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Sample records for antigen gene expression

  1. Cellular gene expression induced by parasite antigens and allergens in neonates from parasite-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboslay, Peter T; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gille, Christian; Spring, Bärbel; Kocherscheidt, Lars; Agossou, Abram; Banla, Meba; Bonin, Michael; Köhler, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to parasite antigens or allergens will influence the profile and strength of postnatal immune responses, such contact may tolerize and increase susceptibility to future infections or sensitize to environmental allergens. Exposure in utero to parasite antigens will distinctly alter cellular gene expression in newborns. Gene microarrays were applied to study gene expression in umbilical cord blood cell (UCBC) from parasite-exposed (Para-POS) and non-exposed (Para-NEG) neonates. UCBC were activated with antigens of helminth (Onchocerca volvulus), amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica) or allergens of mite (Dermatophagoides farinae). When UCBC from Para-POS and Para-NEG newborns were exposed to helminth antigens or allergens consistent differences occurred in the expression of genes encoding for MHC class I and II alleles, signal transducers of activation and transcription (STATs), cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, and molecules associated with immune regulation (SOCS, TLR, TGF), inflammation (TNF, CCR) and apoptosis (CASP). Expression of genes associated with innate immune responses were enhanced in Para-NEG, while in Para-POS, the expression of MHC class II and STAT genes was reduced. Within functional gene networks for cellular growth, proliferation and immune responses, Para-NEG neonates presented with significantly higher expression values than Para-POS. In Para-NEG newborns, the gene cluster and pathway analyses suggested that gene expression profiles may predispose for the development of immunological, hematological and dermatological disorders upon postnatal helminth parasite infection or allergen exposure. Thus, prenatal parasite contact will sensitize without generating aberrant inflammatory immune responses, and increased pro-inflammatory but decreased regulatory gene expression profiles will be present in those neonates lacking prenatal parasite antigen encounter. PMID:27062712

  2. Cell density related gene expression: SV40 large T antigen levels in immortalized astrocyte lines

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    Jacobberger James W

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is affected by population density. Cell density is a potent negative regulator of cell cycle time during exponential growth. Here, we asked whether SV40 large T antigen (Tag levels, driven by two different promoters, changed in a predictable and regular manner during exponential growth in clonal astrocyte cell lines, immortalized and dependent on Tag. Results Expression and cell cycle phase fractions were measured and correlated using flow cytometry. T antigen levels did not change or increased during exponential growth as a function of the G1 fraction and increasing cell density when Tag was transcribed from the Moloney Murine Leukemia virus (MoMuLV long terminal repeat (LTR. When an Rb-binding mutant T antigen transcribed from the LTR was tested, levels decreased. When transcribed from the herpes thymidine kinase promoter, Tag levels decreased. The directions of change and the rates of change in Tag expression were unrelated to the average T antigen levels (i.e., the expression potential. Conclusions These data show that Tag expression potential in these lines varies depending on the vector and clonal variation, but that the observed level depends on cell density and cell cycle transit time. The hypothetical terms, expression at zero cell density and expression at minimum G1 phase fraction, were introduced to simplify measures of expression potential.

  3. Gene expression by simian virus 40 large T antigen-induced medulloblastomas in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoluan Wei; Jie Feng; Yinghe Hu

    2012-01-01

    Signaling pathways known to have components with mutations in human medulloblastoma include sonic hedgehog, Wnt/beta-catenin and insulin-like growth factor. Microarray analysis was applied to examine the gene expression changes in medulloblastomas of pTet-on/pTRE-SV40Tag transgenic mice. Altogether, 14 112 genes were detectable, including 152 genes with significantly different expression levels. These genes were associated with immunity, the cell cycle, signal transduction, cytoskeleton and metabolism. To further confirm the microarray data, real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to examine the expression changes of genes related to sonic hedgehog, Wnt/beta-catenin and insulin-like growth factor signal pathways. Immunohistochemistry detected insulin receptor substrate-1 in the nuclei of brain tumor tissue cells from pTet-on/pTRE-SV40Tag transgenic mice, suggesting that SV40 large T antigen may activate the insulin-like growth factor signal pathway to promote tumorigenesis.

  4. Unique antigenic gene expression at different developmental stages of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X P; Liu, X L; Wang, X L; Blaga, R; Fu, B Q; Liu, P; Bai, X; Wang, Z J; Rosenthal, B M; Shi, H N; Sandrine, L; Vallee, I; Boireau, P; Wang, F; Zhou, X N; Zhao, Y; Liu, M Y

    2013-05-20

    Parasite-induced and parasite-regulated larval capsule formation and host immunosuppression are two major characteristics that are unique in Trichinella spp. infections, but the molecule(s) and mechanism(s) that mediate these processes remain largely unknown. Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella spiralis, are obviously different with respect to these two characteristics. A comparative study of these two species, in particular their antigen expression profiles at different developmental stages (the main molecules involved in the cross-talk or interaction between each parasite and its host), may help us better understand the parasite molecules and mechanisms involved. Here, we constructed cDNA libraries from T. pseudospiralis adults (Ad), newborn larvae (NBL) and muscle larvae (ML) mRNA and screened them with pig anti-T. pseudospiralis serum collected 26, 32 and 60 days post-infection (p.i.). The most abundant antigens were found to vary among life-cycle stages. Pyroglutamy peptidase 1-like and 6-phosphogluconolactonase-like genes predominated in the Ad stage and a serine protease (SS2-1-like gene) predominated in NBL similar to that observed in T. spiralis. Muscle larvae expressed proteasome activator complex subunit 3-like and 21 kDa excretory/secretory protein-like genes. This study indicated that parasites of two species may utilise different molecules and mechanisms for larvae capsule formation and host immunosuppression during their infections. Proteins of antigenic genes identified in this study may be also good candidates for diagnosis, treatment or vaccination for T. pseudospiralis infection, and also for the differential diagnosis of two species' infections. PMID:23433603

  5. Redefining the expressed prototype SICAvar gene involved in Plasmodium knowlesi antigenic variation

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    Galinski Mary R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SICAvar gene family, expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, is critical for antigenic variation in Plasmodium knowlesi. When this family was discovered, a prototypic SICAvar gene was characterized and defined by a 10-exon structure. The predicted 205-kDa protein lacked a convincing signal peptide, but included a series of variable cysteine-rich modules, a transmembrane domain encoded by the penultimate exon, and a cytoplasmic domain encoded by the final highly conserved exon. The 205 SICAvar gene and its family with up to 108 possible family members, was identified prior to the sequencing of the P. knowlesi genome. However, in the published P. knowlesi database this gene remains disjointed in five fragments. This study addresses a number of structural and functional questions that are critical for understanding SICAvar gene expression. Methods Database mining, bioinformatics, and traditional genomic and post-genomic experimental methods including proteomic technologies are used here to confirm the genomic context and expressed structure of the prototype 205 SICAvar gene. Results This study reveals that the 205 SICAvar gene reported previously to have a 10-exon expressed gene structure has, in fact, 12 exons, with an unusually large and repeat-laden intron separating two newly defined upstream exons and the bona fide 5'UTR from the remainder of the gene sequence. The initial exon encodes a PEXEL motif, which may function to localize the SICA protein in the infected erythrocyte membrane. This newly defined start of the 205 SICAvar sequence is positioned on chromosome 5, over 340 kb upstream from the rest of the telomerically positioned SICAvar gene sequence in the published genome assembly. This study, however, verifies the continuity of these sequences, a 9.5 kb transcript, and provides evidence that the 205 SICAvar gene is located centrally on chromosome 5. Conclusion The prototype 205 SICAvar gene has been

  6. Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1.

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    Kimberley D Seed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage.

  7. Epigenetic modulation of cancer-germline antigen gene expression in tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells: implications for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Burns, Jorge S; Nielsen, Ole; Kassem, Moustapha; Ditzel, Henrik

    2009-07-01

    Cancer-germline antigens are promising targets for cancer immunotherapy, but whether such therapies will also eliminate the primary tumor stem cell population remains undetermined. We previously showed that long-term cultures of telomerized adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can spontaneously evolve into tumor-initiating, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT20), which have characteristics of clinical sarcoma cells. In this study, we used the hMSC-TERT20 tumor stem cell model to investigate the potential of cancer-germline antigens to serve as tumor stem cell targets. We found that tumorigenic transformation of hMSC-TERT20 cells induced the expression of members of several cancer-germline antigen gene families (ie, GAGE, MAGE-A, and XAGE-1), with promoter hypomethylation and histone acetylation of the corresponding genes. Both in vitro cultures and tumor xenografts derived from tumorigenic hMSC-TERT20 single cell subclones exhibited heterogeneous expression of both GAGE and MAGE-A proteins, and similar patterns of expression were observed in clinical sarcomas. Importantly, histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors were able to induce more ubiquitous expression levels of cancer-germline antigens in hMSC-TERT20 cells, while their expression levels in primary human mesenchymal stem cells remained unaffected. The expression pattern of cancer-germline antigens in tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells and sarcomas, plus their susceptibility to enhancement by epigenetic modulators, makes them promising targets for immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer treatment. PMID:19498007

  8. Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma (PRAME) and Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT 1) Genes Expression in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Prognostic Role and Correlation with Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateeb, Engy El; Morgan, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in children. In young children it is also largely curable, with more than 90% of afflicted children achieving long-term remission. PRAME (Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma) gene belongs to Group 3 class I HLA-restricted widely expressed antigens in which genes encoding widely expressed tumor antigens have been detected in many normal tissues as well as in histologically different types of tumors with no preferential expression on a certain type of cancer. It has been found to be expressed in a variety of cancer cells as leukemia & lymphoma. PRAME monitoring can be useful for detection of minimal residual disease and subsequent relapses particularly those leukemias in which specific tumor markers are unavailable. Wilms’ tumor1 (WT1) gene was identified as a gene that plays an important role in normal kidney development and inactivation of its function was shown to result in the development of Wilms’ tumors in paediatric patients. Disruption of WT1 function has been implicated in the formation of many different tumor types. AIM: to study how PRAME & WT 1 genes expression patterns influence cancer susceptibility & prognosis. PATIENTS & METHODS: 50 patients with denovo childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, as well as 50 age and sex matched apparently healthy volunteers were genotyped for PRAME and WT1 genes expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: PRAME gene was expressed in 34 of the patients (68%) and WT1 gene was expressed in 26 of the patients (52%). Expression of both genes was significantly higher compared to controls (P antigens (PRAME and WT1) are potential candidates for immunotherapy in childhood acute leukemia.

  9. Antigen stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle yields evidence for a novel gene expression program

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    Zhao Yingdong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB caused by Mycobacterium bovis continues to cause substantial losses to global agriculture and has significant repercussions for human health. The advent of high throughput genomics has facilitated large scale gene expression analyses that present a novel opportunity for revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying mycobacterial infection. Using this approach, we have previously shown that innate immune genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from BTB-infected animals are repressed in vivo in the absence of exogenous antigen stimulation. In the present study, we hypothesized that the PBMC from BTB-infected cattle would display a distinct gene expression program resulting from exposure to M. bovis. A functional genomics approach was used to examine the immune response of BTB-infected (n = 6 and healthy control (n = 6 cattle to stimulation with bovine tuberculin (purified protein derivative – PPD-b in vitro. PBMC were harvested before, and at 3 h and 12 h post in vitro stimulation with bovine tuberculin. Gene expression changes were catalogued within each group using a reference hybridization design and a targeted immunospecific cDNA microarray platform (BOTL-5 with 4,800 spot features representing 1,391 genes. Results 250 gene spot features were significantly differentially expressed in BTB-infected animals at 3 h post-stimulation contrasting with only 88 gene spot features in the non-infected control animals (P ≤ 0.05. At 12 h post-stimulation, 56 and 80 gene spot features were differentially expressed in both groups respectively. The results provided evidence of a proinflammatory gene expression profile in PBMC from BTB-infected animals in response to antigen stimulation. Furthermore, a common panel of eighteen genes, including transcription factors were significantly expressed in opposite directions in both groups. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR demonstrated

  10. Cloning, Prokaryotic Expression, and Antigenicity Analysis of NS1 Gene of H9N2 Swine Influenza Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang-kun; YUAN Xiu-fang; WANG Yi-cheng; ZHANG Cun; XU Li-huan; LIU Si-dang

    2008-01-01

    To obtain the NS1 gene of swine influenza virus H9N2 subtype expressed efficiently in E. coli, to develope the effective diagnostic methods for swine influenza virus H9N2 subtype, the NS1 gene of swine influenza virus H9N2 subtype was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector, pET-28a(+), and overexpressed in E. coli BL21-DE3 after induction with 5 mmol L-1 lactose. The recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA and identified by western-blotting. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze the antigenicity of the recombinant protein. The recombinant protein of NS1 was about 26 kD. The Western-blotting test showed that the recombinant protein reacted specifically with positive sera. The results of the ELISA test showed that the recombinant protein had good antigenicity.

  11. Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma (PRAME and Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT 1 Genes Expression in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Prognostic Role and Correlation with Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy El Khateeb

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the expression of PRAME and WT1 genes are indicators of favorable prognosis and can be useful tools for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD in acute leukemia especially in patients without known genetic markers. Differential expression between acute leukemia patients and healthy volunteers suggests that the immunogenic antigens (PRAME and WT1 are potential candidates for immunotherapy in childhood acute leukemia.

  12. Sjogren's Syndrome Antigen B Acts as an Endogenous Danger Molecule to Induce Interleukin-8 Gene Expression in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils.

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    Cheng-Han Wu

    Full Text Available Sjögren's syndrome antigen B is expressed in the nucleus and surface membrane of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is released after cell death. However, its biological role is not clear. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of Sjögren's syndrome antigen B on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.Human recombinant Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (rSSB purified from E. coli was incubated with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as retinoid acid-induced granulocytic differentiated HL-60 cells, HL-60 (RA. Interleukin (IL-8 protein production and mRNA expressions were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-rSSB was assessed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways and nuclear factor-kappaB activation were investigated.Human rSSB stimulated IL-8 production from normal human neutrophils and HL-60 (RA cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This IL-8-stimulated activity was blocked by chloroquine and NH4Cl, indicating that endosomal acidification is important for this effect. We found rSSB activated both MAPK pathway and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling to transcribe the IL-8 gene expression of cells. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α exerted an additive effect and rSSB-anti-SSB immune complex exhibited a synergistic effect on rSSB-induced IL-8 production.Sjögren's syndrome antigen B might act as an endogenous danger molecule to enhance IL-8 gene expression in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

  13. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBsAg) in Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A transformation model for Laminaria japonica was established from 1993 to 1998, on the basis of which the transgenic kelp with heterologous gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was obtained by using the micro- particle bombardment transformation method. Results of quantitative ELISA showed that HBsAg in transgenic kelp was 0.529 μg/mg soluble proteins on average and the highest value was 2.497 μg/mg, implying that recombinant HBsAg had natural epitope. Further support for the integration of HBsAg gene into kelp genome was obtained by PCR- Southern and total DNA hybridization. Prospect of kelp bioreactor producing high value materials such as edible HBV vaccine was discussed as well.

  14. Influence of different rol gene products on the chain length of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide O antigen expressed by Shigella flexneri carrier strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Klee, S R; Tzschaschel, B D; Timmis, K N; Guzman, C A

    1997-01-01

    Introduction of the rol genes of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Escherichia coli K-12 into Shigella flexneri carrier strains expressing the heterologous S. dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide resulted in the formation of longer chains of S. dysenteriae 1 O antigen. In bacteria producing both homologous and heterologous O antigen, this resulted in a reduction of the masking of heterologous O antigen by homologous lipopolysaccharide and an increased immune response induced by intraperitoneal immu...

  15. Expression of a neuroendocrine gene signature in gastric tumor cells from CEA 424-SV40 large T antigen-transgenic mice depends on SV40 large T antigen.

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    Fritz Ihler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large fraction of murine tumors induced by transgenic expression of SV40 large T antigen (SV40 TAg exhibits a neuroendocrine phenotype. It is unclear whether SV40 TAg induces the neuroendocrine phenotype by preferential transformation of progenitor cells committed to the neuroendocrine lineage or by transcriptional activation of neuroendocrine genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question we analyzed CEA424-SV40 TAg-transgenic mice that develop spontaneous tumors in the antral stomach region. Immunohistology revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker chromogranin A in tumor cells. By ELISA an 18-fold higher level of serotonin could be detected in the blood of tumor-bearing mice in comparison to nontransgenic littermates. Transcriptome analyses of antral tumors combined with gene set enrichment analysis showed significant enrichment of genes considered relevant for human neuroendocrine tumor biology. This neuroendocrine gene signature was also expressed in 424GC, a cell line derived from a CEA424-SV40 TAg tumor, indicating that the tumor cells exhibit a similar neuroendocrine phenotype also in vitro. Treatment of 424GC cells with SV40 TAg-specific siRNA downregulated expression of the neuroendocrine gene signature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SV40 TAg thus appears to directly induce a neuroendocrine gene signature in gastric carcinomas of CEA424-SV40 TAg-transgenic mice. This might explain the high incidence of neuroendocrine tumors in other murine SV40 TAg tumor models. Since the oncogenic effect of SV40 TAg is caused by inactivation of the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and RB1 and loss of function of these proteins is commonly observed in human neuroendocrine tumors, a similar mechanism might cause neuroendocrine phenotypes in human tumors.

  16. Surface antigen expression and correlation with variable heavy-chain gene mutation status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilpo, Juhani; Tobin, Gerard; Hulkkonen, Janne; Hurme, Mikko; Thunberg, Ulf; Sundström, Christer; Vilpo, Leena; Rosenquist, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consists of two clinical entities with either somatically hypermutated (M-CLL) or unmutated (UM-CLL) immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain (VH) regions. In view of the fact that the cellular biology of these two subsets of disease is currently unexplored, we performed an extensive analysis of the surface antigen expression and correlated this with the VH gene mutation status in a cohort of 32 CLL patients. Using polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing, the VH genes were shown to be mutated in 10 cases (31%) and unmutated in 22 (69%). The expression of 27 surface membrane antigens in peripheral blood leukemic cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, measuring both the percentage of positive cells as well as the geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMF). Most of the surface membrane antigens (CD5, CD11c, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD40, CD45, VD79b, CD80, CD95, CD122, CD124, CD126, CD130, CD154, IgM, and IgD) showed a similar expression pattern in both UM-CLL and M-CLL patients. The similarity of M-CLL and UM-CLL, as demonstrated here for the first time with many protein markers, indicates a considerably homogeneous phenotype in both subsets. Furthermore, CD27 was strongly expressed in all cases, which may suggest a memory cell phenotype for both M-CLL and UM-CLL. More positive cells in the UM-CLL group were observed regarding CD38, but CD38 was not a good predictor of VH gene mutation status. Seventy percent of the M-CLL cases, but only 36% of UM-CLL cases, were Ig-lambda+. The most striking differential expression, however, was observed in the two slicing variants of the common leukocyte antigen CD45, namely CD45RO and CD45RA. CD45RO expression was significantly associated with M-CLL, whereas the GMF intensity of CD45RA tended to be associated with UM-CLL. The role of these CD45 splicing variants in the pathogenesis of CLL deserves further investigation

  17. Gene cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the protective antigen subolesin in Dermacentor silvarum.

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    Hu, Yonghong; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Duo; Li, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantian; Yang, Shujie; Liu, Jingze

    2014-02-01

    Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens. PMID:24623890

  18. Expression of T cell antigen receptor genes in the thymus of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential appearance of the expression of T cell antigen receptor genes was investigated in the thymus of irradiated mice at the early stage after transplantation of Thy-1 congeneic H-2 compatible allogeneic bone marrow cells. The first cells to repopulate the thymus on day 7 after bone marrow transplantation were intrathymic radioresistant T cell precursors, which expanded mainly to CD4+CD8+ host-type thymocytes by day 14. A high level of gamma gene expression but a much reduced level of alpha and beta gene expression were detected in the host-type thymocytes on day 7. During regeneration of these cells, gamma-chain messages fell to low level and alpha and beta mRNA levels increased. The thymus of the recipients began to be repopulated by donor-derived T cells about 2 wk after bone marrow transplantation and was almost completely replaced by the third week. An ordered expression of gamma then beta and alpha-chain gene transcript was also observed in the donor-type thymocytes at the early stage after bone marrow transplantation. The use of thymocytes at early stage in whole-body irradiated bone marrow chimera provides a pertinent source for investigating the molecular mechanism of T cell differentiation in adult thymus

  19. Expression of Major Antigen Domains of Gene of E2 CSFV and Analysis of its Immunological Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong TIAN; Xiang-tao LIU; Jing-yan WU; You-jun SHANG; Tao JIANG; Hai-xue ZHENG; Qing-ge XIE

    2008-01-01

    E2 is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and contains sequential neutralizing epitopes to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies and mount protective immunity in the natural host. In this study, four antigen domains (ABCD) of the E2 gene was cloned from CSFV Shimen strain into the retroviral vector pBABE puro and expressed in eukaryotic cell (PK15) by an retroviral gene expression system, and the activity of recombinant E2 protein to induce immune responses was evaluated in rabbits. The results indicated that recombinant E2 protein can be recognized by fluorescence antibodies of CSFV and CSFV positive serum (Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China) using Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and ELISA, Furthermore, anti-CSFV specific antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation were elicited and increased by recombinant protein after vaccination. In the challenge test, all of rabbits vaccinated with recombinant protein and Chinese vaccine strain (C-strain) were fully protected from a rabbit spleen virus challenge. These results indicated that a retroviral-based epitope-vaccine carrying the major antigen domains of E2 is able to induce high level of epitope-specific antibodies and exhibits similar protective capability with that induced by the C-strain, and encourages further work towards the development of a vaccine against CSFV infection.

