor recurrence but independent of preoperative serum CEA levels. SNCG expression was an independent prognostic factor of a shorter disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (P P = 0.001, P = 0.001, 0.002 for 97 patients with normal preoperative serum CEA level. Conclusions Our results suggest for the first time that SNCG is a new independent predicator for poor prognosis in patients with colon adenocarcinoma, including those with normal CEA levels. Combination of CEA with SNCG improves prognostic evaluation for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

  16. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  17. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  18. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl K Lau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs, biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  19. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-speciifc antigen (PSA) level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheryl K Lau; Maggie Guo; Jeannine A Viczko; Christopher T Naugler

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations(DREs), biopsies and serum prostate‑speciifc antigen(PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services(CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01January 2010 and 31March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  20. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, M D; Sarasua, S; Jones, P A

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, we used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. We used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included the blood lead measurements (0.5 to 40.2 microg/dL) of 1015 children aged 6-71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil (18.1-9980 mg/kg), house dust (5.2-71,000 mg/kg), interior paint (0-16.5 mg/cm2), and tap water (0.3-103 microg/L). After adjusting for income, education of the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, we found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 microg/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2. 08-17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  1. Acute Cholecystitis with Significantly Elevated Levels of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9

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    Shuji Akimoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, a marker of malignant tumors, is generally slightly elevated in benign conditions. We report a case of acute cholecystitis with a significantly elevated level of serum CA 19-9 based on positron emission tomography (PET-computed tomography (CT findings. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and fever. A CT image revealed an enlarged gallbladder without tumor shadows. The C-reactive protein (CRP level was elevated to 7.66 mg/dl. Moreover, the serum CA 19-9 level was significantly elevated to 19,392 U/ml. We started antibiotic treatment, because we suspected acute cholecystitis, but still, we could not ignore the possible presence of malignant tumors. After 11 days of antibiotic treatment, serum CRP and CA 19-9 levels decreased to 0.11 mg/dl and 1,049 U/ml, respectively. There was an accumulation of fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (maximum standardized uptake value, 9.3 without tumor shadows in the liver, near the gallbladder, on the PET-CT examination. We considered the possibility that the inflammation had spread from the gallbladder to the liver, made a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and performed a cholecystectomy 33 days after treatment initiation. The serum CA 19-9 level decreased to 45 U/ml after the surgery. One year after the surgery, the patient was alive, and the serum CA 19-9 level was 34 U/ml. Acute cholecystitis with a significantly high elevation of the serum CA 19-9 level is rare. In such cases, it is important to confirm the change in the serum CA 19-9 level over time after antibiotic treatment and perform imaging studies to distinguish between inflammation and malignancy.

  2. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05. Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  3. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  4. Blood lead level and seizure: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shah Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the most serious and fast-growing problems in the world of today. Lead poisoning is a threatening environmental situation with the potential of causing irreversible health issues and serious negative consequences in adults and children. Lead proves to have almost no clear biological function. However, once it enters the body, it is known to cause severe health effects, which might be irreversible. In this article, we aimed to review the related literature to find evidence concerning the effect of lead toxicity on CNS, particularly its role in febrile convulsion. In this review, PubMed database was searched using MeSH terms. One hundred and fifty seven articles were retrieved, most of which were irrelevant to the topic. After a thorough search in PubMed and Google Scholar, seizure was shown to be one of the consequences of lead toxicity, but there was no evidence of epilepsy or febrile convulsion, induced by this metal contamination.

  5. Circulating Antigens Levels in Different Clinical Forms of the Schistosoma mansoni Infection

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA levels in relation to the different clinical phases of Schistosoma sp. infection a sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibody 5H11 was performed. The sera of three groups of 25 Brazilian patients with acute, intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of S. mansoni infection were tested and compared to a non-infected control group. Patients and control groups were matched for age and sex and the number of eggs per gram of feces was equally distributed among the three patient groups. Sensitivity of 100%, 72%, 52% of the assay was observed for the intestinal, hepatosplenic and acute toxemic groups respectively. The specificity was 100%. Intestinal and hepatosplenic groups presented CCA levels significantly higher in comparison to those observed for acute patients (F-ratio = 2,524; p = 0.000 and F-ratio = 6,314; p = 0.015 respectively. There was no significant difference of CCA serum levels between hepatosplenic and intestinal groups (F-ratio = 1,026; p = 0.316.

  6. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  7. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  8. Biliary carcinoembryonic antigen levels in diagnosis of occult hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaques Waisberg; Rog(e)rio T. Palma; Lu(i)s Contim Neto; Lourdes C. Martins; Maur(i)cio S. L. Oliveira; Carlos A. Nagashima; Antonio C. Godoy; Fabio S. Goffi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively explore the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in gallbladder bile in patients with colorectal carcinoma and the morphological and clinical features of neoplasia and the occurrence of hepatic metastases.METHODS: CEA levels in the gallbladder and peripheral blood were studied in 44 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 10 patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis. CEA samples were collected from the gallbladder bile and peripheral blood during the operation, immediately before extirpating the colorectal neoplasia or cholecystectomy.Values of up to 5 ng/ml were considered normal for bile and serum CEA.RESULTS: In the 44 patients with colorectal carcinoma who underwent operation with curative intent, the average level of serum CEA was 8.5 ng/ml (range: 0.1 to 111.0 ng/ml) and for bile CEA it was 74.5 ng/ml (range: 0.2 to 571.0ng/ml). In the patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis who underwent cholecystectomy, the average level of serum CEA was 1.9 ng/ml (range: 1.0 to 3.5 ng/ml) and for bile CEA it was 1.2 ng/ml (range: 0.3 to 2.9 ng/ml).The average duration of follow-up time was 16.5 months (range: 6 to 48 months). Four patients who underwent extirpation of the colorectal carcinoma without evidence of hepatic metastasis and with an average bile CEA value of 213.2 ng/ml presented hepatic metastases between three and seventeen months after removal of the primary colorectal neoplasia. Three of them successfully underwent extirpation of the hepatic lesions.CONCLUSION: High CEA levels in gallbladders of patients undergoing curative operation for colorectal carcinoma may indicate the presence of hepatic metastases. Such patients must be followed up with special attention to the diagnosis of such lesions.

  9. Fusion to green fluorescent protein improves expression levels of Theileria parva sporozoite surface antigen p67 in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Nene, V.; Musoke, A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2002-01-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) is a fatal disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The development of a subunit vaccine, based on the sporozoite-specific surface antigen p67, has been hampered by difficulties in achieving high-level expression of recombinant p67 in a near-authenti

  10. [Diagnostic value of IgG antibody levels against 38 kDa mycobacterial antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkow, U; Zielonka, T M; Strzałkowski, J; Michałowska-Mitczuk, D; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, E; Białas-Chromiec, B; Kuś, J; Skopińska-Rózewska, E; Zwolska, Z

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis diagnosis bases on clinical and radiological symptoms and identification of mycobacteria. Accuracy of both methods is limited. Therefore reliable serological test would have considerable advantage. The present study was aimed at evaluating IgG-mediated immune response against specific mycobacterial antigens 38 kDa in group of 200 patients and control subjects. Our material consisted of 104 tuberculosis patients, 25 with sarcoidosis, 24 with lung cancer, 13 with bacterial or fungal pulmonary infection, 8 with mycobacterial infections other than tuberculosis and 26 healthy persons. We used commercially available ELISA based kits (Pathozyme TB-complex). Specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 49% was achieved. Sensitivity increased to 59% in chronic cases and to 52% in culture positive cases. Sensitivity decreased to only 14% in group of new culture negative cases. Measurement of IgG serum level against 38 kDa can be helpful in tuberculosis diagnosis. As the test lacks falsely positive results it indicates its high positive predictive value.

  11. Low levels of inorganic lead noncompetitively inhibit mu-calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, T; Pedersen, C; Audesirk, G; Kern, M

    1998-11-16

    Calpain is a ubiquitous calcium-dependent cysteine protease, whose cytoskeletal protein substrates suggest that it may be important in neuronal differentiation. Lead (Pb2+) is known to substitute for Ca2+ in a variety of intracellular processes, and interferes with the development of hippocampal neurons in vitro. We found that free Pb2+ at 1 nM does not activate calpain in the absence of Ca2+. Pb2+ inhibited the activity of calpain; the degree of calpain inhibition was dependent on an interaction between concentrations of both Ca2+ and Pb2+. In the presence of 1 microM free Ca2+, 10 pM free Pb2+ reduced calpain activity, but in the presence of 100 microM free Ca2+, 1 nM free Pb2+ failed to inhibit calpain. This provides evidence that Pb2+ competes for the Ca2+ binding sites on calpain. In the presence of 40 microM free Ca2+, 1 nM free Pb2+ significantly reduces Vmax without altering Km, suggesting that Pb2+ acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of calpain. Inhibition of calpain is one mechanism by which Pb2+ may interfere with neuronal development.

  12. Messenger RNA sequence rather than protein sequence determines the level of self-synthesis and antigen presentation of the EBV-encoded antigen, EBNA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy T Tellam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unique purine-rich mRNA sequences embedded in the coding sequences of a distinct group of gammaherpesvirus maintenance proteins underlie the ability of the latently infected cell to minimize immune recognition. The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen, EBNA1, a well characterized lymphocryptovirus maintenance protein has been shown to inhibit in cis antigen presentation, due in part to a large internal repeat domain encoding glycine and alanine residues (GAr encoded by a purine-rich mRNA sequence. Recent studies have suggested that it is the purine-rich mRNA sequence of this repeat region rather than the encoded GAr polypeptide that directly inhibits EBNA1 self-synthesis and contributes to immune evasion. To test this hypothesis, we generated a series of EBNA1 internal repeat frameshift constructs and assessed their effects on cis-translation and endogenous antigen presentation. Diverse peptide sequences resulting from alternative repeat reading frames did not alleviate the translational inhibition characteristic of EBNA1 self-synthesis or the ensuing reduced surface presentation of EBNA1-specific peptide-MHC class I complexes. Human cells expressing the EBNA1 frameshift variants were also poorly recognized by antigen-specific T-cells. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the mRNA sequences of the corresponding repeat regions of different viral maintenance homologues highlights the high degree of identity between the nucleotide sequences despite very little homology in the encoded amino acid sequences. Based on these combined observations, we propose that the cis-translational inhibitory effect of the EBNA1 internal repeat sequence operates mechanistically at the nucleotide level, potentially through RNA secondary structural elements, and is unlikely to be mediated through the GAr polypeptide. The demonstration that the EBNA1 repeat mRNA sequence and not the encoded protein sequence underlies immune evasion in this class of virus suggests a

  13. Elevation of blood ciclosporin levels by voriconazole leading to leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Caihong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that one 18-year-old female patient with no epilepsia history developed severe epileptiform seizures while she was receiving "ciclosporin A (CsA-mycophenolate-methylprednisolone" antirejection therapy after combining one week′s voriconazole administration following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Her blood concentration of CsA was 378 ng/ml (elevated ↑64%, contrasted with the level before the addition of voriconazole on the second day of admission, and the MRI of head showed leukoencephalopathy in bilateral occipital and left frontal lobe on the 4 th day of admission. The most likely mechanism is that because of voriconazole′s enzyme inhibition and CsA as the substrate of hepatic enzymes, voriconazole elevated the blood concentration of CsA and enhanced its toxicity. This case highlights the importance of clinical pharmacists joining the medical team and optimizing the patients′ treatment protocols by performing a systematic literature research, accumulating the knowledge of the potential drug interaction and examining prescriptions.

  14. Silibinin decreases prostate-specific antigen with cell growth inhibition via G1 arrest, leading to differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells: Implications for prostate cancer intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zi, Xiaolin; Agarwal, Rajesh

    1999-01-01

    Reduction in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels has been proposed as an endpoint biomarker for hormone-refractory human prostate cancer intervention. We examined whether a flavonoid antioxidant silibinin (an active constituent of milk thistle) decreases PSA levels in hormone-refractory human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and whether this effect has biological relevance. Silibinin treatment of cells grown in serum resulted in a significant decrease in both intracellular and secreted...

  15. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  16. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  17. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  18. The determination of low lead levels in the bone of lead-depleted mice by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iavicoli, I.; Carelli, G.; Castellino, N. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma (Italy). Inst. of Occupational Health; Schlemmer, G. [Bodenseewerk Perkin-Elmer und Co. GmbH, Ueberlingen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Low lead levels in the femurs of mice fed with a lead-depleted diet have been determined by use of electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction. The method is based on the use of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/Pd as matrix modifier which enables significant reduction of the spectral interferences prevalent if chemical modifiers based on NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with either Ca or Mg are used for samples rich in Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} matrix. The method was developed and validated by use of the NIST standard reference material 1486 bone. Bones were decomposed in a pressurized microwave-heated system using 70% nitric acid. Forty-three mice femurs, with a mass of 74.62 {+-} 12.54 mg, were dissolved in concentrated nitric acid. The lead results found in SRM 1486 (1.25 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g g{sup -1}, n = 9) were in good agreement with the certificate (1.335 {+-} 0.014 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Recoveries of 200 ng lead added to the SRM before or after digestion were 99.0 {+-} 1.4% and 98.5 {+-} 1.6%, respectively. The lead detection limit in bone samples is 0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry mass. This method is, therefore, suitable for the determination of very low lead levels (0.06-0.20 {mu}g Pb kg{sup -1} bone) in the femurs of mice fed a diet with lead level of < 20 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. (orig.)

  19. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  20. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen levels in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients given total parenteral nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Pauw, B.E. de

    2002-01-01

    False-positive tests for Aspergillus galactomannan have been reported in neutropenic patients. We failed to detect any circulating antigen during the 2 weeks following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation of 12 patients who had severe mucositis but were unable to eat.

  1. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  2. Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss during Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Lu; Qu, Xiao-Jing; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Liu, Ru-Yu; Hu, Lei-Ping; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Xie, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion is considered to be the ideal endpoint of antiviral therapy and the ultimate treatment goal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to assess the patterns of HBsAg kinetics in CHB patients who achieved HBsAg loss during the treatment of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) α-2a. Methods: A total of 150 patients were enrolled, composing of 83 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 67 HBeAg-negative patients. Patients were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a180 μg/week until HBsAg loss/seroconversion was achieved, which occurred within 96 weeks. Serum hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid and serological indicators (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe) were determined before and every 3 months during PEG-IFN α-2a treatment. Biochemical markers and peripheral blood neutrophil and platelet counts were tested every 1–3 months. Results: Baseline HBsAg levels were 2.5 ± 1.3 log IU/ml, and decreased rapidly at 12 and 24 weeks by 48.3% and 88.3%, respectively. The mean time to HBsAg loss was 54.2 ± 30.4 weeks, though most patients needed extended treatment and 30.0% of HBsAg loss occurred during 72–96 weeks. Baseline HBsAg levels were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients (2.9 ± 1.1 log IU/ml) compared with HBeAg-negative patients (2.0 ± 1.3 log IU/ml; t = 4.733, P < 0.001), but the HBsAg kinetics were similar. Patients who achieved HBsAg loss within 48 weeks had significantly lower baseline HBsAg levels and had more rapid decline of HBsAg at 12 weeks compared to patients who needed extended treatment to achieve HBsAg loss. Conclusions: Patients with lower baseline HBsAg levels and more rapid decline during early treatment with PEG-IFN are more likely to achieve HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment, and extended therapy longer than 48 weeks may be required to achieve HBsAg loss. PMID:28229987

  3. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009–2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a “dioxin hotspot” and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of mo...

  4. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  5. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Akiko; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Wang, Zhongde; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH) and kappa-chain (hIGK) germline loci (named as κHAC) are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO). However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM) and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ) in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) complex, we partially replaced (bovinized) the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM) that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO), the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype) in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG) can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  6. Subjective symptoms in workers with low-level exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Thornton, J.C.; Sarkozi, L.; Kon, S.; Levin, S.

    1982-12-01

    In an attempt to identify health effects associated with low-level lead exposure, 45 cable-manufacturing workers underwent clinical examinations in a cross-sectional study. Thirteen workers were in direct contact with lead-containing stabilizers, while 31 were only indirectly exposed. The directly exposed had a higher prevalence of reported neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms than those with low or insignificant lead exposure. None of the directly exposed had blood lead levels exceeding 60 micrograms per 100 ml. The clinical symptoms correlated with blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin. However, when the data were subjected to hierarchical log-linear modeling, a partial association was found between zinc protoporphyrin and symptoms, but not between blood lead and symptoms. The data suggest that non-specific neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms may occur at relatively low blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels, and that measurement of zinc protoporphyrin and exploration of clinical symptoms are valuable components in lead screening programs.

  7. Reappraisal of Blood Lead Levels and Relation to Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase, Zinc Protoporphyrin and Urinary ALA Level in Thai Normal Adults and Lead Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharachai Rujirojkul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available All studied participants of 65 lead-exposed workers and 52 non lead-exposed persons who voluntarily participated and signed consents were interviewed about their working duration, type of work, risk behavior and personal data. Blood and urine samples were drawn for PbB, d-ALAD, ZPP and ALAU analysis respectively. The mean PbB level for workers in lead smelters, 22.4 +/- 17.9 microgram/dl (range 1.3-67.2 microgram/dl was found higher than that for the non-exposed persons (mean = 5.0 +/- 2.4 microgram/dl, range 2.0-13.2 microgram/dl. In relative to previous studies, mean PbB concentration found in the unexposed persons tended to decreased follows the reduced use of leaded gasoline in 1996 in Thailand. A highly significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.86 was observed between PbB concentration and d-ALAD activities among lead exposed persons. Statistical analysis showed that d-ALAD activities significantly decreased (p10 microgram/dl. ZPP measurement is simple and inexpensive, but less sensitive and could be used for screening only in those high lead contaminated persons (PbB>40 microgram/dl. ALAU measurement cannot be served as early biochemical indices of lead exposure both in lead exposed and non-lead exposed persons.

  8. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD.

  9. Neurotoxicity and aggressiveness triggered by low-level lead in children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Gonçalves, Claudia; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques

    2009-09-01

    Lead-induced neurotoxicity acquired by low-level long-term exposure has special relevance for children. A plethora of recent reports has demonstrated a direct link between low-level lead exposure and deficits in the neurobehavioral-cognitive performance manifested from childhood through adolescence. In many studies, aggressiveness and delinquency have also been suggested as symptoms of lead poisoning. Several environmental, occupational and domestic sources of contaminant lead and consequent health risks are largely identified and understood, but the occurrences of lead poisoning remain numerous. There is an urgent need for public health policies to prevent lead poisoning so as to reduce individual and societal damages and losses. In this paper we describe unsuspected sources of contaminant lead, discuss the economic losses and urban violence possibly associated with lead contamination and review the molecular basis of lead-induced neurotoxicity, emphasizing its effects on the social behavior, delinquency and IQ of children and adolescents.

  10. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  11. Predictive and prognostic values of cancer-associated serum antigen (CASA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) levels prior to second-look laparotomy for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, O; Mogensen, O; Mogensen, B; Jakobsen, A

    1995-11-01

    CA 125 and cancer-associated serum antigen (CASA) were measured prior to second-look laparotomy (SLL) to investigate their predictive and prognostic values in 93 patients treated for epithelial ovarian cancer FIGO stage II, III, or IV. Residual tumor was diagnosed at the SLL in 58 patients (62%). The optimal cutoff level was 15 U/ml for CA 125 and 8 U/ml for CASA. Using these levels, the sensitivity for detection of residual tumor was 40% for CA 125 and 22% for CASA. The combined use of the markers resulted in a sensitivity of 47% (diagnostic gain 6.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-13.44%). Microscopic tumor volumes were equally diagnosed by CASA and CA 125. The independent prognostic value of CA 125 (RR = 2.6; 95% CI, 2.0-3.2) and CASA (RR = 2.2; CI, 1.5-2.9) was established by means of Cox regression analysis of the covariation between survival, age, FIGO stage, histopathology, tumor grade, and bulk of residual tumor at the primary operation and CA 125 and CASA before the SLL. In conclusion, we found that CASA could supplement CA 125 measurement prior to SLL and reduce the number of SLLs. Furthermore, CASA had an independent prognostic value for survival which may be used together with other information in the planning of further treatment of the individual patient.

  12. Physiological level Production of Antigen-Specific Human Immunoglobulin in Cloned Transchromosomic Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Sano; Hiroaki Matsushita; Hua Wu; Jin-An Jiao; Poothappillai Kasinathan; Eddie J. Sullivan; Zhongde Wang; Yoshimi Kuroiwa

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human...

  13. Decreasing trend in prostate cancer with high serum prostate-specific antigen levels detected at first prostate-specific antigen-based population screening in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhide Kitagawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the recent trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA distribution in men in Japan, we analyzed the PSA distributions of men undergoing PSA-based population screening. We summarized the annual individual data of PSA-based population screening in Kanazawa, Japan, from 2000 to 2011, and analyzed baseline serum PSA values of the participants at the first population screening. Serum PSA distributions were estimated in all participants and those excluding prostate cancer patients according to age. From 2000 to 2011, 19 620 men participated aged 54-69 years old in this screening program. Mean baseline serum PSA level of all participants at the first screening was 2.64 ng ml−1 in 2000, and gradually decreased to approximately 1.30 ng ml−1 in 2006. That of participants excluding prostate cancer patients was 1.46 ng ml−1 in 2000, and there was no remarkable change during the study period. The 95 th percentiles in the participants excluding prostate cancer patients detected at the first population screening of men aged 54-59, 60-64, and 65-69 years old were 2.90, 3.60, and 4.50 ng ml−1 , respectively. After the commencement of population screening, the proportion of prostate cancer patients with high serum PSA levels decreased. However, there were no changes in serum PSA levels in men without prostate cancer. Age-specific PSA reference level of men without prostate cancer in Japan was similar to that in China and Korea.

  14. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  15. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  16. Causality pattern of the blood lead, monoamine oxidase A, and serotonin levels in brass home industry workers chronically exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Marianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyse the effects of lead (Pb chronic exposure on blood lead levels, Monoamine oxidase A enzyme (MAO A and serotonin levels of brass craftsmen in Pati, Central Java, Indonesia, and to examine the connections among these three variables. The brass home industry area was polluted by lead. Thus, it chronically exposes the workers to lead pollution. Therefore, their blood lead level increased and later raised the level of MAO A and reduced the level of serotonin. Path analysis results show that the path coefficient (ñ of lead effects in decreasing serotonin through MAO A pathway is -0.411. Furthermore, lead effects that directly affect serotonin level without passing through MAO A pathway is -0.391 with residual coefficient (e of 0.572. In conclusion, the increase of blood lead level causes an increase in level of MAO A and drop in the level of serotonin.

  17. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning in children and caregivers in Chuuk State, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Kim, Dennis; Yomai, Anamaria; Meyer, Pamela A; Noonan, Gary P; Huff, Daniel; Flanders, W D

    2005-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a preventable environmental disease. Children and developing fetuses are especially vulnerable; even low blood lead levels (BLLs) are linked with learning and behavioral problems. We assessed children's and their caregivers' BLLs and risk factors for lead exposure in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Children aged 2-6 years were randomly selected within 20 randomly selected villages. Children and caregivers provided venous blood, and caregivers offered information about possible risk factors for lead exposure. Mean BLLs were 39 microg/l for children and 16 microg/l for caregivers. Children with BLLs of > or = 100 microg/l (elevated) were 22.9 (95% CI: 4.5-116.0) times more likely to have a caregiver with an elevated BLL, 6.2 (95% CI: 1.4-27.3) times more likely to live on an outer island, and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.9) times more likely to have a family member who made lead fishing weights than did other children even after controlling for age and sex. For children, 61% of elevated BLLs could be attributed to making fishing weights. Caregivers with elevated BLLs were 5.9 (95% CI: 1.5-23.7) times more likely to live in a household that melted batteries than other caregivers even after controlling for age and education. For caregivers, 37% of the elevated BLLs could be attributed to melting batteries. The association of elevated BLLs in children and their caregiver suggests a common environmental exposure. Melting batteries to make fishing sinkers is a preventable source of lead exposure for children and their caregivers in Chuuk. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  19. Temporal pattern in the effect of postnatal blood lead level on intellectual development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaas, L; Rothenberg, S J; Perroni, E; Martínez, S; Hernández, C; Hernández, R M

    2000-01-01

    To determine the temporal pattern of the effect of postnatal blood lead level on the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, we used data from 112 children of the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study with complete evaluations from 36 to 60 months of age at 6-month intervals. We measured blood lead level every 6 months from 6 to 54 months. We controlled for 5-min Apgar, birth weight, birth order, sex, socioeconomic level, maternal IQ, and maximum maternal educational level in a repeated measures ANCOVA using child blood lead level grouped by 6-18 month (geometric mean 10.1 microg/dl, range 3.5-37.0 microg/dl), 24-36 month (geometric mean 9.7 microg/dl, range 3.0-42.7 microg/dl), and 42-54 month (geometric mean 8.4 microg/dl, range 2.5-44.8 microg/dl) averages. There were significant interactions between the 6-18 month blood lead level and age with GCI as the endpoint and between 24-36 month blood lead level and age. The regression coefficient of blood lead at 6-18 months became more negative with age until 48 months, when the rate of decline moderated (linear polynomial contrast p=0. 047). The regression coefficient of blood lead at 24-36 months with CGI became more negative as well from 36 to 48 months but then started decreasing toward zero from 48 to 60 months (quadratic polynomial contrast p=0.019). Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 24-36 month blood lead level at 48 months (p=0.021) and at 54 months (p=0.073). The greatest effect (at 48 months) was a 5.8-point GCI decrease with each natural log unit increase in blood lead. Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 42-54 month blood lead level at 54 months (p=0. 040) and at 60 months (p=0.060). The effect of postnatal blood lead level on GCI reaches its maximum approximately 1-3 years later, and then becomes less evident. Four to five years of age appears to be a critical period for the manifestation of the earlier postnatal

  20. Mapping the antigenic structure of porcine parvovirus at the level of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Langeveld, Jan; Bøtner, Anette;

    1998-01-01

    located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein VP2. Based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and used to immunise rabbits. Most antisera were able to bind viral protein......The antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was investigated. A total of nine linear epitopes were identified by Pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-PPV antisera. No sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All epitopes were...

  1. Clinical significance of hepatitis B e antigen level measurement during long-term lamivudine therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with e antigen positive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Woo Shin; Neung Hwa Park; Seok Won Jung; Byung Chul Kim; Sung Ho Kwon; Jae Serk Park; In Du Jeong; Sung-Jo Bang; Do Ha Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the changes of quantitative hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) that predicts early detection of nonresponse or breakthrough to long-term lamivudine (LAM)therapy.METHODS: Among HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients who failed to achieve HBeAg seroconversion within 12 mo, we retrospectively analyzed 220 patients who had received LAM more than 24 mo.RESULTS: The mean duration of LAM therapy was 36(range, 24-72) mo. HBeAg seroconversion after the first 12 mo of LAM therapy was achieved in 53 (24.1%)patients. Viral breakthrough was observed in 105 (47.7%)patients. To find out whether the changing patterns of HBeAg levels can predict the outcome of LAM therapy,we analyzed the reduction rates of HBeAg levels during LAM therapy. Using the decrease more than 90% of pretreatment HBeAg levels, the sensitivity and specificity of response were 96.2% and 70.1%, respectively.Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the reduction patterns of the decrease of quantitative HBeAg: decrescendo, decrescendo-crescendo, no change or fluctuating groups. The optimal time to predict nonresponse or breakthrough was the first 9 mo of therapy.At 9 mo of therapy, 49 (92.5%) of 53 patients who had achieved HBeAg seroconversion were included in the decrescendo group. On the contrary, in the no change or fluctuating group, only four (7.5%) had achieved HBeAg seroconversion. Among patients who did not show the continuous decrease of HBeAg levels at 9 mo, 95.2%(negative predictive value) failed to achieve HBeAg seroconversion.CONCLUSION: Almost all patients who failed to show a continuous decrease of HBeAg levels at 9 mo of LAM therapy were non-response or breakthrough. Therefore,monitoring changes of HBeAg levels during LAM therapy in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B may be valuable for identifying patients who are at high risk of non-response or breakthrough.

  2. Lead in School Children from Morelos, Mexico: Levels, Sources and Feasible Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Paulina; Álamo-Hernández, Urinda; Mancilla-Sánchez, Leonardo; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Carrizales-Yáñez, Leticia; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead is a pervasive pollutant, associated at low levels to many adverse health effects. Objective: To investigate lead levels, exposure pathways and intervention possibilities in school children from Alpuyeca, in Morelos, Mexico. Methods: Blood lead concentrations (BPb) were measured in 226 children in 2011. Exposure pathways were assessed through a questionnaire, lead measurements in different environmental matrices and spatial aggregation analysis of lead concentrations. Results: BPb ranged from 1.5 to 36.5 µg/dL, with a mean (SD) of 7.23 (4.9) µg/dL. Sixty-four and 18% of the children had BPb > 5 µg/dL and > 10 µg/dL, respectively. The use of lead glazed ceramics was reported in almost half of the households; it was the main BPb determinant and it was associated with an increased risk of having BPb > 5 g/dL by 2.7 times (p = 0.001). Environmental samples were within US EPA’s lead recommended limits, and blood lead levels were randomly distributed in the community. Conclusions: Lead remains a public health problem in Alpuyeca, Mexico. Unlike other local pollutants, lead exposure prevention can be achieved inexpensively and in a short term. Interventions should make mothers aware of lead’s health effects and empower them to safeguard their children’s health by avoiding the culturally ingrained use of lead glazed pottery. PMID:25493390

  3. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  4. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaki, E N; Varelas, P N; Syrigou, A I; Spanaki, M V; Andreadou, E; Kakami, A E; Papageorgiou, C T

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups (5.64+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.96+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.88+/-1.3 microg/dl, and 5.76+/-1.7 microg/dl, respectively). Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (i.e., aspartate aminotransferase) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (i.e., alanine aminotransferase) were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past.

  5. Lead levels in human teeth from the inhabitants of Mexico City from three different historical periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, J.; Solis, C.; Chavez, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Direccion de Antropologia Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Human teeth from pre-Columbian, colonial and contemporary population groups were analyzed by PIXE in order to evaluate the lead contents in the inhabitants of Mexico City through different historical periods. Lead contents showed significant differences among the three groups, in Pre-Columbian teeth no lead was found, colonial teeth showed higher lead levels than contemporary ones. This results suggest that the native americans had no exposure to this toxic metal. The lead-glaze pottery introduced by the Spaniards, utilized in pottery and lead pipes, was the main source of lead in the colonial period. In recent teeth the deposited lead is mainly due to the absorption from the contaminated atmosphere. (Author)

  6. Unusual prostate carcinoma characterized by extensive metastasis, significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen, and neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuxin; YE Juan; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Qin-fang; WU Yue-long; CHEN Yue-yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Some rare variants of prostate carcinoma have been described in recent years.1-3 In this article we report a man with uncommon prostate carcinoma with the following three pathological characteristics: (a) extensive metastasis to bone and lymph nodes of the abdomen, pelvis, and supraclavicular area; (b) significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) as high as 1800 ng/ml; and (c) partial neuroendocrine differentiation in cancer tissue. The patient died 7 months after pathological diagnosis or 22 months after appearance of initial signs. This case has drawn our attention to the fact that pathological diversity of prostate neoplasm might easily lead to misdiagnosis or to delayed diagnosis, and moreover, reasonable therapy for such a case should be based on a thorough investigation. On the other hand, early initiation of appropriate treatment of advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma may improve the prognosis.

  7. Persistent High Level of Urinary Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Prenatally Diagnosed Dysplastic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khorramirouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 level has gained clinical significance in gastrointestinal malignancies and in various solid and cystic diseases. Dysplastic kidney is a congenital abnormality resulting from atresia of the ureteral bud during the embryogenesis which can be unilateral or bilateral. We report unilateral dysplastic kidney with extremely large cyst diagnosed by routine ultrasonography in the 32nd week of gestational age with high levels of CA 19-9 in cystic and amniotic fluid, as well as persistent high urinary levels of this tumor marker during the 1-year follow-up. Persistent high urinary CA 19-9 level even after cyst aspiration may be attributable to remained function of dysplastic kidney due to remained epithelial lining.

  8. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    OpenAIRE

    Morsy Amal A; Abd el-hafez Manal A; Zaher Manal M; Hegazy Amal A; Saleh Raya A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional perfo...

  9. Importance of introns in the growth regulation of mRNA levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The steady-state mRNA levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene are growth regulated. We have begun to identify the elements in the human PCNA gene that participate in its growth regulation by transfecting appropriate constructs in BALB/c3T3 cells. The results can be summarized as follows. (i) The 400 base pairs of the 5'-flanking sequence of the human PCNA gene upstream of the preferred cap site are sufficient for directing expression of a heterologous cDNA (S. Travali, D....

  10. Nonspecific Presentation of a Multiloculated Prostatic Abscess After Transurethral Prostatic Biopsy for Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay M. Gandhi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate postbiopsy infectious complications typically present in the form of prostatitis and uncommonly urosepsis. Prostatic abscesses are generally found after multiple bouts of prostatitis and are associated with a clinically septic picture requiring intensive care unit admission and resuscitation. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with prostatic abscess in the setting of nonspecific urinary symptoms after transrectal ultrasonography–guided prostate biopsy. At 4-month follow-up, he is currently free of disease with undetectable prostate-specific antigen level and negative imaging.

  11. Transmission Dynamics of a Driven Two-Level System Dissipated by Leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; FAN Wen-Bin; ZHAO Xian-Geng

    2001-01-01

    We study the transmission dynamics of a driven two-level system dissipated by the two leads. Using the nonequilibrium Green function, we derive an analytical transmission formula for an electron incident from the left lead,through the double quantum dots, to the right lead. The Landauer-type conductance and current are also given.A discussion of the internal tunnelling dynamics reveals crucial effects of the localization and delocalization on the transport of the system.