  20. Growth inhibiting effects of antisense eukaryotic expression vector of proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene on human bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童强松; 曾甫清; 林晨; 赵军; 鲁功成

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the growth inhibiting effects on human bladder cancer by antisense RNA targeting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector for antisense PCNA cDNA was constructed and transferred into a bladder cancer EJ cell line. The PCNA expression in the cancer cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. The in vitro proliferation activities of the transferred cells were observed by growth curve, tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry, tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR)incorporation, flow cytometry and clone formation testing, while its in vivo anti-tumor effects were detected on nude mice allograft models.Results After the antisense vector, pLAPSN, was transferred, cellular PCNA expression was inhibited at both protein and mRNA levels. The growth rates of EJ cells were reduced from 27.91% to 62.07% (P<0.01), with an inhibition of DNA synthesis rate by 52.31% (P<0.01). Transferred cells were blocked at G0/G1 phases in cell-cycle assay, with the clone formation ability decreased by 50.81% (P<0.01). The in vivo carcinogenic abilities of the transferred cancer cells were decreased by 54.23% (P<0.05). Conclusions Antisense PCNA gene transfer could inhibit the growth of bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which provided an ideal strategy for gene therapy of human cancers.

  1. Cellular gene expression in papillomas of the choroid plexus from transgenic mice that express the simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, J R; J. Lin; Hinds, P; MILLER, D; Levine, A J

    1989-01-01

    Transgenic mice that contain the simian virus 40 (SV40) enhancer-promoter and large tumor (T) antigen gene develop papillomas of the choroid plexus. The tumors remain well differentiated on histological examination and express normal levels of tissue-specific mRNAs for transthyretin (TTR) and the 5-HT1C serotonin receptor, two differentiated cell markers. Both Northern (RNA) blot analysis and in situ cytohybridization have been used to monitor the steady-state levels of the mRNAs from the vir...

  2. FOXP3, CBLB and ITCH gene expression and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 expression on CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Krakauer, M; Khademi, M; Olsson, T; Sørensen, P S

    2012-01-01

    phenotype of CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells in MS by flow cytometry and its relationship with expression of the FOXP3, ITCH and CBLB genes. We found that untreated MS patients had lower cell surface expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) on CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells and higher intracellular CTLA......-4 expression than healthy controls. Cell surface expression of CTLA-4 on CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells correlated with expression of FOXP3 mRNA in untreated patients and increased significantly with time from most recent injection in patients treated with IFN-β. FOXP3 mRNA expression correlated with...... CBLB and ITCH and T helper type 2 cytokine mRNA expression in MS patients. These data link expression of FOXP3, CBLB and ITCH mRNA and CTLA-4 expression on the surface of CD4(+) CD25(high) T cell in MS. We hypothesize that this may reflect alterations in the inhibitory effect of CTLA-4 or in regulatory...

  3. Construction of a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen and mouse 4-1BBL genes and its effect on dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Weng; Youlin Kuang; Xiuheng Liu; Zhiyuan Chen; Hengcheng Zhu; Hui Chen; Botao Jiang; Hao Shen

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to construct a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen (tPSMA) and mouse 4-1BBL genes and to determine its effect on dendritic cells (DCs) generated from bone marrow suspensions harvested from C57BL/6 mice for which the effect of 4-1BBL on DCs is not clear, especially during DCs processing tumor-associated antigen. Replication deficient adenovirus AdMaxTM Expression System was used to construct recombinant adenovirus Ad-tPSMA-interna...

  4. Structure and expression of genes encoding murine Qa-2 class I antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, A L; Antoniou, J; Robinson, P J

    1985-01-01

    DNA structural analysis of the Qa region in two BALB/c mouse substrains with different Qa-2 phenotypes reveals that a deletion of DNA has occurred in BALB/cBy (Qa-2-) mice relative to BALB/c (Qa-2+) mice. We propose that this deletion arises from unequal crossing-over and recombination between adjacent BALB/c class I genes and results in the generation of a hybrid class I gene in BALB/cBy mice. Furthermore, we suggest that this is a direct cause of the change in Qa-2 phenotype. Further suppor...

  5. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Hematological Malignancies Using T Cells Gene-Modified to Express Tumor Antigen-Specific Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujiwara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that adoptive T-cell immunotherapy could be a promising option for control of cancer; evident examples include the graft-vs-leukemia effect mediated by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI and therapeutic infusion of ex vivo-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL for melanoma. Currently, along with advances in synthetic immunology, gene-modified T cells retargeted to defined tumor antigens have been introduced as “cellular drugs”. As the functional properties of the adoptive immune response mediated by T lymphocytes are decisively regulated by their T-cell receptors (TCRs, transfer of genes encoding target antigen-specific receptors should enable polyclonal T cells to be uniformly redirected toward cancer cells. Clinically, anticancer adoptive immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells has an impressive track record. Notable examples include the dramatic benefit of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR gene-modified T cells redirected towards CD19 in patients with B-cell malignancy, and the encouraging results obtained with TCR gene-modified T cells redirected towards NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis antigen, in patients with advanced melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma. This article overviews the current status of this treatment option, and discusses challenging issues that still restrain the full effectiveness of this strategy, especially in the context of hematological malignancy.

  6. Melanoma-associated cancer-testis antigen 16 (CT16 regulates the expression of apoptotic and antiapoptotic genes and promotes cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Nylund

    Full Text Available Cancer-testis (CT antigens are predominantly expressed in testis or placenta, but absent in most adult tissues. During malignant transformation CT genes are often activated. CT antigen 16 (CT16, PAGE5 is frequently expressed in advanced melanoma but its biological function has been unknown. To examine the role of CT16 in cell survival we knocked it down in A2058 melanoma cells using specific siRNAs and exposed the cells to cancer drug cisplatin known to induce apoptosis. As a result, cell survival was markedly decreased. To study the effects of CT16 on cell survival in more detail, the cellular gene expression profiles were investigated after CT16 silencing in CT16 positive A2058 melanoma cells, as well as after CT16 overexpression in CT16 negative WM-266-4 melanoma cells. Among the 11 genes both upregulated by CT16 silencing and downregulated by CT16 overexpression or vice versa, 4 genes were potentially apoptotic or antiapoptotic genes. CT16 was recognized as a positive regulator of antiapoptotic metallothionein 2A and interleukin 8 genes, whereas it inhibited the expression of apoptosis inducing dickkopf 1 (DKK1 gene. In addition CT16 enhanced the expression of fatty acid binding protein 7, a known promoter of melanoma progression. The effect of CT16 on DKK1 expression was p53 independent. Furthermore, CT16 did not regulate apoptotic genes via DNA methylation. In twenty melanoma metastasis tissue samples average DKK1 mRNA level was shown to be significantly (p<0.05 lower in high CT16 expressing tumors (n = 3 when compared to the tumors with low CT16 expression (n = 17. Thus, our results indicate that CT16 promotes the survival of melanoma cells and is therefore a potential target for future drug development.

  7. TLR21's agonists in combination with Aeromonas antigens synergistically up-regulate functional TLR21 and cytokine gene expression in yellowtail leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Jirapongpairoj, Walissara; Esteban, Maria Angeles; Alamillo, Erika; Angulo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the TLR21 gene from yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) and its functional activity using TLR agonist stimulation and Aeromonas antigens. The TLR21 nucleotide sequence from yellowtail was obtained using the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method and bioinformatics tools. Basal TLR21 gene expression was analyzed in several tissues. Subsequently, the gene expression of TLR21 and cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α was evaluated in TLR agonist (CpG-ODN2006, LPS, and Poly I:C) exposing head kidney leucocytes, which were then subjected to Aeromonas antigen stimulation. The yellowtail full-length cDNA sequence of SlTLR21 was 3615 bp (980 aa) showing a high degree of similarity with the counterparts of other fish species and sharing the common structural architecture of the TLR family, including LRR domains, one C-terminal LRR region, and a TIR domain. Gene expression studies revealed the constitutive expression of TLR21 mRNA in all the analyzed tissues; the highest levels were observed in spleen and head kidney where they play an important role in the fish immune system. Transcripts of TLR21 and the downstream IL-1β and TNF-α cytokine genes were most strongly up-regulated after exposure to the TLR agonists following Aeromonas antigen stimulation, suggesting they are involved in immune response. The results indicated that TLR agonists, in combination with Aeromonas antigens in head kidney leucocytes, synergistically enhance TLR21 and cytokines in yellowtail. PMID:26987525

  8. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. PMID:26993168

  9. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  10. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Eric W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63. Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50 but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers.

  11. Immune Responses Induced by Gene Gun or Intramuscular Injection of DNA Vaccines That Express Immunogenic Regions of the Serine Repeat Antigen from Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Belperron, Alexia A.; Feltquate, David; Fox, Barbara A.; Horii, Toshihiro; Bzik, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The liver- and blood-stage-expressed serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a candidate protein for a human malaria vaccine. We compared the immune responses induced in mice immunized with SERA-expressing plasmid DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection or delivered intradermally by Gene Gun immunization. Mice were immunized with a pcdna3 plasmid encoding the entire 47-kDa domain of SERA (amino acids 17 to 382) or the N-terminal domain (amino acids 17 to 110)...

  12. Gene Related to Anergy in Lymphocytes (GRAIL) Expression in CD4+ T Cells Impairs Actin Cytoskeletal Organization during T Cell/Antigen-presenting Cell Interactions*

    OpenAIRE

    Schartner, Jill M.; Simonson, William T; Wernimont, Sarah A.; Nettenstrom, Lauren M.; Huttenlocher, Anna; Seroogy, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with increased expression in anergic CD4+ T cells. The expression of GRAIL has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for the induction of T cell (T) anergy. To date, several subsets of anergic T cells have demonstrated altered interactions with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and perturbed TCR-mediated signaling. The role of GRAIL in mediating these aspects of T cell anergy remains unclear. We used flow cytometry...

  13. Expression of the hepatitis B surface antigen gene containing the preS2 region in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida,Iwao

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a plasmid, pBH103-ME5, in which the region encoding the 10 preS2 amino acid residues and the S domain of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg were regulated by the promoter of the yeast repressible acid phosphatase gene. Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying pBH103-ME5 produced the HBs antigen (yHBsAg, when it was cultured in a medium containing a low concentration of phosphate. The antigen was purified to homogeneity. Its molecular weight was determined by Western blotting to be 24,000, and its amino acid composition agreed well with that deduced from the nucleotide sequence. The C-terminal amino acid sequence of yHBsAg was exactly the same as that predicted from the nucleotide sequence, while the N-terminal amino acid acetylserine, which was followed by 8 amino acid residues coded by the preS2 region. These results indicate that the recombinant yeast produced a single polypeptide consisting of the preS2 region and the subsequent S domain after being processed at the N-terminus

  14. Immune responses induced by gene gun or intramuscular injection of DNA vaccines that express immunogenic regions of the serine repeat antigen from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belperron, A A; Feltquate, D; Fox, B A; Horii, T; Bzik, D J

    1999-10-01

    The liver- and blood-stage-expressed serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a candidate protein for a human malaria vaccine. We compared the immune responses induced in mice immunized with SERA-expressing plasmid DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection or delivered intradermally by Gene Gun immunization. Mice were immunized with a pcdna3 plasmid encoding the entire 47-kDa domain of SERA (amino acids 17 to 382) or the N-terminal domain (amino acids 17 to 110) of SERA. Minimal antibody responses were detected following DNA vaccination with the N-terminal domain of SERA, suggesting that the N-terminal domain alone is not highly immunogenic by this route of vaccine delivery. Immunization of mice by Gene Gun delivery of the 47-kDa domain of SERA elicited a significantly higher serum antibody titer to the antigen than immunization of mice by i.m. injection with the same plasmid did. The predominant isotype subclass of the antibodies elicited to the SERA protein following i.m. and Gene Gun immunizations with SERA plasmid DNA was immunoglobulin G1. Coimmunization of mice with SERA plasmid DNA and a plasmid expressing the hepatitis B surface antigen (pCMV-s) by the i.m. route resulted in higher anti-SERA titers than those generated in mice immunized with the SERA DNA plasmid alone. Vaccination with DNA may provide a viable alternative or may be used in conjunction with protein-based subunit vaccines to maximize the efficacy of a human malaria vaccine that includes immunogenic regions of the SERA protein. PMID:10496891

  15. cDNA Cloning Demonstrates the Expression of Pregnancy-Specific Glycoprotein Genes, a Subgroup of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen Gene Family, in Fetal Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Weiss, Martina; Thompson, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) genes constitute a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. Here we report the cloning of four cDNAs coding for different members of the PSG family from a human fetal liver cDNA library. They are derived from three closely related genes (PSG1, PSG4 and PSG6). Two of the cDNA clones represent splice variants of PSG1 (PSG1a, PSG1d) differing in their C-terminal domain and 3′-untranslated regions. All encoded proteins show the same dom...

  16. Cloning,expression,and protective immunity in mice of a gene encoding the diagnostic antigen P-29 of Echinococcus granulosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyun Shi; Yana Wang; Zongji Li; Zhaoyu Li; Yang Bo; Rui Ma; Wei Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Taeniid tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of Echinococcosis,an important zoonosis with worldwide distribution.In this study,a diagnostic antigen P-29 was cloned from E.granulosus and expressed in Escherichia coli.Sequence analysis showed that EgP-29 contains 717-bp open reading frame and encodes a protein of 238 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 27.1 kDa.The recombinant EgP-29(rEgP-29)could be recognized with antimice sera in Western blotting.The specific antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Mice vaccinated with rEgP-29 and challenged intraperitoneally with E.granulosus protoscoleces revealed significant protective immunity of 96.6%(P<0.05),compared with the control group.Thus,rEgP-29protein is a promising candidate for an effective vaccine to prevent secondary echinococcosis.

  17. Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus by Increasing Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Expression with Polymeric Nanoparticles Using Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nType 1 Diabetes Mellitus in most cases is an autoimmune disease. Insulin injection is just a symptom therapy that is bothering for the patient and usually does not correct the blood glucose level appropriately. Attempts to replace the lost pancreatic cells such as islet and stem cell transplantation were not permanent cures because the original problem which was autoimmunity still existed. On the other hand, while using allogenic cells, immune system rejects the foreign cells. We suppose an approach to use the cells that are not affected by autoimmunity and can divide and replace the pancreatic β cells. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G protein suppresses the immune system by affecting the T cells and natural killer cells and some other immune system cells and is responsible for keeping the fetus from maternal immune system in pregnancy. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells and insulin producing cells are candidate cells to be transfected with HLA-G gene. Transplantation of these genetically modified autologous stem cells to the patient leads to permanent production of β cells that are out of the reach of the immune system. As they are autologous cells, there is no fear of rejection.  Nanoparticle based gene delivery is the desired procedure since there is no fear of tumor genesis with this method.

  18. CD28 and T cell antigen receptor signal transduction coordinately regulate interleukin 2 gene expression in response to superantigen stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Activation of an immune response requires intercellular contact between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC). Interaction of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) with antigen in the context of major histocompatibility molecules mediates signal transduction, but T cell activation appears to require the induction of a second costimulatory signal transduction pathway. Recent studies suggest that interaction of CD28 with B7 on APC might deliver such a costimulatory signal. To investigate...

  19. Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, L; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O; Mwaura, S; Githaka, N; Kanduma, E; Obura, M; Kabiru, E; Orago, A; Musoke, A; Bishop, R P

    2011-02-01

    The transcriptional control of gene expression is not well documented in the Arthropoda. We describe transcriptional analysis of two exceptionally divergent homologues (Ra86) of the Bm86 gut antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Bm86 forms the basis of a commercial vaccine for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. appendiculatus Ra86 proteins contain 654 and 693 amino acids, with only 80% amino acid sequence identity. Reverse-transcription PCR of gut cDNA showed transcription of only one genotype in individual female ticks. PCR amplification of 3' untranslated sequences from genomic DNA indicated that both variants could be encoded within a single genome. When both variants were present, one of the two Ra86 genotypes was transcriptionally dominant. PMID:20854482

  20. Epigenetic modulation of cancer-germline antigen gene expression in tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells: implications for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Burns, Jorge S; Nielsen, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    Cancer-germline antigens are promising targets for cancer immunotherapy, but whether such therapies will also eliminate the primary tumor stem cell population remains undetermined. We previously showed that long-term cultures of telomerized adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can...... modulators, makes them promising targets for immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer treatment....... spontaneously evolve into tumor-initiating, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT20), which have characteristics of clinical sarcoma cells. In this study, we used the hMSC-TERT20 tumor stem cell model to investigate the potential of cancer-germline antigens to serve as tumor stem cell targets. We found that...

  1. Oral Administration of Lactococcus lactis Expressing Synthetic Genes of Myelin Antigens in Decreasing Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kasarello, Kaja; Kwiatkowska-Patzer, Barbara; Lipkowski, Andrzej W.; Bardowski, Jacek K.; Szczepankowska, Agnieszka K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is a human autoimmunological disease that causes neurodegeneration. One of the potential ways to stop its development is induction of oral tolerance, whose effect lies in decreasing immune response to the fed antigen. It was shown in animal models that administration of specific epitopes of the three main myelin proteins – myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), myelin basic protein (MBP), and proteolipid protein (PLP) – results in induction of oral tolerance ...

  2. Cloning and Expression of Fusion Genes of Domain A-1 Protective Antigen of Bacillus Anthracis and Shigella Enterotoxin B Subunit (Stxb In E. Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the current study revealed that this antigen can be raised as an anti-cancer and recombinant vaccine candidate against types of Shigella, Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis which can be due to such factors as identification of antigen(PA by antibody PA20, its apoptosis induction properties, property of immunogenicity, adjuvant and delivery of STxB protein and high expression levels of Gb3 in human cancer cells.

  3. Construction of a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen and mouse 4-1BBL genes and its effect on dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Weng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to construct a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen (tPSMA and mouse 4-1BBL genes and to determine its effect on dendritic cells (DCs generated from bone marrow suspensions harvested from C57BL/6 mice for which the effect of 4-1BBL on DCs is not clear, especially during DCs processing tumor-associated antigen. Replication deficient adenovirus AdMaxTM Expression System was used to construct recombinant adenovirus Ad-tPSMA-internal ribosome entry site-mouse 4-1BBL (Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL and Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein. Day 7 proliferating DC aggregates generated from C57BL/6 mice were collected as immature DCs and further mature DCs were obtained by lipopolysaccharide activated immature DCs. After DCs were exposed to the recombinant adenovirus with 250 multiplicity of infection, the expression of tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were detected by Western blot, and the apoptosis and phenotype of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12 in the supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Proliferation of T cells was detected by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. The tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were expressed correctly. The apoptosis rate of DCs transfected with Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL was 14.6%, lower than that of control DCs. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules [CD80 (81.6 ± 5.4% and CD86 (80.13 ± 2.81%] up-regulated in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-pulsed DCs, and the level of IL-6 (3960.2 ± 50.54 pg/mL and IL-12 (249.57 ± 12.51 pg/mL production in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-transduced DCs were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those in control DCs. Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL induced higher T-cell proliferation (OD450 = 0.614 ± 0.018, indicating that this recombinant adenovirus can effectively enhance the activity of DCs.

  4. Antigen expression on recurrent meningioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningiomas are intracranial brain tumours that frequently recur. Recurrence rates up to 20% in 20 years for benign meningiomas, up to 80% for atypical meningiomas and up to 100% for malignant meningiomas, have been reported. The most important prognostic factors for meningioma recurrence are meningioma grade, meningioma invasiveness and radicality of neurosurgical resection. The aim of our study was to evaluate the differences in antigenic expression on the surface of meningioma cells between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas. 19 recurrent meningiomas and 35 non-recurrent meningiomas were compared regarding the expression of MIB-1 antigen, progesterone receptors, cathepsin B and cathepsin L, using immunohistochemistry. MIB-1 antigen expression was higher in the recurrent meningioma group (p=0.001). No difference in progesterone receptor status between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas was confirmed. Immunohistochemical intensity scores for cathepsin B (p= 0.007) and cathepsin L (p<0.001) were both higher in the recurrent than in the non-recurrent meningioma group. MIB-1 antigen expression is higher in recurrent compared to non-recurrent meningiomas. There is no difference in expression of progesterone receptors between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas. Cathepsins B and L are expressed more in recurrent meningiomas

  5. Immunogenic profiling in mice of a HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate (MVA-B expressing four HIV-1 antigens and potentiation by specific gene deletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García-Arriaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immune parameters of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates that might be relevant in protection against HIV-1 infection are still undefined. The highly attenuated poxvirus strain MVA is one of the most promising vectors to be use as HIV-1 vaccine. We have previously described a recombinant MVA expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (referred as MVA-B, that induced HIV-1-specific immune responses in different animal models and gene signatures in human dendritic cells (DCs with immunoregulatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to characterize in more detail the immunogenic profile of MVA-B and to improve its immunogenicity we have generated a new vector lacking two genes (A41L and B16R, known to counteract host immune responses by blocking the action of CC-chemokines and of interleukin 1beta, respectively (referred as MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. A DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol was used to compare the adaptive and memory HIV-1 specific immune responses induced in mice by the parental MVA-B and by the double deletion mutant MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that both vectors triggered HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, with the CD8(+ T-cell compartment responsible for >91.9% of the total HIV-1 responses in both immunization groups. However, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cell immune responses. HIV-1-specific CD4(+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional and preferentially Env-specific in both immunization groups. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R induced more GPN-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, with an enhanced polyfunctional pattern. Both vectors were capable of producing similar levels of antibodies against Env. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed that MVA-B and MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R

  6. Transgenic tomato plants expressing the antigen gene PfCP-2.9 of Plasmodium falciparum Plantas transgênicas de tomate expressando o gene do antígeno PfCP-2.9 de Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Kantor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain transgenic tomato plants expressing the PfCP-2.9 protein (a chimera of the antigens MSP1 and AMA1 of Plasmodium falciparum. Cotyledons of seven-day-old tomatoes, cultivar Summers, were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgenic expression in the T0 plants was verified in the DNA extracted from fruits. PCR analysis was used to test the presence of the gene of interest in the T1 generation. Reverse transcriptase PCR provided evidence of gene expression at the RNA level, and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the protein of interest in the T1 plants. This is the first report of successful transformation with the expression of a malaria antigen (PfCP-2.9 in transgenic tomato plants from the T0 and T1 generations.O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter plantas transgênicas de tomate que expressem a proteína PfCP-2.9 (uma quimera dos antígenos MSP1 e AMA1 de Plasmodium falciparum. Cotilédones de tomate, cultivar Summers, com sete dias de idade, foram transformados via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A expressão transgênica nas plantas T0 foi verificada no DNA extraído dos frutos. A análise por PCR foi utilizada para testar a presença do gene de interesse na geração T1. A evidência da expressão do gene no RNA foi constatada por meio da PCR de transcriptase reversa, e a análise "Western blot" confirmou a presença da proteína de interesse nas plantas T1. Este é o primeiro relato de transformação bem sucedida com a expressão de um antígeno da malária (PfCP-2,9 em plantas transgênicas de tomate da geração T0 e T1.

  7. Cloning and Expression of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Kazemi; Mahvash Khodabandeh; Mojgan Bandehpour

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease. It is estimated that there are 350 million carriers of the virus in the world, and a high proportion will develop serious liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was cloning and expression hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) gene to design a DNA vaccine.Methods: In this study, we amplified the HBsAg gene from Iranian patients. The gene was cloned in pGEMEX-1...

  8. Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli K-12 of chromosomal genes determining the O7 lipopolysaccharide antigen of a human invasive strain of E. coli O7:K1.

    OpenAIRE

    Valvano, M A; Crosa, J H

    1989-01-01

    We have cloned and studied the expression in Escherichia coli K-12 of chromosomal rfb genes determining the biosynthesis of the O7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen from E. coli K1 strain VW187. Two E. coli K-12 strains carrying recombinant cosmids gave positive coagglutination reactions with protein A-rich staphylococcal particles bearing an O7-specific rabbit polyclonal antiserum. Silver-stained polyacrylamide gels of total membranes extracted with hot phenol showed O side chain material whi...

  9. Cloning and Expression of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kazemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease. It is estimated that there are 350 million carriers of the virus in the world, and a high proportion will develop serious liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was cloning and expression hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg gene to design a DNA vaccine.Methods: In this study, we amplified the HBsAg gene from Iranian patients. The gene was cloned in pGEMEX-1 expression vector and recombinant plasmid was transformed in to JM109 E. coli strain and induced by IPTG.Results: We amplified, cloned and expressed hepatitis B virus surface antigen successfully and expressed protein was serologically assayed using gel diffusion and western blot analysis. Gene was sequenced and submitted to GenBank. Conclusions: The cloned HBsAg gene is ready for using in experimental DNA vaccine animal study. There are some mutations on this recombinant protein (T45D, Y206C and S207R which will affect on folding and function of recombinant protein.Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, HBsAg, Recombinant Protein, Vaccine

  10. Regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to define in molecular terms the mechanisms controlling expression of specific genes in mammalian cells, how gene expression is activated, how tissue-specific expression is effected, how expression is modulated by hormones and other specific effectors, and how genetic control mechanisms are altered in the dysfunction of gene expression in cells transformed to malignancy were studied. Much of this work has focused on expression of the rat liver enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase

  11. Recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen as a reporter gene for molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenanova, Vania; Barat, Bhaswati; Olafsen, Tove; Chatziioannou, Arion; Herschman, Harvey R.; Wu, Anna M. [David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Braun, Jonathan [David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Reporter genes can provide a way of noninvasively assessing gene activity in vivo. However, current reporter gene strategies may be limited by the immunogenicity of foreign reporter proteins, endogenous expression, or unwanted biological activity. We have developed a reporter gene based on carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a human protein with limited normal tissue expression. To construct a CEA reporter gene for PET, a CEA minigene (N-A3) was fused to the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the human Fc{gamma}RIIb receptor. The NA3-Fc{gamma}RIIb recombinant gene, driven by a CMV promoter, was transfected in Jurkat (human T cell leukemia) cells. Expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and microPET imaging. Flow cytometry identified Jurkat clones stably expressing NA3-Fc{gamma}RIIb at low, medium, and high levels. High and medium NA3-Fc{gamma}RIIb expression could also be detected by Western blot. Reporter gene positive and negative Jurkat cells were used to establish xenografts in athymic mice. IHC showed staining of the tumor with high reporter gene expression; medium and low N-A3 expression was not detected. MicroPET imaging, using an anti-CEA {sup 124}I-labeled single-chain Fv-Fc antibody fragment, demonstrated that only high N-A3 expression could be detected. Specific accumulation of activity was visualized at the N-A3 positive tumor as early as 4 h. MicroPET image quantitation showed tumor activity of 1.8 {+-} 0.2, 15.2 {+-} 1.3, and 4.6 {+-} 1.2 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 4, 20, and 48 h, respectively. Biodistribution at 48 h demonstrated tumor uptake of 4.8 {+-} 0.8%ID/g. The CEA N-A3 minigene has the potential to be used as a reporter gene for imaging cells in vivo. (orig.)

  12. Genomic Methylation Inhibits Expression of Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Protein in Transgenic Mice: A Non-Infectious Mouse Model to Study Silencing of HBV Surface Antigen Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Franziska; Churin, Yuri; Tschuschner, Annette; Reifenberg, Kurt; Glebe, Dieter; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Hepatitis B virus genome persists in the nucleus of virus infected hepatocytes where it serves as template for viral mRNA synthesis. Epigenetic modifications, including methylation of the CpG islands contribute to the regulation of viral gene expression. The present study investigates the effects of spontaneous age dependent loss of hepatitis B surface protein- (HBs) expression due to HBV-genome specific methylation as well as its proximate positive effects in HBs transgenic mice. Methods Liver and serum of HBs transgenic mice aged 5–33 weeks were analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, serum analysis, PCR, and qRT-PCR. Results From the third month of age hepatic loss of HBs was observed in 20% of transgenic mice. The size of HBs-free area and the relative number of animals with these effects increased with age and struck about 55% of animals aged 33 weeks. Loss of HBs-expression was strongly correlated with amelioration of serum parameters ALT and AST. In addition lower HBs-expression went on with decreased ER-stress. The loss of surface protein expression started on transcriptional level and appeared to be regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The amount of the HBs-expression correlated negatively with methylation of HBV DNA in the mouse genome. Conclusions Our data suggest that methylation of specific CpG sites controls gene expression even in HBs-transgenic mice with truncated HBV genome. More important, the loss of HBs expression and intracellular aggregation ameliorated cell stress and liver integrity. Thus, targeted modulation of HBs expression may offer new therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, HBs-transgenic mice depict a non-infectious mouse model to study one possible mechanism of HBs gene silencing by hypermethylation. PMID:26717563

  13. CD133 antigen expression in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much attention has been recently focused on the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the initiation and progression of solid malignancies. Since CSCs are able to proliferate and self-renew extensively, thus sustaining tumor growth, the identification of CSCs through their antigenic profile might have relevant clinical implications. In this context, CD133 antigen has proved to be a marker of tumor cells with stemness features in several human malignancies. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical role of the immunohistochemically assessed expression of CD133 in a large single Institution series of ovarian cancer patients. The study included 160 cases admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Catholic University of Campobasso and Rome. CD133 antigen was identified by the monoclonal mouse anti-CD133-1 antibody (clone CD133 Miltenyi biotec). In the overall series CD133 positive tumor cells were observed in 50/160 (31.2%) cases. A diffuse cytoplasmic pattern was identified in 30/50 (60.0%), while an apical cytoplasmic pattern was found in 20/50 (40.0%) of CD133 positive tumors. As of September 2008, the median follow up was 37 months (range: 2–112). During the follow up period, progression and death of disease were observed in 123 (76.9%), and 88 (55.0%) cases, respectively. There was no difference in TTP between cases with negative (median TTP = 23 months) versus positive CD133 expression (median TTP = 24 months) (p value = 0.3). Similar results were obtained for OS. When considering the TTP and OS curves according to the pattern of CD133 expression, a trend to a worse prognosis for cases with diffuse cytoplasmic versus the apical cytoplasmic pattern was documented, although the statistical significance was not reached. The immunohistochemical assessment of CD133 expression seems not to provide additional prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients. The role of the different pattern of CD133 immunoreaction deserves further investigation in a larger

  14. Analysis of expression profiles of MAGE-A antigens in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Torsten E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immunological response to solid tumours is insufficient. Therefore, tumour specific antigens have been explored to facilitate the activation of the immune system. The cancer/testis antigen class of MAGE-A antigens is a possible target for vaccination. Their differential expression profiles also modulate the course of the cancer disease and its response to antineoplastic drugs. Methods The expression profiles of MAGE-A2, -A3, -A4, -A6 and -A10 in five own oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were characterised by rt-PCR, qrt-PCR and immunocytochemistry with a global MAGE-A antibody (57B and compared with those of an adult keratinocyte cell line (NHEK. Results All tumour cell lines expressed MAGE-A antigens. The antigens were expressed in groups with different preferences. The predominant antigens expressed were MAGE-A2, -A3 and -A6. MAGE-A10 was not expressed in the cell lines tested. The MAGE-A gene products detected in the adult keratinocyte cell line NHEK were used as a reference. Conclusion MAGE-A antigens are expressed in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The expression profiles measured facilitate distinct examinations in forthcoming studies on responses to antineoplastic drugs or radiation therapy. MAGE-A antigens are still an interesting aim for immunotherapy.

  15. Long-term programming of antigen-specific immunity from gene expression signatures in the PBMC of rhesus macaques immunized with an SIV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Belisle

    Full Text Available While HIV-1-specific cellular immunity is thought to be critical for the suppression of viral replication, the correlates of protection have not yet been determined. Rhesus macaques (RM are an important animal model for the study and development of vaccines against HIV/AIDS. Our laboratory has helped to develop and study DNA-based vaccines in which recent technological advances, including genetic optimization and in vivo electroporation (EP, have helped to dramatically boost their immunogenicity. In this study, RMs were immunized with a DNA vaccine including individual plasmids encoding SIV gag, env, and pol alone, or in combination with a molecular adjuvant, plasmid DNA expressing the chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES, followed by EP. Along with standard immunological assays, flow-based activation analysis without ex vivo restimulation and high-throughput gene expression analysis was performed. Strong cellular immunity was induced by vaccination which was supported by all assays including PBMC microarray analysis that identified the up-regulation of 563 gene sequences including those involved in interferon signaling. Furthermore, 699 gene sequences were differentially regulated in these groups at peak viremia following SIVmac251 challenge. We observed that the RANTES-adjuvanted animals were significantly better at suppressing viral replication during chronic infection and exhibited a distinct pattern of gene expression which included immune cell-trafficking and cell cycle genes. Furthermore, a greater percentage of vaccine-induced central memory CD8+ T-cells capable of an activated phenotype were detected in these animals as measured by activation analysis. Thus, co-immunization with the RANTES molecular adjuvant followed by EP led to the generation of cellular immunity that was transcriptionally distinct and had a greater protective efficacy than its DNA alone counterpart. Furthermore, activation analysis and high-throughput gene expression data may

  16. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2 respectively). When 18 additional B. b...

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of Campylobacter pylori species-specific antigens in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, C L; Wren, B. W.; Mullany, P.; Topping, A; Tabaqchali, S

    1989-01-01

    A gene bank of Campylobacter pylori DNA in Escherichia coli was constructed by cloning Sau3A-cleaved DNA fragments into the bacteriophage vector lambda EMBL3. The expression of C. pylori antigens was determined by screening the gene library with adsorbed C. pylori whole-cell rabbit antisera. One recombinant clone which reacted positively (lambda CP2) was studied further. Immunoblot analysis with lambda CP2 showed a polypeptide band of 66 kilodaltons (kDa) reacting antigenically with the adsor...

  18. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 106 cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture

  19. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation

  20. Real-time PCR analysis of genes encoding tumor antigens in esophageal tumors and a cancer vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Milano, Francesca;

    2009-01-01

    Tumor antigens are the primary target of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We set out to define and compare the expression pattern of tumor antigen genes in esophagus carcinoma biopsies and in an allogeneic tumor lysate-based cancer vaccine, MelCancerVac. Cells used for vaccine production were treated...... the production of the vaccine. Quantitative PCR was used to assay 74 tumor antigen genes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. 81% (13/16) of tumors expressed more than five cancer/testis (CT) antigens. A total of 96 genes were assayed in the tumor cell clone (DDM1.7) used to make...

  1. Cloning and expression of the Legionella micdadei "common antigen" in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Collins, M T; Høiby, N;

    1989-01-01

    To study individual Legionella antigens, a Legionella micdadei genomic library in Escherichia coli SC181 was established. Partially Sau3A digested L. micdadei DNA fragments (15-25 kilobase pairs (kb] were cloned into the tetracycline resistance gene of the cosmid vector pHC79. Four thousand...... ampicillin resistant recombinants were obtained; seven hundred were screened for expression of Legionella antigens in Western blot analysis with a polyspecific E. coli-absorbed anti-L. micdadei rabbit antibody. One of the positive clones expressed a 60 kilodalton (K) antigen, which reacted strongly with a...

  2. Expression and sequences of T cell antigen receptor beta-chain genes in the thymus at an early stage after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequential appearance of the thymocyte subpopulations and TCR gene messages occurred in the thymus of AKR mice (H-2k, Mlsa) from 7 to 14 days after sublethal irradiation. The thymocytes on day 7 after irradiation were composed of a large number of CD4+CD8+ blast-like cells and a relatively high proportion of CD4-CD8- cells (15 to 25%) but few CD3highCD4+CD8-/CD4-CD8+ cells. Approximately 22% of the CD4-CD8- cells were CD3high and -27% of the CD3highCD4-CD8- cells (-6% of whole CD4-CD8- cells) were F23.1+. The thymocytes on day 7 expressed a large amount of gamma- and delta-chain gene transcripts but reduced levels of alpha- and beta-chain gene transcripts. The V gene repertoire of 18 functional beta-chain cDNA derived from the thymocytes on day 7 was compared with those of 20 functional beta-chain cDNA derived from the thymocytes on day 14 which were composed of a large number of CD3lowCD4+CD8+ small-sized cells and a small number of CD3highCD4+CD8- cells. It is noteworthy that the distribution of V beta genes expressed in the thymocytes on day 7 was much the same as that in the thymocytes on day 14 but significantly different from that in normal BALB/c thymocytes as previously described. Interestingly, neither V beta 8.1 nor V beta 6 genes, which are important for recognition of the product of the Mlsa locus, was detected in these two cDNA libraries. These results suggest that clonal selection of TCR V beta repertoire, irrespective of positive or negative selection, appears to occur at the early stage of T cell differentiation, i.e., on the blast-like CD4+CD8+ thymocytes

  3. Testis expressed 19 is a novel cancer-testis antigen expressed in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianhua; Chen, Yan; Liao, Xinhui; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Han; Wu, Chenglong; Zou, Xiaowen; Yang, Gang; Shi, Jing; Luo, Liya; Liu, Litao; Deng, Jianping; Tang, Aifa

    2016-06-01

    Bladder cancer exhibits high mortality as a result of limited therapeutic options and a high recurrence rate. Accordingly, novel treatments such as immunotherapy have emerged as promising therapeutic modalities to prolong overall patient survival and effect a disease cure, which has renewed enthusiasm for the identification of tumor-specific target antigens. Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are recognized as ideal targets for immunotherapy because of their expression features and high immunogenicity profiles. Here, we investigate the expression pattern of a novel CT antigen, testis-expressed 19 (TEX19), in patients with bladder carcinoma and among multiple human tissues. Six bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UM-UC-3, J82, 5637, SW780, and RT4) were also analyzed for TEX19 expression. Our results reveal that TEX19 expression in normal tissue is restricted to human testis. In addition, TEX19 mRNA expression was detected in 60 % (24/40) bladder cancer samples, whereas 58.20 % (110/189) were positive for TEXT19 protein expression. Compared to low-grade tumors, TEX19 exhibited increased expression in high-grade tumors, from 53.69 to 77.14 %, respectively (P = 0.011). TEX19 was also expressed in all six bladder cancer cell lines. Together, our findings suggest that TEX19 represents a novel CT gene and might play a role in the progression of bladder cancer and that this gene therefore provides a potential target for immunotherapy treatment strategies against bladder cancer. PMID:26695143

  4. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  5. DNA secondary structures are associated with recombination in major Plasmodium falciparum variable surface antigen gene families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F.; Lavstsen, Thomas; Rask, Thomas Salhøj;

    2014-01-01

    Many bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens undergo antigenic variation to counter host immune defense mechanisms. In Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal of human malaria parasites, switching of var gene expression results in alternating expression of the adhesion proteins of the Plasmodium ...