  12. SLAP deficiency increases TCR avidity leading to altered repertoire and negative selection of cognate antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Samantha F; Peterson, Lisa K; Kedl, Ross M; Dragone, Leonard L

    2013-03-01

    How T cell receptor (TCR) avidity influences CD8(+) T cell development and repertoire selection is not yet fully understood. To fill this gap, we utilized Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP)-deficient mice as a tool to increase TCR avidity on double positive (DP) thymocytes. We generated SLAP(-/-) mice with the transgenic MHC class I-restricted TCR (OT-1) and SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice, expressing only the β-chain of the TCR OT-1 transgene, to examine the effects of increased TCR surface levels on CD8(+) T cell development and repertoire selection. In comparing SLAP(-/-) OT-1 and Vβ5 mice with wild-type controls, we performed compositional analysis and assessed thymocyte signaling by measuring CD5 levels. In addition, we performed tetramer and compositional staining to measure affinity for the cognate antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) peptide, presented by MHC. Furthermore, we quantified differences in α-chain repertoire in SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice. We have found that SLAP(-/-) OT-1 mice have fewer CD8(+) thymocytes but have increased CD5 expression. SLAP(-/-) OT-1 mice have fewer DP thymocytes expressing Vα2, signifying increased endogenous α-chain rearrangement, and more non-OVA-specific CD8(+) splenocytes upon tetramer staining. Our data demonstrate that SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice also have fewer OVA-specific cells and increased Vα2 usage in the peripheral Vβ5 CD8(+) T cells that were non-OVA-specific, demonstrating differences in α-chain repertoire. These studies provide direct evidence that increased TCR avidity in DP thymocytes enhances CD8(+) T cell negative selection deleting thymocytes with specificity for cognate antigen, an antigen the mature T cells may never encounter. Collectively, these studies provide new insights into how TCR avidity during CD8(+) T cell development influences repertoire selection.

  13. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  14. SCREENING OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FOR BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AT KIMS HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to screen preschool children for blood lead level with an objective to estimate ZPP levels among preschool children attending OPD and admitted to wards and to confirm blood lead levels in children whose ZPP is>_35ugm/dl. METHODS: hospital based descriptive study conducted at KIMS, BANGALORE from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. 100 preschool children aged between 1 to 6 years who came to OPD and were admitted, were chosen randomly. Data was collected in a simple questionnaire which included demographic, clinical, investigations. Venous blood, 2 ml was drawn and estimated for ZPP. If ZPP >_ 35ugm/dl, then blood samples were estimated for blood lead levels. The data collected in this study was analyzed statistically using chi square test and standard normal variate (Z test for proportions. RESULTS: Out of 100 children, 37% of them had ZPP > 35 ugm/dl .Among these 20% had blood level more >10ugm/dl. Socio economic status affects lead exposure with poor socio economic status group being most prone for lead absorption. Among the 20% who had blood lead levels >10 ugm/dl, 15% of them belonged to urban area and 5% belonged to rural area. Location of the house of children in this study was observed that in industrial area were 85%, mechanic factory were 7%, battery factory were 3%, automobile and cottage industry were 2% . Among 100 children, 57 had hemoglobin % of > 10 gm and 43 were anemic having hemoglobin <10 gm%. CONCLUSION: As lead poisoning patients can be asymptomatic or symptomatic with only vague presentations, screening of blood lead levels should be made as a routine investigation. Awareness should be created regarding the sources of lead, its exposure and potential health effects

  15. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged lead tests in children aged lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions.

  16. Correlation Correlation of Blood Lead Levels, Anemia and Water Source in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gurukripa, Sowmya Sanjeeva; Shetty, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to lead and its consequences is a health risk frequently encountered in developing countries.Aims & Objectives: This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the source of water poses a risk for high blood levels and consequently anemia.Material & Methods: 30 children with proven anemia and an equal number of children without anemia were enrolled in the study and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to analyse and quantify their blood lead levels. Thei...

  17. Efficient targeting of protein antigen to the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 in the steady state leads to antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I products and peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Laura; Bonnyay, David; Mahnke, Karsten; Rivera, Miguel; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Steinman, Ralph M

    2002-12-16

    To identify endocytic receptors that allow dendritic cells (DCs) to capture and present antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I products in vivo, we evaluated DEC-205, which is abundant on DCs in lymphoid tissues. Ovalbumin (OVA) protein, when chemically coupled to monoclonal alphaDEC-205 antibody, was presented by CD11c+ lymph node DCs, but not by CD11c- cells, to OVA-specific, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Receptor-mediated presentation was at least 400 times more efficient than unconjugated OVA and, for MHC class I, the DCs had to express transporter of antigenic peptides (TAP) transporters. When alphaDEC-205:OVA was injected subcutaneously, OVA protein was identified over a 4-48 h period in DCs, primarily in the lymph nodes draining the injection site. In vivo, the OVA protein was selectively presented by DCs to TCR transgenic CD8+ cells, again at least 400 times more effectively than soluble OVA and in a TAP-dependent fashion. Targeting of alphaDEC-205:OVA to DCs in the steady state initially induced 4-7 cycles of T cell division, but the T cells were then deleted and the mice became specifically unresponsive to rechallenge with OVA in complete Freund's adjuvant. In contrast, simultaneous delivery of a DC maturation stimulus via CD40, together with alphaDEC-205:OVA, induced strong immunity. The CD8+ T cells responding in the presence of agonistic alphaCD40 antibody produced large amounts of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma, acquired cytolytic function in vivo, emigrated in large numbers to the lung, and responded vigorously to OVA rechallenge. Therefore, DEC-205 provides an efficient receptor-based mechanism for DCs to process proteins for MHC class I presentation in vivo, leading to tolerance in the steady state and immunity after DC maturation.

  18. Efficient Targeting of Protein Antigen to the Dendritic Cell Receptor DEC-205 in the Steady State Leads to Antigen Presentation on Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Products and Peripheral CD8+ T Cell Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Laura; Bonnyay, David; Mahnke, Karsten; Rivera, Miguel; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2002-01-01

    To identify endocytic receptors that allow dendritic cells (DCs) to capture and present antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I products in vivo, we evaluated DEC-205, which is abundant on DCs in lymphoid tissues. Ovalbumin (OVA) protein, when chemically coupled to monoclonal αDEC-205 antibody, was presented by CD11c+ lymph node DCs, but not by CD11c− cells, to OVA-specific, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Receptor-mediated presentation was at least 400 times more efficient than unconjugated OVA and, for MHC class I, the DCs had to express transporter of antigenic peptides (TAP) transporters. When αDEC-205:OVA was injected subcutaneously, OVA protein was identified over a 4–48 h period in DCs, primarily in the lymph nodes draining the injection site. In vivo, the OVA protein was selectively presented by DCs to TCR transgenic CD8+ cells, again at least 400 times more effectively than soluble OVA and in a TAP-dependent fashion. Targeting of αDEC-205:OVA to DCs in the steady state initially induced 4–7 cycles of T cell division, but the T cells were then deleted and the mice became specifically unresponsive to rechallenge with OVA in complete Freund's adjuvant. In contrast, simultaneous delivery of a DC maturation stimulus via CD40, together with αDEC-205:OVA, induced strong immunity. The CD8+ T cells responding in the presence of agonistic αCD40 antibody produced large amounts of interleukin 2 and interferon γ, acquired cytolytic function in vivo, emigrated in large numbers to the lung, and responded vigorously to OVA rechallenge. Therefore, DEC-205 provides an efficient receptor-based mechanism for DCs to process proteins for MHC class I presentation in vivo, leading to tolerance in the steady state and immunity after DC maturation. PMID:12486105

  19. Virus-like particle production with yeast: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical insights into Pichia pastoris producing high levels of the Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protective immune response against Hepatitis B infection can be obtained through the administration of a single viral polypeptide, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Thus, the Hepatitis B vaccine is generated through the utilization of recombinant DNA technology, preferentially by using yeast-based expression systems. However, the polypeptide needs to assemble into spherical particles, so-called virus-like particles (VLPs, to elicit the required protective immune response. So far, no clear evidence has been presented showing whether HBsAg assembles in vivo inside the yeast cell into VLPs or later in vitro during down-stream processing and purification. Results High level production of HBsAg was carried out with recombinant Pichia pastoris using the methanol inducible AOX1 expression system. The recombinant vaccine was isolated in form of VLPs after several down-stream steps from detergent-treated cell lysates. Search for the intracellular localization of the antigen using electron microscopic studies in combination with immunogold labeling revealed the presence of HBsAg in an extended endoplasmic reticulum where it was found to assemble into defined multi-layered, lamellar structures. The distance between two layers was determined as ~6 nm indicating that these lamellas represent monolayers of well-ordered HBsAg subunits. We did not find any evidence for the presence of VLPs within the endoplasmic reticulum or other parts of the yeast cell. Conclusions It is concluded that high level production and intrinsic slow HBsAg VLP assembly kinetics are leading to retention and accumulation of the antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum where it assembles at least partly into defined lamellar structures. Further transport of HBsAg to the Golgi apparatus is impaired thus leading to secretory pathway disfunction and the formation of an extended endoplasmic reticulum which bulges into irregular cloud-shaped formations. As VLPs were

  20. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  1. [Eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure: assessment and development prediction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Zhang, Si-Wei; Zhang, Pei-Qi; Xu, Min-Lun; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-11-01

    Based on the 'three critical points' theory of eco-fitness, and by using dynamic weighting and fitting methods, an assessment system for the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was constructed, and, taking Zhangqiu of Shandong Province, East China as a case, the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was assessed and predicted. Due to the limited agro-ecological resources, the comprehensive eco-fitness index of four kinds of agricultural leading industry in Zhangqiu presented an upward trend from 2005 to 2010, but a downward trend from 2011 to 2015. The eco-fitness indices of oil crops and fruits would be negative in 2015. The applied research in Zhangqiu confirmed the validity of the assessment system constructed for the eco-fitness of county-level agriculture leading industry structure and the rationality of the prediction model.

  2. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer. Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively. Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  3. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI; Jokha Sultan ALGHARIBI; Amna Salim ALSHUKAILI; Ahmed Khalifa ALSHUKAILI

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer.Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively.Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  4. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  5. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure.

  6. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions.

  7. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  8. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  9. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  10. Soil lead levels in parks and playgrounds: an environmental risk assessment in Newcastle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, P; Jingda, L

    1995-04-01

    In June 1993 the National Health and Medical Research Council set a national goal for blood lead of below 10 micrograms/dl. There is a need to know if the lead contamination of the urban environment is so high as to put community health at risk. Decisions, including whether soil should be removed and replaced, will have to be made. During the second half of 1993, an environmental assessment of lead contamination of soil within the City of Newcastle was conducted. Samples, 108 from surface soil and 10 from subsurface soil, were taken from public parks and playgrounds in the city area and analysed for lead content. The proportion within and the proportion above the guidelines for soil contamination were reported. Lead concentrations ranged from 25 to 2400 parts per million (ppm); 21 per cent of samples had concentrations higher than the 300 ppm action level, and the geometric mean was 134 ppm. Both the range and the average lead levels were typically no more than, or were even less than, soil lead levels documented for other cities in Australia, the United States and United Kingdom. Although each sampling site was noted, it was not our intention to focus in on individual sites. Indeed, to draw health-risk implications from any one result may be misleading and inaccurate. The results indicated moderate lead contamination of soil that could be controlled by regular top-dressing of soils, the use of bark chip on playground surfaces and by government initiatives aimed at lowering lead levels in petrol.

  11. Interaction of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen With DNA at the Single Molecule Level

    KAUST Repository

    Raducanu, Vlad-Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key factor involved in Eukaryotic DNA replication and repair, as well as other cellular pathways. Its importance comes mainly from two aspects: the large numbers of interacting partners and the mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA. The large numbers of interacting partners makes PCNA a necessary factor to consider when studying DNA replication, either in vitro or in vivo. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA, i.e. sliding along the duplex, reduces the six degrees of freedom of the molecule, three degrees of freedom of translation and three degrees of freedom of rotation, to only two, translation along the duplex and rotational tracking of the helix. Through this mechanism PCNA can recruit its partner proteins and localize them to the right spot on the DNA, maybe in the right spatial orientation, more effectively and in coordination with other proteins. Passive loading of the closed PCNA ring on the DNA without free ends is a topologically forbidden process. Replication factor C (RFC) uses energy of ATP hydrolysis to mechanically open the PCNA ring and load it on the dsDNA. The first half of the introduction gives overview of PCNA and RFC and the loading mechanism of PCNA on dsDNA. The second half is dedicated to a diffusion model and to an algorithm for analyzing PCNA sliding. PCNA and RFC were successfully purified, simulations and a mean squared displacement analysis algorithm were run and showed good stability and experimental PCNA sliding data was analyzed and led to parameters similar to the ones in literature.

  12. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  13. Study on the neurotoxic effects of low-level lead exposure in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-wei; YANG Ru-Lai; DONG Gui-juan; ZHAO Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of developmental lead exposure on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in different brain regions and on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNA expression in the hippocampus of rats. On the basis of these observations, we explored possible mechanisms by which lead exposure leads to impaired learning and memorizing abilities in children. Methods: A series of rat animal models exposed to low levels of lead during the developing period was established (drinking water containing 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075% lead acetate). NOS activities in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the brain stem were determined with fluorescence measurement and levels of mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor 2A (NR2A) subunit and NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in the rat hippocampus were measured with Retro-translation (RT-PCR). Results: There were no differences in the body weight of rat pups between any of the groups at any given time (P>0.05). The blood lead level of Pb-exposed rat pups showed a systematic pattern of change: at 14 d of age, it was lower than that at 7 d of age, then rising to the peak level at 21 d and finally falling to lower levels at 28 d. The hippocampal NOS activities of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.01). NOS activities in the cerebellum of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.001) and the NOS activity of the 0.025% group was significantly lower than that of the 0.05% and 0.075% groups on the 28th day (P<0.05).NOS activity in the cerebral cortex of the 0.075% group was significantly lower than that of the control, 0.025% and 0.05% groups on the four day spans (P<0.001). There was no significant difference of NOS activity in the brain stem between any lead-exposed group and the control group on the four day spans. In the 0.05% and the 0.075% groups, the level of NR2A mRNA expression was

  14. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano,Eunice; Labady,Mary; Gomes,Clara; Aguiar,Guillermina; Laine,Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  15. Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui-Li; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Yang, Bin; Ma, Fang-Li; Wang, Shu; Tang, Ming-liang; Hao, Ming-Gao; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Objective Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Methods We conducted a pair-matching case–control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4–12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The ...

  16. Environmental determinants of different Blood Lead Levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in childre...

  17. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system.

  18. Our Prostate Biopsy Results in The Patients with Prostate Specific Antigen Levels Below 4 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydemir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the re¬sults of prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml. Material and Method: The medical records of 524 pa¬tients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy be¬tween January 2010 and February 2013 in our clinic, due to suspi¬cion of prostate cancer were evaluated and histopathologic results of 43 patients whose PSA levels under 4 ng/ml were retrospectively revieved. Results: The mean age of patients was 64.63 ±7:42 and the mean level of PSA was 2.89 ±0.88ng /ml. A digital rectal examination (DRE had suspicious findings in 41(95.34% patients. Prostate adenocarcinoma was determined in 13 of (30.23% patients according to the biopsy result. The mean PSA value of these patients was 2.89 ±0.88 ng/ml and the mean gleason score of these patients was 6.41 ±0.87. The mean prostate volume of these patients was 41.46 ±11.95 cm3. Discussion: In our study, prostate cancer was identified in 30.3% of patients whose PSA levels were below 4 ng/ml. DRE, is still important for the evaluation of the prostate. According to our results, significant number of cancers can be detected in PSA below 4 ng/ml levels.

  19. Effects of chronic low level lead exposure on the physiology of individually identifiable neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1983-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to lead has been correlated with a variety of behavioral and neurochemical deficits in humans and other mammals, little is known of the mechanisms of action of chronic lead at the level of the individual nerve cell. We have used the individually identifiable neurons of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a model system to investigate the effects of chronic low level (5 microM) lead exposure on neuronal physiology. Thirteen neuronal parameters were measured with intracellular microelectrode recording in each of six different identifiable neurons or homogeneous neuron clusters. Results were analyzed by a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). MANOVA analysis indicates that there is a significant overall effect of lead exposure (p = 0.0001) and a significant interaction between lead and neuron type (p = 0.01). In most neuron types, chronic lead causes an increase in the resting potential, a slowing of recovery of the membrane potential after the undershoot of a spike, a decrease in spontaneous spiking activity, and a decrease in the input resistance. Lead also has differential effects on identifiable neurons, depressing excitability in some neuron types while not altering excitability in others.

  20. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  1. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip;

    2014-01-01

    of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most......The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8(+) T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when...... these regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions...

  2. Malaria vaccine candidate antigen targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum produced at high level in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voepel, Nadja; Boes, Alexander; Edgue, Güven; Beiss, Veronique; Kapelski, Stephanie; Reimann, Andreas; Schillberg, Stefan; Pradel, Gabriele; Fendel, Rolf; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Spiegel, Holger; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    Plants have emerged as low-cost production platforms suitable for vaccines targeting poverty-related diseases. Besides functional efficacy, the stability, yield, and purification process determine the production costs of a vaccine and thereby the feasibility of plant-based production. We describe high-level plant production and functional characterization of a malaria vaccine candidate targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. CCT, a fusion protein composed of three sporozoite antigens (P. falciparum cell traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites [PfCelTOS], P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein [PfCSP], and P. falciparum thrombospondin-related adhesive protein [PfTRAP]), was transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, accumulated to levels up to 2 mg/g fresh leaf weight (FLW), was thermostable up to 80°C and could be purified to >95% using a simple two-step procedure. Reactivity of sera from malaria semi-immune donors indicated the immunogenic conformation of the purified fusion protein consisting of PfCelTOS, PfCSP_TSR, PfTRAP_TSR domains (CCT) protein. Total IgG from the CCT-specific mouse immune sera specifically recognized P. falciparum sporozoites in immunofluorescence assays and induced up to 35% inhibition in hepatocyte invasion assays. Featuring domains from three promising sporozoite antigens with different roles (attachment and cell traversal) in the hepatocyte invasion process, CCT has the potential to elicit broader immune responses against the pre-erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum and represents an interesting new candidate, also as a component of multi-stage, multi-subunit malaria vaccine cocktails.

  3. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  4. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah

  5. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  6. Clinical significance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Takashi; Hachimaru, Ayumi; Tochii, Daisuke; Tochii, Sachiko; Takagi, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate its clinical significance. Methods Between January 2005 and December 2014, a total of 378 patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC underwent complete resection with systematic node dissection. The survival rate was estimated starting from the date of surgery to the date of either death or the last follow-up by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses by log-rank tests were used to determine prognostic factors. Cox proportional hazards ratios were used to identify independent predictors of poor prognosis. Clinicopathological predictors of lymph node metastases were evaluated by logistic regression analyses. Results The 5-year survival rate of patients with an elevated preoperative serum CEA level was significantly lower than that of patients with a normal CEA level (75.5% vs. 87.7%; P=0.02). However, multivariate analysis did not show the preoperative serum CEA level to be an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Postoperative pathological factors, including lymphatic permeation, visceral pleural invasion, and lymph node metastases, tended to be positive in patients with an elevated preoperative serum CEA level. In addition, the CEA level was a statistically significant independent clinical predictor of lymph node metastases. Conclusions The preoperative serum CEA level was not an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC but was an important clinical predictor of tumor invasiveness and lymph node metastases in patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC. Therefore, measurement of the preoperative serum CEA level should be considered even for patients with early-stage NSCLC.

  7. The results of transrectal prostate biopsy in patients with low levels of prostate specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the resultsof prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostatespecificantigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml.Material and methods: The medical records of 63 patientswho underwent transrectal prostate biopsy, betweenJanuary 2005 and December 2011, due to suspicionof prostate cancer with the PSA levels under 4 ng/mlwere retrospectively reviewed.Results: Transrectal Prostate biopsy was performed to63 patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 12 (19%patients. The mean value of PSA was 2.5 ng/ml. TheGleason score of Prostate cancer patients was 6,8 (5-7and the number of positive cores were 3.Conclusions: The rate of prostate cancer was found as19% in patients with levels of PSA under 4 ng/ml and thisratio is compatible with the results of previous reports.

  8. Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Malkin, J.; Weber, J.P.

    An analysis of reported symptoms and their relationship with indicators of lead absorption - blood lead (Pb-B) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) - and of arsenic absorption - urinary arsenic (As-U) - was undertaken among 680 active copper smelter workers. Lead and arsenic absorption in the copper smelter employees were characterized by the median values of 30.4 ..mu..g/dl for Pb-B, 41.5 ..mu..g/dl for ZPP, and 26 ..mu..g/L for As-U. Blood lead was 40 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 16.7% or cases, ZPP was 50 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 31.2%, and urinary arsenic was 50 ..mu..g/L or higher in 16.4% of currently active copper smelter workers. The number of reported symptoms (from a total of 14 symptoms) increased with ZPP levels; the relationship with Pb-B was less marked. Arsenic contributed relatively little. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, and As-U levels for subjects reporting each of the 14 symptoms were compared with those of subjects who did not report the symptoms. Mean Pb-B was found to differ significantly for one symptom, fatigue. Significant differences in mean ZPP levels were found for fatigue, sleep disturbances, weakness, paresthesia, and joint pain. Prevalence rates for these symptoms rose more markedly with increasing ZPP than with Pb-B levels. The results indicate a relationship between certain CNS and musculo-skeletal symptoms and increased lead absorption in this population. Adherence to exposure standards that preclude undue lead absorption and appropriate biological monitoring including ZPP levels, are necessary to prevent adverse, especially long-term, health effects.

  9. Serum levels of ficolin-3 (Hakata antigen) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Munthe-Fog, L.; Garred, P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ficolin-3 is a serum protein of putative importance in autoimmunity. Our objective was to investigate any differential expression of ficolin-3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or its clinical subsets. METHODS: Serum levels of ficolin-3 (S-ficolin-3) were determined...

  10. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  11. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  12. [Factors related to the blood lead level in children 6 to 30 months old in the Prospective Lead Study in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, S J; Schnaas-Arrieta, L; Pérez-Guerrero, I A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Martínez-Medina, S; Perroni-Hernández, E

    1993-01-01

    A majority of the sample of children (N = 160-121, ages 6-30 months) from the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study exceeds the lowest limit action level (10 micrograms/dl) of the Centers for Disease Control standards for childhood lead exposure. Over one-third of the sample at 18 months and 24 months exceeds the action level (15 micrograms/dl) for aggressive intervention. Diet plays an important role in regulating early childhood blood lead levels. Fresh milk and breast feeding are associated with lower lead levels, but extended breast feeding is related to elevated lead levels. Low income and poor maternal education are associated with higher lead concentration in children. Child consumption of canned milk and juice, up to this date, is associated with elevated child lead levels. Canned products sealed with lead are disappearing from Mexican markets. Efforts to improve childhood nutrition and poverty may be expected to have the additional benefit of lowering lead levels of Mexican children.

  13. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación

    2003-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  14. Trends in motor neuron disease: association with latitude and air lead levels in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Villar, Alejandro; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Riancho, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MND) are a group of disorders characterized by motor neuron degeneration. Among them, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is by far the most common in adulthood. This paper assesses the trend and geographical pattern in MND incidence in Spain and the possible air lead levels effect on this pathology. To confirm this concept, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deaths due to MND in Spain during 2000 and 2013, determined the geographical differences, and explored the relationship between MND and the air levels of lead. Overall, between 2000 and 2013, 11,355 people died in Spain because of MND. Disease mortality significantly increased in recent years (2007-2013) when compared with the first time of the period. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient also showed a statistically significant positive trend (CC = 0.824, p = 0.0002). Among people over 65 years, mortality rates were higher in Northern provinces. Moreover, we found a significant association of MND mortality with higher air lead levels (CC = 0.457, p = 0.01). Our study confirms that MND mortality is increasing in Spain, with a significant latitude gradient, which suggests an important role of environmental exposures. This ecological study suggests that air lead levels may be implicated in ALS pathogenesis.

  15. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaojun

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb and total blood calcium (Ca levels; blood zinc (Zn levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1-36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. Conclusions: The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls.

  16. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E and vitamin C (Vit. C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal growth at the lower community exposure levels. The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH with or without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR and 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl as compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl at P0.00l Vit.E concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ± 0.055 mg/dl respectively when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl. Regarding Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030 mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl. We observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead levels and Vit.C in both studied groups. We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated

  17. Individualized prostate biopsy strategy for Chinese patients with different prostate-specific antigen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Dai; Ding-Wei Ye; Yun-Yi Kong; Yi-Jin Shen; Bo-Hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the best individualized prostate biopsy strategies for Chinese patients with suspected prostate cancer. Methods: The present study included 221 Chinese patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies for the first time. All patients underwent the same 10-core biopsy protocol. In addition to the Hodge sextant technique, four more biopsies were obtained from the base and middle regions of bilateral peripheral zones.The differences between 10-core and sextant strategies in cancer detection among patients with different prostate specific anitgen (PSA) levels were evaluated. The relationship between PSA level, number of positive biopsy cores and organ-confined cancer rate in prostate cancer patients was also analyzed. Results: The overall prostate cancer detection rate was 40.7% in the 221 patients. The 10-core strategy increased cancer detection by 6.67% (6/90) in our patients (P 50 ng/mL (P 50 ng/mL. For patients with PSA ranging from 20.1 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL, the 10-core strategy should be applied in patients with life expectancy > 10 years and the sextant strategy should be applied in those with life expectancy < 10 years.

  18. Cadmium and lead levels consumed by patients with oral hospital diets prescriptions.

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Fernandes, Isabela da Costa; Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Milani, Raquela F.; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in foods should be monitored as a function of health risks. Objective: To evaluate Cd and Pb levels in oral hospital diets and in an oral food complement (OFC) according to their respective consumption by patients, and to estimate the patient’s exposition risk. Methods: The levels of Cd and Pb were determined by ICP-OES in samples of regular, blend, soft and renal diets and OFC, collected on 6 weekdays. About 14.3% of the diets and OFC se...

  19. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  20. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  1. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns.

  2. Investigating the Effects of Regular Resistance Training and Prostatic Massage on Proinflammatory Markers and Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Males with Prostate Cancer

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    Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Some studies support that chronic inflammation of prostate tissue plays a role in the development of PC. A variety of growth factors and cytokines may lead to proinflammatory processes within the prostate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular resistance training and prostatic massage on proinflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels in males with PC. Patients and Methods Forty-five patients with PC were selected for this study. They were randomized into either the resistance training intervention group (n = 15, the massage intervention group (n = 15, or the control group (n = 15. Resistance-training patients participated in resistance training for eight weeks, and massage was performed for six weeks on the massage group. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the data (P ≤ 0.05. Results In the resistance training group, IL-10 levels significantly increased after four (P = 0.055 and eight weeks (P = 0.000. Four and eight weeks of resistance training showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Patients of massage intervention showed an increase in IL-10 after four (P = 0.045 and six weeks (P = 0.005. In addition, four and six weeks of massage intervention showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Conclusions Regular resistance training and prostatic massage can improve proinflammatory markers and PSA levels in men with PC.

  3. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  4. High blood lead levels in ceramic folk art workers in Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, G O; Martinez, R R; Fortoul, T I; Palazuelos, E

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic folk art workers are at risk for developing lead intoxication. These workers live in small settlements, which often lack sanitation services, and these individuals work with ceramics in their homes. The study population comprised individuals of all ages from three rural communities in central Michoacan (Tzintzuntzan, Tzintzunzita, and Colonia Lazaro Cardenas). A survey questionnaire, which was provided to each individual, included questions about household characteristics, presence of a clay oven in the home, and use of lead oxide ("greta") and other hazardous products. Venous blood samples were obtained from the workers. We found lead exposure to be reduced if the home floor was covered and if the house had been painted < or =1 y prior to study. Blood lead levels exceeded the maximum level permitted, but the levels were lower than those found in the 1970s, during which time study techniques for analyzing samples differed from those used in the present study. In addition, activity patterns of the populations differed during the two studies.

  5. Association of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels with chemoradiation-induced downstaging and downsizing of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify pretreatment clinical parameters associated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-induced downstaging and downsizing of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC T3-4 or N+). Data from 51 LARC patients, who received preoperative CRT and radical surgery between 2010 and 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Rectal adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in all patients, who ranged in age between 41 and 81 years (median, 64 years). CRT consisted of 50.4 Gy pelvic radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. After a median interval of 7 weeks post-CRT, the patients underwent total mesorectal excision. Downstaging was defined as the transition from cStage II-III to ypStage 0-I. The longest tumor diameter was measured pre- and post-CRT using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and based on the surgical specimen, respectively. Downstaging was observed in 16 (31.4%) patients, including 5 (9.8%) with a pathological complete response. The median downsizing rate was 60%. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were 0.8-153.9 ng/ml (median, 4.4 ng/ml). The maximum standardized uptake value was 4.7-33.9 (median, 10.8). On univariate analysis, cT stage, tumor size and CEA level were associated with downstaging. On multivariate analysis, only CEA level (≤5 ng/ml) was a significant predictor of downstaging (odds ratio = 16.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-146.7; P=0.014). CEA level was the only factor significantly associated with downsizing (>60%) in the univariate analysis. These results demonstrated that pretreatment serum CEA levels are significantly associated with downstaging as well as downsizing of LARC following preoperative CRT. Therefore, this parameter may be useful in personalizing the management of LARC patients.

  6. Racial differences in hypogonadal improvement and prostate-specific antigen levels in hypogonadal men treated with testosterone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Coward

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To observe hypogonadal men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy (TRT and assess racial differences in hypogonadal improvement and prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, 75 hypogonadal men were followed for an average 34 months after initiating TRT. Total testosterone and PSA levels were assessed every 6 months, and patients diagnosed with prostatitis or prostate cancer during treatment were excluded. RESULTS: For 16 African American men, the average age at diagnosis of hypogonadism was 53.5 years, compared with 57.8 years in 59 Caucasian men (p = NS. Pre- and post-treatment testosterone was 219 ng/dL and 310 ng/dL in African American men, and 247 ng/dL and 497 ng/dL in Caucasian men (p = NS. Symptomatic response was 81% in African American men and 93% in Caucasian men (p = NS. Baseline PSA level was 1.32 ng/mL in African American men and 1.27 ng/mL in Caucasian men, and there was no significant difference in PSA between racial groups at 6-month intervals, although there was a small decreasing trend in the PSA of African Americans compared with Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Hypogonadal African American men have a similar normalization of testosterone and symptomatic response as hypogonadal Caucasian men, and PSA levels remain stable over time in both groups. In this hypogonadal cohort, in contrast to studies of eugonadal men, higher PSA levels in African Americans were not observed.

  7. Low-level lead exposure effects on spatial reference memory and working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Yang; Ping Zhou; Yonghui Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that lead exposure can result in cognitive dysfunction and behavior disorders. However, lead exposure impairments vary under different experimental conditions.OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in spatial learning and memory following low-level lead exposure in rats, in Morris water maze test under the same experimental condition used to analyze lead exposure effects on various memory types and learning processes.DESIGN AND SETTING: The experiment was conducted at the Animal Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science between February 2005 and March 2006. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and behavioral observations were performed.MATERIALS: Sixteen male, healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into normal control and lead exposure groups (n = 8).METHODS: Rats in the normal control group were fed distilled water, and those in the lead exposure group were fed 250 mL of 0.05% lead acetate once per day. At day 28, all rats performed the Morris water maze test, consisting of four phases: space navigation, probe test, working memory test, and visual cue test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Place navigation in the Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, probe trials for spatial reference memory, working memory test for spatial working memory, and visual cue test for non-spatial cognitive function. Perkin-Elmer Model 300 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was utilized to determine blood lead levels in rats.RESULTS: (1) In the working memory test, the time to reach the platform remained unchanged between the control and lead exposure groups (F(1,1) = 0.007, P = 0.935). A visible decrease in escape latencies was observed in each group (P = 0.028). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (F(1,1) = 1.869, P = 0.193). The working memory probe test demonstrated no change between the two groups in the time spent in the target quadrant during the working memory probe test

  8. Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Graff, Rebecca E.; Emami, Nima C.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Jorgenson, Eric; Habel, Laurel A.; Shan, Jun; Ranatunga, Dilrini K.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Chao, Chun R.; Ghai, Nirupa R.; Aaronson, David; Presti, Joseph; Nordström, Tobias; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Klein, Robert J.; Middha, Mridu; Lilja, Hans; Melander, Olle; Kvale, Mark N.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Witte, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for detection and surveillance of prostate cancer (PCa). However, factors other than PCa—such as genetics—can impact PSA. Here we present findings from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PSA in 28,503 Kaiser Permanente whites and 17,428 men from replication cohorts. We detect 40 genome-wide significant (P<5 × 10−8) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 19 novel, 15 previously identified for PSA (14 of which were also PCa-associated), and 6 previously identified for PCa only. Further analysis incorporating PCa cases suggests that at least half of the 40 SNPs are PSA-associated independent of PCa. The 40 SNPs explain 9.5% of PSA variation in non-Hispanic whites, and the remaining GWAS SNPs explain an additional 31.7%; this percentage is higher in younger men, supporting the genetic basis of PSA levels. These findings provide important information about genetic markers for PSA that may improve PCa screening, thereby reducing over-diagnosis and over-treatment. PMID:28139693

  9. Serum levels of the cancer-testis antigen POTEE and its clinical significance in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available POTEE (POTE ankyrin domain family, member E is a newly identified cancer-testis antigen that has been found to be expressed in a wide variety of human cancers including cancers of the colon, prostate, lung, breast, ovary, and pancreas.To measure the serum levels of POTEE in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to explore the clinical significance of POTEE in NSCLC.104 NSCLC patients, 66 benign lung disease patients and 80 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study from May 2013 to February 2014. Serum POTEE levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Numerical variables were recorded as means ± standard deviation (SD and analyzed by independent t tests. Categorical variables were calculated as rates and were analyzed using a χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Survival curves were estimated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests.Serum POTEE levels were significantly higher in NSCLC patients than in benign lung disease patients and healthy controls (mean ± SD [pg/ml], 324.38± 13.84 vs. 156.93 ± 17.38 and 139.09 ± 15.80, P<0.001 and were significantly correlated with TNM stage. Survival analysis revealed that patients with low serum POTEE had longer progression-free survival (PFS than those with high serum POTEE (P=0.021. Cox multivariate analysis indicated that POTEE was an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (P =0.009, hazard ratio, 2.440.Serum POTEE level in NSCLC patients is associated with TNM stage and is a potential prognostic factor.

  10. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  11. Telomere length in children environmentally exposed to low-to-moderate levels of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlas, Natalia, E-mail: n-pawlas@wp.pl [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Płachetka, Anna [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa str. 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kozłowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Broberg, Karin [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kasperczyk, Sławomir [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, SMDZ in Zabrze, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-09-01

    Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007–2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and blood rTL was measured by quantitative PCR. The geometric mean of B-Pb was 3.28 μg/dl (range: 0.90–14.2), and the geometric mean of rTL was 1.08 (range: 0.49–2.09). B-Pb was significantly inversely associated with rTL in the children (r{sub S} = − 0.25, p = 0.013; in further analyses both log-transformed-univariate regression analysis β = − 0.13, p = 0.026, and R{sup 2}adj 4%; and β = − 0.12, p = 0.056 when adjusting for mothers' smoking during pregnancy, Apgar score, mother's and father's ages at delivery, sex and mother's education, R{sup 2}adj 12%, p = 0.011). The effect of lead remained significant in children without prenatal tobacco exposure (N = 87, r{sub S} = − 0.24, p = 0.024; in further analyses, β = − 0.13, p = 0.029, and R{sup 2}adj 4%). rTL was not affected by sex, the concentrations of other elements in the blood (i.e., cadmium and selenium concentrations), or oxidative injury parameters (total antioxidant status, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Lead exposure in childhood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres, which might contribute to diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The inverse association between blood lead level and the telomeres in children emphasizes the importance of further reducing lead levels in the environment. - Highlights: • This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between

  12. A comparison of blood lead levels between migrant and native lead workers before and after implementation of a new employment permit system for migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2011-01-01

    We compared the blood lead and other lead biomarkers between migrant and native workers with a focus on the impact of the legal employment permit system that was effective from 2003, which required employers to provide mandatory annual health examinations for migrant workers on lead biomarkers in 1997 and 2005. The mean blood lead level of migrant workers was 59.5 ± 19.4 μg/dl, yielding 47% of lead poisoning cases, which was significantly higher than that of native workers (36.8 ± 14.5 μg/dl; 11% of lead poisoning cases) in 1997 before enactment of the act. The overall mean blood ZPP levels and ALAU of migrant workers were significantly higher than those of native workers. In 2005, after new migrant worker regulations were instituted, the mean value of above lead biomarkers workers was still significantly higher than that of native workers, but the magnitude of the differences was smaller compared with the difference in 1997. We confirmed that the 2003 regulations played an important role in improving the health of migrant workers in the lead industry in terms of their blood lead levels and other lead biomarkers.

  13. Low level of lead can induce phosphatidylserine exposure and erythrophagocytosis: a new mechanism underlying lead-associated anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Keunyoung; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Kang, Seojin; Chang, Youn-Kyeong; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2011-07-01

    Anemia is probably one of the most well-known toxic effects of lead. Previously, lead-induced anemia was considered to be from the inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase participating in the heme biosynthesis. However, little is known whether lead could affect the destruction of erythrocyte, another important factor for anemia. In the present study, we demonstrated that lead could accelerate the splenic sequestration of erythrocytes through phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and subsequently increased erythrophagocytosis. In freshly isolated human erythrocytes, Pb(2+)- induced PS exposure at relatively low concentrations (∼0.1 μM) by inhibiting flippase, a key aminophospholipid translocase for the maintenance of PS asymmetry and adenosine triphosphate depletion appeared to underlie this phenomenon. Abnormal shape changes of erythrocytes and microvesicle generation and other triggers for the erythrophagocytosis were also observed in the Pb(2+)-exposed erythrocytes. In vitro data showed that human macrophage indeed recognized and phagocytosis PS-exposed erythrocytes. In good accordance with these in vitro results, the oral administration of Pb(2+) increased PS exposure on erythrocytes in rat in vivo. In addition, reduction of hematocrit and hemoglobin and increased spleen weight were observed along with enhanced splenic sequestration of erythrocytes in the rats exposed to Pb(2+) subchronically for 4 weeks through drinking water. In conclusion, these results suggest that Pb(2+)-induced anemia may be explained at least in part by increased PS exposure on erythrocytes, erythrophagocytosis, and splenic sequestration.

  14. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  15. Relationship of Respiratory Diseases and the Lead Level in Tiran & Karvan Region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghias M. PhD,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Lead is emerged as one of the most hazardous elements, existing in the air and soil, which can create irreparable outcomes in the human body due to its highly severe damages. the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Lead level and the respiratory diseases in Tiran & Karvan Region, Iran. Instrument & Methods: The research methodology was analytical based on the documents and evidence, and library studies and was performed during 2011 to 2015 in Tiran & Karvan Region, Isfahan Province, Iran. The respiratory diseases statistics regarding the studied area was gathered from the information and statistics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Iran Management Center for Diseases during 2007 to 2009 documents (3215 cases. 110 soil samples and 55 water samples were collected from different positions at Summer 2011, randomly. The variation map of the respiratory diseases and lead spatial distribution for research area were drawn by Arc GIS 10.2 software. Findings: The concentration of lead was 59.4±7.9ppm in soil and 48.2±4.1ppm in water of the region. The lead variation map showed that the soil in the eastern, northern and western areas consists of a relatively high portion of lead. Also special distribution of the respiratory diseases in Tiran & Karvan showed that the disease variation is in a cluster manner and that the disease follows a special centralization. Conclusion: There is a direct relation between respiratory diseases distribution and the existence of lead in Tiran & Karvan Region, Isfahan Province, Iran.

  16. An adenoviral cancer vaccine co-encoding a tumor associated antigen together with secreted 4-1BBL leads to delayed tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2016-01-01

    ) in a replicative deficient adenovirus vaccine expressing the invariant chain (Ii) adjuvant fused to a tumor associated antigen (TAA). The Ii adjuvant increases and prolongs TAA specific CD8+ T cells as previously shown and local expression of 4-1BBL was chosen to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic...... antibody administration. Furthermore, adenovirus encoded 4-1BBL expression has previously been successfully used to enhance responses toward Plasmodium falciparum and Influenza A antigens. We showed that the incorporation of 4-1BBL in the adenovirus vector led to surface expression of 4-1BBL on antigen...

  17. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  18. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  19. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.

  20. First evaluation of the serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen after vaccination in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madour, A; Alkout, A; Vanin, S

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination schedule in Libya follows international recommendations (1st dose at birth, 2nd after 1 month and 3rd after 6 months). This research aimed to evaluate the long-term protection of the HBV immunization programme in Tripoli and to determine the best age to administer booster doses. Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen were determined in 277 randomly selected children aged 1-12 years. The response to HBV vaccine in 1-3-year-olds was 93.2%, but this declined with age and at 7-9 years after initial vaccination only 53.1% of children had protective titres (> or = 10 mIU/mL). No significant differences between males and females in antibody persistence or response to vaccine were observed. We recommend continuing the HBV vaccination programme and that a booster dose be given to 6-year-old children to ensure maximum protection during the period of school entry and beyond.

  1. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in Nanjing, China: lead and cadmium levels in the duration of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kang-sheng; MAO Xiao-dong; HAO Jia-hu; SHI Juan; DAI Chun-fang; CHEN Wen-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal lead and cadmium exposure will not only influence the mother's organ systems,but also will provide an environment that may influence the fetus and neonate in a harmful way.In the present study,we detected the blood lead levels (BLLS) and cadmium levels for the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery and to analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.Methods A cohort study survey was carried out.We recruited 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group,and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group.Results The lead concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and in the postpartum period were:(5.98±2.43),(5.54±2.01),(5.59±1.97),and (6.76±1.74) μg/dl; and (6.75±2.13) μg/dl in the control group.The cadmium concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum period were 1.61±0.45,1.63±0.46,1.64±0.49,and 1.67±0.57.We found that the BLLs in the gravida group were lower than in the control group during all three trimesters.Occupations,supplement nutritional elements (dietary supplements and nutritional (food) elements),and the time of house painting could affect BLLs in pregnant women.Lead-related occupations,using cosmetics,and living in a house painted more recently than one year previously are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women,while calcium,iron,zinc,and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusions These findings may help people,especially pregnant women,to reduce lead exposure via supplements of calcium,iron,zinc,and milk or avoiding contacting risk factors.

  2. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  3. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  4. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological...... then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P....... falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high...

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes autophagy and apoptosis leading to cellular redistribution of the autoantigens Ro/Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) and La/SSB in salivary gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiougiannis, S; Tenta, R; Skopouli, F N

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in minor salivary glands, to investigate the interplay between ER stress-induced autophagy and apoptosis in human salivary gland (HSG) cells and to test the effect of ER stress-induced apoptosis on the cellular redistribution of the two major Sjögren's syndrome (SS) autoantigens Ro/Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) and La/Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen B (SSB). Minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients and sicca controls were examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BiP) as an indicator of unfolded protein response (UPR). HSG cells were treated with thapsigargin (TG) and cell viability, autophagy and apoptosis were assessed. Immunoblot was applied to detect the conversion of LC3I to LC3II and the protein levels of GRP78/BiP and X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1). Apoptosis was evaluated by a single-stranded DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ro/SSA and La/SSB localization was visualized using immunofluorescence. GRP78/BiP was expressed by acinar and ductal epithelial cells in salivary glands of patients and sicca controls. TG treatment induced autophagy, as indicated by enhanced protein expression of LC3II. The protein levels of UPR marker XBP-1 were increased after TG treatment, while GRP78/BiP levels were decreased. TG treatment resulted in induction of HSG apoptosis. Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantigens were localized predominantly to the cytoplasm in resting cells, while they were redistributed to cell membrane and blebs in the apoptotic cells. In conclusion, ER stress is activated in minor salivary gland epithelial cells from SS patients and controls. ER stress-induced apoptosis in HSG cells leads to cell surface and apoptotic blebs relocalization of Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantigens.

  6. Seasonal variation of atmospheric lead levels in three sites in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Irma; Belmont, Raul; Jauregui, Ernesto [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric lead concentrations associated to particles smaller than 10 {mu}m were measured in Mexico City, to establish changes of levels of this pollutant in three sites (industrial, commercial and residential) for 1990-1991. Moreover, an attempt was made to establish a possible link between this airborne pollutant and blood lead levels reported in children and women living near the sampling sites. A marked gradient in atmospheric lead from North to South is observed with higher and more variable mean lead values in the northern site where industry is located. Lead concentrations and their corresponding variability gradually decrease (from about 1.2 to 0.5 {mu}g m-3) toward the southern suburbs. Moreover, these values are significantly higher during the dry season than in the wet season when a marked washout effect if observed. However, the quarterly averages recorded during the sampling time do not exceed the international standard (1.5 {mu}g m-3). Lead concentrations and corresponding PM{sub 1}0 values showed a significant correlation. This results shows that lead is associated to the fine fraction of airborne particles, with high proportion of them deposited in the respiratory tract. A substantial abatement in levels of atmospheric lead is observed in 1991 with respect to the previous year. This may be explained by the introduction of improved quality gasoline in the capital city. In spite of this measure more than 30% of the evaluated population in 1991 presented blood-lead levels> 10 {mu}g dL-1. [Spanish] Durante 1991 se evaluaron en tres sitios (industrial, comercial y residencial), las concentraciones de plomo atmosferico asociado a particulas menores de 10 {mu}m, con el objeto de establecer los cambios en los niveles de este contaminante. Ademas, se trato de establecer la posible relacion de este contaminante con los niveles de plomo en sangre citados para ninos y mujeres que viven en los alrededores de los sitios de muestreo. Se observo un marcado

  7. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves (Columba livia) treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.C.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-06-01

    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. Studies of lead accumulation in U.K. rock doves imply that use of this species as a pollution indicator would facilitate periodic monitoring of chronic lead exposure conditions in the urban environment. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove (Columbia livia) populations: two groups (males and females) were dosed with lead acetate in the laboratory and two groups of males were housed in different parts of the city of Alcala de Henares. Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: the first was in a laboratory with controlled amounts of lead, while in the second situation the amounts reflected the actual environmental levels in Alcala de Henares. Lead levels were determined in two tissues: blood, which is the target of first impact in possible acute situations; and bone, which is the main tissue where lead accumulates and, therefore, very important during chronic exposure. The study focused on the following three items: (1) lead tissue distribution; (2) variation with habitat; and (3) an evaluation of the levels of lead contamination in the city of Alcala de Henares. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  9. Effect of succimer on growth of preschool children with moderate blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen E; Salganik, Mikhail; Campbell, Carla; Rhoads, George G; Rubin, Judith; Berger, Omer; Ware, James H; Rogan, Walter

    2004-02-01

    Growth deficits associated with lead exposure might be ameliorated by chelation. We examined the effect of succimer on growth in 780 children 12-33 months old who had blood lead levels of 20-44 microg/dL and were randomized to receive up to three 26-day courses of succimer or placebo in a multicenter, double-blind trial. The difference in changes in weight and height between succimer and placebo groups at 1-34 months was calculated by fitting cubic splines. The difference in height change in children on succimer compared with placebo was -0.27 cm [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -0.42 to -0.11] from baseline to 9 months, when 99% of children had completed treatment, and -0.43 cm (95% CI, -0.77 to -0.09) during 34 months of follow-up. Similar differences in weight gain were not statistically significant. Although succimer lowers blood lead in moderately lead-poisoned children, it does not have a beneficial effect on growth and may have an adverse effect.

  10. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  11. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  12. Correlation of the Serum Level of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Prolactin with Different Stages of Colorectal Carcinoma According to Dukes' Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M R; Sheikh, S H; Lima, I J; Islam, M R; Faisal, M; Islam, M S; Faruk, M O; Jalal, M T

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is well established tumor marker for colorectal cancers worldwide. Recent studies show that serum prolactin level is also raised in colorectal cancers. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the correlation of serum CEA and Prolactin with Dukes' staging of colorectal carcinomas. Between January 2013 and June 2013, Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay from 103 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as colorectal carcinomas. Evaluation of the stages of the colorectal cancers was done on the basis of preoperative investigations and postoperative histopathology and correlated with Preoperative Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin. Results were presented as median value, range and percentage. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with median age of 42.26 years (range 17-78 years). Most of the patients in this series presented with carcinoma rectum (42%). Most of the patients (52%) were found in Dukes' stage C and 27% and 15% cases were found as Dukes' stage B and Dukes' stage D respectively. Stage of the disease is directly proportionate to percentage of the patient with high serum prolactin except early stage (Dukes' A-50%, Dukes' B-28.6%, Dukes' C-33.3% & Dukes' D-46.7%). Similarly serum CEA level is directly proportionate to tumor stage (Dukes' A-0%, Dukes' B-32%, Dukes' C-40.7% & Dukes' D-74.7%). A preoperative high serum CEA value suggests advanced disease either locally or with distant metastasis. In contrast preoperative high serum prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia) did not suggest advanced disease as it can be elevated even in early stage of disease. Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin both are valuable tumor markers but serum CEA could not be replaced by serum Prolactin. Serum Prolactin may be a helpful marker in earlier stages of the colorectal cancer.

  13. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels of less than 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J; Campbell, Carla; Brown, Mary Jean

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead exposure is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. In children, lead is associated with impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined the blood lead level that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recognized that a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at blood lead levels of children they examine, provide families with lead-prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As circumstances permit, clinicians should consider referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and more frequent rescreening of children with blood lead levels approaching 10 microg/dL. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and sources of information that will help them establish a lead-safe environment for their children. For these preventive strategies to succeed, partnerships between health care providers, families, and local public health and housing programs should be strengthened.

  14. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  15. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.;

    2011-01-01

    The multi-causality interactions between environment and health are complex and call for an integrated multidisciplinary study approach. Emerging computational toxicology tools that link toxicology, chemistry, environmental sciences, biostatistics, and computer sciences are proving to be very...... useful for integrated full-chain human health risk assessments. In this study we use a newly developed computational tool – the 2FUN player to conduct a full-chain assessment combining measured ambient air lead concentrations with multi-media modelling and PBPK simulations to estimate the health risks...... from ambient air levels of lead in air-borne particulates (PM10) in Lisbon, Portugal. Ambient air Pb concentrations were used together with local climate variables in the 2FUN atmospheric model to calculate the amount of Pb deposited (wet and dry) onto soil. The 2FUN environmental and PBPK models were...

  16. Combined Linkage and Association Studies Show that HLA Class II Variants Control Levels of Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Pedergnana; Laurène Syx; Aurélie Cobat; Julien Guergnon; Pauline Brice; Christophe Fermé; Patrice Carde; Olivier Hermine; Catherine Le-Pendeven; Corinne Amiel; Yassine Taoufik; Alexandre Alcaïs; Ioannis Theodorou; Caroline Besson; Laurent Abel

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid an...

  17. Environmental determinants of different blood lead levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in children in France. We enrolled 484 children aged from 6months to 6years, in a nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2008-2009. We measured lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, household settled dusts, paints, cosmetics and traditional cookware). We performed two models: a multivariate generalized additive model on the geometric mean (GM), and a quantile regression model on the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantile of BLLs. The GM of BLLs was 13.8μg/L (=1.38μg/dL) (95% confidence intervals (CI): 12.7-14.9) and the 90th quantile was 25.7μg/L (CI: 24.2-29.5). Household and common area dust, tap water, interior paint, ceramic cookware, traditional cosmetics, playground soil and dust, and environmental tobacco smoke were associated with the GM of BLLs. Household dust and tap water made the largest contributions to both the GM and the 90th quantile of BLLs. The concentration of lead in dust was positively correlated with all quantiles of BLLs even at low concentrations. Lead concentrations in tap water above 5μg/L were also positively correlated with the GM, 75th and 90th quantiles of BLLs in children drinking tap water. Preventative actions must target household settled dust and tap water to reduce the BLLs of children in France. The use of traditional cosmetics should be avoided whereas ceramic cookware should be limited to decorative purposes.

  18. Environmental factors predicting blood lead levels in pregnant women in the UK: the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Taylor

    Full Text Available Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL of 5-10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy.Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women.Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC in 1991-1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285. Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19.The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41-19.14 µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.42; p<0.001. Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects.The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

  19. Blood Lead Levels in Andean Infants and Young Children in Ecuador: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Counter, S; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in infants and children remains an international health concern. Blood lead (PbB) levels of a cohort of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children aged 0.33 to 5.8 yr were compared to values reported for similar age groups in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States. The mean PbB level for the total group of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children in this study was 29.4 μg/dl (SD: 24.3; range: 3.0-128.2; median: 21.7; geometric mean: 20.7 μg/dl). The mean PbB level for the 0-2 yr age group (infants) was 33.6 μg/dl (SD: 28.9; median: 22.0; range: 3.9-119.7; geometric mean: 23.6 μg/dl), while the average PbB level for the 3-5 yr age group (young children) was 27.9 μg/dl (SD: 22.5: median: 22; range: 3-128.2; geometric mean: 19.8 μg/dl). The difference between the mean PbB levels for the infants and young children was not statistically significant. The average PbB level of 32.6 μg/dl for males was not statistically different from the mean PbB level of 26.3 μg/dl for females. The PbB levels observed in Ecuadorian infants and young children in this investigation were elevated above the World Health Organization (WHO) level of concern of 10 μg/dl and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) current reference value of 5 μg/dl. Values were comparable to concentrations found in Pakistan, where occupational use of Pb is prevalent. These findings further indicate that infants and young children exposed to Pb from Pb glazing of ceramics in Andean Ecuadorian villages exhibit greater potential metal-mediated poisoning than children of similar ages in Asia, Europe, other Latin American countries, and the United States.

  20. Clinical significance of variations in levels of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) antigen and adaptive immune response during chronic active EBV infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Song, Hong Mei; Wei, Min; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yu Hua; Gao, Li

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric patients were recruited to analyze differences in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) copy numbers and adaptive immune reactions in children with chronic active vs acute EBV infection (CAEBVI vs AEBVI), as well as to examine the relationship between these parameters and the pathogenesis of CAEBVI. Fluorescent qPCR was used to assess EBV-DNA levels, while ELISA, antibody affinity, flow cytometry, and heterophil agglutination (HA) assays were used to evaluate patient EBV-adaptive humoral and cellular immunity. Lastly, ELISPOT was employed to assess interferon (IFN)-γ secretory functions of EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) as a marker of subject EBV-specific adaptive cellular immunity. The results indicated that, compared with AEBVI patients or normal children, there was a dramatic elevation in viral copy levels, viral capsid antigen (VCA)-IgA, early antigen (EA)-IgA, and EA-IgG, but a lack of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-IgG and a negative HA in CAEBVI patients (p EBV-specific CTL function compared with normal children (p EBV antigen availability and in both the adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with CAEBVI, and that these outcomes may be associated with the chronic active re-infection process itself associated with CAEBVI.

  1. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  2. Occurrence of high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal plants of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Plants can contain heavy metals from their presence in the soil, water or air. High levels of toxic metals can occur when the plants are grown in polluted areas, such as near roadways or metal mining and smelting operations. In addition, high levels can be found when agricultural expedients are used, including Cadmium containing fertilizers, organic mercury or lead based pesticides, and contaminated irrigation water. Quality has to be built into the whole process beginning from the selection of starting material to the final product reaching the consumer. In the present study were carried out, to evaluate the quality and safety of crude drug. The result shows that Indian herbal drug industry needs to ensure procurement of standardized authentic raw material free from toxic contaminants. Such approaches remain important in global promotion of medicinal plants & herbal medicinal products from India.

  3. Effects of dietary lead exposure on vitamin levels in great tit nestlings - An experimental manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra; Espín, Silvia; Rainio, Miia; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to metal pollution negatively affects animal physiology, including nutrient metabolism, but in the wild an effect can seldom be attributed to a single metal. Moreover, little is known about how the metabolism of vitamins, essential micronutrients for developing juveniles, is affected by toxic metals. Therefore we experimentally investigated the effects of lead (Pb), a widespread toxic metal, on four fat-soluble vitamins A (total and retinol), D3, E (total and α-tocopherol) and K and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and unidentified) in great tit (Parus major) nestlings. In addition to a control group where no Pb was provided, two Pb-dosed groups were compared to a metal exposed group in the vicinity of a Ni-Cu smelter. We examined whether Pb treatment affects vitamin homeostasis and how the response of Pb-treated birds relates to that of a population under industrial exposure of Pb and other metals. For this purpose, vitamin and carotenoid levels were quantified with UPLC-MS from plasma of 7 days-old nestlings. All metal exposed groups showed increased vitamin A and retinol levels. However, vitamin levels were not directly associated with fecal Pb levels, with the exception of retinol, which was positively correlated with fecal Pb. Alpha-tocopherol, lutein and zeaxanthin levels were positively associated with body mass and wing growth rate. To conclude, Pb exposure increased plasma vitamin A and retinol levels while the levels of other vitamins and carotenoids rather reflected secondary pollution effects via differences in habitat and diet quality at the smelter site. Our findings suggest Pb exposed nestlings may allocate the vitamins needed for growth and development to fight the physiological stress thus compromising their fitness.

  4. Combined Linkage and Association Studies Show that HLA Class II Variants Control Levels of Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobat, Aurélie; Guergnon, Julien; Brice, Pauline; Fermé, Christophe; Carde, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Pendeven, Catherine Le-; Amiel, Corinne; Taoufik, Yassine; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Theodorou, Ioannis; Besson, Caroline; Abel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) or anti-Epstein Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG levels in a unique cohort of 424 individuals of European origin from 119 French families recruited through a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patient. No major locus controlling anti-VCA antibody levels was identified. However, we found that the HLA region influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers. Refined association studies in this region identified a cluster of HLA class II variants associated with anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers (e.g. p = 5×10–5 for rs9268403). The major allele of rs9268403 conferring a predisposition to high anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels was also associated with an increased risk of HL (p = 0.02). In summary, this study shows that HLA class II variants influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers in a European population. It further shows the role of the same variants in the risk of HL. PMID:25025336

  5. Combined linkage and association studies show that HLA class II variants control levels of antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pedergnana

    Full Text Available Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL. Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA or anti-Epstein Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 IgG levels in a unique cohort of 424 individuals of European origin from 119 French families recruited through a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL patient. No major locus controlling anti-VCA antibody levels was identified. However, we found that the HLA region influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers. Refined association studies in this region identified a cluster of HLA class II variants associated with anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers (e.g. p = 5×10(-5 for rs9268403. The major allele of rs9268403 conferring a predisposition to high anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels was also associated with an increased risk of HL (p = 0.02. In summary, this study shows that HLA class II variants influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers in a European population. It further shows the role of the same variants in the risk of HL.

  6. Health status of cable splicers with low-level exposure to lead: results of a clinical survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York); Thornton, J.; Blumberg, W.E.

    1980-07-01

    The results of a cross-sectional clinical field survey of 90 telephone cable splicers are presented. Despite the rare occurrence of clinically overt lead poisoning among cable splicers, the observed prevalence of symptoms was 29% for lead-associated central nervous system symptoms and 21% for gastrointestinal symptoms. These two groups of symptoms were directly related to zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels but no relationship was found between them and blood lead concentrations. Only 5% of the workers had significantly elevated blood lead levels (> 40 ..mu..g/100 ml). Because of the intermittent lead exposure encountered in this trade, individuals were identified with normal blood lead levels associated with elevated zinc protoporphyrin concentrations, indicating the difference in biological significance between exposure-(blood lead) and biological-response tests (ZPP). Suggestion is made that both types of diagnostic tests be utilized in the medical surveillance of lead-exposed workers.

  7. Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Language development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernhart, C.B.; Greene, T. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level lead exposure and child development. This inconsistency is seen for both prenatal exposure and exposure in the preschool years. The primary outcome measures in most reports are indices of cognitive development, including IQ. Verbal skills may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. The fact that 2 y of age is both a time of peak exposure and also a time of rapid language development suggests that this may be a critical period for such an effect. The later prenatal and early infancy period, at which time the nervous system is developing rapidly, may also be critical exposure period. We examined the relationship of maternal and cord blood lead (PbB) at birth and venous PbB at 6 mo, 2 y, and 3 y with language measures at 1, 2, and 3 y of age. The sample consisted of disadvantaged urban children. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship of either prenatal PbB or early preschool PbB with language measures after control of cofactors. Supplementary partial correlations revealed a marginal relationship of cord PbB and mean length of utterance (MLU), which describes a child's ability to form meaningful word combinations. Because this analysis was one of a large number of analyses with both positive and negative regression coefficients, the possibility that this was a chance effect was considered. If there is an effect of low-level lead exposure on language development, that effect is not robust.

  8. Targeting human dendritic cells via DEC-205 using PLGA nanoparticles leads to enhanced cross-presentation of a melanoma-associated antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandeep S Saluja,1 Douglas J Hanlon,1 Fiona A Sharp,2 Enping Hong,2 David Khalil,1 Eve Robinson,1 Robert Tigelaar,1 Tarek M Fahmy,2,3 Richard L Edelson1 1Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 3Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs is a powerful and novel strategy for vaccination. Priming or loading DCs with antigen controls whether subsequent immunity will develop and hence whether effective vaccination can be achieved. The goal of our present work was to increase the potency of DC-based antitumor vaccines by overcoming inherent limitations associated with antigen stability and cross-presentation. Nanoparticles prepared from the biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid have been extensively used in clinical settings for drug delivery and are currently the subject of intensive investigation as antigen delivery vehicles for vaccine applications. Here we describe a nanoparticulate delivery system with the ability to simultaneously carry a high density of protein-based antigen while displaying a DC targeting ligand on its surface. Utilizing a targeting motif specific for the DC-associated surface ligand DEC-205, we show that targeted nanoparticles encapsulating a MART-127–35 peptide are both internalized and cross-presented with significantly higher efficiency than isotype control-coated nanoparticles in human cells. In addition, the DEC-205-labeled nanoparticles rapidly escape from the DC endosomal compartment and do not colocalize with markers of early (EEA-1 or late endosome/lysosome (LAMP-1. This indicates that encapsulated antigens delivered by nanoparticles may have direct access to the class I cytoplasmic major histocompatibility complex loading machinery, overcoming the need for “classical” cross-presentation and facilitating heightened DC

  9. Methylglyoxal increases dopamine level and leads to oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bingjie; Lin, Fankai; Peng, Lei; Ullah, Kaleem; Wu, Hanyan; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2014-11-01

    More and more studies have suggested that methylglyoxal (MGO) induced by type-2 diabetes is related to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanism. In this study, we explored the MGO toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Neurotoxicity of MGO was measured by mitochondrial membrane potential, malondialdehyde, and methylthiazoletetrazolium assays. The levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results showed that MGO induced an increase in TH and DAT expressions in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, while the levels of dopamine, DOPAC, and endogenous neurotoxin salsolinol also increased. Aminoguanidine (AG) is an inhibitor of MGO. It was found that AG could decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level induced by MGO, but could not inhibit an increase of TH, DAT and dopamine. The increase of dopamine, DOPAC and salsolinol levels could lead to high ROS and mitochondrial damage. This study suggests that ROS caused by dopamine could contribute to the damage of dopaminergic neurons when MGO is increased during the course of diabetes.

  10. The galactose-induced decrease in phosphate levels leads to toxicity in yeast models of galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Caio M; De-Souza, Evandro A; De-Queiroz, Ana Luiza F V; Pimentel, Felipe S A; Silva, Guilherme F S; Gomes, Fabio M; Montero-Lomelí, Mónica; Masuda, Claudio A

    2017-02-14

    Classic galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deleterious mutations in the GALT gene. A number of evidences indicate that the galactose-1-phosphate accumulation observed in patient cells is a cause of toxicity in this disease. Nevertheless, the consequent molecular events caused by the galactose-1-phosphate accumulation remain elusive. Here we show that intracellular inorganic phosphate levels decreased when yeast models of classic galactosemia were exposed to galactose. The decrease in phosphate levels is probably due to the trapping of phosphate in the accumulated galactose-1-phosphate since the deletion of the galactokinase encoding gene GAL1 suppressed this phenotype. Galactose-induced phosphate depletion caused an increase in glycogen content, an expected result since glycogen breakdown by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase is dependent on inorganic phosphate. Accordingly, an increase in intracellular phosphate levels suppressed the galactose effect on glycogen content and conferred galactose tolerance to yeast models of galactosemia. These results support the hypothesis that the galactose-induced decrease in phosphate levels leads to toxicity in galactosemia and opens new possibilities for the development of better treatments for this disease.

  11. High levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA antigen precede the development of type 2 diabetes in a longitudinal population study. The Northern Sweden MONICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jan-Håkan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired fibrinolysis is found in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, associated with components of the metabolic syndrome. There are no data concerning fibrinolysis in subjects with normal glucose tolerance that convert to diabetes. Methods We studied the activities of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and the levels of tPA antigen (a marker of endothelial dysfunction in 551 subjects with normal glucose tolerance in 1990 in relation to incident diabetes during nine years of follow-up. Results Subjects with diabetes at follow-up (n = 15 had significantly lower baseline tPA activity and higher PAI-1 activity and tPA antigen than non-converters. The risk of diabetes increased linearly across quartiles of PAI-activity (p = 0.007 and tPA antigen (p p = 0.026. The risk of diabetes with low tPA activity or high PAI-1 activity persisted after adjustment for age and sex but diminished to a non-significant level after further adjustments. The odds ratio of diabetes for high tPA antigen was 10.4 (95% confidence interval 2.7–40 adjusted for age and sex. After further adjustment for diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, insulin, triglycerides, fasting and post load glucose the odds ratio was 6.5 (1.3–33, p = 0.024. Conclusions Impaired fibrinolysis and endothelial dysfunction are evident in subjects with normal glucose tolerance who later develop diabetes. High tPA antigen is predictive of future diabetes independent from the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss during Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Patients with lower baseline HBsAg levels and more rapid decline during early treatment with PEG-IFN are more likely to achieve HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment, and extended therapy longer than 48 weeks may be required to achieve HBsAg loss.

  13. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  14. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  15. Preoperative serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels in clinical decision making for patients with early-stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; van der Velden, J; ten Hoor, KA; Boezen, HM; de Vries, EGE; Schilthuis, MS; Mourits, MJE; Nijman, HW; Aalders, JG; Hollema, H; Pras, E; Duk, JM; van der Zee, AGJ

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prevent morbidity associated with double modality treatment, early-stage cervical cancer patients should only be offered surgery when there is a low likelihood for adjuvant radiotherapy. We analyzed whether serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) analysis allows better preoperativ

  16. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  17. Blood Lead Levels During Pregnancy and Its Influencing Factors in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Xi-rong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the blood lead levels (BLLs) in the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery, and analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.MethodsPregnant women were recruited from September 2009 to February 2010 at the prenatalclinic inNanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. Altogether 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnant or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were enrolled as the gravidagroup, and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group. BLLs during pregnancy were determinedby flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.ResultsBLLs in all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were 59.8±24.3, 55.4±20.1,55.9±19.7, and 67.6±17.4 μg/L, respectively, and the mean BLL in control group was 67.5±21.3 μg/L. BLLs during all the three trimesters were lower in the gravida group than in the control group (P=0.043, 0.021, and 0.028). Furthermore, occupations, nutrients supplementation, and time ofhouse/apartmentpainted were associated with BLLs in pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, cosmetics use, and livingin a house painted less than 1 year beforeare risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusion Supplementing calcium, iron, zinc, and milk, or avoiding contact with risk factors may help people, especially pregnant women, to reduce lead exposure.

  18. Breast Milk Lead and Cadmium Levels in Suburban Areas of Nanjing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu-qing Xu; Xiao-qi Gu; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Fei Xu; Rong Shen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk in the second post-partum month,to investigate the relationship between Pb/Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemo-graphic parameters,and to explore whether these levels affect the infants' physical status or the mothers' psychological status (postpartum depression). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and December 2010. Al-together 170 healthy mothers were enrolled from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. The inclusion criteria were: voluntary to participate in this study,healthy,with no chronic disease,breastfeeding in the second postpartum month,living in a suburban but not non-industrial area of Nanjing,and not occupa-tionally exposed to toxic metals. All the mothers completed a questionnaire and were evaluated based on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to identify the risk of postpartum depression. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The infants of these mothers were examined for their z scores of weight for age,length for age,head circumference for age,and body mass index for age. Results The median breast milk levels of Pb and Cd were 40.6 μg/L and 0.67 μg/L,respectively. In 164 (96.5%) of the 170 samples,Pb levels were higher than the limit reported by the World Health Or-ganization (> 5 μg/L). Breast milk Cd level was > 1 μg/L in 54 (31.8%) mothers. The mothers with a his-tory of anemia had a higher breast milk Pb level than those without a history of anemia (41.1 μg/L vs. 37.9 μg/L,P = 0.050). The median breast milk Cd level in those who were active and passive smokers dur-ing pregnancy was significantly higher than that in non-smokers (0.88 μg/L vs. 0.00 μg/L,P = 0.025). The breast milk Cd level in the mothers not taking iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum was higher than in those taking the supplements (iron supplement: 0.74

  19. Lead levels in human milk and children's health risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyashiki, Gina Ayumi Kobayashi; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a naturally-occurring element and industrially-produced metal, is highly toxic to children, causing intellectual and behavioral deficits, hyperactivity, fine motor function deficits, decreased intelligence quotient, alteration of hand-eye coordination, and problems in reaction time. Children's exposure to Pb occurs mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, water and soil. Few discussions have been held on the magnitude and potential risk associated with exposure from the consumption of breast milk. Hence, this research was designed to systematically review the scientific literature on published epidemiologic studies, with an emphasis on the study designs and analytical procedures used for Pb assessment in breast milk. From a total of 112 selected articles published since the 1980s, 11 met the inclusion criteria. A review of the data indicated that Pb levels varied from 0.15 to 6.1 microg L(-1) in mature milk samples, from 0.48 to 14.6 microg L(-1) in colostrum samples, and were non-detectable in some samples. The milk/blood ratio, which estimates the mean efficiency transfer of lead from blood to milk, varied between 0.01 and 0.48. The heterogeneity of methods revealed by our assessment of published studies underscores the need for harmonization of study designs and sample collection and analysis protocols to reflect specific exposure scenarios. Human milk seems to be one of the relevant biological matrices for use as a biomarker for assessing children's health risk to Pb poisoning.