  6. Expression of Treponema pallidum Antigens in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfield, Alan M.; Hanff, Philip A.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1982-04-01

    Treponema pallidum DNA was cloned in a bacteriophage. Clones were screened for expression of Treponema pallidum antigens by an in situ radio-immunoassay on nitrocellulose, with the use of subsequent reactions with syphilitic serum and radioiodinated Staphylococcus aureus protein A. One clone, which gave a strong signal, codes for at least seven antigens that react specifically with human antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

  7. Frequency of mutant T lymphocytes defective in the expression of the T-cell antigen receptor gene among radiation-exposed people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of mutant T lymphocytes defective in T-cell receptor gene (α or β) expression was measured using the two-color flow cytometric technique. Results for a total of 203 atomic bomb survivors, 78 of whom were proximally exposed (DS86 doses of ≥ 1.5 Gy) and 125 of whom were distally exposed (DS86 doses of 228Th formerly used for radiodiagnosis. In addition, thyroid disease patients treated with 131I showed a dose-related increase of mutant frequency. It was suggested that the present T-cell receptor mutation assay has a unique characteristic as a biological dosimeter for the measurement of recent exposures to genotoxic agents. (author)

  8. Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected Babesia bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Laughery

    Full Text Available Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. One use of transfected B. bovis parasites may be as a vaccine delivery platform. Previous transfection methods for B. bovis were limited by single expression sites and intracellular expression of transfected antigens. This study describes a novel transfection system in which two exogenous genes are expressed: one for selection and the other for a selected antigen designed to be delivered to the surface of the parasites. The strategy for duplicating the number of transfected genes was based on the use of the putative bidirectional promoter of the B. bovis 1.4 Kb ef-1α intergenic region. The ability of this region to regulate two independent expression sites was demonstrated using a luciferase assay on transiently transfected B. bovis parasites and then incorporated into a stable transfection plasmid to control independent expression of the selectable marker GFP-BSD and another gene of interest. A chimeric gene was synthetized using sequences from the protective B-cell epitopes of Rhipicephalus microplus tick antigen Bm86 along with sequences from the surface exposed B. bovis major surface antigen-1. This chimeric gene was then cloned into the additional expression site of the transfection plasmid. Transfection of the B. bovis Mo7 strain with this plasmid resulted in stable insertion into the ef-1α locus and simultaneous expression of both exogenous genes. Expression of the Bm86 epitopes on the surface of transfected merozoites was demonstrated using immunofluorescence analyses. The ability to independently express multiple genes by the inclusion of a bidirectional promoter and the achievement of surface expression of foreign epitopes advances the potential of transfected B. bovis as

  9. Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected Babesia bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughery, Jacob M; Knowles, Donald P; Schneider, David A; Bastos, Reginaldo G; McElwain, Terry F; Suarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. One use of transfected B. bovis parasites may be as a vaccine delivery platform. Previous transfection methods for B. bovis were limited by single expression sites and intracellular expression of transfected antigens. This study describes a novel transfection system in which two exogenous genes are expressed: one for selection and the other for a selected antigen designed to be delivered to the surface of the parasites. The strategy for duplicating the number of transfected genes was based on the use of the putative bidirectional promoter of the B. bovis 1.4 Kb ef-1α intergenic region. The ability of this region to regulate two independent expression sites was demonstrated using a luciferase assay on transiently transfected B. bovis parasites and then incorporated into a stable transfection plasmid to control independent expression of the selectable marker GFP-BSD and another gene of interest. A chimeric gene was synthetized using sequences from the protective B-cell epitopes of Rhipicephalus microplus tick antigen Bm86 along with sequences from the surface exposed B. bovis major surface antigen-1. This chimeric gene was then cloned into the additional expression site of the transfection plasmid. Transfection of the B. bovis Mo7 strain with this plasmid resulted in stable insertion into the ef-1α locus and simultaneous expression of both exogenous genes. Expression of the Bm86 epitopes on the surface of transfected merozoites was demonstrated using immunofluorescence analyses. The ability to independently express multiple genes by the inclusion of a bidirectional promoter and the achievement of surface expression of foreign epitopes advances the potential of transfected B. bovis as a future vaccine

  10. Distinct roles for histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP in cancer germline antigen gene regulation in human cancer cells and murine ES cells

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Petra A.; Gangisetty, Omkaram; James, Smitha R.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Karpf, Adam R.

    2009-01-01

    The H3K9me2 histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP repress Mage-a class cancer germline (CG) antigen gene expression in murine ES cells but the role of these enzymes in CG antigen gene regulation in human cancer cells is unknown. Here we show that while independent or dual knockdown of G9a and GLP in human cancer cells leads to reduced global and CG antigen promoter-associated H3K9me2 levels it does not activate CG antigen gene expression. Moreover, CG antigen gene repression is maintained fo...

  11. Screening and analysis of hepatocellular carcinomaassociated antigens and their encoding genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yongyu; WANG Hongcheng; LI Yan; PANG Xuewen; SUN Wensheng; CHEN Weifeng

    2003-01-01

    Identification of hepatocellular carcinoma- associated tumor antigens is necessary and pivotal for specific immunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In the present study, HCC cDNAs are constructed into ZAP cDNA expression library and screened by sera of patients with HCC. The positive clones are DNA sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics. Thirty-one genes of hepatocellular carcinoma-associated tumor antigens are identified, of which 1 is unknown and 30 are known. The proteins encoded by these known genes can be classified into 8 categories: constitutive molecules of hepatocytes, RNA transcription and splicing-associated molecules, protein metabolism-associated molecules, energy synthesis-associated molecules, signal transduction molecules, cell adhesion molecules, immunosuppressive molecules, and proteins with unknown function. Among these genes, CAGE is a cancer-testis (CT) antigen. It is concluded that identification of hepatocellular carcinoma-associated tumor antigens provides potential targets for immunotherapy of HCC patients and facilitates explanation of carcinogenesis of HCC.

  12. Global gene expression in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, K.; Klemm, Per

    2003-01-01

    antimicrobial treatments and host immune defence responses. Escherichia coli has been used as a model organism to study the mechanisms of growth within adhered communities. In this study, we use DNA microarray technology to examine the global gene expression profile of E. coli during sessile growth compared...... with planktonic growth. Genes encoding proteins involved in adhesion (type 1 fimbriae) and, in particular, autoaggregation (Antigen 43) were highly expressed in the adhered population in a manner that is consistent with current models of sessile community development. Several novel gene clusters were...... induced upon the transition to biofilm growth, and these included genes expressed under oxygen-limiting conditions, genes encoding (putative) transport proteins, putative oxidoreductases and genes associated with enhanced heavy metal resistance. Of particular interest was the observation that many of the...

  13. The relationship between MHC antigen expression and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopas, J; Rager-Zisman, B; Bar-Eli, M; Hämmerling, G J; Segal, S

    1989-01-01

    From the studies summarized here a complex picture of the role played by MHC products in determining tumorigenicity and metastasis is emerging. In order to be able to understand this relationship better, it is necessary to consider several factors. 1. Each tumor system or neoplastic tissue is unique, and its behavior reflects the influence of cell-specific characteristics, as well as its ability to modulate other cells and tissues--including cells belonging to the immune system--and also to be modulated by other cells and soluble factors. 2. Since metastasis formation is a multistep process in which only small subpopulations of tumor cells with complex and defined phenotypes are able to colonize secondary tissues, elimination of even one single phenotypic component of this structured process can easily reverse the metastatic capacity of the cells. Acquisition of metastatic ability, on the other hand, would be a more difficult task, since any new characteristic expressed by the cells or induced experimentally, such as gene transfection or results of IFN treatment, must be expressed in a temporal manner and in concert with other cellular characteristics. Therefore, an experimental protocol measuring a specific element in determining metastasis can easily produce conflicting results, depending on the type of cells and genetic background of the host studied. 3. The level of specific MHC products on tumor cells is one among many other cell characteristics that may determine the metastatic potential of cells. Moreover, each of the class 1 MHC products, and the relationship among them, including other than the classical K, L, or D products (Brickell et al., 1983), should be regarded as independent entities, with possible different regulatory roles in cell-cell recognition, in a general sense, which may be involved in determining invasiveness and homing as well as recognition by the immune system. 4. Both specific T-cell and nonspecific natural mediated immunity (which is

  14. Evaluation of melanoma antigen gene A3 expression in drug resistance of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Jin

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MAGE-A3 expression in EGFR-TKIs target therapy in NSCLC patient suggests that there might be EGFR-TKIs drug resistance, and the higher the level of expression, the shorter the time of acquired drug resistance.

  15. Overlapping antigenic repertoires of variant antigens expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Staalsoe, T; Dodoo, D; Elhassan, I M; Roper, C; Satti, G M; Arnot, D E; Hviid, L; Theander, T G

    antibodies to some combinations of variant antigens but not to others. These results indicate that (1) a single infection will induce the production of antibodies recognizing several variants of surface-expressed antigens, (2) the repertoire of variable antigens expressed by different parasites is...

  16. PRAME gene expression profile in medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Vulcani-Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumors of central nervous system in the childhood. The treatment is severe, harmful and, thus, has a dismal prognosis. As PRAME is present in various cancers, including meduloblastoma, and has limited expression in normal tissues, this antigen can be an ideal vaccine target for tumor immunotherapy. In order to find a potential molecular target, we investigated PRAME expression in medulloblastoma fragments and we compare the results with the clinical features of each patient. Analysis of gene expression was performed by real-time quantitative PCR from 37 tumor samples. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analysis the relationship between gene expression and clinical characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate survival. PRAME was overexpressed in 84% samples. But no statistical association was found between clinical features and PRAME overexpression. Despite that PRAME gene could be a strong candidate for immunotherapy since it is highly expressed in medulloblastomas.

  17. Humoral immunity to human breast cancer: antigen definition and quantitative analysis of mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, M J; Gout, I; Gordon, C M; Williamson, B; Stockert, E; Gure, A O; Jäger, D; Chen, Y T; Mackay, A; O'Hare, M J; Old, L J

    2001-03-30

    The ability of the immune system to recognize structurally altered, amplified or aberrantly expressed proteins can be used to identify molecules of etiologic relevance to cancer and to define targets for cancer immunotherapy. In the current study, ninety-four distinct antigens reactive with serum IgG from breast cancer patients were identified by immunoscreening breast cancer-derived cDNA expression libraries (SEREX). A serological profile was generated for each antigen on the basis of reactivity with allogeneic sera from normal individuals and cancer patients, and mRNA expression profiles for coding sequences were assembled based upon the tissue distribution of expressed sequence tags, Northern blots and real-time RT-PCR. Forty antigens reacted exclusively with sera from cancer patients. These included well-characterized tumor antigens, e.g. MAGE-3, MAGE-6, NY-ESO-1, Her2neu and p53, as well as newly-defined breast cancer antigens, e.g. kinesin 2, TATA element modulatory factor 1, tumor protein D52 and MAGE D, and novel gene products, e.g. NY-BR-62, NY-BR-75, NY-BR-85, and NY-BR-96. With regard to expression profiles, two of the novel gene products, NY-BR-62 and NY-BR-85, were characterized by a high level of testicular mRNA expression, and were overexpressed in 60% and 90% of breast cancers, respectively. In addition, mRNA encoding tumor protein D52 was overexpressed in 60% of breast cancer specimens, while transcripts encoding SNT-1 signal adaptor protein were downregulated in 70% of these cases. This study adds to the growing list of breast cancer antigens defined by SEREX and to the ultimate objective of identifying the complete repertoire of immunogenic gene products in human cancer (the cancer immunome). PMID:12747765

  18. Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Hjerrild, Louise; Gjermansen, Morten; Klemm, Per

    2003-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Due to its excellent cell-to-cell aggregation characteristics, Ag43 expression confers clumping and fluffing of cells and promotes biofilm formation. Ag43 expression is repressed by the cellular redox...

  19. Isolation, Cloning, Expression and Purification of Recombinant RhD Antigen from Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi Roudkenar, M; A Oodi; Halabian, R.; M Mohammadipour; N Amirizadeh; N Massrori; P Mozafari; Kamali, E; A. Mohammadi Roushandeh; H Rezvan

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: Rh (Rhesus) is a highly complex blood group system in man deeply rooted in transfusion medicine. Isolation of RhD from cord blod, cloning and expression of recombinant RhD antigen in bacterial expression system was the aim of this study."nMethods: Total RNAs were extracted from cord blood (O+).  The quality of RNA was determined by electrophoresis. In or­der to obtain coding sequence of RhD antigen cDNA was synthesized and Rh D gene was amplified by RT...

  20. Identification of a Carcinoembryonic Antigen Gene Family in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Kodelja, Vitam; Lucas, Kurt; Barnert, Sabine; Kleist, Sabine von; Thompson, John A.; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    The existence of a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like gene family in rat has been demonstrated through isolation and sequencing of the N- terminal domain exons of presumably five discrete genes (rnCGM1-5). This finding will allow for the first time the study of functional and clinical aspects of the tumor marker CEA and related antigens in an animal model. Sequence comparison with the corresponding regions of members of the human CEA gene family revealed a relatively low similarity at the am...

  1. H-Y antigen expression in different tissues from transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoljar, M; Eicher, W; Eiermann, W; Cleve, H

    1981-01-01

    H-Y-antigen expression was analyzed in patients with transsexuality. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and various tissues were examined using the cytotoxicity assay of Goldberg et al. (1971). Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy male and female subjects were used as controls as well as tissues from non-transsexual individuals and from male and female C57B1/6J mice. In three female-to-male transsexuals the peripheral blood lymphocytes were H-Y antigen positive. In these patients also their ovaries, uterus, and mammae were found to be H-Y antigen positive. Three male-to-female transsexuals were examined. The peripheral blood lymphocytes in two of these patients were found to be H-Y antigen negative. Their testes were also H-Y antigen negative, as well as the epididymus, the corpus cavernosum penis, and the cremaster muscle which was analyzed in one of them. One male-to-female transsexual had peripheral blood lymphocytes which were H-Y antigen positive; this patient had testis and corpus cavernosum penis which were also H-Y-antigen positive. PMID:7262869

  2. Chloroplast-Derived Vaccine Antigens and Biopharmaceuticals: Expression, Folding, Assembly and Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Chebolu, S.; Daniell, H

    2009-01-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgene expression, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, and multi-gene expression in a single transformation event. Oral delivery is facilitated by hyperexpression of vaccine antigens against cholera, tetanus, anthrax, plague, or canine parvovirus (4%–31% of total soluble protein, TSP) in transgenic chloroplasts (leaves) or non-green plastids (carrots, tomato) as well as the availability of antib...

  3. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on antibody-mediated immune response and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens immunized with T-cell dependent antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Echeverry, H; Crow, G H; Slominski, B A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on innate and antibody mediated immune response in broiler chickens following immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). One-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments of 9 replicate cages of 5 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a Control diet without antibiotic, and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus containing processed yeast and nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On days 21 and 28 post-hatching, 5 birds per treatment were immunized intramuscularly with both SRBC and BSA. One week after each immunization, blood samples were collected. Serum samples were analyzed by hemagglutination test for antibody response to SRBC, and by ELISA for serum IgM and IgG response to BSA. On d 35, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and the tissue samples from the cecal tonsils were collected to assess the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, monocyte mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-12p35, and IFN-γ. The results for gene expression analysis demonstrated that the diet supplemented with YCW increased the expression of TLR2b and T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 relative to the Control; and the expression of TLR4 and IL-13 was upregulated in the nucleotide-containing diet. However, the diets containing antibiotics or Maxi-Gen Plus downregulated the expression of IFN-γ compared to the control. The primary antibody response to SRBC was not affected by diets. However, the diet containing YCW increased the secondary antibody response to SRBC compared to the antibiotic treatment. Neither primary nor secondary IgG and IgM response against BSA were affected by diets. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with YCW stimulated Th2 cell

  4. An efficient fusion protein system for expression ofBacillus anthracis protective antigen as immunogenic and diagnostic antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid Bagheri; Hossein Motamedi; Masoud Reza Seifiabad Shapouri

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To produce high quantities of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) for human vaccine and diagnosis.Methods: ThePAgene was amplified byPCR with pXO1 plasmid as template. ThePCR product was cloned into pMAL-c2X vector using theBamHI andSalI restriction enzymes. The recombinant plasmid was transformed intoEscherichia coliDH5α strain and then screened for transformation. The expression of protective antigen was analyzed bySDS-PAGE and Western blotting after isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG) induction.Results:The full-length PA gene (2.2kb) was cloned into pMAL vector system. The recombinant vector was confirmed by restriction enzyme andPCRanalysis. The expression of cytoplasmic maltose-binding protein-protective (MBP-P) antigen fusion protein was detected bySDS-PAGE and Western blotting, and obtained a125 kDa protein band, which was similar to expected size of fusion protein.Conclusions: This expression system can be used in the high production of rPA. After purification and immunization studies, the purified rPA may be used in the development of the human recombinant anthrax vaccine and also in diagnosis of anthrax disease.

  5. Neutrophil elastase enhances antigen presentation by upregulating human leukocyte antigen class I expression on tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Akhil; Alatrash, Gheath; Philips, Anne V; Qiao, Na; Sukhumalchandra, Pariya; Kerros, Celine; Diaconu, Iulia; Gall, Victor; Neal, Samantha; Peters, Haley L; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) is an innate immune cell-derived inflammatory mediator that we have shown increases the presentation of tumor-associated peptide antigens in breast cancer. In this study, we extend these observations to show that NE uptake has a broad effect on enhancing antigen presentation by breast cancer cells. We show that NE increases human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression on the surface of breast cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. HLA class I upregulation requires internalization of enzymatically active NE. Western blots of NE-treated breast cancer cells confirm that the expression of total HLA class I as well as the antigen-processing machinery proteins TAP1, LMP2, and calnexin does not change following NE treatment. This suggests that NE does not increase the efficiency of antigen processing; rather, it mediates the upregulation of HLA class I by stabilizing and reducing membrane recycling of HLA class I molecules. Furthermore, the effects of NE extend beyond breast cancer since the uptake of NE by EBV-LCL increases the presentation of HLA class I-restricted viral peptides, as shown by their increased sensitivity to lysis by EBV-specific CD8+ T cells. Together, our results show that NE uptake increases the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to adaptive immunity by broad upregulation of membrane HLA class I and support the conclusion that the innate inflammatory mediator NE enhances tumor cell recognition and increases tumor sensitivity to the host adaptive immune response. PMID:27129972

  6. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, H S; Lam, D M; Arntzen, C J

    1992-01-01

    Tobacco plants were genetically transformed with the gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) linked to a nominally constitutive promoter. Enzyme-linked immunoassays using a monoclonal antibody directed against human serum-derived HBsAg revealed the presence of HBsAg in extracts of transformed leaves at levels that correlated with mRNA abundance. This suggests that there were no major inherent limitations of transcription or translation of this foreign gene in plants. Recombinant HBs...

  7. Tumorigenic activity of Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Megan E.; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lambert, Paul F.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contain wild type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiological role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  8. Tumorigenic activity of merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Megan E; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T; Lambert, Paul F; DeCaprio, James A

    2015-03-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contains wild-type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads, and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiologic role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  9. Antigenic Properties and Diagnostic Potential of Baculovirus-Expressed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Proteins VPX and VP3

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Lázaro, Beatriz; Rodriguez, José F; Casal, J. Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both...

  10. Expression of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular antigen: immunoelectron microscopic and biochemical studies with recombinant E. coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kröncke, K D; Boulnois, G; Roberts, I.; Bitter-Suermann, D; Golecki, J R; Jann, B; Jann, K

    1990-01-01

    The capsular K5 polysaccharide, a representative of group II capsular antigens of Escherichia coli, has been cloned previously, and three gene regions responsible for polymerization and surface expression have been defined (I. S. Roberts, R. Mountford, R. Hodge, K. B. Jann, and G. J. Boulnois, J. Bacteriol. 170:1305-1310, 1988). In this report, we describe the immunoelectron microscopic analysis of recombinant bacteria expressing the K5 antigen and of mutants defective in either region 1 or r...

  11. Mucin associated Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen expression in colorectal polyps.

    OpenAIRE

    Itzkowitz, S. H.; Bloom, E J; Lau, T. S.; Kim, Y. S.

    1992-01-01

    Sialosyl-Tn antigen and its immediate precursor, Tn antigen, are carbohydrate structures associated with the earliest steps of mucin O-linked glycosylation. Both antigens have been shown previously to be highly sensitive and specific markers of colorectal cancer. One hundred and three colorectal polyps (79 adenomatous; 24 hyperplastic) were examined for expression of Tn antigen using vicia villosa isolectin B4, and for sialosyl-Tn antigen by monoclonal antibody TKH2. Tn antigen was expressed ...

  12. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos Itandehui Belem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Findings Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

  13. Expression of Treponema pallidum antigens in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, L V; Folds, J D; Bassford, P J

    1982-01-01

    A colony bank of recombinant plasmids harboring Treponema pallidum DNA inserts has been established in Escherichia coli K-12. By using an in situ immunoassay, we identified four E. coli clones that expressed T. pallidum antigens. Thus, recombinant DNA technology may provide powerful new tools for studying the pathogenesis of T. pallidum infection.