  20. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  1. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  2. Cadmium and lead levels consumed by patients with oral hospital diets prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia S. Manzoli de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in foods should be monitored as a function of health risks. Objective: To evaluate Cd and Pb levels in oral hospital diets and in an oral food complement (OFC according to their respective consumption by patients, and to estimate the patient's exposition risk. Methods: The levels of Cd and Pb were determined by ICP-OES in samples of regular, blend, soft and renal diets and OFC, collected on 6 weekdays. About 14.3% of the diets and OFC served were analyzed. Results and discussion: 163 patients participated, with mean weights and ages of 62.7 kg and 56.5 years, respectively, the majority being men (59.5%. The mean Cd content consumed was greater for men fed the regular and blend diets and similar amongst the sexes for the soft diet. The consumption of Cd (max. 21.02 µg/day was below the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. The mean Pb ingested (max. 199.49 µg/day was similar amongst the sexes. The soft diet showed the highest Pb content in September/2010, whereas the other showed no variation according to season. In September/2010 and January/2011, the soft and regular diets associated with the OFC offered 207.50 and 210.50 µg/day of Pb, respectively. Conclusions: The combination of the diet with the OFC increased the risk of an excessive ingestion of Pb, and the vulnerability of the patients to an excessive exposition to Pb could be greater due to water and medications. It was concluded that whereas the calculated ingestion of Cd conformed to the PTMI, the Pb level and ingestion represented a risk to the health of the patients.

  3. Biophysical and formulation studies of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 extracellular domain recombinant protein, a lead vaccine candidate antigen for intestinal schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Curti, Elena; Rezende, Wanderson C; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Hotez, Peter J; Middaugh, C Russell; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-11-01

    A candidate vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis is under development. The vaccine is comprised of a recombinant 9 kDa antigen protein corresponding to the large extracellular domain of a tetraspanin surface antigen protein of Schistosoma mansoni, Sm-TSP-2. Here, we describe the biophysical profile of the purified, recombinant Sm-TSP-2 produced in the yeast PichiaPink, which in preclinical studies in mice was shown to be an effective vaccine against intestinal schistosomiasis. Biophysical techniques including circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and light scattering were employed to generate an empirical phase diagram, a color based map of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperatures and pH. From these studies a pH range of 6.0-8.0 was determined to be optimal for maintaining the stability and conformation of the protein at temperatures up to 25 °C. Sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose were selected as excipients that prevented physical degradation during storage. The studies described here provide guidance for maximizing the stability of soluble recombinant Sm-TSP-2 in preparation of its further development as a vaccine.

  4. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  5. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis.

  6. Plant-based strategies aimed at expressing HIV antigens and neutralizing antibodies at high levels. Nef as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Carla; Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Donini, Marcello; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Bock, Ralph; Dix, Philip J; McCabe, Matthew S; Bellucci, Michele; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    The first evidence that plants represent a valid, safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems for large-scale production of antigens and antibodies was described more than 10 years ago. Since then, considerable improvements have been made to increase the yield of plant-produced proteins. These include the use of signal sequences to target proteins to different cellular compartments, plastid transformation to achieve high transgene dosage, codon usage optimization to boost gene expression, and protein fusions to improve recombinant protein stability and accumulation. Thus, several HIV/SIV antigens and neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have recently been successfully expressed in plants by stable nuclear or plastid transformation, and by transient expression systems based on plant virus vectors or Agrobacterium-mediated infection. The current article gives an overview of plant expressed HIV antigens and antibodies and provides an account of the use of different strategies aimed at increasing the expression of the accessory multifunctional HIV-1 Nef protein in transgenic plants.

  7. High environmental ozone levels lead to enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. METHODS: Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS: The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. CONCLUSION: It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.

  8. Influencing factors of colostrum exposure to low-level lead and their relationship with early neural development of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to low-level lead has a toxic effect on the development of neonates, which has attracted wide attention. Colostrum lead level can be used as the indication of lead exposure.OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship of colostrum lead level and the neurobehavioral development of infants.DESIGN: A prospective control observation.SETTING: Center for Maternal and Child Health, Shanxi Provincial Children's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 128 neonates of full-term normal delivery, 76 male and 52 female, from Shanxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Center and Jiexiu Maternal and Child Health Center were involved in this study. All the involved neonates had no peripartal ischemic/hypoxic history or fetus intrauterine developmental lag. Pregnant women had no various acute and chronic diseases in pregnancy, family history of neurological disease or occupational lead exposure. 128 portions of colostrum sample of full-term normal delivery were collected. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the puerperants and their relatives.METHODS: ①Experimental grouping: Lead level in the colostrum was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. According to lead level in the colostrum, the neonates were classified into two exposure groups of greater than or equal to 0.24 μ mol/L in a high-level lead group and less than 0.24 μ mol/L in a low-level lead group. ② Experimental evaluation: Mental developmental index (MDI) and psychological developmental index (PDI) of 3-month-old infants were evaluated with Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). The relationships of MDI, PDI and colostrum lead level were performed correlation regression analysis; The relationship of colostrum lead level and development was performed multi-factor analysis with family environment and health questionnaires.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Evaluation results of MDI and PDI. ② Multi-factor analysis results.RESULTS: Totally 128 neonates were involved in the study. Ten

  9. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Germán, E-mail: santosg@unican.es; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  10. Social isolation after stroke leads to depressive-like behavior and decreased BDNF levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Lena M; Doran, Sarah J; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Conti, Lisa H; Venna, Venugopal R; McCullough, Louise D

    2014-03-01

    Social isolation prior to stroke leads to poorer outcomes after an ischemic injury in both animal and human studies. However, the impact of social isolation following stroke, which may be more clinically relevant as a target for therapeutic intervention, has yet to be examined. In this study, we investigated both the sub-acute (2 weeks) and chronic (7 weeks) effects of social isolation on post-stroke functional and histological outcome. Worsened histological damage from ischemic injury and an increase in depressive-like behavior was observed in isolated mice as compared to pair-housed mice. Mice isolated immediately after stroke showed a decrease in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These changes, both histological and behavioral, suggest an overall negative effect of social isolation on stroke outcome, potentially contributing to post-stroke depression and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who have perceived isolation post-stroke to hopefully prevent this exacerbation of histological damage and subsequent depression.

  11. In silico design, cloning and high level expression of L7/L12-TOmp31 fusion protein of Brucella antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Golshani, Maryam; Rafati, Sima; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Nejati-Moheimani, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Globally, Brucella melitensis and B. abortus are the most common cause of human brucellosis. The outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) and L7/L12 are immunodominant and protective antigens conserved in human Brucella pathogens which are considered as potential vaccine candidates. We aimed to design the fusion protein from Brucella L7/L12 and truncated Omp31proteins, in silico, clone the fusion in pET28a vector, and express it in Escherichia coli host. Two possible fusion forms, L7/L12-TOmp31 and ...

  12. Five Major State-Level Copper,Lead, Zinc Resource Succession Bases in Tibet Have Initially Taken Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    According to the Chengdu Center of China Geological Survey,five major state-level copper-lead-zinc resource succession bases in Tibet have initially taken shape,featuring tremendous resource potentials.It has been learned that these five major resource succession bases are respectively copper-lead-zinc molybdenum iron prospecting development base in Central Tibet,chromite

  13. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  14. Using a genomic assay for the detection of SNPs of Knops blood group antigens leads to the identification of two caucasians homozygous for the SNP associated with the knops SL3 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. A.; Sprogoe, U.

    2015-01-01

    an allele frequency of 4828 A at 4.3%. Both of the patients were homozygous for 4828 T>A (p.1610Thr), suggesting them to be Sl3-. This was later confirmed serologically for one of the patients, because the patient's red cells were found to be compatible with a panreacting antibody from the only other person...... previously described to be Sl3- (personal communication from the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol). * Number indicates the nucleotide position of the CR1 gene. Conclusion: In this study, we have set up a genomic assay for identifying the antigens in the Knops system. We found...... was homozygous for 4801 A>G (p.1601Gly) associated with Sl2+ (the rest were all homozygous for 4801 A). The Sl2+ donor was also Mc(a-b+). With regard to Sl3, we found 9 out of 105 (8.6%) donors to be heterozygous for 4828 T>A, and 96 of 105 (91.4%) to be homozygous for 4828 T (p.1610Ser). These numbers yields...

  15. High-Level Expression of Functionally Active Dengue-2 Non-Structural Antigen 1 Production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gowri Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of nonstructural protein (NS1 is an important diagnostic marker during acute phase of dengue infection. Not only for diagnostic purpose, the protein had important role in vaccine design as well, as a candidate for studying virus assembly and maturation. Various researchers employed different expression systems and strategies for recombinant NS1 protein production. Attempts to express NS1 protein in prokaryotic and yeast expression system result in formation of insoluble protein which needs to undergo refolding to attain native structural and functional forms. Here, we report the production of soluble NS1 protein in E. coli by using appropriate vector and employing suitable culture conditions to maximize protein production. Proteins were purified using metal affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis reveal the native structure of NS1 protein. Solid phase ELISA using the recombinantly expressed antigen with positive and negative dengue samples showed that the expressed protein retains its antigenic and immunological properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful production of functionally active recombinant dengue-2 NS1 protein production without undergoing any in vitro posttranslational modification process.

  16. Impact of Atomic Structure on Absolute Energy Levels of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    There has been a staggeringly rapid increase in the photovoltaic performance of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite - greater than 19 percent solar cell power conversion efficiency has been reported in less than five years since the first report in 2009. Despite the progress in device performance, structure-property relationships in MAPbI3 are still poorly understood. I will present our recent findings on the impact of changing the Pb-I bond length and Pb-I-Pb bond angle on the electronic structure of MAPbI3. By using the combination of temperature dependent X-ray scattering, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, absorbance and PL spectroscopy, we show that the energy levels of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) shift in the same direction as MAPbI3 goes through tetragonal-to-cubic structural phase transition wherein the rotational angle of PbI6 octahedra is the order parameter of the transition. Our experimental results are corroborated by density functional theory calculations which show that the lattice expansion and bond angle distortion cause different degree of orbital overlap between the Pb and I atoms and the anti-bonding orbital nature of both HOMO and LUMO results in the same direction of their shift. Moreover, through pair distribution function analysis of X-ray scattering, we discovered that the majority of MAPbI3 in thin film solar cell layer has highly disordered structure with a coherence range of only 1.4 nm. The nanostructuring correlates with a blueshift of the absorption onset and increases the photoluminescence. Our results underscore the importance of understanding the structure-property relationships in order to improve the device performance of metal-organic perovskites.

  17. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood levels and related factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, E. [Pediatrics Service, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Ballabriga, A.; Dominguez, C. [Centre d`Investigacions en Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Vall d`Hebron Hospitals, School of Medicine, Pediatrics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals` age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22{+-}0.011 {mu}mol/l (mean{+-}S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals` age (BPb=0.08+0.05xage; r=0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb>0.48 {mu}mol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve=0.5052, IC 95%=0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries

  18. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Montes Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when

  19. Low Blood Lead Levels and educational achievement in 7-8 year old children in the Community of Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez Iriarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead affects the behavioral and cognitive functions of children. The current lead safety level for avoiding these adverse effects is still controversial.Methods of study: A cross-sectional study included 511 children from 23 primary schools within the Comunidad de Madrid (the Madrid Region –including the city of Madrid and the large urban-industrial conurbation of satellite towns surrounding it, Spain. The children’s blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, the teachers completed an eight-item questionnaire about the children’s behavior and academic achievement. Parents filled in a self-completion survey about the sociodemographic variables of the children and the family.Results: The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL of the children was 4.1 μg/dL SD 1.6 μg/dL (log transformed 3.8 μg/dL SD 0.2 μg/dL. Multivariate analysis controlling for relevant sociodemographic cofactors (among others, sex, age and educational level of the parents showed a negative association, but this was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Despite the low blood lead levels found in the children of the Comunidad de Madrid (Spain and the design limitations of the study, the results obtained suggest the existence of a harmful, but not statistically significant, effect of blood lead on the behavior and academic achievement of children.

  20. Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children--the current concepts of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Marek

    2011-03-01

    Lead is an environmental contaminant. The majority of epidemiological research on the health effects of lead has been focused on children, because they are more vulnerable to lead than adults. In children, an elevated blood lead (B-Pb) is associated with reduced Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score. This paper summarizes the current opinions on the assessment of the health risk connected with the children's environmental exposure to lead. The B-Pb level of concern of 100 μg/l proposed by the US Centers of Disease Control in 1991 was for a long time accepted as the guideline value. In the meantime there has been a significant worldwide decrease of B-Pb levels in children and present geometric mean values in the European countries range from 20 to 30 μg/l. The recent analyses of the association of intelligence test scores and B-Pb levels have revealed that the steepest declines in IQ occur at blood levels Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded in 2010, on the basis of results of Benchmark Dose (BMD) analysis, that an increase in B-Pb of 12 μg/l (BMDL₀₁) could decrease the IQ score by one point. It seems that this value can be used as a "unit risk" to calculate the possible decrease of IQ and, consequently, influence of the low-level exposure to lead (< 100 μg/l) on the health and socioeconomic status of the exposed population.

  1. Lead Levels in Human Milk and Children’s Health Risk: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Koyashiki, Gina Ayumi Kobayashi; Paoliello,Monica Maria Bastos; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a naturally-occurring element and industrially-produced metal that is highly toxic to children, causing intellectual and behavioral deficits, hyperactivity, fine motor function deficits, decreased intelligence quotient, hand-eye coordination, and problems in reaction time. Children’s exposure to lead occurs mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, water and soil. Few discussions have been held on the magnitude and potential risk associated with exposure from the consumption of b...

  2. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from water.

  3. Association of Parkinson's disease with altered serum levels of lead and transition metals among South Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudini, Nadella; Uma, Addepally; Devi, Yalavarthy Prameela; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Mridula, Rukmini; Borgohain, Rupam; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between the Parkinson's disease (PD) and exposure to heavy metals, such as lead, iron, copper, manganese, etc. A growing body of evidence suggests that heavy metals stimulate free radical formation in the brain and can lead to neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated whether such association exists in PD cases from rural and urban areas in our study population. The plasma levels of copper, iron, manganese and lead in PD cases (n = 150) and controls (n = 170) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and correlated with the oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and total glutathione. Results indicated significant increase in the levels of copper (17.73 +/- 4.48 vs. 13.0 + 3.22 ng/ml) and iron (554.4 +/- 123.8 vs. 421.7 +/- 126.1 ng/ml) in PD cases compared to controls, whereas no significant differences in the levels of manganese and lead were observed. Further, the data based on urban or rural residence showed that plasma copper, iron, manganese levels were comparatively higher in rural subjects, whereas plasma lead levels were significantly higher in urban subjects. Increased plasma iron showed positive correlation with marker of lipid peroxidation (MDA), suggesting that increased iron levels induced oxidative stress in PD. These results substantiated the earlier observations about the role of environmental exposure and metal-induced oxidative stress in the etiology of PD.

  4. Evaluation of airborne lead levels in storage battery workshops and some welding environments in Kumasi metropolis in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartey, E; Adimado, A A; Agyarko, K

    2010-05-01

    Airborne lead levels were assessed in nine workshops, three each from battery, electronic repair, and welding sources within the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana. Samples were collected at 0, 2.5, and 5.0 m away from the emission source at the workshops during working hours and another at 5.0 m during break hours. Airborne lead particulates were collected and analyzed using the filter membrane technique and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. There were significant differences (p < or = 0.05) among the air lead levels from the workshops. Workshop 3b produced the highest significant values of air lead concentrations of 2,820.31 +/- 53.89, 2,406.74 +/- 71.87, 754.55 +/- 72.52, and 549.01 +/- 67.30 microg/m(3) at distances of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 5.0 m (break-time measurement), respectively, while workshop 1w significantly produced the lowest air lead concentration values of 261.06 +/- 21.60, 190.92 +/- 36.90, 86.43 +/- 16.26, and 61.05 +/- 3.88 microg/m(3) at distances of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 5.0 m (break-time measurement), respectively. The air lead levels reduced with distance from emission source at the workshops. At all the distances of measurement at working hours, the airborne lead levels were higher than the World Health Organization standard of 50 microg/m(3) and exceeded the threshold limit values of 100 to 150 microg/m(3) recommended in most jurisdictions. Workers and people in the immediate environs were exposed to air lead levels that were too high by most international standards, thus posing a serious threat to their health.

  5. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Han-Yueh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yen-Jean, Mei-Chu [Division of Family Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Taiwan, ROC 1, E-Da Rd., Jiau-Shu Tsuen, Yan-Chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Da-Shu Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jung-Der, E-mail: jdwang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC No. 1, Chang-Teh St., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2009-12-15

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 {mu}g/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p < 0.05 {approx} p < 0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 {mu}g/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  6. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States); Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Newhouse, Michael [NJ Meadowlands Commission, One DeKorte Park Plaza, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (United States); Jeitner, Christian [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mizrahi, David [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  7. Association of Tissue mRNA and Serum Antigen Levels of Members of the Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator System with Clinical and Prognostic Parameters in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Al-Janabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the mRNA expression and protein levels of uPA system components in tissue specimens and serum samples, respectively, from prostate cancer (PCa patients and to assess their association with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival (OS. The mRNA expression levels of uPA, its receptor (uPAR, and its inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 were analyzed in corresponding malignant and adjacent nonmalignant tissue specimens from 132 PCa patients by quantitative PCR. Preoperative serum samples from 81 PCa patients were analyzed for antigen levels of uPA system members by ELISA. RNA levels of uPA system components displayed significant correlations with each other in the tumor tissues. A significantly decreased uPA mRNA expression in PCa compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissue was detected. High uPA mRNA level was significantly associated with a high Gleason score. Elevated concentration of soluble uPAR (suPAR in serum was significantly associated with a poor OS of PCa patients (P=0.022. PCa patients with high suPAR levels have a significantly higher risk of death (multivariate Cox’s regression analysis; HR=7.12, P=0.027. The association of high suPAR levels with poor survival of PCa patients suggests a prognostic impact of suPAR levels in serum of cancer patients.

  8. Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Byun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF exposure to children's brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. METHODS: A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out.

  9. A Feasibility Study of Lead Free Solders for Level 1 Packaging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    the equilibrium calculations by Scheil solidification simulations and optimization. A feasibility study has been carried out for the replacement of high-lead-containing solders with the focus on surface tension, natural radius of curvature, oxidation resistance, intermetallic compound formation, and environmental...

  10. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K

    2011-04-15

    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  12. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanz Ana Leticia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg. High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20. Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI and the ER associated degradation (ERAD pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily indicating that potential

  13. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams.

  14. Lack of association of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase polymorphisms with blood lead levels and hemoglobin in Romanian women from a lead-contaminated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Unfried, Klaus; Ranft, Ulrich; Illig, Thomas; Kolz, Melanie; Mambetova, Chinara; Vlad, Mariana; Roman, Cecilia; Weiss, Tobias; Becker, Doreen; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2008-01-01

    As part of a project on environmental pollution, this study aimed to evaluate associations between blood lead (BPb) levels, hemoglobin (Hb) content, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene in 129 unrelated women from Romania. Five SNPs (rs1805313, rs2228083, rs1805312, rs1800435, rs1139488) were analyzed with respect to haplotype structure and impact on BPb levels and Hb content with proportional odds and analysis of covariance models. Combinations of SNPs were rare (16%). Low haplotype diversity was found with seven haplotypes. One rare haplotype implied the C allele of rs1800435, often referred to as the ALAD2 allele (frequency 8.6%). The putative risk genotype (CC) occurred in only one woman with BPb below 0.5 microg/dl. Median BPb was 4.8 microg/dl and differed markedly by community with a level of 12.5 microg/dl near a mining-spill region. Hb was regular (interquartile range 12.3-13.7 g/dl) and not correlated with BPb, although quantitatively lower in women living near the spill region. No significant associations were found for BPb or Hb with SNPs, haplotypes, or diplotypes. BPb levels were higher in this region than in populations from industrialized countries but without hematotoxic effects. An impact of ALAD2 on BPb or Hb was not seen in these women.

  15. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  16. Association of Blood and Semen Lead and Zinc Level with Semen Parameter in the Male Partner of Infertile Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Hossain, M M; Rahman, D; Rahman, M W; Mugni, C R; Sumon, G M; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N

    2015-07-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in Center for Assisted Reproduction, Dhaka, and in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to December 2012. The study population was 71 consecutive male partners of infertile couple suffering from at least one year of infertility. Lead and Zinc level was measured in blood and semen in the male partner of infertile couple and compared with semen parameters. Serum zinc at different values did not show any statistically significant change in semen volume, total count of sperm and total motility of sperm. At serum zinc level 80-sperm (54.00 ± 46.67 million/ml) but was not statistically significant. Rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology was also highest at values 80-zinc level > 90 μg/dl semen lead level was significantly higher (120.73 ± 58.02 μg/dl) and showed statistically significant decrease in rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology. Total count of sperm was lowest at blood zinc level of 70-Sperm morphology also showed statistically significant improvement at Serum zinc values of 80-zinc level of values 80-zinc levels higher as well as lower than values 80-< 90 μg/dl was associated with increased semen lead values and with negative impact on semen parameters.

  17. Expressing Redundancy among Linear-Epitope Sequence Data Based on Residue-Level Physicochemical Similarity in the Context of Antigenic Cross-Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Eugenio C. Caoili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitope-based design of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and immunodiagnostics is complicated by structural changes that radically alter immunological outcomes. This is obscured by expressing redundancy among linear-epitope data as fractional sequence-alignment identity, which fails to account for potentially drastic loss of binding affinity due to single-residue substitutions even where these might be considered conservative in the context of classical sequence analysis. From the perspective of immune function based on molecular recognition of epitopes, functional redundancy of epitope data (FRED thus may be defined in a biologically more meaningful way based on residue-level physicochemical similarity in the context of antigenic cross-reaction, with functional similarity between epitopes expressed as the Shannon information entropy for differential epitope binding. Such similarity may be estimated in terms of structural differences between an immunogen epitope and an antigen epitope with reference to an idealized binding site of high complementarity to the immunogen epitope, by analogy between protein folding and ligand-receptor binding; but this underestimates potential for cross-reactivity, suggesting that epitope-binding site complementarity is typically suboptimal as regards immunologic specificity. The apparently suboptimal complementarity may reflect a tradeoff to attain optimal immune function that favors generation of immune-system components each having potential for cross-reactivity with a variety of epitopes.

  18. Parasitic infection leads to decline in hemolymph sugar levels in honeybee foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayack, Christopher; Naug, Dhruba

    2010-11-01

    Parasites by drawing nutrition from their hosts can exert an energetic stress on them. Honeybee foragers with their high metabolic demand due to flight are especially prone to such a stress when they are infected. We hypothesized that infection by the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema ceranae can lower the hemolymph sugar level of an individual forager and uncouple its energetic state from its normally tight correlation with the colony energetic state. We support our hypothesis by showing that free-flying foragers that are infected have lower trehalose levels than uninfected ones but the two do not differ in their trehalose levels when fed until satiation. The trehalose level of infected bees was also found to decline at a faster rate while their glucose level is maintained at a quantity comparable to uninfected bees. These results suggest that infected foragers have lower flying ability and the intriguing possibility that the carbohydrate levels of an individual bee can act as a modulator of its foraging behavior, independent of social cues such as colony demand for nectar. We discuss the importance of such pathophysiological changes on foraging behavior in the context of the recently observed colony collapses.

  19. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai ZX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  20. Persistent increase of blood lead level and suppression of δ-ALAD activity in northern bobwhite quail orally dosed with even a single 2-mm spent lead shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, S D; Kerr, R; Holladay, J P; Meldrum, B; Williams, S M; Gogal, R M

    2012-10-01

    Birds that display grit ingestion behavior are potentially at risk of lead (Pb) poisoning from mistaken ingestion of spent Pb shot pellets. The majority of available studies designed to assess such risk have used unspent shot pellets rather than field-obtained spent shot, which is oxidized and otherwise changed by weathering. Available studies also often administered more or heavier shot pellets to a bird than it might be expected to ingest. The current study dosed northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) weighing 194.6 ± 23.1 g (female birds) and 199.3 ± 12.2 g (male birds) with one to three spent no. 9 Pb shot collected from a skeet range, with particular interest in the toxicity that may occur from ingestion of a single 2-mm, 50 mg shot. An 8 week post-dosing clinical observation period was employed, over which feed consumption, body weight, blood Pb levels, and a battery of blood physiological parameters were made. Weight loss occurred in the birds, including male birds dosed with one Pb pellet. Erythrocyte delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) levels were decreased for the duration of the study across exposures and to levels associated with injury in wild bird populations. Decreased ALAD was particularly severe in female birds dosed with one Pb pellet and was still 92 % decreased at 8 weeks after dosing. Together, these results suggest that inadvertent ingestion of a single no. 9 Pb shot pellet can adversely affect the health of northern bobwhite quail.

  1. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  2. Fragile X and autism : intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hoem, Gry

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (>200 repeats) in the 5’ un-translated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of a number of other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) occurs in an additio...

  3. Serum heat shock protein 27 antigen and antibody levels appear to be related to the macrovascular complications associated with insulin resistance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burut, Dayangku Fatiha Pengiran; Borai, Anwar; Livingstone, Callum; Ferns, Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is over-expressed when cells are exposed to stressful conditions that include oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and insulin resistance. We have investigated the concentrations of serum Hsp27 antigen and antibodies in subjects from different glycaemic categories, who either did or did not have established CVD. Serum Hsp27 antigen and antibody levels (immunoglobulins M and G (IgM and IgG)) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in 68 individuals: 26 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 10 with (+) and 16 without (-) a history of CVD and 42 individuals with varying degrees of glucose intolerance (GI; 21 with and 21 without a history of CVD). Insulin sensitivity was determined in each subject using indices derived from the homeostasis model assessment of sensitivity and the insulin sensitivity index for glycaemia. Serum Hsp27 concentrations were significantly higher in GI (+CVD) subjects compared to GI (-CVD) subjects (p = 0.03), NGT (-CVD) subjects (p = 0.02) and NGT (+CVD) subjects (p = 0.04) and were positively correlated to fasting plasma glucose for all subjects (r = 0.28, p = 0.03). IgM antibody levels were significantly higher in GI (+CVD) subjects compared to NGT (-CVD) group (p = 0.02) and were inversely related to fasting insulin concentrations (r = -0.27, p = 0.04) and the 2-h insulin concentrations (r = -0.29, p = 0.03) for all subjects. Serum IgG antibody levels were higher in GI (+CVD) group compared to GI (-CVD) group (p = 0.06). In conclusion, Hsp27 and its antibody concentrations appear to relate to the presence of cardiovascular complications in patients with GI.

  4. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  5. 76 FR 61704 - Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on the Health Effects of Low-Level Lead; Request for Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on the Health Effects of Low- Level Lead; Request for Comments; Announcement of a Panel Meeting to Peer Review Draft Monograph AGENCY: Division of the National... of Health. ACTION: Availability of Draft NTP Monograph; Request for Comments; Announcement of a...

  6. Selected Morphological Characteristics, Lead Uptake and Phytochelatin Synthesis by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf. Grown in Elevated Levels of Lead-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. T. Begonia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb, and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted.

  7. Selected morphological characteristics, lead uptake and phytochelatin synthesis by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.) grown in elevated levels of lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria F T

    2011-06-01

    Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb), and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods) were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted.

  8. On Fermi level pinning in the alloys based on the lead telluride doped with gallium

    CERN Document Server

    Skipetrov, E P; Skipetrova, L A; Volkova, O S; Slynko, E I

    2002-01-01

    Effect of doping with gallium and fast electron irradiation on the galvanomagnetic properties of n-Pb sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x Te (0.04 <= x <= 0.06) alloys is investigated. The transformations the metal-type conductivity are obtained both by increasing the impurity content and under the electron irradiation. The conclusion has been drawn that Fermi level pinning by the impurity level does not take place while the doping with gallium as well as the electron irradiation may serve as effective mutually complementary tools for modifying of electrical properties of alloys

  9. Pre-treatment levels of C-reactive protein and squamous cell carcinoma antigen for predicting the aggressiveness of pharyngolaryngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ho Chen

    Full Text Available The levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag and C-reactive protein (CRP can be used to predict tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, staging and survival in patients with oral cavity cancer. The present study analyzed the relationship between pre-treatment levels of SCC-Ag and CRP in relation to clinicopathological factors in patients with pharyngolaryngeal cancer (PLC and determined whether elevated levels of CRP and SCC-Ag were associated with tumor metabolic activity via [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. We retrospectively recruited one hundred and six PLC patients between June 2008 and December 2011. All patients received computed tomography (CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and FDG-PET staging analyses, and the serum levels of SCC-Ag and CRP in these patients were measured prior to treatment. A SCC-Ag level ≥2.0 ng/ml and a CRP level ≥5.0 mg/L were significantly associated with clinical stage (P<0.001, clinical tumor status (P<0.001, and clinical nodal status (P<0.001. The elevation of both SCC-Ag and CRP levels was correlated with the standardized uptake value (SUV max of the tumor (≥8.6 mg/L and lymph nodes (≥5.7 ng/ml (P = 0.019. The present study demonstrated that the presence of high levels of both pre-treatment SCC-Ag and CRP acts as a predictor of clinical stage, clinical tumor status, and clinical nodal status in patients with PLC. Moreover, elevated levels of SCC-Ag and CRP were associated with a high metabolic rate as well as the proliferative activity measured according to the SUVmax of the tumor and lymph nodes. Therefore, elevated levels of these two factors have the potential to serve as biomarkers for the prediction of tumor aggressiveness in cases of PLC.

  10. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  11. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: an alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Novak, A.J.; Seidl, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some

  12. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Tahir; Shaheen Farhat; Mahmud Madiha; Waheed Hina; Ishtiaq Muhammad; Javed Qamar; Murtaza Iram

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC). Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administrati...

  13. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Eric W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63. Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50 but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers.

  14. Fragile X and autism: Intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Randi; Hoem, Gry; Hagerman, Paul

    2010-09-21

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (> 200 repeats) in the 5' untranslated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of several other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) occurs in an additional 30% of cases. Premutation repeat expansions (55 to 200 CGG repeats) may also give rise to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including both autism and PDD-NOS, through a different molecular mechanism that involves a direct toxic effect of the expanded CGG repeat FMR1 mRNA. RNA toxicity can also lead to aging effects including tremor, ataxia and cognitive decline, termed fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), in premutation carriers in late life. In studies of mice bearing premutation expansions, there is evidence of early postnatal neuronal cell toxicity, presenting as reduced cell longevity, decreased dendritic arborization and altered synaptic morphology. There is also evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in premutation carriers. Many of the problems with cellular dysregulation in both premutation and full mutation neurons also parallel the cellular abnormalities that have been documented in autism without fragile X mutations. Research regarding dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems in FXS, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)1/5 pathway and γ aminobutyric acid (GABA)A pathways, have led to new targeted treatments for FXS. Preliminary evidence suggests that these new targeted treatments will also be beneficial in non-fragile X forms of autism.

  15. Fragile X and autism: Intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagerman Randi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (> 200 repeats in the 5' untranslated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1, leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of several other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS occurs in an additional 30% of cases. Premutation repeat expansions (55 to 200 CGG repeats may also give rise to autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including both autism and PDD-NOS, through a different molecular mechanism that involves a direct toxic effect of the expanded CGG repeat FMR1 mRNA. RNA toxicity can also lead to aging effects including tremor, ataxia and cognitive decline, termed fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, in premutation carriers in late life. In studies of mice bearing premutation expansions, there is evidence of early postnatal neuronal cell toxicity, presenting as reduced cell longevity, decreased dendritic arborization and altered synaptic morphology. There is also evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in premutation carriers. Many of the problems with cellular dysregulation in both premutation and full mutation neurons also parallel the cellular abnormalities that have been documented in autism without fragile X mutations. Research regarding dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems in FXS, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5 pathway and γ aminobutyric acid (GABAA pathways, have led to new targeted treatments for FXS. Preliminary evidence suggests that these new targeted treatments will also be beneficial in non-fragile X forms of autism.

  16. Characterization of O-antigen delivered by Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) vaccine candidates against nontyphoidal Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetto, G; Alfini, R; Cescutti, P; Caboni, M; Lanzilao, L; Necchi, F; Saul, A; MacLennan, C A; Rondini, S; Micoli, F

    2017-01-11

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease (iNTS) is a leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa. The most common pathogens are Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The O-antigen portion of their lipopolysaccharide is a target of protective immunity and vaccines targeting O-antigen are currently in development. Here we investigate the use of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) as delivery system for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis O-antigen. Gram-negative bacteria naturally shed outer membrane in a blebbing process. By deletion of the tolR gene, the level of shedding was greatly enhanced. Further genetic modifications were introduced into the GMMA-producing strains in order to reduce reactogenicity, by detoxifying the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. We found that genetic mutations can impact on expression of O-antigen chains. All S. Enteritidis GMMA characterized had an O-antigen to protein w/w ratio higher than 0.6, while the ratio was 0.7 for S. Typhimurium ΔtolR GMMA, but decreased to less than 0.1 when further mutations for lipid A detoxification were introduced. Changes were also observed in O-antigen chain length and level and/or position of O-acetylation. When tested in mice, the GMMA induced high levels of anti-O-antigen-specific IgG functional antibodies, despite variation in density and O-antigen structural modifications. In conclusion, simplicity of manufacturing process and low costs of production, coupled with encouraging immunogenicity data, make GMMA an attractive strategy to further investigate for the development of a vaccine against iNTS.

  17. Temporal changes of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in ground level air in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs activity concentrations in ground level air at five monitoring stations (MS Vinča, Zeleno Brdo, Zaječar, Vranje and Zlatibor in Serbia were determined during the period from May 2011. to September 2012., as part of the project monitoring of Serbia. Activity of the radionuclides in air was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 20 % by standard gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be, ranged from 1.5 to 8.8 mBq m-3 and exhibit maxima in the spring/summer period. The maximum concentrations for 210Pb were generally obtained in the fall for all investigated locations, and concentrations were in range 3.6 - 30 × 10-4 Bq m-3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air, during the observed period, were at level 0.3 - 8 μBq m-3. The variations in 7Be/210Pb activity ratio for the investigated stations are also presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  18. Low blood lead level effects on intelligence: can a dose-response curve be determined from the epidemiological data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, W; Kahn, C M

    2014-02-01

    CONTEXT. Recent publications have graphically demonstrated a curvilinear relationship between measures of intelligence and blood lead levels at low concentrations (dose-response curves. METHODS. Random data based on varied distributions were constructed to simulate a previous study using a single, randomly generated covariate income (Inc) to demonstrate the impact of normally versus exponentially distributed data on the shape of the graph of intelligence quotient (IQ) versus blood lead. We also used an existing database of US blood lead levels and constructed a similar model of income and IQ using both assumptions of distribution for the intermediate variable income. RESULTS. When both lead and income are exponentially distributed, the graph of lead and IQ will be a curve. CONCLUSION. The apparent shape of a dose-response relationship from simulated epidemiological data is nonlinear when one variable and a covariate are exponentially distributed. A non-linear biological relationship should not be assumed and in fact may be the least likely explanation. The use of observational epidemiological data to discern a dose-response relationship between two variables may be misleading.

  19. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R

    2014-07-03

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 μg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology.

  20. Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in Utero to low levels of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Sloman, J. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Wheelock College, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 {mu}g/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics.

  1. Temperature Dependence of the Energy Levels of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite from First-Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Wissam A; Poncé, Samuel; Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-12-15

    Environmental effects and intrinsic energy-loss processes lead to fluctuations in the operational temperature of solar cells, which can profoundly influence their power conversion efficiency. Here we determine from first-principles the effects of temperature on the band gap and band edges of the hybrid pervoskite CH3NH3PbI3 by accounting for electron-phonon coupling and thermal expansion. From 290 to 380 K, the computed band gap change of 40 meV coincides with the experimental change of 30-40 meV. The calculation of electron-phonon coupling in CH3NH3PbI3 is particularly intricate as the commonly used Allen-Heine-Cardona theory overestimates the band gap change with temperature, and excellent agreement with experiment is only obtained when including high-order terms in the electron-phonon interaction. We also find that spin-orbit coupling enhances the electron-phonon coupling strength but that the inclusion of nonlocal correlations using hybrid functionals has little effect. We reach similar conclusions in the metal-halide perovskite CsPbI3. Our results unambiguously confirm for the first time the importance of high-order terms in the electron-phonon coupling by direct comparison with experiment.

  2. Risk factors associated with the blood lead levels of children in the Community of Madrid in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez-Iriarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a toxic element for humans, with children being the most vulnerable population.Objective: To find out the risk factors associated to the existing blood lead levels (BLLs of children in the Community of Madrid, after 9 years of lead being banned in gasoline.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 with a sample of 85 children, less than 15 years of age, recruited via the outpatients’ service of the Pediatrics Department of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos in Madrid. Routine blood tests provided the opportunity for determining other blood parameters. Lead levels were measured using electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with the Zeeman-effect background correction. In addition, a survey was undertaken directed to the parents for gathering information about a series of socioeconomic and environmental variables.Results: The arithmetic mean of the BLLs in the children was 1.1 μg/dL (SD=0.7 μg/dL with a range from 0.1 μg/dL to 3.4 μg/dL. The geometric mean was 0.9 μg/dL (SD= 1.1 μg/dL. The risk factors associated to these BLLs are the following: playing in the street; low educational level of the parents; leisure activities of one of the parents linked to lead; tobacco smoking of the father; and drinking tap water.Conclusions: The BLLs of the children in the Community of Madrid have decreased, but there are still sociodemographic and environmental risk factors associated to the present levels.

  3. Dose-response association between hepatitis B surface antigen levels and liver cancer risk in Chinese men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yu-Ting; Rothman, Nat; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the risk of liver cancer in different levels of HBsAg among Chinese men and women. We carried out a nested case-control study including 363 cases and 3,511 controls in two population-based cohorts in Shanghai. Plasma samples collected at enrollment were quantified for HBsAg levels using the Architect QT assay. Conditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for liver cancer, with adjustment for potential confounders. HBsAg was detected in 6.29% of control subjects overall (7.02% in men and 4.98% in women). HBsAg levels were positively associated with liver cancer risk in a dose-response manner (Ptrend<0.001). Such association showed a significant gender disparity. With increasing levels of HBsAg, liver cancer risks rose more steeply in men than in women. In men, the adjusted ORs increased from 7.27 (95%CI: 3.49–15.15) at the lowest detectable level of HBsAg (5–9 IU/ml) to 7.16 (95%CI: 3.21–15.96), 34.30 (95%CI: 16.94–69.44), and 47.33 (95%CI: 23.50–95.34) at the highest level of HBsAg (≥1,000 IU/ml) compared to those negative for HBsAg. The corresponding ORs were much lower for women, from 1.37 (95%CI: 0.25–7.47) to 3.81 (95%CI: 1.09–13.28), 7.36 (95%CI: 2.41–22.46), and 16.86 (95%CI: 7.24–39.27), respectively. HBsAg quantification has potential to distinguish individuals at different risks of liver cancer. Men with the lowest detectable level of HBsAg should still pay attention to their liver cancer risks, but those with a higher level may be given a higher priority in future liver cancer surveillance program. PMID:26990915

  4. Understanding of the formation of shallow level defects from the intrinsic defects of lead tri-halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongseob; Chung, Choong-Heui; Hong, Ki-Ha

    2016-10-05

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have unique electronic properties in which deep level defects are rarely formed. This unique defect characteristic is the source of the long carrier diffusion length. This theoretical study shows what causes this characteristic formation of shallow level defects in lead tri-halide perovskites. Comparative studies between iodides and other halides showed that deep level defect states were generated for Cl based perovskites. Longer Pb-halide bond lengths and narrower band gaps are beneficial for preventing deep level defect states. Additionally, our study shows that the formation of shallow level defects does not change even when the lattice structures of the perovskites do not reach their equilibrium structures.

  5. Association of maternal and child blood lead and hemoglobin levels with maternal perceptions of parenting their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Cook, Casey A; Queirolo, Elena I

    2011-12-01

    Biological and psychosocial factors affect child development and behavior. Whereas biological underpinnings behind the neurotoxic effects of lead are studied extensively, the effects of psychosocial factors contributing to poor behavioral outcomes in lead-exposed children are not well understood. Parental attributes and practices may moderate or mediate the effects of lead on children's behavioral outcomes. We investigated the hypothesis that maternal and child lead and hemoglobin levels are associated with maternal perceptions of their parenting. Specifically, we hypothesized that children with higher blood lead (BLL) and lower hemoglobin concentrations would be associated with poorer maternal self-assessments of their parenting skills or the mother-child relationship. Children aged 13-55 months and their mothers (n=109) were recruited from among the participants of a previous lead and anemia screening study and from preschools in Montevideo, Uruguay. The mother-child pair attended two study visits: one to collect biological samples and answer demographic and child questionnaires, including statements regarding parenting; and a second to evaluate maternal IQ, depression and stress, and child development. Of the children, 51.6% had blood lead concentrations (BLLs) ≥ 5 μg/dL, 18.0% had anemia, and 8% had both conditions. Among mothers, 48.4% had BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL, 16.0% had anemia, and 11% had both. BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL in mother or child were associated with lower maternal perceptions of being skilled at discipline (pchildren explore and play (pparenting and family interactions need to be considered as potentially contributing factors to poorer outcomes in lead-exposed children.

  6. Potential Association of Lead Exposure During Early Development of Mice With Alteration of Hippocampus Nitric Oxide Levels and Learning Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI SUN; ZHENG-YAN ZHAO; JIAN HU; XIE-LAI ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Objective Chronic lead (Pb) exposure during development is known to produce learning deficits. Nitric oxide participates in the synaptic mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. This study was designed to clarify whether Pb-induced impairment in learning and memory was associated with the changes of nitric oxide levels in mice brains.Methods Sixty Balb/c mice aged 10 days were chosen. A model of lead exposure was established by drinking 0.025%, 0.05%,0.075% lead acetate, respectively for 8 weeks. The controls were orally given distilled water. The ability to learn and memorize was examined by open field test, T-water maze test. In parallel with the behavioral data, NO level of hippocampus tissue was detected by biochemical assay. Results Compared with control groups, (1) the weight of 0.075% group was significantly reduced (P<0.05); (2) The number of times in mice attaining the required standards in T-water maze test was lower in 0.075%group (P<0.01). No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in open field test (P>0.05); (3)NO level of mouse hippocampus tissue was decreased in 0.075% group (P<0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that decreased hippocampus NO level may contribute to the Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory processes.

  7. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader.

  8. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Novak, Andreas J.; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure’s actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027

  9. Serdemetan antagonizes the Mdm2-HIF1α axis leading to decreased levels of glycolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Lehman

    Full Text Available Serdemetan (JNJ-26854165, an antagonist to Mdm2, was anticipated to promote the activation of p53. While regulation of p53 by Mdm2 is important, Mdm2 also regulates numerous proteins involved in diverse cellular functions. We investigated if Serdemetan would alter the Mdm2-HIF1α axis and affect cell survival in human glioblastoma cells independently of p53. Treatment of cells with Serdemetan under hypoxia resulted in a decrease in HIF1α levels. HIF1α downstream targets, VEGF and the glycolytic enzymes (enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase1/2, and glucose transporter 1, were all decreased in response to Serdemetan. The involvement of Mdm2 in regulating gene expression of glycolytic enzymes raises the possibility of side effects associated with therapeutically targeting Mdm2.

  10. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gokhan Doluoglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure, history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. Results In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2% patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7% patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5–20.0 ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6–20.0 ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67. The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9% patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6% patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32. Conclusions Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa.

  11. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. Results In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Conclusions Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa. PMID:27256190

  12. Cell surface expression level variation between two common Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles, HLA-A2 and HLA-B8, is dependent on the structure of the C terminal part of the alpha 2 and the alpha 3 domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellgren, Christoffer; Nehlin, Jan O; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive cell surface expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I antigens vary extremely from tissue to tissue and individual antigens may differ widely in expression levels. Down-regulation of class I expression is a known immune evasive mechanism used by cancer cells and viruses....... Moreover, recent observations suggest that even minor differences in expression levels may influence the course of viral infections and the frequency of complications to stem cell transplantation. We have shown that some human multipotent stem cells have high expression of HLA-A while HLA-B is only weakly...... expressed, and demonstrate here that this is also the case for the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T. Using quantitative flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction we found expression levels of endogenous HLA-A3 (median 71,204 molecules per cell) 9.2-fold higher than the expression of...

  13. 低浓度铅对微循环的影响%EFECTS OF LOW LEVEL LEAD ON MICROCIRCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮素云; 华燕; 沈红; 陈良; 秦逸秋

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨低浓度铅影响血压和血红蛋白的可能机制及其影响微循环的作用方式。方法采用钙细胞化学定位及电子探针-X射线能量色散分析,观察大鼠饮用含铅水30mg/L三个月后,血铅浓度与脑微循环中红细胞形态、结构及钙分布的关系。结果铅染毒组,钙在微血管内、外二侧及红细胞质膜内侧聚积,同时电子探针能量色散谱分析显示:铅染毒组,血管腔外钙反应颗粒中出现明显铅峰。结论血铅浓度在100μg/L左右即可影响血液及循环系统,其作用方式与铅引起的钙分布异常有关。%Objective To explore toxic effects of low level lead on blood pressure and hemoglobin(Hb) as well as microcirculation. Methods Rats were fed with drinking water containing 30mg/L lead for three months. Calcium cytochemistry and electron probe-energy dispersive X-ray(EDX) analysis was used to observe the relations between blood lead levels and calcium distribution in red blood cells and microcirculation. Results In 30mg/L lead treated group calcicum granules were accumulated in bilateral sides of microvessels and plasmalemma endosurface of red blood cells. Meanwhile EDX analysis showed that an obvious peak of lead appeared in calcium granules of outer side of microvessels in rats treated with lead. Conclusion Lead affected blood and circulatory system when blood lead level was about 100μg/L. Its mechanism is related with the changes of calcium distribution.

  14. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Deviating the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in Trypanosoma brucei elicits distinct mechanisms for inhibiting proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, Ana L; Ramsey, Aaron C; Mackey, Zachary B

    2015-01-01

    The DNA replication machinery is spatially and temporally coordinated in all cells to reproduce a single exact copy of the genome per division, but its regulation in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is not well characterized. We characterized the effects of altering the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a key component of the DNA replication machinery, in bloodstream form T. brucei. This study demonstrated that tight regulation of TbPCNA levels was critical for normal proliferation and DNA replication in the parasite. Depleting TbPCNA mRNA reduced proliferation, severely diminished DNA replication, arrested the synthesis of new DNA and caused the parasites to accumulated in G2/M. Attenuating the parasite by downregulating TbPCNA caused it to become hypersensitive to hydroxyurea. Overexpressing TbPCNA in T. brucei arrested proliferation, inhibited DNA replication and prevented the parasite from exiting G2/M. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms of cell cycle arrest are associated with upregulating or downregulating TbPCNA. The findings of this study validate deregulating intra-parasite levels of TbPCNA as a potential strategy for therapeutically exploiting this target in bloodstream form T. brucei.

  16. Low-level lead exposure increases systolic arterial pressure and endothelium-derived vasodilator factors in rat aortas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonaina Fiorim

    Full Text Available Chronic lead exposure induces hypertension and alters endothelial function. However, treatment with low lead concentrations was not yet explored. We analyzed the effects of 7 day exposure to low lead concentrations on endothelium-dependent responses. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 µg/100 g, subsequent dose 0.05 µg/100 g, i.m. to cover daily loss or vehicle; blood levels attained at the end of treatment were 9.98 µg/dL. Lead treatment had the following effects: increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP; reduction of contractile response to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 µM of aortic rings; unaffected relaxation induced by acetylcholine (0.1 nM-300 µM or sodium nitroprusside (0.01 nM-0.3 µM. Endothelium removal, N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM and tetraethylammonium (2 mM increased the response to phenylephrine in treated rats more than in untreated rats. Aminoguanidine (50 µM increased but losartan (10 µM and enalapril (10 µM reduced the response to phenylephrine in treated rats. Lead treatment also increased aortic Na(+/K(+-ATPase functional activity, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity, protein expression of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase alpha-1 subunit, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Our results suggest that on initial stages of lead exposure, increased SBP is caused by the increase in plasma ACE activity. This effect is accompanied by increased p-eNOS, iNOS protein expression and Na(+/K(+-ATPase functional activity. These factors might be a compensatory mechanism to the increase in SBP.

  17. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer.After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117-0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48-2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls.Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal.

  18. Contribution of allelic variability in prostate specific antigen (PSA & androgen receptor (AR genes to serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant V Chavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer. Methods: Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques. Results: A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (P<0.001 in the proximal promoter region and -3845G/A (P<0.001 in enhancer region showed significant association with serum PSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (P<0.001 at both of these polymorphic sites showed higher expression of PSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (P<0.001 carriers demonstrated lower PSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression.

  19. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00–59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  20. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J; Laine, Marja L; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent.

  1. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  2. Lymphoma Remissions Caused by Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Are Associated With High Serum Interleukin-15 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochenderfer, James N; Somerville, Robert P T; Lu, Tangying; Shi, Victoria; Bot, Adrian; Rossi, John; Xue, Allen; Goff, Stephanie L; Yang, James C; Sherry, Richard M; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Kammula, Udai S; Sherman, Marika; Perez, Arianne; Yuan, Constance M; Feldman, Tatyana; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Roschewski, Mark J; Feldman, Steven A; McIntyre, Lori; Toomey, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2017-03-14

    Purpose T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 (CAR-19) have potent activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but fewer results supporting treatment of lymphoma with CAR-19 T cells have been published. Patients with lymphoma that is chemotherapy refractory or relapsed after autologous stem-cell transplantation have a grim prognosis, and new treatments for these patients are clearly needed. Chemotherapy administered before adoptive T-cell transfer has been shown to enhance the antimalignancy activity of adoptively transferred T cells. Patients and Methods We treated 22 patients with advanced-stage lymphoma in a clinical trial of CAR-19 T cells preceded by low-dose chemotherapy. Nineteen patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, two patients had follicular lymphoma, and one patient had mantle cell lymphoma. Patients received a single dose of CAR-19 T cells 2 days after a low-dose chemotherapy conditioning regimen of cyclophosphamide plus fludarabine. Results The overall remission rate was 73% with 55% complete remissions and 18% partial remissions. Eleven of 12 complete remissions are ongoing. Fifty-five percent of patients had grade 3 or 4 neurologic toxicities that completely resolved. The low-dose chemotherapy conditioning regimen depleted blood lymphocytes and increased serum interleukin-15 (IL-15). Patients who achieved a remission had a median peak blood CAR(+) cell level of 98/μL and those who did not achieve a remission had a median peak blood CAR(+) cell level of 15/μL ( P = .027). High serum IL-15 levels were associated with high peak blood CAR(+) cell levels ( P = .001) and remissions of lymphoma ( P < .001). Conclusion CAR-19 T cells preceded by low-dose chemotherapy induced remission of advanced-stage lymphoma, and high serum IL-15 levels were associated with the effectiveness of this treatment regimen. CAR-19 T cells will likely become an important treatment for patients with relapsed lymphoma.

  3. Prostate cancer detection upon transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen level: what to expect in the Chinese population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate cancer detection rates upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and risk factors of prostate cancer detection in the Chinese population. Data from all consecutive Chinese men who underwent first TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from year 2000 to 2013 was retrieved from our database. The prostate cancer detection rates with reference to DRE finding and PSA level of 50 ng ml−1 were investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate for potential risk factors of prostate cancer detection. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. In patients with normal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 8.6%, 13.4%, 21.8%, 41.7% and 85.2% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. In patients with abnormal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 12.4%, 30.2%, 52.7%, 80.6% and 96.4% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. Older age, smaller prostate volume, larger number of biopsy cores, presence of abnormal DRE finding and higher PSA level were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer detection upon multivariate logistic regression analyses (P < 0.001. Chinese men appeared to have lower prostate cancer detection rates when compared to the Western population. Taking the different risk factors into account, an individualized approach to the decision of TRUS-guided biopsy can be adopted.

  4. Digital rectal examination (DRE does not influence total serum levels of prostate specific antigen (tPSA, in individuals without prostate pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de F. Figueirêdo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the digital rectal examination (DRE performed before determination of total serum prostate specific antigen (tPSA influences the levels of this protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight men without a diagnosis of prostate pathology were assessed for tPSA levels, before and 30 minutes after DRE examination. Values of tPSA in the individuals' serum were measured by the electrochemoluminescence (ECLIA, in Roche's Elecys 1010 analyzer. RESULTS: DRE examination induced a modest elevation in tPSA values in 34 of the 48 men, with a variation in mean elevation from 2.19% in the age range ³ 70 years to 11.96% in the age range of 60-69 years. Additionally, moderate decreases in values were detected in 11 individuals and 3 did not present any alteration following the procedure. Differences in mean values of tPSA, pre- and post-DRE were not statistically significant, neither in the total sample of individuals or in the age range groups. CONCLUSION: DRE examination does not significantly influence the tPSA values in individuals under study.

  5. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  6. Influences of phosphate nutritional level on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium and lead in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su; SUN Tie-heng; SUN Li-na; ZHOU Qi-xing; CHAO Lei

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the influence of phosphate levels on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) in soil. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was selected as the tested plant. There were 5phosphate fertilizer(Ca(H2PO4)2) levels including 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg P2O5/kg soil, marked by P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4, respecby TI, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that the P fertilizer promoted the dry weight of wheat in all treatments and alleviated the contamination induced by Cd and Pb. With increasing levels of the additional P fertilizer, Cd concentration in different parts (root, haulm, chaffand grain) of wheat decreased at the P1 level at first and then increased. The soluble plus exchangeable (SE)fraction of Cd in soil decreased at the P1 level and then increased from P2 to P4 levels. The moderate P fertilizer reduced the phytoavailability of Cd. The application of P could obviously restrain the uptake of Pb by wheat and there were significantly negative correlations between the levels of P and the uptake of Pb. Phosphorus supply resulted in a decrease in the SE fraction of Pb and there was a significantly negative correlation between the levels of P and the SE fraction of Pb in soil. All the levels of the P fertilizer in this experiment could reduce the phytoavailability of Pb. Thus, it is feasible to apply the P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2) to Pb contaminated soils.However, the levels of P application should be restricted in case that redundant P may increase the phytoavailability of Cd.

  7. A binderless, covalently bulk modified electrochemical sensor: Application to simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium at trace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunigollahalli Kempegowda, Raghu [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India); Malingappa, Pandurangappa, E-mail: mprangachem@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed sensor is a new type of binderless covalent bulk modified electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface can be easily renewed by simple mechanical polishing using emery sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free from modifier leaching during electrochemical measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides long term storage stability with good reproducibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanomolar level detection limit achieved with selectivity. - Abstract: A new type of covalent binderless bulk modified electrode has been fabricated and used in the simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium ions at nanomolar level. The modification of graphitic carbon with 4-amino salicylic acid was carried out under microwave irradiation through the amide bond formation. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated electrode has been carried out to decipher the interacting ability of the functional moieties present on the modifier molecules toward the simultaneous determination of Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The possible mode of interaction of functional groups with metal ions is proposed based on the pKa values of the modifier functionalities present on the surface of graphitic carbon particles. The analytical utility of the proposed sensor has been validated by measuring the lead and cadmium content from pretreated waste water samples of lead acid batteries.

  8. High Programmed Death-1 levels on HCV specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral persistence and require preservation of cognate antigen during chronic infection1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Ray, Stuart C.; Astemborski, Jacquie; Levine, Jordana; Liu, Lin; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Clute, Shalyn; Wang, Changyu; Korman, Alan; Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Pardoll, Drew M.; Cox, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    HCV is an important human pathogen that represents a model for chronic infection since the majority of infected individuals fail to clear the infection despite generation of virus-specific T cell responses during the period of acute infection. While viral sequence evolution at targeted MHC class I restricted epitopes represents one mechanism for immune escape in HCV, many targeted epitopes remain intact under circumstances of viral persistence. In order to explore alternative mechanisms of HCV immune evasion, we analyzed patterns of expression of a major inhibitory receptor on T cells, programmed death-1 (PD-1), from the time of initial infection and correlated these with HCV RNA levels, outcome of infection, and sequence escape within the targeted epitope. We show that the level of PD-1 expression in early HCV infection is significantly higher on HCV-specific T cells from those who progress to chronic HCV infection compared to those who clear infection. This correlation is independent of HCV RNA levels, compatible with the notion that high PD-1 expression on HCV-specific CD8 T cells during acute infection inhibits viral clearance. Viral escape during persistent infection is associated with reduction in PD-1 levels on the surface of HCV specific T cells, supporting the necessity of ongoing antigenic stimulation of T cells for maintenance of PD-1 expression. These results support the idea that PD-1 expression on T cells specific for nonescaped epitopes contributes to viral persistence and suggest that PD-1 blockade may alter the outcome of HCV infection. PMID:19050238

  9. The PXR rs7643645 polymorphism is associated with the risk of higher prostate-specific antigen levels in prostate cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio D Reyes-Hernández

    Full Text Available Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR. Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677, PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645, and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574 polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03. This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006. Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis.

  10. The PXR rs7643645 Polymorphism Is Associated with the Risk of Higher Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D.; Vega, Libia; Jiménez-Ríos, Miguel A.; Martínez-Cervera, Pedro F.; Lugo-García, Juan A.; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Orozco, Lorena; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677), PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03). This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006). Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis. PMID:24924803

  11. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  12. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  13. A rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace level lead using 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone in aqueous micellar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Humaira; Ahmed, M Jamaluddin; Bhanger, M Iqbal

    2007-02-01

    A very simple, ultra-sensitive and fairly selective direct spectrophotmetric method is presented for the rapid determination of lead(II) at ultra-trace level using 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) in micellar media. The presence of the micellar system avoids the previous steps of solvent extraction and reduces the cost and toxicity while enhancing the sensitivity, selectivity and the molar absorptivity. The molar absorptivities of the lead-dithizone complex formed in the presence of the cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants are almost ten times the value observed in the standard method, resulting in an increase in the sensitivity of the method. The reaction is instantaneous and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The average molar absorption coefficient was found to be 3.99 x 10(5) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and Sandell's sensitivity was 30 ng cm(-2) of Pb. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.06-60 mg L(-1) of Pb(II); the stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:2 (Pb:dithizone). The interference from over 50 cations, anions and complexing agents has been studied at 1 mg L(-1) of Pb(II). The method was successfully used in the determination of lead in several standard reference materials (alloys and steels), environmental water samples (potable and polluted), biological samples (human blood and urine), soil samples and solutions containing both lead(II) and lead(IV) and complex synthetic mixtures. The method has high precision and accuracy (sigma = +/-0.01 for 0.5 mg L(-1)).

  14. Detection of antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in children with community-acquired pneumonia: effects of combining pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, I C; Andrade, D C; Vilas-Boas, A-L; Fontoura, M-S H; Laitinen, H; Ekström, N; Adrian, P V; Meinke, A; Cardoso, M-R A; Barral, A; Ruuskanen, O; Käyhty, H; Nascimento-Carvalho, C M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of combining different numbers of pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness on the detection of IgG responses against eight Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, three Haemophilus influenzae proteins, and five Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in 690 children aged pneumonia. Serological tests were performed on acute and convalescent serum samples with a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The median sampling interval was 19 days, the median age was 26.7 months, and the median duration of illness was 5 days. The rate of antibody responses was 15.4 % for at least one pneumococcal antigen, 5.8 % for H. influenzae, and 2.3 % for M. catarrhalis. The rate of antibody responses against each pneumococcal antigen varied from 3.5 to 7.1 %. By multivariate analysis, pre-existing antibody levels showed a negative association with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens; the sampling interval was positively associated with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens. A sampling interval of 3 weeks was the optimal cut-off for the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. Duration of illness was negatively associated with antibody responses against PspA. Age did not influence antibody responses against the investigated antigens. In conclusion, serological assays using combinations of different pneumococcal proteins detect a higher rate of antibody responses against S. pneumoniae compared to assays using a single pneumococcal protein. Pre-existing antibody levels and sampling interval influence the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. These factors should be considered when determining pneumonia etiology by serological methods in children.

  15. Hepatitis B core-related antigen levels are associated with response to entecavir and peginterferon add-on therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campenhout, M J H; Brouwer, W P; van Oord, G W; Xie, Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, N; Guo, S; Tabak, F; Streinu-Cercel, A; Wang, J; Pas, S D; Sonneveld, M J; de Knegt, R J; Boonstra, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), a new serum marker, may be useful in monitoring chronic hepatitis B infection. HBcrAg was measured in 175 hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients treated with entecavir (ETV) with or without peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on therapy. Decline in HBcrAg was stronger in patients with vs. without combined response (ETV: -3.22 vs. -1.71 log U/mL, p HBcrAg was associated with combined response (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.5, p <0.001), but was not superior to quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg).

  16. Bovine leukocyte antigen major histocompatibility complex class II DRB3*2703 and DRB3*1501 alleles are associated with variation in levels of protection against Theileria parva challenge following immunization with the sporozoite p67 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballingall, Keith T; Luyai, Anthony; Rowlands, G John; Sales, Jill; Musoke, Anthony J; Morzaria, Subash P; McKeever, Declan J

    2004-05-01

    Initial laboratory trials of an experimental subunit vaccine against Theileria parva based on the 67-kDa major sporozoite surface antigen revealed a range of responses to challenge. We have analyzed convergence in seven sets of monozygotic twins which suggests that genetic factors may have an influence in determining the degree of protection provided by p67 immunization. In addition, we have examined whether allelic diversity at major histocompatibility complex class II loci influences protection. Analysis of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 diversity in 201 animals identified significant associations with vaccine success (DRB3*2703; P = 0.027) and vaccine failure (DRB3*1501; P = 0.013). Furthermore, DRB3*2703 was associated with the likelihood of immunized animals showing little to no clinical signs of disease following challenge. We discuss the acquired and innate immune mechanisms that may be behind the associations described here.

  17. p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) repress prostate specific antigen levels in human prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lilian I L; Labrecque, Mark P; Ibuki, Naokazu; Cox, Michael E; Elliott, John E; Beischlag, Timothy V

    2015-03-25

    Despite stringent restrictions on their use by many countries since the 1970s, the endocrine disrupting chemicals, DDT and DDE are still ubiquitous in the environment. However, little attention has been directed to p,p'-DDT and the anti-androgen, p,p'-DDE on androgen receptor (AR) target gene transcription in human cells. Inhibitors of androgenic activity may have a deleterious clinical outcome in prostate cancer screens and progression, therefore we determined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE negatively impact AR-regulated expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and other AR target genes in human LNCaP and VCaP prostate cancer cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immuno-blotting techniques were used to measure intracellular PSA, PSMA and AR mRNA and protein levels. We have shown for the first time that p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE repressed R1881-inducible PSA mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we used the fully automated COBAS PSA detection system to determine that extracellular PSA levels were also significantly repressed. These chemicals achieve this by blocking the recruitment of AR to the PSA promoter region at 10 μM, as demonstrated by the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in LNCaP cells. Both p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE repressed R1881-inducible AR protein accumulation at 10 μM. Thus, we conclude that men who have been exposed to either DDT or DDE may produce a false-negative PSA test when screening for prostate cancer, resulting in an inaccurate clinical diagnosis. More importantly, prolonged exposure to these anti-androgens may mimic androgen ablation therapy in individuals with prostate cancer, thus exacerbating the condition by inadvertently forcing adaptation to this stress early in the disease.

  18. Application of high-resolution, massively parallel pyrosequencing for estimation of haplotypes and gene expression levels of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yuki F; Ando, Asako; Tanaka, Keiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Ozaki, Yuki; Uenishi, Hirohide; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Shiina, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    The swine is an important animal model for allo- and xeno-transplantation donor studies, which necessitates an extensive characterization of the expression and sequence variations within the highly polygenic and polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) region. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is potentially an effective new 2ndGen method for simultaneous high-throughput genotyping and detection of SLA class I gene expression levels. In this study, we compared the 2ndGen method using the Roche Genome Sequencer 454 FLX with the conventional method using sub-cloning and Sanger sequencing to genotype SLA class I genes in five pigs of the Clawn breed and four pigs of the Landrace breed. We obtained an average of 10.4 SLA class I sequences per pig by the 2ndGen method, consistent with the inheritance data, and an average of only 6.0 sequences by the conventional method. We also performed a correlation analysis between the sequence read numbers obtained by the 2ndGen method and the relative expression values obtained by quantitative real-time PCR analysis at the allele level. A significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.899, P SLA class I genes SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, suggesting that the sequence read numbers closely reflect the gene expression levels in white blood cells. Overall, five novel class I sequences, different haplotype-specific expression patterns and a splice variant for one of the SLA class I genes were identified by the 2ndGen method at greater efficiency and sensitivity than the conventional method.

  19. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels in the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasoumy, B; Wiegand, S B; Jaroszewicz, J; Bremer, B; Lehmann, P; Deterding, K; Taranta, A; Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H; Glebe, D; Cornberg, M

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been suggested as an additional marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBcrAg combines the antigenic reactivity resulting from denatured hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV core antigen and an artificial core-related protein (p22cr). In Asian patients, high levels of HBcrAg have been suggested to be an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, while low levels could guide safe cessation of treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues. We here studied HBcrAg levels in different phases of HBV infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D: HBeAg-positive immune tolerance (n = 30), HBeAg-positive immune clearance (IC) (n = 60), HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) (n = 50), HBeAg-negative inactive/quiescent carrier phase (c) (n = 109) and acute hepatitis B (n = 8). Median HBcrAg levels were high in the immune tolerance and immune clearance phases (8.41 and 8.11 log U/mL, respectively), lower in ENH subjects (4.82 log U/mL) but only 2.00 log U/mL in ENQ subjects. Correlation between HBcrAg and HBV DNA varied among the different phases of HBV infection, while HBcrAg moderately correlated with hepatitis B surface antigen in all phases. ENQ patients had HBcrAg levels HBcrAg levels vary significantly during the different phases of HBV infection. HBcrAg may serve as valuable marker for virus replication and reflect the transcriptional activity of intrahepatic cccDNA. In HBeAg-negative patients, HBcrAg may help to distinguish between inactive carriers (ENQ) and those with active disease (ENH).

  20. Cadmium and lead levels along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Sánchez-Martínez, Jesús Genaro; Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium and lead levels were evaluated in water and sediment along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) during September to December 2009. Significant highest metal concentration in water (0.45 mg L(-1) Cd and 3.94 mg L(-1) Pb) and sediment (2.83 mg kg(-1) Cd and 6.61 mg kg(-1) Pb) were found at the mouth of the Tigre River, where the fishing town of El Moron is located. Cadmium levels in sediment were above limits associated with adverse biological effects on aquatic fauna, so negative impacts on natural populations of aquatic organisms would be expected to occur. This in turn could affect the fishery resources inhabiting this ecosystem.