  14. Gene expression in periodontal tissues following treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenacher Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In periodontitis, treatment aimed at controlling the periodontal biofilm infection results in a resolution of the clinical and histological signs of inflammation. Although the cell types found in periodontal tissues following treatment have been well described, information on gene expression is limited to few candidate genes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the expression profiles of immune and inflammatory genes in periodontal tissues from sites with severe chronic periodontitis following periodontal therapy in order to identify genes involved in tissue homeostasis. Gingival biopsies from 12 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were taken six to eight weeks following non-surgical periodontal therapy, and from 11 healthy controls. As internal standard, RNA of an immortalized human keratinocyte line (HaCaT was used. Total RNA was subjected to gene expression profiling using a commercially available microarray system focusing on inflammation-related genes. Post-hoc confirmation of selected genes was done by Realtime-PCR. Results Out of the 136 genes analyzed, the 5% most strongly expressed genes compared to healthy controls were Interleukin-12A (IL-12A, Versican (CSPG-2, Matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, Down syndrome critical region protein-1 (DSCR-1, Macrophage inflammatory protein-2β (Cxcl-3, Inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (BIRC-1, Cluster of differentiation antigen 38 (CD38, Regulator of G-protein signalling-1 (RGS-1, and Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma virus oncogene (C-FOS; the 5% least strongly expressed genes were Receptor-interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase-2 (RIP-2, Complement component 3 (C3, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX-2, Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Endothelin-1 (EDN-1, Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2, Matrix-metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14, and Interferon regulating factor-7 (IRF-7. Conclusion Gene expression profiles found in periodontal tissues following

  15. Exosome targeting of tumor antigens expressed by cancer vaccines can improve antigen immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Ryan B; Mandl, Stefanie J; Nachtwey, James M; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Brinkmann, Kay; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain

    2011-08-01

    MVA-BN-PRO (BN ImmunoTherapeutics) is a candidate immunotherapy product for the treatment of prostate cancer. It encodes 2 tumor-associated antigens, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and is derived from the highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus stock known as MVA-BN. Past work has shown that the immunogenicity of antigens can be improved by targeting their localization to exosomes, which are small, 50- to 100-nm diameter vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosome targeting is achieved by fusing the antigen to the C1C2 domain of the lactadherin protein. To test whether exosome targeting would improve the immunogenicity of PSA and PAP, 2 additional versions of MVA-BN-PRO were produced, targeting either PSA (MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2) or PAP (MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2) to exosomes, while leaving the second transgene untargeted. Treatment of mice with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 led to a striking increase in the immune response against PAP. Anti-PAP antibody titers developed more rapidly and reached levels that were 10- to 100-fold higher than those for mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. Furthermore, treatment with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 increased the frequency of PAP-specific T cells 5-fold compared with mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. These improvements translated into a greater frequency of tumor rejection in a PAP-expressing solid tumor model. Likewise, treatment with MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2 increased the antigenicity of PSA compared with treatment with MVA-BN-PRO and resulted in a trend of improved antitumor efficacy in a PSA-expressing tumor model. These experiments confirm that targeting antigen localization to exosomes is a viable approach for improving the therapeutic potential of MVA-BN-PRO in humans. PMID:21670078

  16. Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Hjerrild, Louise; Gjermansen, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Due to its excellent cell-to-cell aggregation characteristics, Ag43 expression confers clumping and fluffing of cells and promotes biofilm formation. Ag43 expression is repressed by the cellular redox......-forming potential of E. coli. Finally, we demonstrated that Ag43-mediated cell aggregation confers significant protection against hydrogen peroxide killing....

  17. Identification of antigens by monoclonal antibody PD4 and its expression in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ying Ning; Guo-Xun Sun; Su Huang; Hong Ma; Ping An; Lin Meng; Shu-Mei Song; Jian Wu; Cheng-Chao Shou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To clone and express the antigen of monoclonal antibody (Mab) PD4 for further investigation of its function.METHODS: MGC803 cDNA expression library was constructed and screened with PD4 as probes to clone the antigen. After failed in the library screening, immunoprecipitation and SDSpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were applied to purify the antigen for sequence analysis. The antigen coming from Nycoplasma hyorhinis (M. Hyorhinis) was further confirmed with Western blot analysis by infecting M. Hyorhinis-free HeLa cells and eliminating the M. Hyorhinis from MGC803cells. The full p37 gene was cloned by PCR and expressed successfully in Escherichia coli after site-directed mutations.Tmmunofluorescence assay was used to demonstrate if p37protein could directly bind to gastric tumor cell AGS.RESULTS: The cDNA library constructed with MGC803 cells was screened by Mab PD4 as probes. Unfortunately, the positive clones identified with Mab PD4 were also reacted with unrelated antibodies. Then, immunoprecipitation was performed and the purified antigen was identified to be a membrane protein of Mycoplasrna hyorhinis (M. Hyorhinis)by sequencing of N-terminal amino acid residues. The membrane protein was intensively verified with Western blot by eliminating M. Hyorhinis from MGC803 cells and by infecting M. Hyorhinis-free HeLa cells. The full p37 gene was cloned and expressed successfully in Escherichia coli after site-directed mutations. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that p37protein could directly bind to gastric tumor cell AGS.CONCLUSION: The antigen recognized by Mab PD4 is from M. Hyorhinis, which suggests the actions involved in Mab PD4 is possibly mediated by p37 protein or M. Hyorhinis. As p37 protein can bind directly to tumor cells, the pathogenic role of p37 involved in tumorigenesis justifies further investigation.

  18. Studies on the genetic basis of Pk, P and P1 blood group antigen expression

    OpenAIRE

    Hellberg, Åsa

    2007-01-01

    The clinically important carbohydrate P/GLOB blood group systems and collection give rise to both common (P1, P2) and rare (p, P1k, P2k) blood group phenotypes. The associated antibodies are implicated in severe transfusion reactions and recurrent spontaneous abortions. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular genetic basis of Pk, P and P1 antigen expression. Sequence analysis of the A4GALT and B3GALNT1 genes proposed to synthesize the related Pk (Gb3) and P (Gb4) antigens, r...

  19. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50(CA50)expression in colorectal carcinoma.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa.Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa,cancer distant mucosa,cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa,and there were significant differences among them(P<0.05).The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the deg...

  20. Tumor-specific gene expression patterns with gene expression profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN; Xiaogang; LI; Yingxin; LI; Jiangeng; GONG; Daoxiong

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of 14 common tumors and their counterpart normal tissues were analyzed with machine learning methods to address the problem of selection of tumor-specific genes and analysis of their differential expressions in tumor tissues. First, a variation of the Relief algorithm, "RFE_Relief algorithm" was proposed to learn the relations between genes and tissue types. Then, a support vector machine was employed to find the gene subset with the best classification performance for distinguishing cancerous tissues and their counterparts. After tissue-specific genes were removed, cross validation experiments were employed to demonstrate the common deregulated expressions of the selected gene in tumor tissues. The results indicate the existence of a specific expression fingerprint of these genes that is shared in different tumor tissues, and the hallmarks of the expression patterns of these genes in cancerous tissues are summarized at the end of this paper.

  1. Evolutionary origin and human-specific expansion of a cancer/testis antigen gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are encoded by germline genes and are aberrantly expressed in a number of human cancers. Interestingly, CT antigens are frequently involved in gene families that are highly expressed in germ cells. Here, we presented an evolutionary analysis of the CTAGE (cutaneous T-cell-lymphoma-associated antigen) gene family to delineate its molecular history and functional significance during primate evolution. Comparisons among human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and other mammals show a rapid and primate specific expansion of CTAGE family, which starts with an ancestral retroposition in the haplorhini ancestor. Subsequent DNA-based duplications lead to the prosperity of single-exon CTAGE copies in catarrhines, especially in humans. Positive selection was identified on the single-exon copies in comparison with functional constraint on the multiexon copies. Further sequence analysis suggests that the newly derived CTAGE genes may obtain regulatory elements from long terminal repeats. Our result indicates the dynamic evolution of primate genomes, and the recent expansion of this CT antigen family in humans may confer advantageous phenotypic traits during early human evolution. PMID:24916032

  2. Suicide Gene Therapy to Increase the Safety of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Casucci, Attilio Bondanza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding motif of a monoclonal antibody (mAb with the signal transduction machinery of the T-cell receptor (TCR. The genetic modification of T lymphocytes with chimeric receptors specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs allows for the redirection towards tumor cells. Clinical experience with CAR-redirected T cells suggests that antitumor efficacy associates with some degree of toxicity, especially when TAA expression is shared with healthy tissues. This situation closely resembles the case of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, wherein allorecognition causes both the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL effect and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Suicide gene therapy, i.e. the genetic induction of a conditional suicide phenotype into donor T cells, enables dissociating the GVL effect from GVHD. Applying suicide gene modification to CAR-redirected T cells may therefore greatly increase their safety profile and facilitate their clinical development.

  3. Isolation, Cloning, Expression and Purification of Recombinant RhD Antigen from Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Habibi Roudkenar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rh (Rhesus is a highly complex blood group system in man deeply rooted in transfusion medicine. Isolation of RhD from cord blod, cloning and expression of recombinant RhD antigen in bacterial expression system was the aim of this study."nMethods: Total RNAs were extracted from cord blood (O+.  The quality of RNA was determined by electrophoresis. In or­der to obtain coding sequence of RhD antigen cDNA was synthesized and Rh D gene was amplified by RT-PCR. The iso­lated RhD gene was   cloned to pUC18 vector and transformed to DH5α. The confirmed construct was sub cloned into expres­sion vector, pBADgIII/A, and expressed in Top10 E.coli. The expressed protein was characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Antigenicity of the expressed protein was assessed by ELISA using commercially available hu­man anti-RhD polyclonal   antibody with   peroxidase conjugated goat anti-human IgG, IgM, IgA as secondary antibody. "nRe­sults: RhD gene was successfully cloned and expressed. The expected size of recombinant RhD protein was detected in SDS-PAGE, and confirmed by dot and western blot analysis. RhD antibody reacted with recombinant RhD antigen as well as with RhD polypeptide extracted from RBCs membrane."nConclusion: The recombinant RhD may be helpful to further investigate the molecular basis of RhD protein and could be applica­ble for production anti- D antibody in an animal model.

  4. Cloning and expression of secreted antigens of Clostridium difficile in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Dailey, D C; Schloemer, R H

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of the cloning and expression of Clostridium difficile antigens in Escherichia coli was investigated. The expression of a limited number of cloned clostridial antigens under the control of clostridial promoter elements in E. coli was observed.

  5. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

  6. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented

  7. Expression and T cell recognition of hybrid antigens with amino-terminal domains encoded by Qa-2 region of major histocompatibility complex and carboxyl termini of transplantation antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroynowski, I; Forman, J; Goodenow, R S; Schiffer, S G; McMillan, M; Sharrow, S O; Sachs, D H; Hood, L

    1985-05-01

    Coding potential of the Q6 gene from the Qa-2a region of BALB/c Crgl mice was analyzed by a combination of hybrid class I gene construction and DNA-mediated gene transfer. Recombinant genes were created by exon shuffling of the 5' coding region of the Q6 gene and the 3' coding region of a gene encoding a transplantation antigen (Kd, Dd, or Ld), or the inverse. Some of these hybrid class I genes were expressed in the transfected mouse fibroblasts (L cells). The hybrid class I molecules encoded by the 5' end of the Q6 gene and the 3' end of the Ld gene precipitated as 45,000 mol wt molecules associated with beta 2-microglobulin. The expression of the hybrid proteins indicates that 926 basepairs of the 5' flanking region upstream of the structural Q6 gene contain a promoter that functions as a transcription initiation site in L cells. The 3' portion of the Q6 gene appears to be responsible for the lack of cell surface expression of the intact Q6 and the hybrid Ld/Q6 genes in mouse fibroblasts. Accordingly, this portion of the Q6 class I gene may play a regulatory role in tissue-specific expression. Serological analyses of hybrid Q6 proteins suggested that Q6 may be a structural gene for CR (H-2 crossreactive) antigen found normally on subpopulations of lymphocytes. If this identification is correct, Q6 gene will define a new category of class I genes encoding approximately 40,000 mol wt molecules and carrying a characteristic truncated cytoplasmic tail. Analysis of L cells transfected with Q6 hybrid genes demonstrated also that the cytotoxic T cells specific for Qa-2a region-coded antigens recognize the amino-terminal alpha 1-alpha 2 domain of Q6 fusion products. This recognition can be blocked by anti-Qa-2a alloantiserum and monoclonal antibodies reactive with the alpha 3-beta 2-microglobulin portion of the Q6 hybrids. We propose that the structural requirements for the anti-Qa-2a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-specific epitopes on target molecules are the same as for anti

  8. Molecular Pathways: Breaking the Epithelial Cancer Barrier for Chimeric Antigen Receptor and T-cell Receptor Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Christian S

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) can mediate cancer regression in some patients. CARs are synthetic single-chain proteins that use antibody domains to target cell surface antigens. TCRs are natural heterodimeric proteins that can target intracellular antigens through recognition of peptides bound to human leukocyte antigens. CARs have shown promise in B-cell malignancies and TCRs in melanoma, but neither approach has achieved clear success in an epithelial cancer. Treatment of epithelial cancers may be particularly challenging because of a paucity of target antigens expressed by carcinomas and not by important healthy tissues. In addition, epithelial cancers may be protected by inhibitory ligands and soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment. One strategy to overcome these negative regulators is to modulate expression of T-cell genes to enhance intrinsic T-cell function. Programmable nucleases, which can suppress inhibitory genes, and inducible gene expression systems, which can enhance stimulatory genes, are entering clinical testing. Other work is delineating whether control of genes for immune checkpoint receptors (e.g.,PDCD1, CTLA4) and cytokine and TCR signaling regulators (e.g.,CBLB, CISH, IL12, IL15) can increase the antitumor activity of therapeutic T cells.Clin Cancer Res; 22(7); 1559-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27037253

  9. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  10. Expression and characterization of hepatitis C virus core protein fused to hepatitis B virus core antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 王春林; 汪垣; 李光地

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids were constructed by fusing the gene fragments encoding the full-length (1-191aa) and the truncated (1-40aa and 1-69aa) HCV core proteins (HCc) respectively to the core gene of HBV at the position of amino acid 144 and expressed in E. coli. The products were analyzed by ELISA, Western blotting as well as the immunization of the mice. The results showed that those fusion proteins (B144C191, B144C69, B144C40) possessed the dual antigenicity and immunogenicity of both hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and hepatitis C virus core protein (HCc). Analysis by electron microscopy and CsCl density gradient ultra-centrifugation revealed that similar to the HBcAg itself, all fusion proteins were able to form particles. Comparison of the antigenicity and immunogenicity of those fusion proteins showed that the length of HCc gene fused to HBeAg had no much effect on the antigenicity and immunogenicity of HBcAg, however, B144C69 and B144C40 induced higher titres antibodies against HCc than B14d

  11. Surface antigen expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: clustering analysis, interrelationships and effects of chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkkonen, J; Vilpo, L; Hurme, M; Vilpo, J

    2002-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a phenotypically distinguishable form of B-lymphoid leukemias. The regularity of surface membrane antigen expression patterns, their interrelationships as well as the effects of the three frequent chromosomal aberrations, ie 11q deletion, 13q deletion and trisomy 12, were investigated in 35 classic CLL cases by flow cytometry. The two-way cluster analysis of 31 individual antigens revealed three expression patterns: (1) most cells in most cases positive (CD5, CD19, CD20, CD23, CD27, CD40, CD45, CD45RA); (2) most cells in most cases negative (CD10, CD14, CD34, CD122, CD154, mIgG); and (3) a mixed pattern with a variable number of positive cases and a variable percentage of positive cells in individual cases (CD11c, CD21, CD22, CD25, CD38, CD45RO, CD79b, CD80, CD95, CD124, CD126, CD130, FMC7, mIgD, mIgkappa, mIglambda, mIgM). The expressions of several antigens were strongly interdependent, even when antigens belonged to entirely different gene families. Such antigen pairs were: CD11c/CD21; CD19/CD45; CD19/CD79b; CD22/CD45RA; CD23/Igkappa; CD25/mIgM; CD27/CD45; CD45/CD79b; CD45RA/Igkappa. In contrast, the expression of some antigens was mutually exclusive, the best examples being CD45RA/CD45RO, CD38/CD80 and CD45RA/CD80. Deletion of chromosome arm 11q attenuated expression of splicing variant CD45RA, but enhanced CD45RO expression. In contrast, cases of trisomy 12 were associated with enhanced CD45RA and attenuated CD45RO expression. Similarly, trisomy 12 was associated with enhanced CD27 and mIgkappa expression. The variable levels of signaling surface membrane antigens, their interactions and interference by genetic aberrations are likely to affect the clinical progression and drug response of CLL. PMID:11840283

  12. High expression of water-soluble recombinant antigenic domains of Toxoplasma gondii secretory organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1. PMID:25246715

  13. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  14. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Permyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L. genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  15. Daunomycin-TFO Conjugates for Downregulation of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Massimo L.; Catapano, Carlo V.

    Daunomycin has shown interesting properties as a stabilizing agent for the antigene methodology. This approach consists of targeting a polypurine region of a given gene, with a triplex forming oligonucleotide (TFO), realizing a triple helix complex (triplex), with the aim of down-regulating gene expression. This chapter describes the basic principles of the triplex approach, the chemistry underlining the binding of daunomycin to oligonucleotides, and some results of gene-inhibition obtained with daunomycin-TFO conjugates with different targets.

  16. Ascidian gene-expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    William R Jeffery

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of gene-expression profiling, a large number of genes can now be investigated simultaneously during critical stages of development. This approach will be particularly informative in studies of ascidians, basal chordates whose genomes and embryology are uniquely suited for mapping developmental gene networks.

  17. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder;

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... high frequency of loss of heterozygosity. The genes and ESTs presented in this study encode new potential tumor markers as well as potential novel therapeutic targets for prevention or therapy of CRC....

  18. Biosynthetic basis of incompatible histo-blood group A antigen expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, L; Leitao, D; Sobrinho-Simoes, M;

    1993-01-01

    , we have screened 31 cases of gastric tumors of phenotype O for the expression of blood group A gene-defined glycosyltransferase by immunohistology on frozen sections using newly developed monoclonal antibodies to the transferases. Three cases were positive, and transferase expression was confirmed...... by enzyme analysis of extracts from the specimens. Blood group A carbohydrate antigens were also identified immunohistologically in these three cases as well as in five other cases. Thin-layer chromatography immunostaining analysis of glycolipid extracts from the three cases did not confirm the chemical...

  19. Potent and specific inhibition of SARS-CoV antigen expression by RNA interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Peng; ZHANG Jun; TANG Ni; ZHANG Bing-qiang; HE Tong-chuan; HUANG Ai-long

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV. There are no effective antiviral drugs for SARS although the epidemic of SARS was controlled. The aim of this study was to develop an RNAi (RNA interference) approach that specifically targeted the N gene sequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) by synthesizing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in vivo, and to assess the inhibitory effect of this shRNA on SARS-CoV N antigen expression. Methods The eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP-C1-N, containing SARS-CoV N gene, was co-transfected into 293 cells with either the RNAi plasmid pshRNA-N or unrelated control plasmid pshRNA-HBV-C4. At 24, 48 and 72 hours post transfection, the green fluorescence was observed through a fluorescence microscope. The RNA levels of SARS-CoV N were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and protein N were detected using Western blot.Results The vector, pshRNA-N expressing shRNA which targeted the N gene of SARS-CoV, was successfully constructed. The introduction of RNAi plasmid efficiently and specifically inhibited the synthesis of protein N. RT-PCR showed that RNAs of N gene were clearly reduced when the pEGFP-C1-N was cotransfected with pshRNA-N, whereas the control vector did not exhibit inhibitory effect on N gene transcription.Conclusions Our results demonstrate that RNAi mediated silencing of SARS-CoV gene could effectively inhibit expression of SARS-CoV antigen, hence RNAi based strategy should be further explored as a more efficacious antiviral therapy of SARS-CoV infection.

  20. Prevalence of gca, a gene involved in synthesis of A-band common antigen polysaccharide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, H L; Lightfoot, J; Lam, J S

    1995-01-01

    Two distinct forms of lipopolysaccharide are expressed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These forms are known as the A band and the B band. In an attempt to obtain a better understanding of A-band lipopolysaccharide synthesis, a previously isolated A-band gene known as the gca gene (GDP-D-mannose conversion protein for A-band common antigen polysaccharide) was sequenced and analyzed. Previous protein expression data from our laboratory, along with nucleotide sequence analysis from the present study...