  1. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantity positively correlates with plasma levels of microRNAs differentially expressed in immunological phases of chronic hepatitis B in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilde Nordmann Winther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg particles are produced in large excess over infectious virions. Interestingly, circulating HBsAg particles have been shown to carry microRNAs. A thorough characterisation of the identified microRNAs and HBsAg over time in plasma from children with CHB may provide useful information about the natural course of childhood CHB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 42 children with CHB was followed over time. Three to five blood samples were obtained from each child at minimum intervals of half a year; in total 180 blood samples. Plasma levels of the 16 microRNAs previously identified were analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. Plasma HBsAg was quantified using ARCHITECT® HBsAg assay. RESULTS: The presence of 14/16 plasma microRNAs in children with CHB was confirmed. All 14 microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in different immunological phases of the disease. MicroRNA plasma levels were highest in immune-tolerant children, lower in immune-active children, and reached the lowest values in immune-inactive children, p<0.001. Plasma levels of four microRNAs decreased significantly over time in immune-tolerant and immune-active children whereas the microRNA plasma levels were stable in immune-inactive children, p<0.004. HBsAg quantity was positively correlated with plasma levels of 11/14 microRNAs, p<0.004. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterise plasma microRNAs and HBsAg over time in children with CHB. Our data suggest that plasma levels of selected microRNAs and HBsAg are inversely correlated with immunological control of CHB in children. Further studies are, however, needed to advance the understanding of microRNAs and HBsAg in the

  2. Antigenic Variation in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H; Bankhead, Troy; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Antigenic variation is a strategy used by a broad diversity of microbial pathogens to persist within the mammalian host. Whereas viruses make use of a minimal proofreading capacity combined with large amounts of progeny to use random mutation for variant generation, antigenically variant bacteria have evolved mechanisms which use a stable genome, which aids in protecting the fitness of the progeny. Here, three well-characterized and highly antigenically variant bacterial pathogens are discussed: Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Neisseria. These three pathogens display a variety of mechanisms used to create the structural and antigenic variation needed for immune escape and long-term persistence. Intrahost antigenic variation is the focus; however, the role of these immune escape mechanisms at the population level is also presented.

  3. Influences of phosphate nutritional level on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium and lead in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Sun, Tie-heng; Sun, Li-na; Zhou, Qi-xing; Chao, Lei

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the influence of phosphate levels on the phytoavailability and speciation distribution of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) in soil. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was selected as the tested plant. There were 5 phosphate fertilizer(Ca(H2PO4)2) levels including 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg P2O5/kg soil, marked by PO, P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively. CdCl2 x 2.5H2O and Pb(NO3)2 were added to soil as the following levels: Cd + Pb = 25+0, 0+1000, and 25+1000 mg/kg, marked by T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that the P fertilizer promoted the dry weight of wheat in all treatments and alleviated the contamination induced by Cd and Pb. With increasing levels of the additional P fertilizer, Cd concentration in different parts (root, haulm, chaffand grain) of wheat decreased at the P1 level at first and then increased. The soluble plus exchangeable (SE) fraction of Cd in soil decreased at the P1 level and then increased from P2 to P4 levels. The moderate P fertilizer reduced the phytoavailability of Cd. The application of P could obviously restrain the uptake of Pb by wheat and there were significantly negative correlations between the levels of P and the uptake of Pb. Phosphorus supply resulted in a decrease in the SE fraction of Pb and there was a significantly negative correlation between the levels of P and the SE fraction of Pb in soil. All the levels of the P fertilizer in this experiment could reduce the phytoavailability of Pb. Thus, it is feasible to apply the P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2) to Pb contaminated soils. However, the levels of P application should be restricted in case that redundant P may increase the phytoavailability of Cd.

  4. Engineered mutations in fibrillin-1 leading to Marfan syndrome act at the protein, cellular and organismal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Karina A; Reinhardt, Dieter P

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are the major components of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix of elastic and non-elastic tissues. They are multi-domain proteins, containing primarily calcium binding epidermal growth factor-like (cbEGF) domains and 8-cysteine/transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-like (TB) domains. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene give rise to Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder with clinical complications in the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular and other organ systems. Here, we review the consequences of engineered Marfan syndrome mutations in fibrillin-1 at the protein, cellular and organismal levels. Representative point mutations associated with Marfan syndrome in affected individuals have been introduced and analyzed in recombinant fibrillin-1 fragments. Those mutations affect fibrillin-1 on a structural and functional level. Mutations which impair folding of cbEGF domains can affect protein trafficking. Protein folding disrupted by some mutations can lead to defective secretion in mutant fibrillin-1 fragments, whereas fragments with other Marfan mutations are secreted normally. Many Marfan mutations render fibrillin-1 more susceptible to proteolysis. There is also evidence that some mutations affect heparin binding. Few mutations have been further analyzed in mouse models. An extensively studied mouse model of Marfan syndrome expresses mouse fibrillin-1 with a missense mutation (p.C1039G). The mice display similar characteristics to human patients with Marfan syndrome. Overall, the analyses of engineered mutations leading to Marfan syndrome provide important insights into the pathogenic molecular mechanisms exerted by mutated fibrillin-1.

  5. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample.

  6. A nomogram based on age,prostate-specific antigen level,prostate volume and digital rectal examination for predicting risk of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Hui Chen; Matthew Uhlman; Yu-Rong Lin; Xiang-Rong Deng; Bin Wang; Wen-Jun Yang; Ke-Ji Xie

    2013-01-01

    Nomograms for predicting the risk of prostate cancer developed using other populations may introduce sizable bias when applied to a Chinese cohort.In the present study,we sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Chinese population.A total of 535 Chinese men who underwent a prostatic biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in the past decade with complete biopsy data were included.Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of a positive initial biopsy.Age,prostate-specific antigen (PSA),prostate volume (PV),digital rectal examination (DRE) status,% free PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings were included in the analysis.A nomogram model was developed that was based on these independent predictors to calculate the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy.A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of using the nomogram and PSA levels alone for predicting positive prostate biopsy.The rate for positive initial prostate biopsy was 41.7% (223/535).The independent variables used to predict a positive initial prostate biopsy were age,PSA,PV and DRE status.The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for a positive initial prostate biopsy for PSA alone and the nomogram were 79.7% and 84.8%,respectively.Our results indicate that the risk of a positive initial prostate biopsy can be predicted to a satisfactory level in a Chinese population using our nomogram.The nomogram can be used to identify and Counsel patients who should consider a prostate biopsy,ultimately enhancing accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer.

  7. Neonatal morphine administration leads to changes in hippocampal BDNF levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in the adult life of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozisky, J R; Laste, G; de Macedo, I C; Santos, V S; Krolow, R; Noschang, C; Vanzella, C; Bertoldi, K; Lovatel, G A; de Souza, I C C; Siqueira, I R; Dalmaz, C; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2013-03-01

    It is know that repeated exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory and that the hippocampus has important neuromodulatory effects after drug exposure and withdrawal symptoms. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to assess hippocampal levels of BDNF, oxidative stress markers associated with cell viability, and TNF-α in the short, medium and long term after repeated morphine treatment in early life. Newborn male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of morphine (morphine group) or saline (control group), 5 μg in the mid-scapular area, starting on postnatal day 8 (P8), once daily for 7 days, and neurochemical parameters were assessed in the hippocampus on postnatal days 16 (P16), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). For the first time, we observed that morphine treatment in early life modulates BDNF levels in the medium and long term and also modulates superoxide dismutase activity in the long term. In addition, it was observed effect of treatment and age in TNF-α levels, and no effects in lactate dehydrogenase levels, or cell viability. These findings show that repeated morphine treatment in the neonatal period can lead to long-lasting neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of male rats, and indicate the importance of cellular and intracellular adaptations in the hippocampus after early-life opioid exposure to tolerance, withdrawal and addiction.

  8. Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites: Implications for development of recombinant vaccines produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts.

  9. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  10. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  11. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  12. Association between blood lead levels and environmental exposure among Saudi schoolchildren in certain districts of Al-Madinah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Adnan Zolaly1, Manal Ibrahim Hanafi2,3, Nashaat Shawky4, Khalid el-Harbi1, Ahmed M Mohamadin5,61Pediatric Department, 2Family and Community Medicine Department, Medical College, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 3Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Ophthalmology Department, Medical College, 5Chemistry for Health Sciences Department, Deanery of Academic Services, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 6Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptIntroduction: Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries. When humans are exposed to high levels of lead, there is damage to almost all organs and organ systems (most importantly, the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood, which often culminates in death.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs and to identify the sources of environmental exposure and potential risk factors for elevated BLLs among Saudi schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2010. The study population included 557 Saudi school students of both sexes. A multistage random sampling technique was used. Information about socioeconomic status, house and school construction, and parents' education and employment was collected using questionnaires. Lead was analyzed in a blood sample using an atomic absorption technique and hemoglobin was measured using a Sysmex hematological analyzer.Results: The mean BLL was 4.94 ± 3.38 µg/dL (range 0.45–26.3 µg/dL. A total of 19% had BLLs <1.0 µg/dL, 16% had BLLs <2.5 µg/dL, 15% had BLLs <5.0 µg/dL, 20% had BLLs <7.5 µg/dL, 25% had BLLs <10.0 µg/dL, and about 6% had BLLs >10.0 µg/dL. Analysis of odds by controlling all risk factors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] that affect BLLs (≥10 µg/dL indicated

  13. Nanocube Superlattices of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskites and Pressure-Induced Phase Transformations at Atomic and Mesoscale Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Yasutaka; Hills-Kimball, Katie; Tan, Rui; Li, Ruipeng; Wang, Zhongwu; Chen, Ou

    2017-03-10

    Lead halide perovskites are promising materials for a range of applications owing to their unique crystal structure and optoelectronic properties. Understanding the relationship between the atomic/mesostructures and the associated properties of perovskite materials is crucial to their application performances. Herein, the detailed pressure processing of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocube superlattices (NC-SLs) is reported for the first time. By using in situ synchrotron-based small/wide angle X-ray scattering and photoluminescence (PL) probes, the NC-SL structural transformations are correlated at both atomic and mesoscale levels with the band-gap evolution through a pressure cycle of 0 ↔ 17.5 GPa. After the pressurization, the individual CsPbBr3 NCs fuse into 2D nanoplatelets (NPLs) with a uniform thickness. The pressure-synthesized perovskite NPLs exhibit a single cubic crystal structure, a 1.6-fold enhanced photoluminescence quantum yield, and a longer emission lifetime than the starting NCs. This study demonstrates that pressure processing can serve as a novel approach for the rapid conversion of lead halide perovskites into structures with enhanced properties.

  14. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m2 day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0. 024, and 0.023 microg/m2 day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home, and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  15. Effect of Interfacial Reactions on the Reliability of Lead-Free Assemblies after Board Level Drop Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanghua; Lu, Chuanyan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2007-09-01

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies after board level drop tests was investigated. Thin small outline package (TSOP) components with 42 FeNi alloy leads were reflow soldered on FR4 printed circuit boards (PCBs) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes [organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)], multiple reflow (once and three times), and isothermal aging (500 h at 125°C after one time reflow) were studied. The ENIG finish showed better performance than its OSP counterparts. With the OSP finish, solder joints reflowed three times showed obvious improvement compared to those of the sample reflowed once, while aging led to apparent degradation. The results showed that intermetallic compound (IMC) types, IMC microstructure and solder microstructure compete with each other, all playing very important roles in the solder joint lifetime. The results also showed that it is important to specify adequate conditions for a given reliability assessment program, to allow meaningful comparison between results of different investigators.

  16. Effect of thermal processing and canning on cadmium and lead levels in California market squid: the role of metallothioneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, A; Georgantelis, D; Kontominas, M G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two common seafood preparation practices (roasting and industrial canning) on the heavy metal content--cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)--of various tissues of California market squid were studied. Emphasis was placed on the role of metallothioneins (MT) in Cd and Pb behaviour during processing. Cd and Pb analysis was conducted by a Zeeman GTA-AAS atomic absorption spectrometry system; MT analysis was performed by a mercury saturation assay. Results showed that Cd levels in the mantle and whole squid were considerably affected by both processing practices, reaching a 240% increase in mantle and a 40% increase in whole squid. Interestingly, Cd behaviour was associated with MT changes during squid processing. On the other hand, Pb content was not affected from either processing or associated with MT content in the raw or processed squid. Therefore, processing operations may affect Cd and Pb content differently due to the specific metal bioaccumulation and chemical features of each heavy metal type.

  17. Relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair of people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon F.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that some metals possess many adverse health effects. Recently, certain elements have been identified as essential trace elements that play an important role in the genesis and progression of several diseases. Some toxic metals have also been shown to be elevated in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. The status of trace elements in diabetes patients is also influenced by their diet, drugs administered and, to a large extent, by environmental factors. Pollutants due to the presence of toxic metals in environment not only enter the body by breading, water, and foodstuff accumulates in hair, but they could be adsorbed directly on the hair from environment. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair samples of diabetic women from Tehran (Iran. The study population consisted of 100 women between 30 to 70 years of age from Tehran. The hair samples were washed with 1% (w/v (DDTC, 0.1M HCL and deionized water. Afterwards, the hair sample dried in oven at 70° C for 5 hours and then digested the next day. Dry ashing digestion procedure was carried out. The concentration of elements was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical analysis confirmed that mean concentrations of lead and nickel did not differ significantly from the control group. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cr and Zn were significantly decreased in scalp hair samples of diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Hair Cd level was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Values of Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between these elements.

  18. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  19. Effect of different ascorbic acid levels (Vitamin C on eco-physiological properties of barley in soils contaminated with lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamdin Akhavan Samimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the effects of foliar application of ascorbic acid on barley in contaminated soil in a completely randomized factorial design with 2 factors, 9 treatments and 3 replications in Varamin in 1393.150 mg of lead nitrate per kg of soil were applied to infect the soil for all treatments. Superabsorbent was the first factor used in three levels (0, 3, 6 g per kg soil and ascorbic acid as the second factor was also used in three levels (0, 50 and 100 ppm. The results of this experiment showed that increase in superabsorbent and ascorbic acid concentrations in barley improved the morphological traits such as plant height and spike and grain number, grain weight, total weight of shoot, root dry weight and thousand grain weight and also improved physiological traits such as protein content and chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll in barley, moreover, increase in ascorbic acid in the plant resulted in reduction in antioxidant enzymes content such as superoxide dismutase andcatalase, and physiological traits such as proline, increased relative water content and reduced lead content in leaves and roots.So it can be concluded that, given that the country is located in arid and semiarid regions and considering Iran’s soils pollution with heavy metals,using effective treatments such as ascorbic acid can enhance crop water holding capacity and also reduce the effects of these elements toxicity. Therefore,the use of ascorbic acid seems essential.Due to the non-degradable and long life of heavy metals in soil, insoluble hydrophilic polymers with different amounts carboxylic groups are used. The surface carboxylic groups of the polymer (SAP due to exposure to pH are ionized and make strong bonds with soil pollutant metals, and eventually form a gel and are separated from soil.

  20. Stress leads to contrasting effects on the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Lakshminarasimhan

    Full Text Available Recent findings on stress induced structural plasticity in rodents have identified important differences between the hippocampus and amygdala. The same chronic immobilization stress (CIS, 2 h/day causes growth of dendrites and spines in the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but dendritic atrophy in hippocampal area CA3. CIS induced morphological changes also differ in their temporal longevity--BLA hypertrophy, unlike CA3 atrophy, persists even after 21 days of stress-free recovery. Furthermore, a single session of acute immobilization stress (AIS, 2 h leads to a significant increase in spine density 10 days, but not 1 day, later in the BLA. However, little is known about the molecular correlates of the differential effects of chronic and acute stress. Because BDNF is known to be a key regulator of dendritic architecture and spines, we investigated if the levels of BDNF expression reflect the divergent effects of stress on the hippocampus and amygdala. CIS reduces BDNF in area CA3, while it increases it in the BLA of male Wistar rats. CIS-induced increase in BDNF expression lasts for at least 21 days after the end of CIS in the BLA. But CIS-induced decrease in area CA3 BDNF levels, reverses to normal levels within the same period. Finally, BDNF is up regulated in the BLA 1 day after AIS and this increase persists even 10 days later. In contrast, AIS fails to elicit any significant change in area CA3 at either time points. Together, these findings demonstrate that both acute and chronic stress trigger opposite effects on BDNF levels in the BLA versus area CA3, and these divergent changes also follow distinct temporal profiles. These results point to a role for BDNF in stress-induced structural plasticity across both hippocampus and amygdala, two brain areas that have also been implicated in the cognitive and affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  1. Stress leads to contrasting effects on the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimhan, Harini; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on stress induced structural plasticity in rodents have identified important differences between the hippocampus and amygdala. The same chronic immobilization stress (CIS, 2 h/day) causes growth of dendrites and spines in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but dendritic atrophy in hippocampal area CA3. CIS induced morphological changes also differ in their temporal longevity--BLA hypertrophy, unlike CA3 atrophy, persists even after 21 days of stress-free recovery. Furthermore, a single session of acute immobilization stress (AIS, 2 h) leads to a significant increase in spine density 10 days, but not 1 day, later in the BLA. However, little is known about the molecular correlates of the differential effects of chronic and acute stress. Because BDNF is known to be a key regulator of dendritic architecture and spines, we investigated if the levels of BDNF expression reflect the divergent effects of stress on the hippocampus and amygdala. CIS reduces BDNF in area CA3, while it increases it in the BLA of male Wistar rats. CIS-induced increase in BDNF expression lasts for at least 21 days after the end of CIS in the BLA. But CIS-induced decrease in area CA3 BDNF levels, reverses to normal levels within the same period. Finally, BDNF is up regulated in the BLA 1 day after AIS and this increase persists even 10 days later. In contrast, AIS fails to elicit any significant change in area CA3 at either time points. Together, these findings demonstrate that both acute and chronic stress trigger opposite effects on BDNF levels in the BLA versus area CA3, and these divergent changes also follow distinct temporal profiles. These results point to a role for BDNF in stress-induced structural plasticity across both hippocampus and amygdala, two brain areas that have also been implicated in the cognitive and affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  2. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months, and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. A blood lead level test should be done only if the risk ... recommended if the person is symptomatic at any level below 70 mcg/dL. Because lead will pass through the blood to an unborn child, pregnant ...

  3. Plant growth, development and change in GSH level in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. exposed to copper and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shufen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure to heavy metals, copper (Cu and lead (Pb in the soil, separately and in combination, were examined in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.. Plant growth and development, GSH level and GSH2 expression at seedling, branching, and flowering stages were studied. Cu at lower concentrations had a stimulating effect on seedling height and root length. A significant positive correlation was observed between heavy metal concentrations and inhibition of plant growth. Plant height, root length and lateral root numbers decreased progressively with increasing concentrations of Cu and Pb. Except at the seedling stage, the metal mixture elicited a synergistic effect on safflower growth and development. The GSH content was significantly reduced in both safflower roots and leaves at increased concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the treatment with a low concentration of Cu that resulted in a slightl increase in GSH content at the seedling and branching stages. RT-PCR analysis revealed a negative correlation between GSH2 expression levels and metal concentration. Short exposure to low concentrations of Cu induce an increase in GSH synthesis to preserve normal plant growth, whereas prolonged exposure and large Cu and Pb concentrations affect the GSH metabolic chain, and are severely toxicity. The findings obtained in this study enhance our understanding of the role of the GSH pool in the response of plants to heavy metal-induced stress, and serve as a basis for improved cultivation of safflower.

  4. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Cañas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Díaz, Gema; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies.

  5. Common antigenicity between Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollen, I. H-2 complex affects cross responsiveness to Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 at the T- and B-cell level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingetsu, I; Ohno, N; Hayashi, N; Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Saito, S

    2000-04-01

    Common antigenicity among two purified Japanese cedar pollen allergens (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2) and one Japanese cypress pollen allergen (Cha o 1) was explored at the T-cell and B-cell level in mice of different H-2 haplotypes. Cry j 2 did not show any common antigenicity with Cry j 1 or Cha o 1. B10.S (H-2S) mice immunized with Cry j 1 or Cha o 1 generated T cells and antibodies reactive to both antigens, indicating the common antigenicity of these antigens. C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice were non-responders to Cry j 1. BALB/c (H-2d) mice immunized with Cry j 1 or Cha o 1 and C57BL/6 mice immunized with Cha o 1 generated T cells that were only reactive with the respective immunogen, but produced antibody reactive to both Cry j 1 and Cha o 1, indicating that Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 share their B-cell epitope but not their T-cell epitope. This finding may provide a clue for the clarification of the T-cell and B-cell epitopes of Cry j 1 and Cha o 1, even though the data are influenced by H-2 complex restriction in mice. Considering that H-2 complex restriction affects cross responsiveness to Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 at the T- and B-cell level in mice, we assessed the possible situation in humans exposed sequentially to Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress pollen.

  6. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantity positively correlates with plasma levels of microRNAs differentially expressed in immunological phases of chronic hepatitis B in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Heiberg, Ida Louise; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles are produced in large excess over...

  7. Chronic psychosocial stress in mice leads to changes in brain functional connectivity and metabolite levels comparable to human depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Azzinnari, Damiano; Seuwen, Aline; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Rudin, Markus

    2016-11-15

    Human depression, for which chronic psychosocial stress is a major risk factor, is characterized by consistent alterations in neurocircuitry. For example, there is increased functional connectivity (FC) within and between regions comprising the default mode network (DMN) including prefrontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Alterations in network FC are associated with specific aspects of psychopathology. In mice, chronic psychosocial stress (CPS) leads to depression-relevant behavior, including increased fear learning, learned helplessness, fatigue and decreased motivation for reward. Using multimodal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), we investigated CPS effects on function and structure in the mouse brain under light anesthesia. Mice underwent a baseline MRI/MRS session, followed by 15-day CPS (n=26) or control handling (n=27), and a post-treatment MRI/MRS session. In BOLD fMRI, relative to controls, CPS mice exhibited robust, reproducible increases in FC within 8 of 9 identified cortical networks, including the prefrontal and cingulate cortices that contribute to the "mouse DMN". CPS mice exhibited increases in between-network FC, including amygdala - prefrontal cortex and amygdala - cingulate cortex. MRS identified metabolic alterations in CPS mice as increased inositol levels in amygdala and increased glycerophosphorylcholine levels in prefrontal cortex. Diffusion-weighted MRI detected increased fractional anisotropic values in the cingulum. This study demonstrates that chronic psychosocial stress induces FC states in the mouse brain analogous to those observed in depression, as well as cerebral metabolism and white matter pathway alterations that contribute to understanding of pathological processes. It also demonstrates the importance of brain imaging to the establishment of valid animal models in translational psychiatry.

  8. Estimation of Lead and Cadmium residual levels in chicken giblets at retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad A. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and Cadmium (Cd are environmental contaminants of food which have deleterious cumulative effect on human health. Using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were estimated in 60 samples of chicken giblets comprising of broiler livers, gizzards and hearts collected randomly from retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt. The greatest Pb concentrations were found in liver samples (0.8762 ± 0.2089 ppm, whereas gizzard samples contain 0.3186 ± 0.1462 ppm and lowest levels of Pb were detected in heart samples 0.1733 ± 0.06777 ppm. Cd deposited in liver samples reached 0.040714 ± 0.0290 ppm; however gizzard and heart samples contain negligible Cd concentrations (0.0041 ± 0.0028 and 0.0036 ± 0.008 ppm, respectively. These data interpreted that Pb residual concentration, particularly in chicken liver sold in Ismailia city, is more than the permissible limit (0.5 ppm in the Codex Alimentarius international food standards and thus may be hazardous to human consumption and more serious inspection procedures should be applied by the veterinary authorities therein.

  9. Dormancy alleviation by NO or HCN leading to decline of protein carbonylation levels in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Dębska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos can be overcome by short-term pre-treatment with nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Dormancy alleviation of embryos modulated by NO or HCN and the first step of germination depend on temporary increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct oxidative attack on some amino acid residues or secondary reactions via reactive carbohydrates and lipids can lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives. Protein carbonylation is a widely accepted covalent and irreversible modification resulting in inhibition or alteration of enzyme/protein activities. It also increases the susceptibility of proteins to proteolytic degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate protein carbonylation in germinating apple embryos, the dormancy of which was removed by pre-treatment with NO or HCN donors. It was performed using a quantitative spectrophotometric method, while patterns of carbonylated protein in embryo axes were analyzed by immunochemical techniques. The highest concentration of protein carbonyl groups was observed in dormant embryos. It declined in germinating embryos pre-treated with NO or HCN, suggesting elevated degradation of modified proteins during seedling formation. A decrease in the concentration of carbonylated proteins was accompanied by modification in proteolytic activity in germinating apple embryos. A strict correlation between the level of protein carbonyl groups and cotyledon growth and greening was detected. Moreover, direct in vitro carbonylation of BSA treated with NO or HCN donors was analyzed, showing action of both signaling molecules as protein oxidation agents.

  10. A leading-edge hardware family for diagnostics applications and low-level RF in CERN's ELENA ring

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Jaussi, M; Leiononen, P; Levens, T E; Molendijk, J C; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Simonin, J

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons transferred from the CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The requirements for the acquisition and treatment of signals for longitudinal diagnostics are very demanding, owing to the revolution frequency swing as well as to the digital signal processing required. The requirements for the Low-Level Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system are very demanding as well, especially in terms of revolution frequency swing, dynamic range and low noise required by the cavity voltage control and digital signal processing to be performed. Both sets of requirements will be satisfied by using a leading-edge hardware family, developed to cover the LLRF needs of all synchrotrons in the Meyrin site; it will be first deployed in 2014 in the CERN’s PSB and in the medical machine MedAustron. This paper gives an overview of the main building blocks of the hardware family and of th...

  11. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Söylemez, Esma [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Middle Black Sea Passage Generation of Agricultural Research Station Director, Tokat (Turkey); Söylemezoğlu, Tülin [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  12. HLA-DRB1 Class II antigen level alleles are associated with persistent HPV infection in Mexican women; a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major risk factor for malignant lesions and cervical cancer. A widely studied element in the search for genetic factors influencing risk HPV infection diseases is allelic variation of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus. The study was designed to search for HLA susceptibility alleles contributing to the persistence of HPV infection in Mexican women. Methods A total of 172 subjects were divided into three groups...

  13. Blood pressure relationship to nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, renal function, and renal blood flow in rats exposed to low lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Nurcan; Arifoglu, Canan; Süer, Cem; Keskinol, Leyla

    2005-05-01

    The results of experiments designed to show that inhibition of nitric oxide production in rats exposed to low lead levels increases vascular resistance, decreases renal blood flow and glomerular function, and enhances oxidative stress. Forty-five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group A was used as controls and consisted of rats that received no treatment; group B acted as NO-inhibited controls by receiving L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester) as the NO inhibitor; group C was injected intraperitoneally with 8 mg/kg lead acetate for 2 wk; and group D receiving lead acetate plus L-NAME. Compared to healthy controls, significant elevation of the mean (pbpu) in the controls, 488+/-220 bpu in the L-NAME controls, 1050+/-458 bpu in the lead-treated group, and 878+/-487 bpu in the Pb plus L-NAME group. Low-level lead exposure did not change the urinary flow rate, creatinine clearance, and the creatinine, potassium, phosphorus, glucose, and protein excretion in 24-h urine. In the lead plus NO-inhibited rats, a significant decrease in sodium ion excretion was observed (p<0.01). The NO levels of the lead exposed, L-NAME-treated controls, and L-NAME plus lead-exposed groups are significantly lower compared to untreated controls: p<0.002, p<0.001, and p<0.01, respectively. When compared to untreated controls, the plasma malondialdehyde levels were not significantly different in the lead exposed, lead plus L-NAME, and L-NAME control groups. These results suggest that lead-induced hypertension might be related to a decrease of NO and consequent vasoconstriction, rather than to a decrease of renal blood flow or to decreases in renal sodium.

  14. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P.; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods:This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results:The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival (p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery (p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline (p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.009), c-reactive protein (p = 0.04), sodium (p = 0.01), and chloride (p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions:These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain level due

  15. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan M. Draid

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ability of camel milk to reduce lead toxicity may relate to its antioxidant actions or enhancing, the metal chelating action. In conclusion, Supplementation of daily diets with camel milk may be recommended to improve the body in case of lead contamination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1125-1130

  16. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  17. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  18. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p < 0.001). Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, as well as the condition factor, are found to be lower at industrial sites compared with the reference sites. Our results suggest that the R. marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations.

  19. Requirements for Notification, Evaluation and Reduction of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential Property and Housing Receiving Federal Assistance; Response to Elevated Blood Lead Levels. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    This final rule amends HUD's lead-based paint regulations to reduce blood lead levels in children under age six (6) who reside in federally-owned or -assisted pre-1978 housing, formally adopting a revised definition of "elevated blood lead level" (EBLL) in children under the age of six (6), in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance. It also establishes more comprehensive testing and evaluation procedures for the housing where such children reside. This final rule also addresses certain additional elements of the CDC guidance pertaining to assisted housing and makes technical corrections and clarifications. This final rule, which follows HUD's September 1, 2016, proposed rule, takes into consideration public comments submitted in response to the proposed rule.

  20. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Anti¬gen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LIU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less.Methods: A total of 343 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less were biopsied. All patients were divided into four groups according to the PSA levels: 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml. The reliability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and PSAD were estimated.Results: Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The detection rate was 16.28%、17.17%, 21.82%, 25.00% in subjects with PSA levels of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml, respectively. The f/t PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer and PSA levels of 2.1 to 4.0 ng/ml (P<0.05. The PSAD had no statistical significance between the two groups.Conclusions: Routine prostate biopsy should be undertaken if the f/t PSA ratio less than 15% with /without abnormal DRE/TRUS findings. Keywords: Biopsy, Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific antigen, PSA ratio, PSAD 

  1. 470 Relationship of Blood Lead Levels with Total Ige in Teenagers with Environmental Exposure in Torreon Coahuila, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Meza-Velazquez, Rocío; Goytia Acevedo, Raquel Concepción; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Calderon Aranda, Emma S.; Gonzalez, Manuel Rosales; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Maravilla-Domínguez, Aurora; Cebrian, Mariano Enrique; Rosado, Jorge Luis; Stoltzfus, Rebeca; García Vargas, Gonzalo Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background There are precedents that suggest gender differences in the relationship of lead in blood with serum total IgE. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a population of teenagers attending 9 schools in Torreon, Coahuila, the relationship of lead in blood with total IgE and their dependence on gender. Methods We included 230 teenagers (105 females, 125 males) between 11 and 14 years of age, from a cohort of children evaluated for its history of lead exposure since 2000. Clinical dia...

  2. Detection of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen at Picomolar Levels Using Biocatalysis Coupled to Assisted Ion Transfer Voltammetry at a Liquid-Organogel Microinterface Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Rashida; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2016-12-06

    A label-free electrochemical strategy for the detection of a cancer biomarker, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), at picomolar concentrations without the use of antibodies, was investigated. The approach is based on the assisted ion transfer of protons, generated by a series of enzymatic reactions, at an array of microinterfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (μ-ITIES). This nonredox electrochemical approach based on biocatalysis-coupled proton transfer at the μ-ITIES array opens a new way to detect the prostate cancer biomarker, with detection capability achieved at concentrations below those indicative of disease presence. The strategy is expected to contribute to cancer diagnostics, recurrence monitoring, and therapeutic treatment efficacy.

  3. Suppressor T cells - a sensitive target of lead toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambach, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Oberbarnscheidt, J.; Ewers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed to investigate the effect of chronic low level lead exposure on the regulatory functions of T cells in the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in mice. Female mice were exposed to lead (as lead acetate) in the diet at 545 (group 1) and 2180 ppm (group 2) for 10 weeks. Lead exposure resulting in blood lead levels (PbB) of about 50 ..mu..g/100 g (group 1) produced a substantial increase of the number of IgG antibodies secreting spleen cells on days 3 and 4 after challenge. At the higher exposure level (group 2; PbB 60-80 ..mu..g/100 g) a suppression of the number of IgG plaque forming cells was observed. The IgM response was much smaller than the IgG response. Although differences between the group means were small, the results indicate that there also is an enhancement of the IgM response in the lower dosage group on days 3 and 4. In a second experiment the effect of in vivo lead exposure on antigenic competition was examined. Lead substantially reduced the effect of antigenic competition. Results of both experiments suggest that suppressor T cells rather than helper T cells may represent the primary target for lead. Throughout this study serum complement C3 levels were determined. Complement C3 levels tended to be reduced in the lead exposed groups before as well as after inocculation with SRBC. (orig.*.

  4. Suppressor T cells - a sensitive target of lead toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambach, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Oberbarnscheidt, J.; Ewers, U.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed to investigate the effect of chronic low level lead exposure on the regulatory functions of T cells in the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in mice. Female mice were exposed to lead (as lead acetate) in the diet at 545 (group 1) and 2180 ppm (group 2) for 10 weeks. Lead exposure resulting in blood lead levels (PbB) of about 50 ..mu..g/100 g (group 1) produced a substantial increase of the number of IgG antibodies secreting spleen cells on days 3 and 4 after challenge. At the higher exposure level (group 2; PbB 60-80 ..mu..m/100 g) a suppression of the number of IgG plawue forming cells was observed. The IgM response was much smaller than the IgG response. Although differences between the group means were small, the results indicate that there also is an enhancement of the IgM response in the lower dosage group on days 3 and 4. In a second experiment the effect of in vivo lead exposure on antigenic competition was examined. Lead substantially reduced the effect of antigenic competition. Results of both experiments suggest that suppressor T cells rather than helper T cells may represent the primary target for lead. Throughout this study serum complement C3 levels were determined. Complement C3 levels tended to be reduced in the lead exposed groups before as well as after inocculation with SRBC.

  5. High serum dihydrotestosterone examined by ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS as a predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia or Gleason score 6 cancer in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Y; Uemura, H; Suzuki, K; Shibata, Y; Honma, S; Harada, M; Kubota, Y

    2016-11-03

    There has been no consensus on the role of serum androgen concentrations in prostate cancer detection in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL. In this study, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in blood were examined by a newly developed method using ultrasensitive liquid chromatography with two serially linked mass spectrometers (LC-MS/MS). We investigated the correlation between serum androgen levels and Gleason scores at biopsy. We analyzed data of 157 men with a total prostate-specific antigen range of 3-10 ng/mL who underwent initial systematic prostate needle biopsy for suspected prostate cancer between April 2000 and July 2003. Peripheral blood testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. Blood levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were compared with pathological findings by multivariate analyses. Median values of prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume measured by ultrasound were 5.7 ng/mL and 31.4 cm(3) , respectively. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed in 97 patients (61.8%), and prostate cancer was diagnosed in 60 (38.2%) patients, including 31 (19.7%) patients with a Gleason score of 6 and 29 (18.5%) patients with a Gleason score of 7-10. Median values of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in blood were 3798.7 and 371.7 pg/mL, respectively. There was a strong correlation between serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. In multivariate analysis, age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were significant predictors of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were 0.67, 0.67, and 0.67, respectively . We confirmed that high dihydrotestosterone blood levels can predict benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL.

  6. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  7. Lead impact on nutrition, energy reserves, respiration and stress protein (hsp 70) level in Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) populations differently preconditioned in their habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, T; Köhler, H R

    2000-05-01

    The impact of lead on food consumption, energy metabolism and the stress protein (hsp 70) level was investigated in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), a common representative of the saprophagous soil macrofauna. To examine possible acclimation or tolerance to lead in woodlice from a contaminated habitat, animals of two populations, one deriving from a lead-contaminated artillery range and one from an uncontaminated control stand, were exposed to a series of lead concentrations under otherwise constant laboratory conditions for a maximum of 80 days. The applied lead concentrations (at a maximum 7945 mg/kg food dry wt) did not have any significant quantitative effect on the food consumption of the isopods, although the population pre-exposed in the artillery range showed a tendency toward a higher food uptake than the control population. After 80 days of exposure, both populations showed an equal trend toward increasing their respiration as lead concentrations, that they had been fed on, were increased. Accordingly, the glycogen content of the body, in both populations, was elevated with increasing lead concentrations in the food. This effect was more pronounced in the pre-exposed isopod population than in the one from the control stand. The non-pre-exposed isopods showed a general tendency toward a lower protein content of their bodies than the pre-exposed ones, although no effect of the lead on this parameter could be statistically proven. The ability of the artillery range isopods to synthesise stress proteins (hsp 70) in response to lead contamination decreased at much lower lead concentrations in their food than in the non-pre-exposed control population, even though the artillery range isopods seemed to be equally or even slightly better equipped with energy storage products. Even though the better nutrient status of these animals might refer to some lead tolerance of the pre-exposed population, the stress protein data suggest that a metal

  8. Underachievement Leading to Downgrading at the Highest Level of Secondary Education in the Netherlands: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates downgrading from the highest level of secondary education in The Netherlands. "Downgrading" is defined as continuation of secondary education at a lower level. We conduct a longitudinal case study of downgrading in the first 3 years of a secondary school. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses are…

  9. Impact of a Hospital-Level Intervention to Reduce Heart Disease Overreporting on Leading Causes of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarrai, Teeb; Madsen, Ann; Zimmerman, Regina; Maduro, Gil; Li, Wenhui; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The quality of cause-of-death reporting on death certificates affects the usefulness of vital statistics for public health action. Heart disease deaths are overreported in the United States. We evaluated the impact of an intervention to reduce heart disease overreporting on other leading causes of death. Methods A multicomponent intervention comprising training and communication with hospital staff was implemented during July through December 2009 at 8 New York City hospitals rep...

  10. Antigenic variation of Streptococcus mutans colonizing gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, D; Gibbons, R J

    1975-12-01

    Strains of Streptococcus mutans representative of serotypes b and d exhibited antigenic variation in both the oral cavity and in the intestinal canal of gnotobiotic rats. Laboratory-maintained cultures did not vary. The antigenic alterations observed were: (i) loss of detectable levels of both weakly reacting "strain" antigens and the type antigen; (ii) decreased production of the type antigen; (ii) production of altered type antigen; and (iv) production of an antigen not possessed by the parent strain. Immunization of animals before monoinfection with S. mutans strain Bob-1 (serotype d) appeared to increase the rate of emergence of antigenically altered mutants in the intestinal canal, and more diversely altered isolates were obtained. Antigenic variation may account in part for the variation noted by several investigators in attempting to immunize animals against S. mutans-induced dental caries.

  11. 稽留流产与血铅水平的关系探讨%Missed Abortion and Blood Lead Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱素优; 贺惠琼; 钟继生

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析稽留流产与孕妇血铅的相关性,了解惠州市铅污染对孕妇的影响,为预防稽留流产寻找依据。方法选取于2011年2月至2013年3月在我院妇科确诊为稽留流产的患者506例为研究对象,同时选取同期早期妊娠健康孕妇500例作对照研究,分别记为观察组和对照组,取样上述两组孕妇静脉血,给予血铅检验,观察和对比两组孕妇血铅检测值,分析血铅与稽留流产之间的关系。结果观察组孕妇血铅检测值明显高于对照组孕妇,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论稽留流产与血铅水平有紧密的联系,可通过对孕前妇女血铅测定,防止稽留流产,指导优生优育。%Objective To analyze the correlation between missed abortion and blood lead level in pregnant women, to understand the impact of lead pollution in Huizhou on pregnant women, and to provide a basis for the prevention of missed abortion. Methods 506 cases of missed abortion as well as 500 cases of healthy pregnant women in our hospital from February 2011 to March 2013 were selected as the observation group and the control group. We assigned blood lead level test to both groups and the results were compared. The correlation between the blood lead level and missed abortion were analysed. Results The blood lead level of the observation group are significantly higher than that of the control group (P <0.01). Conclusions Missed abortion is closely related to the blood lead level. By detecting the blood lead level in pregnant women, missed abortion can be prevented. Prenatal and postnatal care can be guided according to the blood lead level test result..

  12. Influences of different serum levels of lead on parameters of blood cells%血铅结果对血细胞参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅; 李启亮

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解血铅对儿童血液系统的影响及血铅与血细胞参数的关系.方法 对北京市1 584名体检儿童进行血铅及血细胞的检测.按血铅值分为高铅(血铅≥100μg/L)和低铅(血铅<100μg/L)两组.结果 高铅组的血红蛋白、红细胞比积、平均红细胞体积和红细胞平均血红蛋白含量均低于低铅组,经比较有显著性差异(t分别为2.38、2.47、2.39、2.41,均P<0.05).血铅与血红蛋白、红细胞比积、平均红细胞体积、红细胞平均血红蛋白含量呈负相关关系(r分别为-0.156、-1.571,均P<0.05;-0.219、-0.249,均P<0.01).结论 血铅升高(≥100μg/L)的儿童患低色素性小细胞贫血的几率较血铅正常的儿童高,虽然其贫血的指标无明显变化,但要重视潜在贫血的可能性.%Objective To investigate influences of different serum levels of lead on parameters of blood cells of child and their correlations of different levels of lead with parameters of hemogram. Methods The serum level of lead and parameters of hemogram of 1 584 children who received health physical examination in Beijing city were detected. According to the serum level of lead, all the chidren were divided into two groups: low serum lead group (the serum level of lead was<100μg/L) and high serum lead group (the serum level of lead was ≥100μg/L). Results The hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) of chidren in the high serum lead group were all lower than those of chidren in the low serum lead group, the differences were significant(t=2.38, 2.47, 2.39, 2.41 respectively, all P<0.05). There was negative correlation between lead and HB, HCT, MCV, MCH(rHb=-0.156, rHCT=-1.57, both P<0.05; rMCV=-0.219, rMCH=-0.249, both P<0.01). Conclusion The probability of suffering from hypochromemic microcytic anemia of a child whose serum lead level is high (≥100μg/L) is higher than that of a child whose serum lead level is

  13. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  14. Plakophilin3 loss leads to an increase in PRL3 levels promoting K8 dephosphorylation, which is required for transformation and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nileema Khapare

    Full Text Available The desmosome anchors keratin filaments in epithelial cells leading to the formation of a tissue wide IF network. Loss of the desmosomal plaque protein plakophilin3 (PKP3 in HCT116 cells, leads to an increase in neoplastic progression and metastasis, which was accompanied by an increase in K8 levels. The increase in levels was due to an increase in the protein levels of the Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver 3 (PRL3, which results in a decrease in phosphorylation on K8. The increase in PRL3 and K8 protein levels could be reversed by introduction of an shRNA resistant PKP3 cDNA. Inhibition of K8 expression in the PKP3 knockdown clone S10, led to a decrease in cell migration and lamellipodia formation. Further, the K8 PKP3 double knockdown clones showed a decrease in colony formation in soft agar and decreased tumorigenesis and metastasis in nude mice. These results suggest that a stabilisation of K8 filaments leading to an increase in migration and transformation may be one mechanism by which PKP3 loss leads to tumor progression and metastasis.

  15. Do changes in socialization lead to decline in reading level? How parents, literary education, and popular culture affect the level of books read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboord, Marc; Rees, Kees van

    2003-01-01

    The influence of reading socialization on the level of books read in adult life was investigated for birth cohorts who finished secondary education between 1975 and 1998. Three forms of reading socialization were taken into account: socialization in the parental home, literary socialization at secon

  16. Levels of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead in fruits and vegetables grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteef, Mohammed D Y; Fawy, Khaled F; Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S M; Idris, Abubakr M

    2015-11-01

    The levels of four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were evaluated in two fruit types (apricot and fig), a fruity vegetable (tomato), and three leafy vegetables (arugula, spinach, and lettuce) that are commonly grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for quantification. The quality of results was checked by a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1570a). Good recovery values in the range of 87-104% were achieved. Metals were quantified in washed and unwashed samples to evaluate the effect of washing. Statistically, no significant difference was noticed (p>0.05), except for Zn in arugula and Cu in apricot and spinach. The levels of metals found in the analyzed fruits and vegetables were in their normal ranges in crops and not posing any serious risks to the consumers in Aseer Region. The toxic elements Pb and Cd were well below the maximum levels set in the Saudi and international food standards. Zn and Cu levels were comparable to the ranges reported in worldwide previous studies.

  17. Diagnostic significance of DNA and antibodies against capsid antigens of anti-Epstein–Barr virus antibodies levels in blood plasma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients from non-endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gurtsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, a representative of the herpesvirus family, is the etiological agent for a number of benign and malignant human neoplasms. Among the latter, the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC occupies a special place. In NPC development EBV plays a key role stimulating the progression of the pathological process from precancerous lesions to the cancer development. For most NPC patients, elevated levels of humoral IgG and IgA antibodies against capsid and early EBV antigens are characteristic and their antibody titers rise to high levels long before the diagnosis of cancer. Using this phenomenon, virus-specific antibodies are used for many years as markers for NPC screening, especially in cases of undiagnosed primary lesion. In recent years, in endemic for NPC regions (South China, South-East Asia a great attention has been paid to the use of quantitative determination of EBV DNA copies in the blood plasma of patients with NPC as a method of early cancer detection and monitoring.The aim of this study was to compare clinical significance of EBV DNA and humoral antibodies levels in blood plasma of NPC patients in non-endemic region, Russia. The results obtained indicate that both markers DNA / EBV and IgA antibodies against capsid EBV antigens can be successfully used for diagnosis of NPC in non-endemic region. However, in comparison with the virus-specific antibody titers, the viral DNA levels in the patients plasma are more sensitive and specific as NPC marker reflecting the efficacy of the therapy, and the state of remission or relapse.

  18. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace level lead in biological samples in the presence of aqueous micellar solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Humaira; Ahmed, M. Jamaluddin; Bhanger, M. Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    A very simple, ultra-sensitive and fairly selective new spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of lead(II) at ultra-trace level using 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) in presence of aqueous micellar solutions. The proposed method enabled the determination of lead down to µg l−1 in human blood and urine in aqueous media without resource of any “clean-up” step. The most remarkable point of this method is that the presence of micellar system avoids the prev...

  19. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia, E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); Sakuma, Alice Momoyo [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); De Capitani, Eduardo Mello [Universidade Estadual de Campinas — UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Controle de Intoxicações (Brazil); Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde/SP, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças (Brazil); Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia (Brazil); Gouveia, Nelson [Universidade de São Paulo — USP, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  20. Comparison of the Level of Cadmium and Lead between the Cigarette Filters of Different Iranian and non-Iranian Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Pashapour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts have been shown to release numerous kinds of chemicals such as heavy metals in water and may be a continual source of aquatic environments contamination after discarding. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of Cd and Pb in cigarette filters of different Iranian and non-Iranian brands in smoked and non-smoked samples. Methods: Ten different brands of cigarettes were collected from Tehran, Iran local markets in 2014. Standardized international protocols were followed for preparation of the materials and analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Cd contents. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 18 software by ANOVA and Student T tests. Results: The average concentration of Cd in Iranian cigarette filters was 0.42±0.03mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 0.31±0.05mg/kg (p=0.4. The average concentration of Pb in Iranian cigarette filters was 22.32±1.15mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 23.62±3.17mg/kg (p=0.072. The Cadmium concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 0.18 to 0.48μg/g before and 0.25 to 0.88μg/g after smoking. The Lead concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 16.63 to 33.52μg/g before and 20.14 to 53.55μg/g after smoking. Conclusion: Smoked cigarette filters have more concentrations of Cd and Pb than non-smoked cigarette filters and these concentrations are also different between Iranian and non-Iranian cigarette brands.

  1. Levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clays for oral use on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, N M; Klerx, W N M; Kooijman, M; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women in Africa, Asia and Suriname, and some immigrants in Western societies, traditionally consume clay products known by a variety of names such as mabele, calabash chalk, sikor and pimba. Furthermore, clay is used for health purposes in Western societies. Because certain clays can contain high levels of metals and metalloids, the aim of this study was to determine lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clay products for oral use available on the Dutch market. Traditional clays originating from Africa (n = 10) and Suriname (n = 26), and health clays (n = 27) were sampled from 2004 up to and including 2012. Total metal and metalloid contents were measured by ICP-MS and showed maximum levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium of 99.7, 45.1, 2.2 and 0.75 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. In the absence of maximum limits for these type of clays, the potential exposure was estimated from the determined concentration, the estimated daily use level of the clays, and the estimated bioaccessibility of the different metals and arsenic. The intake estimates were compared with existing health-based guidance values. For lead, the use of 34 of the 36 traditional clays and two of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit by up to 20-fold. Use of 15 of the 35 traditional clays and 11 of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit for inorganic arsenic by up to 19-fold. Although limited bioaccessibility from the clay may limit the exposure and exceedance of the health-based guidance values, it was concluded that lead and arsenic intakes from some clay products could be of concern also because of their use by pregnant women and the potential developmental toxicity. As a result the use of these products, especially by pregnant women, should be discouraged.

  2. Misplaced Inventory and Lead-Time in the Supply Chain: Analysis of Decision-Making on RFID Investment with Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio-frequency identification (RFID, as the key technology of Internet of Things (IoT, has been hailed as a major innovation to solve misplaced inventory and reduce lead-time. Many retailers have been pushing their suppliers to invest this technology. However, its associated costs seem to prohibit its widespread application. This paper analyzes the situation of service level in a retail supply chain, which has resulted from misplaced inventory and lead-time. By newsvendor model, we analyze the difference between with- and without-RFID technologies in service level of centralized and decentralized supply chains, respectively. Then with different service levels, we determine the tag cost thresholds at which RFID technology investment becomes profitable in centralized and decentralized supply chains, respectively. Furthermore, we apply a linear transfer payment coefficient strategy to coordinate with the decentralized supply chain. It is found that whether the adoption of RFID technology improves the service level depends on the cost of RFID tag in the centralized system, but it improves the service level in the decentralized system when only the supplier bears the cost of RFID tag. Moreover, the same cost thresholds of RFID tag with different service levels exist in both the centralized and the decentralized cases.

  3. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  4. 铅作业工人血清NO水平检测研究%Detection of seurm NO level in workers exposed to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小玉; 王新朝; 李志远; 马玉英; 张巧

    2001-01-01

    Objective In order to explore the relationship between the serum NO level and laed intoxication. Methods The contents of serum NO and blood lead in 30 battery workers exposed to lead and in 33 controls without lead exposure were studied. The blood was determined using differential potentiometriic stripping analysis (DPSA). The level of NO was determined using nitrate reductase. Results The content of serum NO was remarkably higher in lead exposure group than that in control group (P<0.05). No difference of NO content was found in different work-age groups. Also, no linear correlation could be shown between content of serum NO and blood lead, and urinary or δ-ALA. Conclusion The serum NO might play certain role in lead intoxication but need further study.%目的 探讨NO与铅的毒作用之间的关系。方法 某个体蓄电池厂30名铅作业工人为研究对象,以33名非铅接触者为对照组,以微分电位溶出法测定血铅;以硝酸还原酶法测定血清NO含量。结果 铅接触组血清NO含量高于对照组(P<0.05)。但不同工龄组间血清NO含量无显著性差异(P>0.05)。血清NO含量与血铅浓度及尿δ-ALA含量无直线相关关系(P>0.05)。结论 一氧化氮在铅毒作用机制中可能有一定的意义。

  5. Immunogenic salivary proteins of Triatoma infestans: development of a recombinant antigen for the detection of low-level infestation of triatomines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schwarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. The most effective vector, Triatoma infestans, has been controlled successfully in much of Latin America using insecticide spraying. Though rarely undertaken, surveillance programs are necessary in order to identify new infestations and estimate the intensity of triatomine bug infestations in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Since hosts exposed to triatomines develop immune responses to salivary antigens, these responses can be evaluated for their usefulness as epidemiological markers to detect infestations of T. infestans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. infestans salivary proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and tested for their immunogenicity by Western blotting using sera from chickens and guinea pigs experimentally exposed to T. infestans. From five highly immunogenic protein spots, eight salivary proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS and comparison to the protein sequences of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and expressed sequence tags of a unidirectionally cloned salivary gland cDNA library from T. infestans combined with the NCBI yeast protein sub-database. The 14.6 kDa salivary protein [gi|149689094] was produced as recombinant protein (rTiSP14.6 in a mammalian cell expression system and recognized by all animal sera. The specificity of rTiSP14.6 was confirmed by the lack of reactivity to anti-mosquito and anti-sand fly saliva antibodies. However, rTiSP14.6 was recognized by sera from chickens exposed to four other triatomine species, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. sordida, Rhodnius prolixus, and Panstrongylus megistus and by sera of chickens from an endemic area of T. infestans and Chagas disease in Bolivia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The recombinant rTiSP14.6 is a suitable and promising

  6. Adaptation of influenza A viruses to cells expressing low levels of sialic acid leads to loss of neuraminidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M T; McGregor, M; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Kawaoka, Y

    2001-04-01

    Influenza A viruses possess two virion surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA binds to sialyloligosaccharide viral receptors, while the NA removes sialic acids from the host cell and viral sialyloligosaccarides. Alterations of the HA occur during adaptation of influenza viruses to new host species, as in the 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics. To gain a better understanding of the contributions of the HA and possibly the NA to this process, we generated cell lines expressing reduced levels of the influenza virus receptor determinant, sialic acid, by selecting Madin-Darby canine kidney cells resistant to a lectin specific for sialic acid linked to galactose by alpha(2-3) or alpha(2-6) linkages. One of these cell lines had less than 1/10 as much N-acetylneuraminic acid as its parent cell line. When serially passaged in this cell line, human H3N2 viruses lost sialidase activity due to a large internal deletion in the NA gene, without alteration of the HA gene. These findings indicate that NA mutations can contribute to the adaptation of influenza A virus to new host environments and hence may play a role in the transmission of virus across species.

  7. Low-Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Dysglycemia in Adult Individuals: Results from the Canadian Health and Measure Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, Gerard; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of exposure to lead with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose levels (FGLs), and the likelihood for dysglycemia. We accessed data from Canada Health and Measures Survey. General linear models were used to estimate the association between blood lead concentrations (BPb) and both HbA1c and FGLs, while controlling for confounders. Multivariate logistic regression was used for assessing the relation between BPb and the likelihood for dysglycemia. FGLs in participants with moderate BPb (2.5-5.0 μg/dL) were 1.03 (95 % CI 1.00-1.06) times higher compared with participants with BPb Lead exposure was associated with the likelihood for neither FGLs ≥ 1.10 g/L nor HbA1c ≥ 5.7 %. The association between lead exposure and dysglycemia, if any, is likely to be very modest, at least at the population level.

  8. Variation in pre-treatment count lead time and its effect on baseline estimates of cage-level sea lice abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Boerlage, A S; Vanderstichel, R; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2016-11-01

    Treatment efficacy studies typically use pre-treatment sea lice abundance as the baseline. However, the pre-treatment counting window often varies from the day of treatment to several days before treatment. We assessed the effect of lead time on baseline estimates, using historical data (2010-14) from a sea lice data management programme (Fish-iTrends). Data were aggregated at the cage level for three life stages: (i) chalimus, (ii) pre-adult and adult male and (iii) adult female. Sea lice counts were log-transformed, and mean counts by lead time relative to treatment day were computed and compared separately for each life stage, using linear mixed models. There were 1,658 observations (treatment events) from 56 sites in 5 Bay Management Areas. Our study showed that lead time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was moderated by season. During the late summer and autumn periods, counting on the day of treatment gave significantly higher values than other days and would be a more appropriate baseline estimate, while during spring and early summer abundance estimates were comparable among counts within 5 days of treatment. A season-based lead time window may be most appropriate when estimating baseline sea lice levels.

  9. Human serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1/Dlk1) increase with obesity, are negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and modulate inflammation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacón, M R; Miranda, M; Jensen, C H

    2008-01-01

    chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6 (interleukin-6) and adiponectin). CONCLUSION: FA1 serum levels were increased in obese subjects and might influence S(i). The stimulatory effect of FA1 protein on pro-inflammatory cytokines on both immune and adipose cell types could contribute to worsening the inflammatory...... levels. In severe obesity, serum levels of FA1 decreased 1.4-fold 6 months after bariatric surgery. In vitro assays with FA1 protein on human monocytes and adipocytes cell lines modified the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), monocyte...

  10. Human cytomegalovirus infection leads to elevated levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse aortic xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele-Ohl, S; Leis, M; Wollin, M; Mahmoudian, S; Hoffmann, J; Müller, R; Heim, C; Spriewald, B M; Weyand, M; Stamminger, T; Ensminger, S M

    2012-07-01

    Recent findings emphasized an important role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mouse-xenograft-model to investigate both immunological as well as viral effector mechanisms in the progression of transplant arteriosclerosis. For this, sidebranches from the internal mammary artery were recovered during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, tissue-typed and infected with HCMV. Then, size-matched sidebranches were implanted into the infrarenal aorta of Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice. The animals were reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 7 days after transplantation. HCMV-infection was confirmed by Taqman-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Arterial grafts were analyzed by histology on day 40 after transplantation. PBMC-reconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) animals showed splenic chimerism levels ranging from 1-16% human cells. After reconstitution, Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice developed human leukocyte infiltrates in their grafts and vascular lesions that were significantly elevated after infection. Cellular infiltration revealed significantly increased ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression after HCMV-infection of the graft. Arterial grafts from unreconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) recipients showed no vascular lesions. These data demonstrate a causative relationship between HCMV-infection as an isolated risk factor and the development of transplant-arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse arterial-transplant-model possibly by elevated ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression.

  11. Calorie restriction at increasing levels leads to augmented concentrations of corticosterone and decreasing concentrations of testosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Tammer, Amanda H; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2010-05-01

    The influence of calorie restriction (CR) on increasing life span, enhancing immunocompetence, and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases is well established. Evidence points to the involvement of neuroendocrine alterations in these beneficial effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that CR will result in significant alterations to the hormones investigated. Little attention has been directed toward ascertaining the doses of CR required to obtain such alterations and, indeed, whether a dose-response exists. Adult rats were subjected to 1 of 5 dietary regimens: control, CR12.5%, CR25%, CR37.5%, or CR50%. Rats were decapitated 3 weeks following the onset of restriction; and trunk blood was collected and assayed for concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and testosterone, as well as plasma concentrations of noradrenalin and adrenalin. No effect was found as a result of dietary manipulation for serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, all doses of CR resulted in increased serum corticosterone in a dose-response trend. A dose-response was also observed for serum testosterone, with higher doses of CR associated with lower testosterone. Concentrations of noradrenalin were not found to be altered by any CR dose, although a trend toward a down-regulation at CR50% was observed. Plasma adrenalin displayed a biphasic distribution with reductions observed at CR25% and CR50%, although the down-regulations only attained statistical significance relative to the CR37.5% and not the control group. As well as reporting the effect of CR on multiple hormones within individual animals, these results go some way in determining the optimal levels of CR needed to induce neuroendocrinologic alterations.

  12. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), calcium and magnesium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), Ca/Mg and calcium concentrations (r=0.64, p<0.005), and sulfuric ion and magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, p<0.005). Negative correlations were found between sulfuric ion concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.31, p<0.01), and magnesium concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.32, p<0.01). This suggests that mouth rinse from employees working with sulfuric acid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  13. 儿童贫血与血铅及微量元素水平的关系%Relationship between anemia and blood lead level and trace elements levels in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家云; 王晓梅; 刘瑜; 艾洪武; 申志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究儿童贫血与血铅、铁、铜、钙、镁、锌水平之间的关系.方法:随机选择武汉市妇女儿童医疗保健中心就诊儿童90例,采集静脉血分别检测血常规及血铅的含量,采集末梢血检测铁、铜、钙、镁、锌的浓度.根据血常规的结果将研究对象分为贫血组和对照组,贫血组又进一步分为轻度、中度、重度3组.同时,根据血铅的检测结果将研究对象分为低铅组和高铅组.结果:血铅范围在100~200 μg/L范围与轻度贫血有明显的相关性.低铅组和对照组与高血铅组和贫血组相比较,铁和锌的水平明显偏低,但钙、镁、铜含量无统计学差异.血铅的水平与Hb、Hct、MCV、MCH呈现明显的负相关性,与RDW-CV呈现正相关性.结论:血铅水平>100μg/L明显与贫血相关,高血铅降低铁和锌的吸收,从负面影响血液学参数.%Objective: To research the relationship between anemia and blood lead, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and zinc levels in children. Methods-. 90 children were selected randomly from the hospital, then venous blood samples were obtained to detect blood routine examination and the content of blood lead; the concentrations of iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and zinc in peripheral blood were detected. The study objects were divided into anemia group and control group according to the results of blood routine examination, then the children in anemia group were divided into mild anemia group, moderate anemia group and severe anemia group further. At the same time, the study objects were divided into low lead group and high lead group according to the detection results of blood lead. Results; There was a significant correlation between blood lead level (within 100 -200 ug/L) and mild anemia Compared with anemia group and high lead group, the levels of iron and zinc in low lead group and control group were low, but there was no significant difference in calcium, magnesium and copper levels

  14. COMPARE THE LEVEL OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA ANTIGEN IN SERUM AND LOCAL IMMUNITY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE FORM OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Baturina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cervical cancer continues to take a leading position in the structure of cancer pathology in women. This situation calls for the search for new diagnostic criteria for prognosis of the disease. The study found that tumor marker SCCA is immunologically dependent and its detection should be carried out in conjunction with immunological parameters of cervical mucus. This is important not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring of anticancer therapy conducted to determine prognosis of the disease and preclinical detection recurrence of cervical cancer.

  15. Eosinofil Sel Penyaji Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sel eosinofil merupakan jenis sel lekosit yang terlibat dalam berbagai patogenesis penyakit. Sel eosinofil pada awalnya dikenal sebagai sel efektor  dari sistem imunitas alamiah. Akan tetapi, kemampuan sel eosinofil dalam memfagositosis patogen menimbulkan dugaan bahwa sel eosinofil ikut berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen. Hal ini dianalogikan dengan sel makrofag dan sel dendritik yang bisa memfagositosis dan menyajikan antigen sebagai hasil dari degradasi patogen yang difagositosis. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini, penulis melakukan penelusuran artikel tentang eosinofil sebagai sel penyaji antigen melalui US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Healthdengan kata kunci eoshinophil dan antigen presenting cell. Hasil penelusuran adalah ditemukannya 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik. Hasil dari sintesis kesepuluh jurnal tersebut adalah sel eosinofil mampu berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen yang profesional (professionalantigenpresentng cell

  16. Exposure to low level of arsenic and lead in drinking water from Antofagasta city induces gender differences in glucose homeostasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Javier; Roman, Domingo; Cifuentes, Fredi

    2012-08-01

    Populations chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water often have increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the glucose homeostasis of male and female rats exposed to low levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Treated groups were Sprague-Dawley male and female rats exposed to drinking water from Antofagasta city, with total arsenic of 30 ppb and lead of 53 ppb for 3 months; control groups were exposed to purified water by reverse osmosis. The two treated groups in both males and females showed arsenic and lead in the hair of rats. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic toxicity and lead. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was reduced only in treated male rats, compared to the control group. Treated males showed a significantly sustained increase in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test compared to control group. The oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated that male rats were insulin resistant, and females remained sensitive to insulin after treatment. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol increased in treated male rats vs. the control, and triglyceride increased in treated female rats vs. the control. The activity of intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in male rats increased compared to female rats, suggesting a significant increase in intestinal glucose absorption. The findings indicate that exposure to low levels of arsenic and lead in drinking water could cause gender differences in insulin resistance.

  17. Defining the antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and the requirements for a multi-allele vaccine against malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien R Drew

    Full Text Available Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate and a target of naturally-acquired human immunity. Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 is polymorphic and in vaccine trials it induces strain-specific protection. This antigenic diversity is a major roadblock to development of AMA1 as a malaria vaccine and understanding how to overcome it is essential. To assess how AMA1 antigenic diversity limits cross-strain growth inhibition, we assembled a panel of 18 different P. falciparum isolates which are broadly representative of global AMA1 sequence diversity. Antibodies raised against four well studied AMA1 alleles (W2Mef, 3D7, HB3 and FVO were tested for growth inhibition of the 18 different P. falciparum isolates in growth inhibition assays (GIA. All antibodies demonstrated substantial cross-inhibitory activity against different isolates and a mixture of the four different AMA1 antibodies inhibited all 18 isolates tested, suggesting significant antigenic overlap between AMA1 alleles and limited antigenic diversity of AMA1. Cross-strain inhibition by antibodies was only moderately and inconsistently correlated with the level of sequence diversity between AMA1 alleles, suggesting that sequence differences are not a strong predictor of antigenic differences or the cross-inhibitory activity of anti-allele antibodies. The importance of the highly polymorphic C1-L region for inhibitory antibodies and potential vaccine escape was assessed by generating novel transgenic P. falciparum lines for testing in GIA. While the polymorphic C1-L epitope was identified as a significant target of some growth-inhibitory antibodies, these antibodies only constituted a minor proportion of the total inhibitory antibody repertoire, suggesting that the antigenic diversity of inhibitory epitopes is limited. Our findings support the concept that a multi-allele AMA1 vaccine would give broad coverage against the diversity of AMA1 alleles and establish new tools to

  18. THF1 mutations lead to increased basal and wound-induced levels of oxylipins that stimulate anthocyanin biosynthesis via COI1 signaling in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gan; Hong Li; Ye Xie; Wenjuan Wu; Maoyin Li; Xuemin Wang; Jirong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Mutants defective in chloroplast development or photosynthesis are liable to accumulate higher levels of anthocyanin in photo-oxidative stress. However, regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the mutants remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the deletion of thylakoid formation1 (THF1) leads to an increased level of anthocyanin in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Physiological and genetic evidence showed that the increased level of anthocya-nin in thf1 is dependent on coronatine-insensitive1 (COI1) signaling. Our data showed that thf1 had higher levels of basal a-linolenic acid (a-LeA), and methyl jasmonate (JA)-induced a-LeA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) than the wild type (WT). Consistently, expression levels of phospholipase genes including pPLAIIa and PLA-Ig1 were elevated in thf1. Further-more, inhibition of lipase activity by bromoenol lactone, a specific inhibitor of plant pPLA, led to producing identical levels of anthocyanins in WT and thf1 plants. Interestingly, OPDA biosynthesis was triggered by light il umination in isolated chloroplasts, indicating that new protein import into chlor-oplasts is not required for OPDA biosynthesis. Thus, we conclude that the elevated anthocyanin accumulation in thf1 is attributed to an increase in JA levels. This JA-mediated signaling to coordinate plant metabolism and growth in stress may be conserved in other photosensitive mutants.

  19. THF1 mutations lead to increased basal and wound-induced levels of oxylipins that stimulate anthocyanin biosynthesis via COI1 signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yi; Li, Hong; Xie, Ye; Wu, Wenjuan; Li, Maoyin; Wang, Xuemin; Huang, Jirong

    2014-09-01

    Mutants defective in chloroplast development or photosynthesis are liable to accumulate higher levels of anthocyanin in photo-oxidative stress. However, regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the mutants remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the deletion of thylakoid formation1 (THF1) leads to an increased level of anthocyanin in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Physiological and genetic evidence showed that the increased level of anthocyanin in thf1 is dependent on coronatine-insensitive1 (COI1) signaling. Our data showed that thf1 had higher levels of basal α-linolenic acid (α-LeA), and methyl jasmonate (JA)-induced α-LeA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) than the wild type (WT). Consistently, expression levels of phospholipase genes including pPLAIIα and PLA-Iγ1 were elevated in thf1. Furthermore, inhibition of lipase activity by bromoenol lactone, a specific inhibitor of plant pPLA, led to producing identical levels of anthocyanins in WT and thf1 plants. Interestingly, OPDA biosynthesis was triggered by light illumination in isolated chloroplasts, indicating that new protein import into chloroplasts is not required for OPDA biosynthesis. Thus, we conclude that the elevated anthocyanin accumulation in thf1 is attributed to an increase in JA levels. This JA-mediated signaling to coordinate plant metabolism and growth in stress may be conserved in other photosensitive mutants.

  20. Modulation of total IgE levels in serum of normal and athymic nude BALB/c mice by cells and exogenous antigenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Akker, van den T.W.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Oudenaren, van A.; Benner, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several different grades of T-system impairment were studied for their effects on the total serum IgE concentration in BALB/c mice. Homozygous athymic nu/nu mice and their heterozygous nu/ littermates were compared for serum IgE levels while kept under either barrier-maintained or conventional condi

  1. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice.

  2. Decreased level of Nurr1 in heterozygous young adult mice leads to exacerbated acute and long-term toxicity after repeated methamphetamine exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Luo

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH, is prevalent in young adults and could lead to long-term adaptations in the midbrain dopamine system in abstinent human METH abusers. Nurr1 is a gene that is critical for the survival and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons and has been implicated in dopaminergic neuron related disorders. In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of repeated early exposure to methamphetamine in adolescence and reduction in Nurr1 gene levels. METH binge exposure in adolescence led to greater damage in the nigrostrial dopaminergic system when mice were exposed to METH binge later in life, suggesting a long-term adverse effect on the dopaminergic system. Compared to naïve mice that received METH binge treatment for the first time, mice pretreated with METH in adolescence showed a greater loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity in striatum, loss of THir fibers in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr as well as decreased dopamine transporter (DAT level and compromised DA clearance in striatum. These effects were further exacerbated in Nurr1 heterozygous mice. Our data suggest that a prolonged adverse effect exists following adolescent METH binge exposure which may lead to greater damage to the dopaminergic system when exposed to repeated METH later in life. Furthermore, our data support that Nurr1 mutations or deficiency could be a potential genetic predisposition which may lead to higher vulnerability in some individuals.