  1. Plasmodium falciparum variant STEVOR antigens are expressed in merozoites and possibly associated with erythrocyte invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Michaela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum STEVOR proteins, encoded by the multicopy stevor gene family have no known biological functions. Their expression and unique locations in different parasite life cycle stages evoke multiple functionalities. Their abundance and hypervariability support a role in antigenic variation. Methods Immunoblotting of total parasite proteins with an anti-STEVOR antibody was used to identify variant antigens of this gene family and to follow changes in STEVOR expression in parasite populations panned on CSA or CD36 receptors. Immunofluorescence assays and immunoelectron microscopy were performed to study the subcellular localization of STEVOR proteins in different parasite stages. The capacity of the antibody to inhibit merozoite invasion of erythrocytes was assessed to determine whether STEVOR variants were involved in the invasion process. Results Antigenic variation of STEVORs at the protein level was observed in blood stage parasites. STEVOR variants were found to be present on the merozoite surface and in rhoptries. An insight into a participation in erythrocyte invasion was gained through an immunofluorescence analysis of a sequence of thin slides representing progressive steps in erythrocyte invasion. An interesting feature of the staining pattern was what appeared to be the release of STEVORs around the invading merozoites. Because the anti-STEVOR antibody did not inhibit invasion, the role of STEVORs in this process remains unknown. Conclusion The localization of STEVOR proteins to the merozoite surface and the rhoptries together with its prevalence as a released component in the invading merozoite suggest a role of these antigens in adhesion and/or immune evasion in the erythrocyte invasion process. These observations would also justify STEVORs for undergoing antigenic variation. Even though a role in erythrocyte invasion remains speculative, an association of members of the STEVOR protein family with

  2. Association of Helicobacter pylori with HLA-DR antigen expression in gastritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, A; Teh, M; Kang, J Y

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the association between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and HLA-DR antigen (class II antigen) expression. METHODS: Fifty endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens were studied for the presence of H pylori, degree and type of inflammation, and for HLA-DR antigen expression in the epithelium. The cases were chosen to represent different categories: inflamed gastric mucosa with (n = 13) and without (n = 20) H pylori, and non-inflamed mucosa (n = 17). RESULTS: The antigen was a...

  3. Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  4. Mycoplasma gallisepticum in vivo induced antigens expressed during infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Merav; Gorelick-Ashkenazi, Anna; Levisohn, Sharon; Nir-Paz, Ran; Geary, Steven J; Tulman, Edan; Lysnyansky, Inna; Yogev, David

    2015-02-25

    Until now only a few genes encoding virulence factors have been characterized in the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. In order to identify candidate targets associated with infection we applied an immunoscreening technique-in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT)-to detect immunogens of M. gallisepticum strain Rlow expressed preferentially during in vivo infection. We identified 13 in vivo-induced (IVI) proteins that correspond to different functional categories including: previously reported putative virulence factors (GapA, PlpA, Hlp3, VlhA 1.07 and VlhA 4.01), transport (PotE, MGA_0241 and 0654), translation (L2, L23, ValS), chaperone (GroEL) and a protein with unknown function (MGA_0042). To validate the in vivo antigenic reactivity, 10 IVI proteins were tested by Western blot analysis using serum samples collected from chickens experimentally (with strain Rlow) and naturally (outbreaks, N=3) infected with M. gallisepticum. All IVI proteins tested were immunogenic. To corroborate these results, we tested expression of IVI genes in chickens experimentally infected with M. gallisepticum Rlow, and in MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts cell culture by using relative real time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). With the exception of MGA_0338, all six genes tested (MGA_1199, 0042, 0654, 0712, 0928 and 0241) were upregulated at least at one time point during experimental infection (2-4 week post-infection). In contrast, the expression of seven out of eight IVI genes (MGA_1199, 0152, 0338, 0042, 0654, 0712, 0928) were downregulated in MRC-5 cell culture at both 2 and 4h PI; MGA_0241 was upregulated 2h PI. Our data suggest that the identified IVI antigens may have important roles in the pathogenesis of M. gallisepticum infection in vivo. PMID:25575879

  5. Transgenic Mice Harboring SV40 T-Antigen Genes Develop Characteristic Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinster, Ralph L.; Chen, Howard Y.; Messing, Albee; van Dyke, Terry; Levine, Arnold J.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A high percentage of transgenic mice developing from eggs microinjected with plasmids containing the SV40 early region genes and a metallothionein fusion gene develop tumors within the choroid plexus. A line of mice has been established in which nearly every affected animal succumbs to this brain tumor. Thymic hypertrophy and kidney pathology are also observed in some mice. SV40 T-antigen mRNA and protein are readily detected in affected tissues; however, SV40 T-antigen gene expression is barely detectable in unaffected tissues or in susceptible tissues prior to overt pathology, suggesting that tumorigenesis depends upon activation of the SV40 genes. Comparison of DNA from tumor tissue (or cell lines derived from tumors) with DNA from unaffected tissues reveals structural rearrangements as well as changes in DNA methylation of the foreign DNA. The SV40 genes are frequently amplified in tumor tissue, which further indicates that their expression is intimately involved in tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. PMID:6327063

  6. Expression and immunoactivity of chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jie Yang; Ning-Shao Xia; Min Chen; Tong Cheng; Shui-Zhen He; Shao-Wei Li; Bao-Quan Guan; Zi-Heng Zhu; Ying Gu; Jun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To improve the immunogenicity of receptor binding site of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on preS1 antigen using HBV core antigen as an immuno-carrier.METHODS: One to 6 tandem copies of HBV preS1 (21-47)fragment were inserted into HBcAg at the sites of aa 78 and 82, and expressed in E. coli. ELISA, Western blot and animal immunization were used to analyze the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of purified particulate antigens. The ability to capture HBV by antibodies elicited by chimeric partides was detected with immuno-capture PCR.RESULTS: Recombinant antigens CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ carrying 1-3 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) individually could form viruslike particles (VLPs), similar to HBcAg in morphology. But recombinant antigens carrying 4-6 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) were poorly expressed in E.coli. Chimeric antigens were lacking of immunoreactivity with anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), but still reserved good immunoreactivity with anti-HBe McAbs. CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ could strongly react with anti-preS1 McAb, suggesting that preS1 (21-47) fragment was well exposed on the surface of chimeric VLPs. Three chimeric VLP antigens (CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ) could stimulate mice to produce high-level antibody responses, and their immunogenicity was stronger than non-particulate antigen 21-47*6, containing 6 copies of preS1 (21-47). Mouse antibodies to CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ were able to capture HBV virions in immuno-capture PCR assay in vitro.CONCLUSION: Chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of HBV can elicit strong antibody responses to preS1. They have a potential to be developed into prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection.

  7. Cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression on human effector B cells depends on the site and on the nature of antigen encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantele, Anu; Savilahti, Erkki; Tiimonen, Heidi; Iikkanen, Katja; Autio, Soile; Kantele, Jussi M

    2003-12-01

    In contrast to T cells, information on skin-homing B cells expressing the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) is sparse. CLA expression on human B cells was investigated among circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) and among antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) elicited by parenteral, oral or rectal primary immunization, or by parenteral or oral secondary immunization with Salmonella typhi Ty21a. CLA expression was examined by combining cell sorting with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Among all ISC, the proportion of CLA(+) cells was 13-21%. Parenteral immunization induced antigen-specific ASC of which 13% were CLA(+), while oral and rectal immunizations were followed by only 1% of CLA(+) ASC (p<0.001). Oral re-immunization was followed by an up-regulation of CLA (34-48%) regardless of the route of priming. Parenteral re-immunization elicited ASC of which 9-14% were CLA(+). In conclusion, the expression of CLA on human effector B cells depends on the site of antigen encounter: intestinal stimulation elicits cells with no CLA, while parenteral encounter elicits significant numbers of CLA(+) cells. Even though primary antigen encounter in the intestine failed to stimulate CLA expression, up-regulation of CLA was found upon intestinal antigen re-encounter. These findings may be of relevance in the pathogenesis of some cutaneous disorders. PMID:14635035

  8. Shuffling Yeast Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bilke, Sven

    2000-01-01

    A new method to sort gene expression patterns into functional groups is presented. The method is based on a sorting algorithm using a non-local similarity score, which takes all other patterns in the dataset into account. The method is therefore very robust with respect to noise. Using the expression data for yeast, we extract information about functional groups. Without prior knowledge of parameters the cell cycle regulated genes in yeast can be identified. Furthermore a second, independent ...

  9. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular ti...

  10. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2002-01-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1, i.e., they obey Zipf's law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intra-cellular reaction network, we found that Zipf's law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimize...

  11. A New Gene Family (ariel) Encodes Asparagine-Rich Entamoeba histolytica Antigens, Which Resemble the Amebic Vaccine Candidate Serine-Rich E. histolytica Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, Zhiming; Samuelson, John

    1998-01-01

    A family of genes, called ariel, are named for and encode asparagine-rich Entamoeba histolytica antigens containing 2 to 16 octapeptide repeats. Ariel proteins, which are constitutively expressed by trophozoites, belong to a large antigen family that includes the serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP), an amebic vaccine candidate.

  12. Clonging and Expression of Leptospiral Outer Membrane Protein LipL32 Gene and Application of Recombinant Antigen in Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays%钩端螺旋体外膜脂蛋白LipL32基因的克隆和表达及其在ELISA检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范薇; 于长明; 杨敬; 隋丽华; 战大伟; 贺争鸣; 孙岩松

    2003-01-01

    Objective To construct L32-pQE32 recombinant expression vectors, and to induce the expression of recombinant Leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL32. Establish method of recombinant Leptospiral outer membrane proteinbased ELISA. Method Gene coding of Leptospiral LipL32 protein was amplified by PCR, then recombinant cloning vectors pGEM-T/L32 and expression vectors L32-pQE32 were constructed. Recombinant expression vector was transformed into the competent host E. coli. DH-5α and E. coli. M15. Recombinant Leptospiral LipL32 protein was expressed by IPTG induced method. Immulon microtiter plates were coated at 37℃ overnight with 100 ng of purified recombinant protein per well, 3 positive and 4 negative sera were used in indirect ELISA. Results Mature Leptospiral LipL32 gene fragment about 750 bp was amplified by PCR. LipL32 gene was inserted into expression vectors pQE32, the molecular weight of fusion protein was corresponding to the estimated molecular size of mature Leptospiral LipL32 protein. Results of Western-blot and ELISA demonstrated intense LipL32 reactivity with anti-Leptospira sera. Conclusion findings indicate that recombinant Leptospiral LipL32 may be an important, useful antigen for the serodiagnosis of Leptospira.

  13. Human platelet antigen gene frequencies in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holensteiner, A; Walchshofer, S; Adler, A; Kittl, E M; Mayr, W R; Panzer, S

    1995-01-01

    Gene frequencies for the human platelet antigen systems HPA-1, -2, -3, and -5 were determined directly from DNA isolated from cord blood of more than 900 randomly selected Caucasoid newborns in Vienna, Austria. Genotyping was performed by specific amplification of the respective regions coding for platelet glycoproteins GP Ib, IIb, IIIa, and Ia by PCR. These PCR products were analyzed after restriction enzyme digestion and electrophoresis. The observed gene frequencies were: HPA-1a: 0.852, HPA-1b: 0.148; HPA-2a: 0.918, HPA-2b: 0.082; HPA-3a: 0.612, HPA-3b: 0.388; HPA-5a: 0.892, HPA-5b: 0.108. There was a good fit with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results from serological determinations and genotyping showed no discrepancies. PMID:7607581

  14. Correction of gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Noeparvar, Shahin;

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies. For...... maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce an...

  15. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris using the GAP promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, A; Chugh, D A; Swaminathan, S; Khanna, N

    2001-06-01

    High-level expression and efficient assembly of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) particles have been reported in Pichia pastoris by integrating a single copy of the HBsAg gene under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. However, the time taken to reach peak product concentration is usually very long ( approximately 240 h). In this paper, we describe the expression of HBsAg in P. pastoris using the recently described glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. Unlike the previously described AOX1 promoter based system (in which biomass is generated first followed by methanol-induced antigen production), biomass generation and antigen production occur simultaneously in medium containing glycerol or glucose. Maximal levels of HBsAg expression in case of the single copy AOX1 integrant (attained after 6 days of induction) exceeded the levels of antigen produced by the single copy GAP integrant. However, this was offset by continuous antigen production by the GAP clone. In an attempt to further enhance antigen production levels of the GAP clones, we isolated multicopy Pichia integrants containing up to four copies of the GAP promoter-driven constitutive expression cassette using the Zeocin screening procedure. The data demonstrated a direct correlation between the gene dosage and the levels of HBsAg expressed by the GAP clones. The effect of copy number was additive and the four copy clone resulted in about four-fold higher yield of HBsAg. The majority of HBsAg produced in the constitutive expression system was found to be of particulate form, based on sedimentation behaviour and particle-specific ELISA, suggesting that it has the potential to serve as an effective immunogen. These particles were sensitive to thiol reagents. We also explored the possibility of secreting the GAP expressed HBsAg in P. pastoris. In-frame fusion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor secretion signal under the constitutive GAP promoter resulted in

  16. Shuffling Yeast Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bilke, S

    2000-01-01

    A new method to sort gene expression patterns into functional groups is presented. The method is based on a sorting algorithm using a non-local similarity score, which takes all other patterns in the dataset into account. The method is therefore very robust with respect to noise. Using the expression data for yeast, we extract information about functional groups. Without prior knowledge of parameters the cell cycle regulated genes in yeast can be identified. Furthermore a second, independent cell clock is identified. The capability of the algorithm to extract information about signal flow in the regulatory network underlying the expression patterns is demonstrated.

  17. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    . Not is a homeobox containing gene that regulates the formation of the notochord in chordates, while Cdx (caudal) is a ParaHox gene involved in the formation of posterior tissues of various animal phyla. The T. transversa homolog, TtrNot, is expressed in the ectoderm from the beginning of gastrulation until...... (ectoderm) specification with co-opted functions in notochord formation in chordates and left/right determination in ambulacrarians and vertebrates. The caudal ortholog, TtrCdx, is first expressed in the ectoderm of the gastrulating embryo in the posterior region of the blastopore. Its expression stays...... metazoans, where genes belonging to the Cdx/caudal family are predominantly localized in posterior domains during gastrulation. Later in development this gene will play a fundamental role in the formation of posterior tissues....

  18. NOD2 gene expression in Paneth cells and monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lala, S. G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Mutations in the NOD2 gene are associated with the development of Crohn's disease, an inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The NOD2 protein induces cellular activation in response to the bacterial antigen muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The NOD2 gene is mainly expressed by circulating blood monocytes although NOD2-associated Crohn's disease involves mainly the terminal ileum. Paneth cells, which are most numerous in the terminal ileum, are specialised intestinal epithel...

  19. Spontaneous loss and alteration of antigen receptor expression in mature CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The T-cell receptor CD3 (TCR/CD3) complex plays a central role in antigen recognition and activation of mature T cells, and therefore abnormalities in the expression of the complex should induce unresponsiveness of T cells to antigen stimulus. Using flow cytometry, we detected and enumerated variant cells with loss or alteration of surface TCR/CD3 expression among human mature CD4+ T cells. The presence of variant CD4+ T cells was demonstrated by isolating and cloning them from peripheral blood, and their abnormalities can be accounted for by alterations in TCR expression such as defects of protein expression and partial protein deletion. The variant frequency in peripheral blood increased with aging in normal donors and was highly elevated in patients with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive inherited disease with defective DNA repair and variable T-cell immunodeficiency. These findings suggest that such alterations in TCR expression are induced by somatic mutagenesis of TCR genes and can be important factors related to age-dependent and genetic disease-associated T-cell dysfunction. (author)

  20. Expression and Purification of the Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Receptor-binding Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛猛; 徐俊杰; 李冰; 董大勇; 宋小红; 郭强; 赵剑; 陈薇

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to express the receptor-binding domain of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in E. coli. Signal sequence of the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli was attached to the 5' end of the gene encoding protective antigen receptor-binding domain (the 4th domain of PA, PALM). The plasmid carrying the fusion gene was then transformed into E. coli and induced to express recombinant PAlM by IFFG. The recombinant protein was purified by chromatography and then identified by N-terrainal sequencing and Western blot. The recombinant protein, about 10% of the total bacterial protein in volume, was secreted to the periplasmic space of the cell. After a purification procedure including ionexchange chromatography and gel filtration, about 10 mg of homogenous recombinant PAD4 was obtained from 1 L culture. Data from N-terminal sequencing suggested that the amino acid sequence of recombinant PAD4 was identical with its natural counterpart. And the result of Western blot showed the recombinant protein could bind with anti-PA serum from rabbit. High level secreted expression of PAD4 was obtained in E. coli. The results reported here are parts of a continuing research to evaluate PAD4 as a potential drug for anthrax therapy or a candidate of new vaccine.

  1. Induction of embryonic major histocompatibility complex antigen expression by gamma-IFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, C M; Almquist, C D; Toulimat, M H; Xu, Y

    1993-07-01

    Preimplantation mouse embryos were incubated in vitro with mouse recombinant gamma-interferon (IFN). The effect of the gamma-IFN on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen expression was tested using an ELISA procedure. It was found that there is a doubling of Db antigens and a tripling of Qa-2 antigens on C57BL/6 mouse embryos cultured from the 8-cell stage for 24 h in the presence of 10(5) units/ml gamma-IFN. The effect of gamma-IFN on the rate of preimplantation embryonic development was tested by culturing 2-cell embryos for 48 h and 8-cell embryos for 24 h in the presence of varying concentrations of gamma-IFN up to 10(6) units/ml. Two methods were used to assess the cell number per embryo after the culture period: incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, and direct counting of nuclei in fixed and stained embryos. Both methods showed that treatment with gamma-IFN increases the rate of development of preimplantation mouse embryos. Since rate of preimplantation embryonic development is genetically controlled by the Ped gene, it is suggested that gamma-IFN has a direct effect on the Ped gene phenotype of preimplantation mouse embryos. PMID:8229991

  2. Characterization of the antigenic and functional domains of a Mycoplasma synoviae variant vlhA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiari, Awatef Béjaoui; Mardassi, Boutheina Ben Abdelmoumen

    2012-05-01

    The Mycoplasma synoviae haemagglutinin gene, vlhA, encodes two major immunodominant and surface-exposed membrane proteins, MSPB and MSPA. Both products are antigenically variable but only MSPA mediates binding to erythrocytes. Previously we have shown that M. synoviae type strain WVU 1853 could express a variant vlhA gene, referred to as MS2/28.1, with a considerably shorter and divergent MSPA region. A finding that prompted detailed characterization of its antigenic and functional properties. Here we mutagenized each of the six opal codons of the variant MS2/28.1 vlhA member into tryptophan, thus allowing its expression in Escherichia coli as well as its cleavage products, MSPB and MSPA. In addition, we expressed 5 contiguous regions of MS2/28.1 extending from the last part of MSPB to the C-terminus of MSPA. Colony immunostaining with region-specific antisera mapped antigenic variation to the N-terminal half of MS2/28.1 MSPA. No haemagglutinating activity was observed for MSPB, but consistent haemadsorption inhibition was mapped to the region extending from amino acid 325 to 344. Inhibition of both haemagglutination and haemadsorption activities were obtained with sera directed against the C-terminal region of MSPA, with the highest titers (1/320 and 1/160, respectively) being recorded for its last 60 residues. Importantly, antibodies to this region also yielded the highest metabolic inhibition titer of 1/1280. Overall, aside from mapping the functional domains of a M. synoviae highly divergent haemagglutinin gene, this study shows that the C-terminal half of its MSPA region induced the highest titers of antibodies inhibiting haemagglutination, haemadsorption, and metabolism. PMID:22176762

  3. Cancer-testis antigen expression and immunogenicity in AL amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a plasma cell dyscrasia closely related to multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) CT7 (MAGE-C1), CT10 (MAGE-C2) and MAGE-A CTAs are expressed in up to 80% of cases. In this study, we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of several CTAs in patients with AL amyloidosis in a total of 38 bone marrow specimens by employing standard immunohistochemistry techniques on paraffin-embedded archival tissues. Plasma samples from 35 patients (27 with matched bone marrow samples) were also analyzed by ELISA for sero reactivity to a group of full-length CTA proteins. CT7 was present in 25/38 (66%) while CT10 was demonstrated in 3/38 and GAGE in 1/38 AL amyloid cases. The expression pattern was mostly focal. There were no significant differences with regard to organ involvement, response to treatment, or prognosis in CTA positive compared to negative cases. None of the specimens showed spontaneous humoral immunity to CT7, but sero reactivity was observed in individual patients to other CTAs. This study identifies CT7 as the prevalent CTA in plasma cells of patients with AL amyloidosis. Further analyses determining the biology of CTAs in AL amyloidosis and their value as potential targets for immunotherapy are warranted

  4. Expression of HSV-1 ICP0 Antigen Peptide in Prokaryotic Cells and Preparation of Specific Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As an immediate-early protein of herpes simplex virus, infected-cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) exhibits complicated interactions with host cells, and its regulatory function on gene expression is of great importance. Since the ICP0 encoding sequence contains many rare codons which are absent in E.coli, and ICP0 is highly unstable in prokaryotic cells, expression of entire ICP0 in prokaryotic cells has never been reported. In order to further investigate the function of ICP0, a recombinant plasmid was constructed by subcloning a cDNA fragment encoding an amino-terminal of 105 residues of the ICP0 protein into pGEX-5x-1 vector. The resulting GST-105 fusion antigen peptide was expressed with high efficiency in E.coli. Antibodies prepared after the immunization of mice with purified fusion protein can recognize not only the denatured ICP0 protein, but also the native ICP0 protein with normal biological conformation.

  5. Expression of an antigen homologous to the human CO17-1A/GA733 colon cancer antigen in animal tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloudik, J; Basak, S.; Nesbit, M.; Speicher, D W; Wunner, W H; Miller, E.; Ernst-Grotkowski, C.; Kennedy, R; Bergsagel, L. P.; Koido, T.; Herlyn, D

    1997-01-01

    The CO17-1A/GA733 antigen is associated with human carcinomas and some normal epithelial tissues. This antigen has shown promise as a target in approaches to passive and active immunotherapy of colorectal cancer. The relevance of animal models for studies of immunotherapy targeting this antigen in patients is dependent on the expression of the antigen on normal animal tissues. Immunohistoperoxidase staining with polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the human antigen revealed the human homologue on...

  6. Expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. Methods mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1. Results MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20. In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41 and 36.6% (15/41, while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41 and 14.6% (6/41. In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7 and 14.3% (1/7. The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P P Conclusion Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. These genes can be used as one of the important indicators for early diagnosis, efficacy evaluation and prognostic determination of ovarian cancer.

  7. Human COL2A1-directed SV40 T antigen expression in transgenic and chimeric mice results in abnormal skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The ability of SV40 T antigen to cause abnormalities in cartilage development in transgenic mice and chimeras has been tested. The cis- regulatory elements of the COL2A1 gene were used to target expression of SV40 T antigen to differentiating chondrocytes in transgenic mice and chimeras derived from embryonal stem (ES) cells bearing the same transgene. The major phenotypic consequences of transgenic (pAL21) expression are malformed skeleton, disproportionate dwarfism, and perinatal/neonatal d...

  8. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  9. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Furusawa, C; Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2002-01-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1, i.e., they obey Zipf's law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intra-cellular reaction network, we found that Zipf's law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  10. Expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T antigens in human foetal large intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Barresi, G; Tuccari, G; Giuffrè, G.; Vitarelli, E.; Grosso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T antigens are simple mucintype carbohydrate antigens that may be expressed in human neoplasies due to alteration of the glycoprotein biosynthetic pathway. Utilising specific monoclonal antibodies (HB-Tn1, HB-STn1 and HB-T1), we have investigated the expression of these simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in large intestine of 8 human foetuses at early gestational age (9-10 weeks), obtained after therapeutic abortion. In all cases the expression of Tn antigen was mainl...

  11. The ganglioside antigen GD2 is surface-expressed in Ewing sarcoma and allows for MHC-independent immune targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailayangiri, S; Altvater, B; Meltzer, J; Pscherer, S; Luecke, A; Dierkes, C; Titze, U; Leuchte, K; Landmeier, S; Hotfilder, M; Dirksen, U; Hardes, J; Gosheger, G; Juergens, H; Rossig, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies are needed to cure disseminated Ewing sarcoma. Primitive neuroectodermal features and a mesenchymal stem cell origin are both compatible with aberrant expression of the ganglioside antigen GD2 and led us to explore GD2 immune targeting in this cancer. Methods: We investigated GD2 expression in Ewing sarcoma by immunofluorescence staining. We then assessed the antitumour activity of T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor specific for GD2 against Ewing sarcoma in vitro and in vivo. Results: Surface GD2 was detected in 10 out of 10 Ewing sarcoma cell lines and 3 out of 3 primary cell cultures. Moreover, diagnostic biopsies from 12 of 14 patients had uniform GD2 expression. T cells specifically modified to express the GD2-specific chimeric receptor 14. G2a-28ζ efficiently interacted with Ewing sarcoma cells, resulting in antigen-specific secretion of cytokines. Moreover, chimeric receptor gene-modified T cells from healthy donors and from a patient exerted potent, GD2-specific cytolytic responses to allogeneic and autologous Ewing sarcoma, including tumour cells grown as multicellular, anchorage-independent spheres. GD2-specific T cells further had activity against Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Conclusion: GD2 surface expression is a characteristic of Ewing sarcomas and provides a suitable target antigen for immunotherapeutic strategies to eradicate micrometastatic cells and prevent relapse in high-risk disease. PMID:22374462

  12. Gene Therapy Induces Antigen-Specific Tolerance in Experimental Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirholt, Pernilla; Turesson, Olof; Wing, Kajsa; Holmdahl, Rikard; Kihlberg, Jan; Stern, Anna; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill; Henningsson, Louise; Gustafsson, Kenth; Gjertsson, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Here, we investigate induction of immunological tolerance by lentiviral based gene therapy in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, collagen II-induced arthritis (CIA). Targeting the expression of the collagen type II (CII) to antigen presenting cells (APCs) induced antigen-specific tolerance, where only 5% of the mice developed arthritis as compared with 95% of the control mice. In the CII-tolerized mice, the proportion of Tregs as well as mRNA expression of SOCS1 (suppressors of cytokine signaling 1) increased at day 3 after CII immunization. Transfer of B cells or non-B cell APC, as well as T cells, from tolerized to naïve mice all mediated a certain degree of tolerance. Thus, sustainable tolerance is established very early during the course of arthritis and is mediated by both B and non-B cells as APCs. This novel approach for inducing tolerance to disease specific antigens can be used for studying tolerance mechanisms, not only in CIA but also in other autoimmune diseases. PMID:27159398

  13. Gene expression profiles identify inflammatory signatures in dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torri

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs constitute a heterogeneous group of antigen-presenting leukocytes important in activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. We studied the gene expression patterns of DCs incubated with reagents inducing their activation or inhibition. Total RNA was isolated from DCs and gene expression profiling was performed with oligonucleotide microarrays. Using a supervised learning algorithm based on Random Forest, we generated a molecular signature of inflammation from a training set of 77 samples. We then validated this molecular signature in a testing set of 38 samples. Supervised analysis identified a set of 44 genes that distinguished very accurately between inflammatory and non inflammatory samples. The diagnostic performance of the signature genes was assessed against an independent set of samples, by qRT-PCR. Our findings suggest that the gene expression signature of DCs can provide a molecular classification for use in the selection of anti-inflammatory or adjuvant molecules with specific effects on DC activity.

  14. Identifying Gene Interaction Enrichment for Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jigang Zhang; Jian Li; Hong-Wen Deng

    2009-01-01

    Gene set analysis allows the inclusion of knowledge from established gene sets, such as gene pathways, and potentially improves the power of detecting differentially expressed genes. However, conventional methods of gene set analysis focus on gene marginal effects in a gene set, and ignore gene interactions which may contribute to complex human diseases. In this study, we propose a method of gene interaction enrichment analysis, which incorporates knowledge of predefined gene sets (e.g. gene ...

  15. Microarray Data Analysis of Gene Expression Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Honghuang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Microarrays are becoming a widely used tool to study gene expression evolution. A recent paper by Wang and Rekaya describes a comprehensive study of gene expression evolution by microarray.1 The work provides a perspective to study gene expression evolution in terms of functional enrichment and promoter conservation. It was found that gene expression patterns are highly conserved in some biological processes, but the correlation between promoter and gene expression is insignificant. This scop...

  16. Human papillomavirus gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the role of tissue differentiation on expression of each of the papillomavirus mRNA species identified by electron microscopy, the authors prepared exon-specific RNA probes that could distinguish the alternatively spliced mRNA species. Radioactively labeled single-stranded RNA probes were generated from a dual promoter vector system and individually hybridized to adjacent serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of condylomata. Autoradiography showed that each of the message species had a characteristic tissue distribution and relative abundance. The authors have characterized a portion of the regulatory network of the HPVs by showing that the E2 ORF encodes a trans-acting enhancer-stimulating protein, as it does in BPV-1 (Spalholz et al. 1985). The HPV-11 enhancer was mapped to a 150-bp tract near the 3' end of the URR. Portions of this region are duplicated in some aggressive strains of HPV-6 (Boshart and zur Hausen 1986; Rando et al. 1986). To test the possible biological relevance of these duplications, they cloned tandem arrays of the enhancer and demonstrated, using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay, that they led to dramatically increased transcription proportional to copy number. Using the CAT assays, the authors found that the E2 proteins of several papillomavirus types can cross-stimulate the enhancers of most other types. This suggests that prior infection of a tissue with one papillomavirus type may provide a helper effect for superinfection and might account fo the HPV-6/HPV-16 coinfections in condylomata that they have observed

  17. Flow cytometric assay detecting cytotoxicity against human endogenous retrovirus antigens expressed on cultured multiple sclerosis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Larsen, A; Brudek, T; Petersen, T; Petersen, E L; Aagaard, M; Hansen, Dorte; Christensen, T

    2013-01-01

    expressing increased amounts of human endogenous retrovirus antigens. MS patients also have increased antibody levels to these antigens. The target cells are spontaneously growing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of B cell lineage, expressing human endogenous retrovirus HERV epitopes on their...

  18. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  19. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  20. Expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1. MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20). In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41) and 36.6% (15/41), while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41) and 14.6% (6/41). In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7) and 14.3% (1/7). The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P < 0.05). Gene expression rate was not correlated with menopause or lymph node metastasis. Positive expression of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was positively correlated with tumor differentiation and the clinical stage of the ovarian cancer. In addition, the positive expression rate of BAGE was significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients with ascites (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression profiles of MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian carcinoma cell lines SKOV3, A2780 and COC1 varied, but there was at least one gene expressed in each cell line. Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer

  1. T Cells Expressing CD19/CD20 Bispecific Chimeric Antigen Receptors Prevent Antigen Escape by Malignant B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zah, Eugenia; Lin, Meng-Yin; Silva-Benedict, Anne; Jensen, Michael C; Chen, Yvonne Y

    2016-06-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown remarkable curative potential against advanced B-cell malignancies, but multiple trials have also reported patient relapses due to the emergence of CD19-negative leukemic cells. Here, we report the design and optimization of single-chain, bispecific CARs that trigger robust cytotoxicity against target cells expressing either CD19 or CD20, two clinically validated targets for B-cell malignancies. We determined the structural parameters required for efficient dual-antigen recognition, and we demonstrate that optimized bispecific CARs can control both wild-type B-cell lymphoma and CD19(-) mutants with equal efficiency in vivo To our knowledge, this is the first bispecific CAR capable of preventing antigen escape by performing true OR-gate signal computation on a clinically relevant pair of tumor-associated antigens. The CD19-OR-CD20 CAR is fully compatible with existing T-cell manufacturing procedures and implementable by current clinical protocols. These results present an effective solution to the challenge of antigen escape in CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, and they highlight the utility of structure-based rational design in the development of receptors with higher-level complexity. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 498-508. ©2016 AACRSee related Spotlight by Sadelain, p. 473. PMID:27059623

  2. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology. PMID:27052691

  3. Gene Expression in Trypanosomatid Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Martínez-Calvillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi are the trypanosomatid protozoa that cause the deadly human diseases leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease, respectively. These organisms possess unique mechanisms for gene expression such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-coding genes and trans-splicing. Little is known about either the DNA sequences or the proteins that are involved in the initiation and termination of transcription in trypanosomatids. In silico analyses of the genome databases of these parasites led to the identification of a small number of proteins involved in gene expression. However, functional studies have revealed that trypanosomatids have more general transcription factors than originally estimated. Many posttranslational histone modifications, histone variants, and chromatin modifying enzymes have been identified in trypanosomatids, and recent genome-wide studies showed that epigenetic regulation might play a very important role in gene expression in this group of parasites. Here, we review and comment on the most recent findings related to transcription initiation and termination in trypanosomatid protozoa.

  4. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

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    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  5. Assessment by electron-microscopy of recombinant Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella vaccine strains expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-specific surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziethlow, V; Favre, D; Viret, J-F; Frey, J; Stoffel, M H

    2008-03-01

    Diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) requires adhesion of microorganisms to enterocytes. Hence, a promising approach to immunoprophylaxis is to elicit antibodies against colonisation factor antigens (CFAs). Genes encoding the most prevalent ETEC-specific surface antigens were cloned into Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella vaccine strains. Expression of surface antigens was assessed by electron-microscopy. Whereas negative staining was effective in revealing CFA/I and CS3, but not CS6, immunolabelling allowed identification of all surface antigens examined. The V. cholerae vaccine strain CVD103 did not express ETEC-specific colonisation factors, whereas CVD103-HgR expressed CS3 only. However, expression of both CFA/I and CS3 was demonstrated in Salmonella Ty21a. PMID:18093230

  6. The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host-parasite interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Andrew P.

    2014-05-05

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1) through comparative analysis within and between three Babesia species, (B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. bovis). Ves1 structure diverges rapidly after speciation, notably through the evolution of shortened forms (ves2) from 5? ends of canonical ves1 genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that ves1 genes are transposed between loci routinely, whereas ves2 genes are not. Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families. Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family. Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct. 2014 The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli

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    Nagendra Suryanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression constructs. The PA gene was cloned in expression vectors bearing trc, T5, and T7 promoters and transformed into their respective E. coli hosts. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain maximum expression of PA in soluble form. The expression construct PA-pET32c in DE3-pLysS E. coli host resulted in a maximum production of soluble PA (15 mg L−1 compared to other combinations. Purified PA was subjected to trypsin digestion and binding assay with lethal factor to confirm the protein’s functionality. Biological activity was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay on J774.1 cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with PA and the immunogenicity was tested by ELISA and toxin neutralization assay. This study highlights the expression of soluble and biologically active recombinant PA in larger quantity using simpler E. coli production platform.

  8. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Nagendra; Vanlalhmuaka; Mankere, Bharti; Verma, Monika; Thavachelvam, Kulanthaivel; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA) is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression constructs. The PA gene was cloned in expression vectors bearing trc, T5, and T7 promoters and transformed into their respective E. coli hosts. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain maximum expression of PA in soluble form. The expression construct PA-pET32c in DE3-pLysS E. coli host resulted in a maximum production of soluble PA (15 mg L(-1)) compared to other combinations. Purified PA was subjected to trypsin digestion and binding assay with lethal factor to confirm the protein's functionality. Biological activity was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay on J774.1 cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with PA and the immunogenicity was tested by ELISA and toxin neutralization assay. This study highlights the expression of soluble and biologically active recombinant PA in larger quantity using simpler E. coli production platform. PMID:26966576

  9. Genetic mechanism of human neutrophil antigen 2 deficiency and expression variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfang; Mair, David C; Schuller, Randy M; Li, Ling; Wu, Jianming

    2015-05-01

    Human neutrophil antigen 2 (HNA-2) deficiency is a common phenotype as 3-5% humans do not express HNA-2. HNA-2 is coded by CD177 gene that associates with human myeloproliferative disorders. HNA-2 deficient individuals are prone to produce HNA-2 alloantibodies that cause a number of disorders including transfusion-related acute lung injury and immune neutropenia. In addition, the percentages of HNA-2 positive neutrophils vary significantly among individuals and HNA-2 expression variations play a role in human diseases such as myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and gastric cancer. The underlying genetic mechanism of HNA-2 deficiency and expression variations has remained a mystery. In this study, we identified a novel CD177 nonsense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP 829A>T) that creates a stop codon within the CD177 coding region. We found that all 829TT homozygous individuals were HNA-2 deficient. In addition, the SNP 829A>T genotypes were significantly associated with the percentage of HNA-2 positive neutrophils. Transfection experiments confirmed that HNA-2 expression was absent on cells expressing the CD177 SNP 829T allele. Our data clearly demonstrate that the CD177 SNP 829A>T is the primary genetic determinant for HNA-2 deficiency and expression variations. The mechanistic delineation of HNA-2 genetics will enable the development of genetic tests for diagnosis and prognosis of HNA-2-related human diseases. PMID:26024230

  10. Expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T antigens in human foetal large intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Barresi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T antigens are simple mucintype carbohydrate antigens that may be expressed in human neoplasies due to alteration of the glycoprotein biosynthetic pathway. Utilising specific monoclonal antibodies (HB-Tn1, HB-STn1 and HB-T1, we have investigated the expression of these simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in large intestine of 8 human foetuses at early gestational age (9-10 weeks, obtained after therapeutic abortion. In all cases the expression of Tn antigen was mainly localised as a thin rim at the cell membrane and occasionally in the supranuclear region of epithelial cells, while sialosyl-Tn antigen was documented in some goblet cell vacuoles and occasionally in the cytoplasm of columnar cells. T antigen was not expressed in any case. These results indicate that Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens are expressed as early as nine weeks of gestation, further supporting the notion that they may be considered as oncodevelopmental cancerassociated antigens in the large intestine.

  11. The Gene Expression Omnibus database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome–protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/. PMID:27008011

  12. Expression and purification of hepatitis B surface antigen S from Escherichia coli; a new simple method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elghanam Mohamed S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is a liver disease primarily caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. It is distributed worldwide and associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. HBV infections can be avoided by the administration of the currently available vaccine and can be easily diagnosed through commercially available kits. Both the vaccine and the diagnostic kits depend on using the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg as an antigen. Developing countries such as, Egypt, suffer from the widespread of HBV infections and the limited resources to provide adequate supplies of either the vaccine or the diagnostic kits. Therefore the need for an easy, rapid, low cost method to produce HBsAg is urgently needed within this setting. Findings To achieve this goal, the gene encoding the HBsAg(S protein was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein with a GST tag in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed and purified in both good quality and quantity. Conclusions The simplified and the relatively low cost of the used protocol make this an attractive alternative to protocols currently used for the purification of HBsAg(S. The exploiting of this achievement for new diagnostics can be directed for application in the developing countries where they are extremely needed.

  13. Plant bioreactors for the antigenic hook-associated flgK protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants engineered with genes encoding for the antigenic proteins of various microorganisms have shown to correctly express the proteins that elicit the production of antibodies in mammalian hosts. In livestock, plant-based vaccines could represent an innovative strategy for oral vaccination, especially to prevent infection by enteric pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate tobacco plants as a seedspecific expression system for the production of the flgK flagellar hook-associated protein from a wild type Salmonella typhimurium strain, as a model of an edible vaccine. The flgK gene is the principal component of bacterial flagella and is recognised as virulence factor by the innate immune system. It was isolated from the Salmonella typhimurium strain by PCR. The encoding sequence of flgK was transferred into a pBI binary vector, under control of soybean basic 7S globulin promoter for the seed-specific. Plant transformation was carried out using recombinant EHA 105 Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transgenic population was obtained made up of independently kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants, which had a similar morphological appearance to the wild-type plants. Molecular analyses of seeds confirmed the integration of the gene and the average expression level of flgK was estimated to be about 0.6 mg per gram of seeds, corresponding to 0.33% of the total amount of soluble protein in tobacco seeds. This study showed that the foreign flgK gene could be stably incorporated into the tobacco plant genome by transcription through the nuclear apparatus of the plant, and that these genes are inherited by the next generation.