  3. Synthetic antigens reveal dynamics of BCR endocytosis during inhibitory signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Adam H; Bennett, Nitasha R; Zwick, Daniel B; Hudon, Jonathan; Kiessling, Laura L

    2014-01-17

    B cells detect foreign antigens through their B cell antigen receptor (BCR). The BCR, when engaged by antigen, initiates a signaling cascade. Concurrent with signaling is endocytosis of the BCR complex, which acts to downregulate signaling and facilitate uptake of antigen for processing and display on the cell surface. The relationship between signaling and BCR endocytosis is poorly defined. Here, we explore the interplay between BCR endocytosis and antigens that either promote or inhibit B cell activation. Specifically, synthetic antigens were generated that engage the BCR alone or both the BCR and the inhibitory co-receptor CD22. The lectin CD22, a member of the Siglec family, binds sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates found on host tissues, inhibiting BCR signaling to prevent erroneous B cell activation. At low concentrations, antigens that can cocluster the BCR and CD22 promote rapid BCR endocytosis; whereas, slower endocytosis occurs with antigens that bind only the BCR. At higher antigen concentrations, rapid BCR endocytosis occurs upon treatment with either stimulatory or inhibitory antigens. Endocytosis of the BCR, in response to synthetic antigens, results in its entry into early endocytic compartments. Although the CD22-binding antigens fail to activate key regulators of antigen presentation (e.g., Syk), they also promote BCR endocytosis, indicating that inhibitory antigens can be internalized. Together, our observations support a functional role for BCR endocytosis in downregulating BCR signaling. The reduction of cell surface BCR levels in the absence of B cell activation should raise the threshold for BCR subsequent activation. The ability of the activating synthetic antigens to trigger both signaling and entry of the BCR into early endosomes suggests strategies for targeted antigen delivery.

  4. Succinyl-CoA Synthetase: New Antigen Candidate of Bartonella bacilliformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cláudia; Palma, Noemí; Pons, Maria J.; Magallón-Tejada, Ariel; Sandoval, Isabel; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Gutarra, Carlos; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim; Matsuoka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a neglected illness with mortality rates of 40–85% in the absence of treatment. The lack of a diagnostic technique to overcome misdiagnosis and treat asymptomatic carriers is of note. This study aimed to identify new B. bacilliformis antigenic candidates that could lead to a new diagnostic tool able to be implemented in endemic rural areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood (n = 198) and serum (n = 177) samples were collected in northern Peru. Clinical data were recorded. Specific 16S rRNA amplification by RT-PCR, IFA and ELISA for IgM/IgG with whole cells as antigens was done. Western blot analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing detected seroreactive proteins. ELISAs for IgM/IgG for the antigenic candidates were performed. Of the population 33.3% reported at least one symptom compatible with Carrion’s disease; 25.4% (IFA), 27.1% (ELISA-IgG), 33.9% (ELISA-IgM) and 38.9% (RT-PCR) of samples were positive. Four proteins were considered potential antigenic candidates, including two new antigenic candidates, succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit α (SCS-α) and succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit β (SCS-β). On Western blot both Pap31 and SCS-α interacted with IgM, while GroEL and SCS-β interacted with IgG. The presence of specific antibodies against the antigenic candidates varied from 34.5% (IgG against SCS-α) to 97.2% (IgM against Pap31). Conclusions/Significance RT-PCR and the high levels of positivity for specific ELISAs demonstrate high levels of B. bacilliformis exposure and asymptomatic carriers among inhabitants. The new antigens identified might be used as a new rapid diagnostic tool to diagnose acute Carrion’s disease and identify asymptomatic carriers. PMID:27627803

  5. Societal benefits from EU reduction measures to decrease lead levels in the environment; Combining results from the EU funded projects INTARESE and HEIMTSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens J. G. E. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper combines the results of two Sixth Framework Program EU research projects aimed at developing and testing methods for integrated assessment of health risks from environmental stressors, i.e. the INTARESE and the HEIMTSA project, both of which covered a case study on environmental lead. The INTARESE case study on lead in Europe was meant to illustrate the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. The HEIMTSA case study on the other hand involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR in response to current and future legislation. Analysing environmental data, significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 μg/m3 (P95: 0.94; n=98 prior to 1990 to 0.045 μg/m3 (P95:0.11; n=256 in 2007 (latest

  6. Passive Smoking and Blood Lead Level%被动吸烟与幼儿血铅水平关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建安; 静进; 易欢琼; 王梦龙; 陈学彬; 刘德华

    2000-01-01

    To research the relationship between passive smoking and blood lead level, the sitution of passive smoking were investigate in 395 preschool children aged 2~6 years with self-designed Ques- tionnaire and their blood lead level were measured to analyze the the relationship between passive smoking and blood lead level. The results showed that the blood lead level and the prevalence rate of lead poisoning ( 26.98ug/dl, 87.45 % ) in the observation group were higher than that in the contral group(22.24μg/dl, 60.81% ) significiantly, as the passive smoking increasing, they increased gradually(P<0.05), the Bpb was the highest in 2 year old obser- vation group than in the others, multiple regression analysis showed that passive smoking were associated with blood lead lev- els. It were obvious that passive smoking affected the blood lead levels of preschool children, 2 year old was probably the critical pe- riod of passive smoking exposure.%随机抽取太原市居民区某幼儿园2~6岁395名儿童 为研究对象,用自拟问卷调查儿童被动吸烟情况,采指端末梢 血20μl,原子吸收石墨炉法测定血铅。结果表明:家庭成员中 吸烟无任何限制者高达89.37%,来访客人是否吸烟同家庭成 员是否吸烟密切相关(r=0.6182,P=0.0181),62.53%幼儿存 在ETS暴露。暴露组幼儿血铅水平(26.98μg/dl)及铅中毒流 行率(87.45%)明显高于非暴露组(22.24μg/dl,60.81%)。幼 儿血铅水平及铅中毒流行率随家庭成员吸烟量与时间增加明 显升高(P<0.05),被动吸烟对2岁年龄组的影响存在较其他 年龄组严重的趋势,多元逐步回归分析显示被动吸烟与血铅值 相关。据此推导:被动吸烟影响幼儿血铅水平,可能年龄越小, 越易感和脆弱。

  7. The absence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprF protein leads to increased biofilm formation through variation in c-di-GMP level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffartigues, Emeline; Moscoso, Joana A; Duchesne, Rachel; Rosay, Thibaut; Fito-Boncompte, Laurène; Gicquel, Gwendoline; Maillot, Olivier; Bénard, Magalie; Bazire, Alexis; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Lerouge, Patrice; Dufour, Alain; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Overhage, Joerg; Filloux, Alain; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    OprF is the major outer membrane porin in bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonas genus. In previous studies, we have shown that OprF is required for full virulence expression of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we describe molecular insights on the nature of this relationship and report that the absence of OprF leads to increased biofilm formation and production of the Pel exopolysaccharide. Accordingly, the level of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger in biofilm control, is elevated in an oprF mutant. By decreasing c-di-GMP levels in this mutant, both biofilm formation and pel gene expression phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels. We further investigated the impact on two small RNAs, which are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, and found that expression of rsmZ but not of rsmY was increased in the oprF mutant and this occurs in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Finally, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors AlgU and SigX displayed higher activity levels in the oprF mutant. Two genes of the SigX regulon involved in c-di-GMP metabolism, PA1181 and adcA (PA4843), were up-regulated in the oprF mutant, partly explaining the increased c-di-GMP level. We hypothesized that the absence of OprF leads to a cell envelope stress that activates SigX and results in a c-di-GMP elevated level due to higher expression of adcA and PA1181. The c-di-GMP level can in turn stimulate Pel synthesis via increased rsmZ sRNA levels and pel mRNA, thus affecting Pel-dependent phenotypes such as cell aggregation and biofilm formation. This work highlights the connection between OprF and c-di-GMP regulatory networks, likely via SigX (ECF), on the regulation of biofilm phenotypes.

  8. Uso do chumbo em urina como indicador de exposição e sua relação com chumbo no sangue Use of urine lead level as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Ramos Moreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se há correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as concentrações de chumbo no sangue (Pb-S e urina (Pb-U. A espectrometria de absorção atômica eletrotérmica foi utilizada na determinação da concentração de chumbo no material biológico. As amostras de sangue e de urina foram coletadas entre trabalhadores expostos ocupacionalmente (95 e entre adultos (130 e crianças até 15 anos (22 expostos ambientalmente. Após um teste que mostrou diferenças significativas entre Pb-U e as três categorias previamente determinadas, pontos de corte em Pb-U puderam ser fixados para a predição dos valores de Pb-S pela curva ROC. Assim, para Pb-U até 0,55 µg.dL-1, pode-se esperar que Pb-S seja menor do que 10 µg.dL-1, ao passo que níveis de chumbo no sangue até 27,6 µg.dL-1 são esperados quando o teor do metal na urina é menor do que 2,05 µg.dL-1. Logo, a urina pode ser utilizada em substituição ao sangue para avaliação da exposição ocupacional ao chumbo. Contudo, recomenda-se cautela no caso da exposição ambiental, devendo-se utilizar o chumbo urinário como uma estimativa do conteúdo do metal no sangue.The aim of this work was to verify whether there are statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of lead in blood (Pb-B and urine (Pb-U. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. Venous blood and spot urine were collected from workers occupationally exposed (95, adults (130 and children up to 15 years old (22 environmentally exposed. After a test showing significant differences between Pb-U and the three categories previously determined, cutting points for Pb-U were established to predict Pb-B values by the ROC curve. Thus, it is expected that Pb-B is lower than 10 µg.dL-¹ with Pb-U up to 0.55 µg. dL-¹, whereas lead levels in blood below 27.6 µg. dL-¹ are expected when the amount

  9. Effect of L-arginine, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and the association of L-arginine and DMSA on tissue lead mobilization and blood pressure level in plumbism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvezzi C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb-induced hypertension is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO. In the present study we evaluated the effect of L-arginine (NO precursor, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a chelating agent and ROS scavenger, and the association of L-arginine/DMSA on tissue Pb mobilization and blood pressure levels in plumbism. Tissue Pb levels and blood pressure evolution were evaluated in rats exposed to: 1 Pb (750 ppm, in drinking water, for 70 days, 2 Pb plus water for 30 more days, 3 Pb plus DMSA (50 mg kg-1 day-1, po, L-arginine (0.6%, in drinking water, and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA for 30 more days, and 4 their respective matching controls. Pb exposure increased Pb levels in the blood, liver, femur, kidney and aorta. Pb levels in tissues decreased after cessation of Pb administration, except in the aorta. These levels did not reach those observed in nonintoxicated rats. All treatments mobilized Pb from the kidney, femur and liver. Pb mobilization from the aorta was only effective with the L-arginine/DMSA treatment. Blood Pb concentrations in Pb-treated groups were not different from those of the Pb/water group. Pb increased blood pressure starting from the 5th week. L-arginine and DMSA treatments (4th week and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA (3rd and 4th weeks decreased blood pressure levels of intoxicated rats. These levels did not reach those of nonintoxicated rats. Treatment with L-arginine/DMSA was more effective than the isolated treatments in mobilizing Pb from tissues and in reducing the blood pressure of intoxicated rats.

  10. Can a Gleason 6 or Less Microfocus of Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Archetype of Low-Risk Prostate Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Gianluigi; Benecchi, Luigi; Grizzi, Fabio; Seveso, Mauro; Giusti, Guido; Piccinelli, Alessandro; Benetti, Alessio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Minuti, Francesco; Graziotti, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) remains a cause of death worldwide. Here we investigate whether a single microfocus of PC at the biopsy (graded as Gleason 6 or less, ≤5% occupancy) and the PSA archetype of low-risk prostate disease. 4500 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 134 patients with a single micro-focus of PC were followed up, and the parameters influencing the biochemical relapse (BR) were analysed. Out of 134 patients, 94 had clinically significant disease, specifically in 74.26% of the patients with PSA <10 ng/mL. Positive surgical margins and the extracapsular invasion were found in 29.1% and 51.4% patients, respectively. BR was observed in 29.6% of the patients. Cox regression evidenced a correlation between the BR and Gleason grade at the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), capsular invasion, and the presence of positive surgical margins. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the presence of surgical margins at the RRP and BR. Considering a single micro-focus of PC at the biopsy and PSA serum level <10 ng/mL, clinically significant disease was found in 74.26% patients and only positive surgical margins are useful for predicting the BR.

  11. High-programmed death-1 levels on hepatitis C virus-specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral persistence and require preservation of cognate antigen during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Ray, Stuart C; Astemborski, Jacquie; Levine, Jordana; Liu, Lin; Dowd, Kimberly A; Clute, Shalyn; Wang, Changyu; Korman, Alan; Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Pardoll, Drew M; Cox, Andrea L

    2008-12-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that represents a model for chronic infection given that the majority of infected individuals fail to clear the infection despite generation of virus-specific T cell responses during the period of acute infection. Although viral sequence evolution at targeted MHC class I-restricted epitopes represents one mechanism for immune escape in HCV, many targeted epitopes remain intact under circumstances of viral persistence. To explore alternative mechanisms of HCV immune evasion, we analyzed patterns of expression of a major inhibitory receptor on T cells, programmed death-1 (PD-1), from the time of initial infection and correlated these with HCV RNA levels, outcome of infection, and sequence escape within the targeted epitope. We show that the level of PD-1 expression in early HCV infection is significantly higher on HCV-specific T cells from subjects who progress to chronic HCV infection than from those who clear infection. This correlation is independent of HCV RNA levels, compatible with the notion that high PD-1 expression on HCV-specific CD8 T cells during acute infection inhibits viral clearance. Viral escape during persistent infection is associated with reduction in PD-1 levels on the surface of HCV-specific T cells, supporting the necessity of ongoing antigenic stimulation of T cells for maintenance of PD-1 expression. These results support the idea that PD-1 expression on T cells specific for nonescaped epitopes contributes to viral persistence and suggest that PD-1 blockade may alter the outcome of HCV infection.

  12. Antigen presentation for priming T cells in central system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Shaoni; Dasgupta, Subhajit

    2017-01-01

    Generation of myelin antigen-specific T cells is a major event in neuroimmune responses that causes demyelination. The antigen-priming of T cells and its location is important in chronic and acute inflammation. In autoimmune multiple sclerosis, the effector T cells are considered to generate in periphery. However, the reasons for chronic relapsing-remitting events are obscure. Considering mechanisms, a feasible aim of research is to investigate the role of antigen-primed T cells in lupus cerebritis. Last thirty years of investigations emphasize the relevance of microglia and infiltrated dendritic cells/macrophages as antigen presenting cells in the central nervous system. The recent approach towards circulating B-lymphocytes is an important area in the context. Here, we analyze the existing findings on antigen presentation in the central nervous system. The aim is to visualize signaling events of myelin antigen presentation to T cells and lead to the strategy of future goals on immunotherapy research.

  13. СAPSULAR ANTIGEN OF YERSINIA PESTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kadnikova

    2015-01-01

    . Molecular usher Caf1A responsible for capsular antigen anchoring on the surface of bacterial cell has a high affinity to human interleukin 1β. Caf1 can compete with interleukins 1α, 1β, and 1ra in binding to receptors on lymphoid cells preventing development of adequate immune response. Immunodiagnosis of plague is based on detection of Caf1 or anti-Caf1 antibodies since this Y. pestis antigen is species specific. Covering bacterial surfaces capsular antigen is also the paramount component of all modern plague vaccines. Its leading role in induction of intense immunity in mice, rats, monkeys, and men was shown clearly. However, non-capsulated (Caf1– variants of Y. pestis keeping their virulence at the level of the wild-type strains might be selected and accumulated in immune animals. This indicates inadmissibility of application of monoantigen plague vaccines and necessity for design of immunoprophylactic preparations aimed at two or three molecular targets. 

  14. Effect of salinity levels and lead and cadmium heavy metals on growth, photosynthetic pigments and sodium and potassium content in spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals (HMs are hazardous environmental pollutants which by entering the food chain cause harm to humans, plants and other organisms. In order to study the effects of salinity and lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd HMs on spinach plant, a factorial, pot experiment, based on complete randomized blocks design, was carried out in 2013 in College of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 dS/m as factor A and HMs at four levels (control, Cd, Pb and Cd+Pb as Factor B. results revealed that salinity had no significant effect on fresh and dry weight of spinach; but HMs treatment caused significant changes in these traits. Minimum and maximum fresh and dry weights were obtained in the Cd and Cd+Pb treatments, respectively. Besides photosynthetic pigments of flavonoids and anthocyanin, salinity had significant effect only on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, cartenoid contents and reduced them at 8 dS/m level. Salinity treatment, without affecting potassium content, increased sodium and soluble carbohydrates in spinach leaves. Interaction between salinity and HMs was only significant for carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The highest amount of carbohydrate was obtained in the Cd+Pb and 8 dS/m treatment and the highest amount of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b was obtained in the no salinity (control and Pb treatment.

  15. Home environment and cord blood levels of lead, arsenic, and zinc on neurodevelopment of 24 months children living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Fujiwara, Takeo; Umezaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    In a birth cohort living in Chitwan Valley, lowland Nepal, we have previously reported inverse associations between in utero levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and neurodevelopment at birth measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, third edition (NBAS III). In the present paper, a follow-up of the same cohort was made on 24-month-old infants regarding the neurodevelopmental effects of these metals, taking the postnatal environment into account. In total, the same100 mother-infant pairs as the previous study, whose Pb, As, and Zn concentrations in cord blood were known, were recruited. Postnatal raising environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 24 months of age (n=74) was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariable regression adjusting for covariates was performed to determine the associations of in utero levels of toxic and essential elements and the home environment with neurodevelopment scores. Unlike the NBAS III conducted for newborns, none of the BSID II cluster scores in 24-month-old infants were associated with cord blood levels of Pb, As, and Zn. The total HOME score was positively associated with the mental development scale (MDI) score (coefficient=0.67, at 95% CI=0.03 to 1.31). In this cohort, a detrimental effect of in utero Pb and As on neurodevelopmental indicators observed at birth disappeared at 24 months, while an association between neurodevelopment and home environment continued.

  16. PAIgG and PAIgM levels in secondary dengue virus infections lead to thrombocytopenia in patients from KP, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Alam; Said Hassan; Iftikhar Alam; Rahmat Gul; Farhad Ali; Ijaz Ali; Sana Ullah; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Aasif Awan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the impact of platelet associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG)/ platelet associated immunoglobulin M (PAIgM) on severity of dengue virus infection leading to thrombocytopenia. Methods: In this study we examined a total of 52 patients who were having secondary infection of dengue in acute phase by using competitive ELISA. Results: A decrease in the platelet count was observed at the acute phase of infection while all along the recovery stage the count of platelet was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed inPAIgG andPAIgM in these subjects. Inverse correlation was found between platelets count andPAIgG/PAIgM among the subjects studied. In the platelets elution from ten subjects, anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were observed.PAIgG andPAIgM with inclined levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than the classical dengue fever. In the development of dengue hemorrhagic feverPAIgM inclined level was independently associated with high specificity, showing a possible indication of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Conclusions: This study suggests that in secondary dengue virus infection, thePAIgGand PAIgM levels, and the activity of anti-dengue virus play key roles, both in the development and severity of the disease.

  17. PAIgG and PAIgM levels in secondary dengue virus infections lead to thrombocytopenia in patients from KP, Pakistan简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar; Alam; Said; Hassan; Iftikhar; Alam; Rahmat; Gul; Farhad; Ali; Ijaz; Ali; Sana; Ullah; Imtiaz; Ali; Khan; Aasif; Awan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the impact of platelet associated immunoglobulin G(PAIg G)/platelet associated immunoglobulin M(PAIg M) on severity of dengue virus infection leading to thrombocytopenia.Methods: In this study we examined a total of 52 patients who were having secondary infection of dengue in acute phase by using competitive ELISA.Results: A decrease in the platelet count was observed at the acute phase of infection while all along the recovery stage the count of platelet was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed in PAIg G and PAIg M in these subjects. Inverse correlation was found between platelets count and PAIg G/PAIg M among the subjects studied. In the platelets elution from ten subjects, anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were observed. PAIg G and PAIg M with inclined levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than the classical dengue fever. In the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever PAIg M inclined level was independently associated with high specificity, showing a possible indication of dengue hemorrhagic fever.Conclusions: This study suggests that in secondary dengue virus infection, the PAIg G and PAIg M levels, and the activity of anti-dengue virus play key roles, both in the development and severity of the disease.

  18. Recognition of antigen-specific B-cell receptors from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients by synthetic antigen surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-12-18

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe nonpeptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used to identify other classes of antigen surrogates.

  19. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD = 6.06 in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61 and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83. Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.09 and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59 were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

  20. Economic Design of Multi-echelon Inventory System with Variable Lead Time and Service Level Constraint in a Fuzzy Cost Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Priyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Normally, human based industrial decision making involves both quantitative and qualitative input factors such as ordering cost, setup cost, etc. Thus the practitioners should be careful in accounting flexibility in the input factors. This paper optimizes an inventory system by employing mathematical model with variable lead time and service level constraint (SLC in a fuzzy cost environment. Fuzziness is established by allowing the cost components imprecise and vague to certain extent. Trapezoidal and triangular fuzzy numbers are used to represent these characteristics. We also use signed distance method to defuzzify the fuzzy joint total expected cost and differential calculus optimization technique is adopted to find all optimal solutions to the model. Numerical results highlighting the sensitivity in the decision variables are also described.

  1. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  2. Oral Migalastat HCl Leads to Greater Systemic Exposure and Tissue Levels of Active α-Galactosidase A in Fabry Patients when Co-Administered with Infused Agalsidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Warnock

    Full Text Available Migalastat HCl (AT1001, 1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin is an investigational pharmacological chaperone for the treatment of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A deficiency, which leads to Fabry disease, an X-linked, lysosomal storage disorder. The currently approved, biologics-based therapy for Fabry disease is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with either agalsidase alfa (Replagal or agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme. Based on preclinical data, migalastat HCl in combination with agalsidase is expected to result in the pharmacokinetic (PK enhancement of agalsidase in plasma by increasing the systemic exposure of active agalsidase, thereby leading to increased cellular levels in disease-relevant tissues. This Phase 2a study design consisted of an open-label, fixed-treatment sequence that evaluated the effects of single oral doses of 150 mg or 450 mg migalastat HCl on the PK and tissue levels of intravenously infused agalsidase (0.2, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg in male Fabry patients. As expected, intravenous administration of agalsidase alone resulted in increased α-Gal A activity in plasma, skin, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs compared to baseline. Following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase, α-Gal A activity in plasma was further significantly increased 1.2- to 5.1-fold compared to agalsidase administration alone, in 22 of 23 patients (95.6%. Importantly, similar increases in skin and PBMC α-Gal A activity were seen following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase. The effects were not related to the administered migalastat HCl dose, as the 150 mg dose of migalastat HCl increased α-Gal A activity to the same extent as the 450 mg dose. Conversely, agalsidase had no effect on the plasma PK of migalastat. No migalastat HCl-related adverse events or drug-related tolerability issues were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01196871.

  3. Coenzyme depletion by members of the aerolysin family of pore-forming toxins leads to diminished ATP levels and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennessey, Christine M; Ivie, Susan E; McClain, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that a variety of bacterial pore-forming toxins induce cell death through a process of programmed necrosis characterized by the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. However, events leading to the necrosis and depletion of ATP are not thoroughly understood. We demonstrate that ATP-depletion induced by two pore-forming toxins, the Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin and the Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin toxin, is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. To gain further insight into the toxin-induced metabolic changes contributing to necrosis and depletion of ATP, we analyzed the biochemical profiles of 251 distinct compounds by GC/MS or LC/MS/MS following exposure of a human kidney cell line to the epsilon-toxin. As expected, numerous biochemicals were seen to increase or decrease in response to epsilon-toxin. However, the pattern of these changes was consistent with the toxin-induced disruption of major energy-producing pathways in the cell including disruptions to the beta-oxidation of lipids. In particular, treatment with epsilon-toxin led to decreased levels of key coenzymes required for energy production including carnitine, NAD (and NADH), and coenzyme A. Independent biochemical assays confirmed that epsilon-toxin and aerolysin induced the rapid decrease of these coenzymes or their synthetic precursors. Incubation of cells with NADH or carnitine-enriched medium helped protect cells from toxin-induced ATP depletion and cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that members of the aerolysin family of pore-forming toxins lead to decreased levels of essential coenzymes required for energy production. The resulting loss of energy substrates is expected to contribute to dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and ultimately cell death.

  4. Significance of the normal level of prostate specific antigen in six cases with prostate cancer and review of the literature%血清前列腺特异性抗原水平正常的前列腺癌6例及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯歌; 戴峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the measure to avoid the missed diagnosis of prostate carcinoma in patients with normal level of prostate specific antigen( PSA) . Methods:Two hundred and three prostate hyperplasia patients with normal PSA level were treated with transurethral resection of the prostate,and the clinical data of 6 cases with prostate carcinoma diagnosed by pathological examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results:The signs of prostate carcinoma in 6 cases with prostate carcinoma were not found by the conventional ultrasonography examination and anus digital,and the 6 patients were the first visit to hospitalization. Among 6 cases,1 case was undifferentiation,1 case was middle differentiation with severe condition of prostate carcinoma,the disease developed rapidly, and 2 cases died in a short period of time. The rest 4 patients were highly differentiation prostate carcinoma, and still live now. Conclusions:The normal level of prostate specific antigen can be found in the early incidental prostate carcinoma and progressive prostate carcinoma,which can lead to the missed diagnosis. The application of ultrasound combined with nuclear magnetic resonance, especially transrectal ultrasonography of prostate and prostate specific antigen rate, should be considered. The prostatic puncture in suspected patient should be performed to improve the early diagnosis rate of prostate carcinoma.%目的::探讨在血清前列腺特异抗原( PSA)水平正常时,如何避免前列腺癌的漏诊。方法:对203例血清PSA水平正常的前列腺增生患者在经尿道前列腺电切术后,病理检查中发现的6例前列腺癌患者临床资料进行回顾分析。结果:6例前列腺癌患者普通超声检查和肛门指诊未发现前列腺癌的征象,均为初次就诊入院,6例患者中病理检查有1例差(未)分化和1例中分化前列腺癌,病情发展迅速,短期内死亡。其余4例病理检查为高分化前列腺癌的患者目前仍存活。

  5. The Quantified Level of Circulating Prostate Stem Cell Antigen mRNA relative to GAPDH Level Is a Clinically Significant Indictor for Predicting Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Han Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study quantified the relative absolute PSCA level in relation to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH level in the peripheral blood of 478 hormone-naive prostate cancer (PC patients who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2005 to 2012 and evaluated its prognostic significance as a risk factor for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR, compared to known parameters. Nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis detected PSCA levels and measured the PSCA/GAPDH ratio. Clinicopathological data from the institutional database were examined to determine the adequate cut-off level to predict postoperative BCR. A total of 110 patients had a positive PSCA result (23.0% via RT-PCR (mean blood ratio 1.1 ± 0.4. The BCR was significantly higher in the PSCA-positive detection group (p=0.009. A multivariate model was created to show that a PSCA/GAPDH ratio between 1.0 and 1.5 (HR 12.722, clinical T2c stage (HR 0.104, preoperative PSA (HR 1.225, extraprostatic capsule extension (HR 0.006, lymph node dissection (HR 16.437, and positive resection margin (HR 27.453 were significant predictive factors for BCR (p<0.05. The study showed successful quantification of PSCA with its significance for BCR-related risk factor; however, further studies are needed to confirm its clinical predictive value.

  6. Superexpression of tuberculosis antigens in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Yuri L; Sheveleva, Anna A; Frolova, Olga Y; Komarova, Tatjana V; Zvereva, Anna S; Ivanov, Peter A; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    Recent developments in genetic engineering allow the employment of plants as factories for 1/foreign protein production. Thus, tuberculosis (TB) ESAT6 antigen was expressed in different plant systems, but the level of vaccine protein accumulation was extremely low. We describe the technology for superexpression of TB vaccine proteins (Ag85B, ESAT6, and ESAT6:Ag85B fusion) in plant leaves which involves: (i) construction of tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors with the coat protein genes substituted by those for TB antigens; (ii) Agrobacterium-mediated delivery to plant leaf tissues of binary vectors containing the cDNA copy of the vector virus genome; and (iii) replication of virus vectors in plant cells under conditions suppressing the virus-induced gene silencing. This technology enables efficient production of the TB vaccine proteins in plants; in particular, the level of Ag85B antigen accumulation was not less than 800 mg/kg of fresh leaves. Expression of TB antigens in plant cells as His(6)-tagged proteins promoted their isolation and purification by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Deletion of transmembrane domains from Ag85B caused a dramatic increase in its intracellular stability. We propose that the strategy of TB antigens superproduction in a plant might be used as a basis for the creation of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine against TB.

  7. Bayesian nonparametric clustering in phylogenetics: modeling antigenic evolution in influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybis, Gabriela B; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A

    2017-01-18

    Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods. We propose a phylogenetic Chinese restaurant process that extends the current process to incorporate the phylogenetic dependency structure between strains in the modeling of antigenic clusters. With this method, we are able to use the genetic information to better understand the evolution of antigenicity throughout epidemics, as shown in applications of this model to H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of low level lead exposure on associative learning and memory in the rat: Influences of sex and developmental timing of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D W; Mettil, W; Schneider, J S

    2016-03-30

    Lead (Pb) exposure during development impairs a variety of cognitive, behavioral and neurochemical processes resulting in deficits in learning, memory, attention, impulsivity and executive function. Numerous studies have attempted to model this effect of Pb in rodents, with the majority of studies focusing on hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory processes. Using a different paradigm, trace fear conditioning, a process requiring coordinated integration of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, we have assessed the effects of Pb exposure on associative learning and memory. The present study examined both female and male long evans rats exposed to three environmentally relevant levels of Pb (150 ppm, 375 ppm and 750 ppm) during different developmental periods: perinatal (PERI; gestation-postnatal day 21), early postnatal (EPN; postnatal days 1-21) and late postnatal (LPN; postnatal days 1-55). Testing began at postnatal day 55 and consisted of a single day of acquisition training, and three post training time points (1, 2 and 10 days) to assess memory consolidation and recall. All animals, regardless of sex, developmental window or level of Pb-exposure, successfully acquired conditioned-unconditioned stimulus association during training. However, there were significant effects of Pb-exposure on consolidation and memory recall at days 1-10 post training. In females, EPN and LPN exposure to 150 ppm Pb (but not PERI exposure) significantly impaired recall. In contrast, only PERI 150 ppm and 750 ppm-exposed males had significant recall deficits. These data suggest a complex interaction between sex, developmental window of exposure and Pb-exposure level on consolidation and recall of associative memories.

  9. [Two-step synthesis of the full length Aspergillus niger lipase gene lipA leads to high-level expression in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiangke; Yan, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Zhengping; Jiang, Xueqing; Yan, Yunjun

    2009-03-01

    Aspergillus niger lipases are important biocatalysis widely used in industries for food processing and pharmaceutical preparation. High-level expression recombinants can lead to cost effective lipase large scale production. Full length gene synthesis is an efficient measure to enhance the expression level of the gene. In order to reduce the non-specific binding between oligonucleotides and bases mutation caused by the complicate secondary structure of DNA and excessive PCR amplification, a frequently phenomenon in one-step gene synthesis, we used a two-step method including assembly PCR (A-PCR) and digestion-ligation step to synthesis Aspergillus niger lipase gene lipA. Assisted by DNA2.0 and Gene2Oliga software, we optimized the codon usage and secondary structure of RNA and induced enzyme sites Cla I (237 site) and Pst I (475 site) into the gene. In the first step, fragments F1 (237 bp), F2 (238 bp) and F3 (422 bp) were separately synthesized by assembly PCR. In the second step, fragments F1, F2 and F3 were separately digested by Cla I and Pst I, and then ligated into a full length lipA gene. Two-step method efficiently enhanced successful ratio for full-length gene synthesis and dispersed the risk for gene redesign. The synthesized gene was cloned into pPIC9K vector and transferred into Pichia pastoris. After methanol inducement, the expression level of the codon optimized lipA-syn gene reached 176.0 U/mL, 10.8-fold of the original lipA gene (16.3 U/mL) in Pichia pastoris GS1115. The recombinant offers the possibility for lipase large-scale production.

  10. Strategies for designing and monitoring malaria vaccines targeting diverse antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than 50 years of intensive research and development, only one malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, has progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials. Despite only partial efficacy, this candidate is now forecast to become the first licensed malaria vaccine. Hence, more efficacious second-generation malaria vaccines that can significantly reduce transmission are urgently needed. This review will focus on a major obstacle hindering development of effective malaria vaccines: parasite antigenic diversity. Despite extensive genetic diversity in leading candidate antigens, vaccines have been and continue to be formulated using recombinant antigens representing only one or two strains. These vaccine strains represent only a small fraction of the diversity circulating in natural parasite populations, leading to escape of non-vaccine strains and challenging investigators’ abilities to measure strain-specific efficacy in vaccine trials. Novel strategies are needed to overcome antigenic diversity in order for vaccine development to succeed. Many studies have now catalogued the global diversity of leading Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax vaccine antigens. In this review, we describe how population genetic approaches can be applied to this rich data source to predict the alleles that best represent antigenic diversity, polymorphisms that contribute to it, and to identify key polymorphisms associated with antigenic escape. We also suggest an approach to summarise the known global diversity of a given antigen to predict antigenic diversity, how to select variants that best represent the strains circulating in natural parasite populations and how to investigate the strain-specific efficacy of vaccine trials. Use of these strategies in the design and monitoring of vaccine trials will not only shed light on the contribution of genetic diversity to the antigenic diversity of malaria, but will also maximise the potential of future malaria vaccine

  11. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa-Jurado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA or chemiluminescent (CMIA were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26 were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079 were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1. Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing

  12. Protective antibody titres and antigenic competition in multivalent Dichelobacter nodosus fimbrial vaccines using characterised rDNA antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raadsma, H W; O'Meara, T J; Egerton, J R; Lehrbach, P R; Schwartzkoff, C L

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between K-agglutination antibody titres and protection against experimental challenge with Dichelobacter nodosus, the effect of increasing the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, and the importance of the nature of additional antigens in multivalent vaccines on antibody response and protection against experimental challenge with D. nodosus were examined in Merino sheep. A total of 204 Merino sheep were allocated to one of 12 groups, and vaccinated with preparations containing a variable number of rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial antigens. The most complex vaccine contained ten fimbrial antigens from all major D. nodosus serogroups, while the least complex contained a single fimbrial antigen. In addition to D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, other bacterial rDNA fimbrial antigens (Moraxella bovis Da12d and Escherichia coli K99), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used in some vaccines. Antibody titres to fimbrial antigens and BSA were measured by agglutination and ELISA tests, respectively. Antibody titres were determined on five occasions (Weeks 0, 3, 6, 8, and 11 after primary vaccination). All sheep were exposed to an experimental chall