  14. Protein L: a novel reagent for the detection of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR expression by flow cytometry

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    Zheng Zhili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been significant progress in the last two decades on the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. Structurally CARs consist of a single chain antibody fragment directed against a tumor-associated antigen fused to an extracellular spacer and transmembrane domain followed by T cell cytoplasmic signaling moieties. Currently several clinical trials are underway using gene modified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL with CARs directed against a variety of tumor associated antigens. Despite the improvements in the design of CARs and expansion of the number of target antigens, there is no universal flow cytometric method available to detect the expression of CARs on the surface of transduced lymphocytes. Methods Currently anti-fragment antigen binding (Fab conjugates are most widely used to determine the expression of CARs on gene-modified lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The limitations of these reagents are that many of them are not commercially available, generally they are polyclonal antibodies and often the results are inconsistent. In an effort to develop a simple universal flow cytometric method to detect the expression of CARs, we employed protein L to determine the expression of CARs on transduced lymphocytes. Protein L is an immunoglobulin (Ig-binding protein that binds to the variable light chains (kappa chain of Ig without interfering with antigen binding site. Protein L binds to most classes of Ig and also binds to single-chain antibody fragments (scFv and Fab fragments. Results We used CARs derived from both human and murine antibodies to validate this novel protein L based flow cytometric method and the results correlated well with other established methods. Activated human PBLs were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing two human antibody based CARs (anti-EGFRvIII, and anti-VEGFR2, two murine antibody derived CARs (anti-CSPG4, and anti

  15. Evaluation of Nicotiana tabacum plants transformed for the expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens.

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    Angela Lombardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, carrying respectively the F18 adhesive fimbriae and the B subunit of verocytotoxin genes from O138 Verocytotoxic E.coli serotype were developed as a model of edible vaccine. Tobacco plants were transformed by agroinfection according to Rossi et al. (2013 stably.  The F18 adhesive fimbriae and VT2e B-subunit were placed under control of the GLOB promoter for the seed-specific protein expression. Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector system is an efficient tool to transform plant cells; however, the exogenous gene integrates at semi-random into the nuclear chromosome. PCR products, using specific oligonucleotides putatively encoding the B-subunit of VT2e-B and F18 fimbriae were identified on agarose gel (1.5% - 0.9% as bands with a length of 270 and 519 base pairs, respectively. We showed that the foreign VT2e-B and F18 fimbriae genes were stably integrated into the tobacco genome. Northern blot and Western blot analyses carried out respectively on total mRNA and total soluble protein extract obtained from seeds. For each line, the obtained amount of antigens is sufficient for subsequent oral immunization trials. Three lines of tobacco seeds (F18, VT2e-B, and WT were seeded in homogeneous conditions and were harvested simultaneously. Tobacco plants were analysed also by optical and electronic microscope in different phases of growth. Germination of transgenic seeds were delayed of three/five days compared to WT in two replicated experiments, suggesting that genetic manipulation may influenced mechanisms leading to germination. In conclusion the genes coding for VT2e-B and the F18 are stably maintained in the seeds and obtained tobacco seeds represent a valid strategy to ferry antigenic proteins to the gut and a promising non-invasive method of vaccination in pig industry.

  16. Transcriptional stochasticity in gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipniacki, Tomasz; Paszek, Pawel; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna; Brasier, Allan R; Kimmel, Marek

    2006-01-21

    Due to the small number of copies of molecular species involved, such as DNA, mRNA and regulatory proteins, gene expression is a stochastic phenomenon. In eukaryotic cells, the stochastic effects primarily originate in regulation of gene activity. Transcription can be initiated by a single transcription factor binding to a specific regulatory site in the target gene. Stochasticity of transcription factor binding and dissociation is then amplified by transcription and translation, since target gene activation results in a burst of mRNA molecules, and each mRNA copy serves as a template for translating numerous protein molecules. In the present paper, we explore a mathematical approach to stochastic modeling. In this approach, the ordinary differential equations with a stochastic component for mRNA and protein levels in a single cells yield a system of first-order partial differential equations (PDEs) for two-dimensional probability density functions (pdf). We consider the following examples: Regulation of a single auto-repressing gene, and regulation of a system of two mutual repressors and of an activator-repressor system. The resulting PDEs are approximated by a system of many ordinary equations, which are then numerically solved. PMID:16039671

  17. The expression and antigenicity identification of recombinant rat TGF-β1 n bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to study structure-function details of TGF-β1,the recombinant mature form of rat TGF-β1 was expressed in bacteria.Synthesis of the 112 amino-acid carboxyl-terminal part of TGF-β1(amino acid 279390)was controlled by an inducible gene expression system based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase.This system allowed an active and selective synthesis of recombinant TGF-β1.The molecular weight of expressed TGF-β1 monomer determined on SDS-polyacrylamide gel under reducing conditions was about 13 kD.Serial detergent washes combined with a single gel-filtration purification step were sufficient to purify the expression product to homogeneity.Amino-terminal sequencing revealed that the N-terminal of the recombinant protein was identical to the published data.In Western blot analysis the recombinant polypeptide showed excellent antigenicity against polyclonal TGF-β1 antibody.The mature recombinant rat TGF-β1 expressed in this study provides a useful tool for future detailed structural and functional studies.

  18. Mitochondrial RNA granules: Compartmentalizing mitochondrial gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Alexis A; Boehm, Erik; Maundrell, Kinsey; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-03-14

    In mitochondria, DNA replication, gene expression, and RNA degradation machineries coexist within a common nondelimited space, raising the question of how functional compartmentalization of gene expression is achieved. Here, we discuss the recently characterized "mitochondrial RNA granules," mitochondrial subdomains with an emerging role in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:26953349

  19. A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

  20. The use of directed evolution to create a stable and immunogenic recombinant BCG expressing a modified HIV-1 Gag antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamund Chapman

    Full Text Available Numerous features make Mycobacterium bovis BCG an attractive vaccine vector for HIV. It has a good safety profile, it elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable. Despite these advantages it is often difficult to express viral antigens in BCG, which results in genetic instability and low immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to generate stable recombinant BCG (rBCG that express high levels of HIV antigens, by modification of the HIV genes. A directed evolution process was applied to recombinant mycobacteria that expressed HIV-1 Gag fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Higher growth rates and increased GFP expression were selected for. Through this process a modified Gag antigen was selected. Recombinant BCG that expressed the modified Gag (BCG[pWB106] and BCG[pWB206] were more stable, produced higher levels of antigen and grew faster than those that expressed the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]. The recombinant BCG that expressed the modified HIV-1 Gag induced 2 to 3 fold higher levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells than those expressing the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]. Mice primed with 10(7 CFU BCG[pWB206] and then boosted with MVA-Gag developed Gag-specific CD8 T cells with a frequency of 1343±17 SFU/10(6 splenocytes, 16 fold greater than the response induced with MVA-Gag alone. Levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells were approximately 5 fold higher in mice primed with BCG[pWB206] and boosted with MVA-Gag than in those receiving the MVA-Gag boost alone. In addition mice vaccinated with BCG[pWB206] were protected from a surrogate vaccinia virus challenge.

  1. The use of directed evolution to create a stable and immunogenic recombinant BCG expressing a modified HIV-1 Gag antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rosamund; Bourn, William R; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Douglass, Nicola; Mgwebi, Thandi; Meyers, Ann; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2014-01-01

    Numerous features make Mycobacterium bovis BCG an attractive vaccine vector for HIV. It has a good safety profile, it elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable. Despite these advantages it is often difficult to express viral antigens in BCG, which results in genetic instability and low immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to generate stable recombinant BCG (rBCG) that express high levels of HIV antigens, by modification of the HIV genes. A directed evolution process was applied to recombinant mycobacteria that expressed HIV-1 Gag fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Higher growth rates and increased GFP expression were selected for. Through this process a modified Gag antigen was selected. Recombinant BCG that expressed the modified Gag (BCG[pWB106] and BCG[pWB206]) were more stable, produced higher levels of antigen and grew faster than those that expressed the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]). The recombinant BCG that expressed the modified HIV-1 Gag induced 2 to 3 fold higher levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells than those expressing the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]). Mice primed with 10(7) CFU BCG[pWB206] and then boosted with MVA-Gag developed Gag-specific CD8 T cells with a frequency of 1343±17 SFU/10(6) splenocytes, 16 fold greater than the response induced with MVA-Gag alone. Levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells were approximately 5 fold higher in mice primed with BCG[pWB206] and boosted with MVA-Gag than in those receiving the MVA-Gag boost alone. In addition mice vaccinated with BCG[pWB206] were protected from a surrogate vaccinia virus challenge. PMID:25061753

  2. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata;

    2015-01-01

    expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles for these...

  3. Antigen Presentation Ability of Salmonella Carrying DNA Vaccine Model and MCP-3 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Winiati Bachtiar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the antigen presentation ability of a DNA vaccine model that is co-delivered with that of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM1 expressing chemokine macrophage chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3. The DNA vaccine, pVROVA, was constructed by amplification of the ovalbumin coding region from sOVA-C1. Dendritic cells (DCs were obtained from IL-4 and GMCSF stimulated mouse bone marrow stem cell. Cultured DCs were incubated with STM1 carrying a model ovalbumin gene (pVROVA. Furthermore, MHC class I antigen presentation of a dominant OVA peptide was assayed in vitro. The experiments were designed to determine the effect of co-delivering MCP-3 with that of ovalbumin in STM1. Our results show that a plasmid pROVA-carrying ovalbumin gene was succesfully constructed and sequence analysis of the ovalbumin-coding revealed an identity match of 100% with that of the chicken ovalbumin DNA sequences from the GenBank database. We also found that the presence of the MCP-3 encoding plasmid in STM1 or E. coli DH1 could increase the recovery of both STM1 and E. coli DH1 over those that carry the empty plasmids. Antigen presentation assay also indicates that MCP-3 can positively influence the presentation of ovalbumin. Conclusion: the infection of DCs by STM1-carrying DNA vaccine and MCP-3 results in an increase of processing and presentation of ovalbumin in vitro.Keywords : DNA vaccine, MCP-3, APC, Salmonella, Dendritic cells

  4. Fusion Expression and Immunity Evaluation of Chicken IL-2 with Antigen Epitopes from F Gene of Newcastle Disease Virus%鸡IL-2/NDV-F蛋白抗原表位融合基因的表达及免疫性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许发芝; 吴胜国; 余为一

    2011-01-01

    To explore the immune adjuvant effects of chicken IL-2 ( ChIL-2), a recombinant plasmid with ChlL-2 and multi-antigen epitopes from F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV-F) was built and expressed in prokaryotic cells to prevent and control the chicken ND disease. The recombinant chimeric gene of ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F constructed by chicken ChIL-2 gene linked multi-antigen epitopes gene of NDV F protein via a serine-rich linker by overlap-PCR method was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector PET-32a. After identification by sequencing, the recombinant ChIL-2-inker-NDV-F protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 through IPTG and purified with the Ni2+ affinity column. The expressed ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western-blot and indirect ELISA, respectively. The chimeric gene of ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F was successfully constructed and cloned into PET-32a vector respectively. The expressed ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F protein was shown by a major band with a expected molecular weight about 48 kD on SDS-PAGE and Western-blot and accounted for almost 45 % of the total bacteria proteins, Serological assay by indirect ELISA showed that it reacted strongly and specifically with chicken serum of NDV infection. These results indicated that the chimeric gene encoding ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F could effectively express in prokaryotic cells and the expressed protein had high specificity and good immunogenicity.%研究鸡白细胞介素-2(chicken interleukin-2,ChlL-2)的免疫佐剂功能,构建ChlL-2与新城疫病毒F蛋白多抗原表位(NDV-F)的嵌合基因,以对鸡新城疫疫病进行防治.采用重叠延伸PCR方法通过基因柔性接头将ChlL-2基因和NDV-F多抗原表位基因构建成ChL-2-linker-NDV-F嵌合基因并克隆入PET-32a载体,经测序鉴定后,转化BL21大肠杆菌,IPTG诱导表达6×His融合蛋白,Ni2+亲和柱纯化,表达产物经SDS-PAGE、Western blot 和间接ELISA检测和鉴定.结果表明,实验成功构建并克隆了ChlL-2-linker

  5. Enhanced expression of beta2-microglobulin and HLA antigens on human lymphoid cells by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, I; Hokland, M; Berg, K

    1979-01-01

    Mononuclear cells from the blood of healthy normal humans were kept in cultures under nonstimulating conditions for 16 hr in the presence or absence of human interferon. The relative quantities of HLA antigens and beta(2)-microglobulin on the cultured cells were determined by quantitative...... immunofluorescence (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) and by the capacity of cells to absorb out cytotoxic antibodies against the relevant antigens. Interferons of different origin and purities enhanced the expression of HLA antigens and beta(2)-microglobulins, whereas membrane immunoglobulins and antigens...... recognized by antiserum raised against human brain and T cells were the same on interferon-treated and control cells. Similar interferon effects were observed on an Epstein-Barrvirus-negative Burkitt lymphoma cell line. The enhanced expression of histocompatibility antigen subsequent to intereferon treatment...

  6. Expression of immunogenic epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen with hybrid flagellin proteins by a vaccine strain of Salmonella.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J Y; Newton, S; Judd, A; Stocker, B; Robinson, W S

    1989-01-01

    A nonvirulent Salmonella dublin flagellin-negative, aromatic-dependent live vaccine strain has been used to express hepatitis B virus surface antigen epitopes in an immunogenic form. The envelope proteins of the virion are encoded by the S gene, which contains the pre-S1, pre-S2, and S coding regions. Synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to amino acid residues S-(122-137) and pre-S2-(120-145) were inserted in-frame into the hypervariable region of a cloned Salmonella flagellin gene, and t...

  7. Purification and characterization of fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) were purified from both fetal liver and fetal bone marrow by immune rosetting with sheep erythrocytes coated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Dual fluorescence techniques disclosed that these cells were heterogenous with respect to the expression of a series of differentiation and activation antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies. Thus, whereas all...

  8. Variability in expression of cell surface antigens of Candida albicans during morphogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The location and expression of two different cell surface antigens on germinating and nongerminating Candida albicans cells was examined by using transmission electron microscopy after labeling with monoclonal antibodies (H9 or C6) and immunocolloidal gold. Immunodeterminant expression of the two carbohydrate antigens was followed from early germination events through 20 h of development. The determinant detected by H9 antibody, which was initially lost from the mother cell surface and prefer...

  9. Expression of hepatitis A virus cDNA in Escherichia coli: antigenic VP1 recombinant protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermayr, R; von der Helm, K; Gauss-Müller, V; Winnacker, E L; Deinhardt, F.

    1987-01-01

    The genome of hepatitis A virus (HAV) was reverse transcribed into cDNA and molecularly cloned. cDNA clones coding for the capsid protein VP1 that carries the major HAV antigen were cloned into the expression vector pUR290 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion protein reacted in an immunoblot with rabbit anti-HAV serum, suggesting that it possesses HAV antigenicity.

  10. Regulation of murine macrophage Ia-antigen expression by products of activated spleen cells

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of mediators derived form activated spleen cells on macrophage Ia-antigen expression and function. Incubation of adherent thioglycollate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages(> 90% Ia-) with concanavalin A (Con A)- stimulated spleen cell supernate (Con A sup) resulted in a dose- dependent increase in the percentage of Ia-containing (Ia+) phagocytic cells, as detected by antiserum-and-complement-mediated cytotoxicity. The Ia-antigen expression of macroph...

  11. Correlating Expression Data with Gene Function Using Gene Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Qi; DENG,Yong; WANG,Chuan; SHI,Tie-Liu; LI,Yi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is perhaps one of the most widely used tools for microarray data analysis. Proposed roles for genes of unknown function are inferred from clusters of genes similarity expressed across many biological conditions.However, whether function annotation by similarity metrics is reliable or not and to what extent the similarity in gene expression patterns is useful for annotation of gene functions, has not been evaluated. This paper made a comprehensive research on the correlation between the similarity of expression data and of gene functions using Gene Ontology. It has been found that although the similarity in expression patterns and the similarity in gene functions are significantly dependent on each other, this association is rather weak. In addition, among the three categories of Gene Ontology, the similarity of expression data is more useful for cellular component annotation than for biological process and molecular function. The results presented are interesting for the gene functions prediction research area.

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution of 1P1 antigen expression in the plexiform layers of developing chick retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHOUHUA; QIUBAOSONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of 1P1-antigen in the developing chick retina have been examined by indriect immunofluorescence staining technique using the novel monoclonal antibody(MAb)1P1.Expression of the 1P1 antigen was found to be regulated in radial as well as in tangential dimension of the retina,being preferentially or exclusively located in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the neural retina depending on the stages of development ,With the onset of the formation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 antigen becomes expressed in the retina.With progressing differentiation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 immunofluorescence revealed 2 subbands at E9 and 6 subands at E18,At postnatal stages(after P3) immunoreactivity was reduced in an inside-outside sequence leading to the complete absence of the 1P1 antigen in adulthood.1P1 antigen expression in the outer plexiform layer was also subject to developmental regulation.The spation-temporal pattern of 1P1 antigen expression was correlated with the time course of histological differentation of chick retina,namely the synapse rich plexiform layers.Whether the 1P1 antigen was functionally involved in dendrite extension and synapse formation was discussed.

  13. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna) as a direct downstream target gene of Hoxc8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Hyehyun; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Bok, Jinwoong; Chung, Hyun Joo [Department of Anatomy, Embryology Laboratory, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Hee, E-mail: mhkim1@yuhs.ac [Department of Anatomy, Embryology Laboratory, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-19

    Hoxc8 is a member of Hox family transcription factors that play crucial roles in spatiotemporal body patterning during embryogenesis. Hox proteins contain a conserved 61 amino acid homeodomain, which is responsible for recognition and binding of the proteins onto Hox-specific DNA binding motifs and regulates expression of their target genes. Previously, using proteome analysis, we identified Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna) as one of the putative target genes of Hoxc8. Here, we asked whether Hoxc8 regulates Pcna expression by directly binding to the regulatory sequence of Pcna. In mouse embryos at embryonic day 11.5, the expression pattern of Pcna was similar to that of Hoxc8 along the anteroposterior body axis. Moreover, Pcna transcript levels as well as cell proliferation rate were increased by overexpression of Hoxc8 in C3H10T1/2 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Characterization of 2.3 kb genomic sequence upstream of Pcna coding region revealed that the upstream sequence contains several Hox core binding sequences and one Hox-Pbx binding sequence. Direct binding of Hoxc8 proteins to the Pcna regulatory sequence was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, our data suggest that Pcna is a direct downstream target of Hoxc8.

  14. Quality Measures for Gene Expression Biclusters

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Pontes; Ral Girldez; Aguilar-Ruiz, Jess S.

    2015-01-01

    An noticeable number of biclustering approaches have been proposed proposed for the study of gene expression data, especially for discovering functionally related gene sets under different subsets of experimental conditions. In this context, recognizing groups of co-expressed or co-regulated genes, that is, genes which follow a similar expression pattern, is one of the main objectives. Due to the problem complexity, heuristic searches are usually used instead of exhaustive algorithms. Further...

  15. CHP2 gene expression and quantitation in Egyptian patients with acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Ahmed Hammam; Hisham Hasan Eissa; Mohamed Roshdy El Masry; Sarah Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Aim: CHP2 (calcineurin B homologous protein 2) is identified as a tumor-associated antigen highly expressed in different malignancies. It plays a critical role in cancer cell development, proliferation, motility and survival. It is suggested that the human tumor related gene CHP2 expression in leukemia primary cells and leukemia cell lines significantly increase, which may play an important role in growth process of leukemia cells. Methods: In this study, the expression of CHP2 gene was an...

  16. Expression and Cellular Immunogenicity of a Transgenic Antigen Driven by Endogenous Poxviral Early Promoters at Their Authentic Loci in MVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orubu, Toritse; Alharbi, Naif Khalaf; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Cottingham, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    CD8+ T cell responses to vaccinia virus are directed almost exclusively against early gene products. The attenuated strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is under evaluation in clinical trials of new vaccines designed to elicit cellular immune responses against pathogens including Plasmodium spp., M. tuberculosis and HIV-1. All of these recombinant MVAs (rMVA) utilize the well-established method of linking the gene of interest to a cloned poxviral promoter prior to insertion into the viral genome at a suitable locus by homologous recombination in infected cells. Using BAC recombineering, we show that potent early promoters that drive expression of non-functional or non-essential MVA open reading frames (ORFs) can be harnessed for immunogenic expression of recombinant antigen. Precise replacement of the MVA orthologs of C11R, F11L, A44L and B8R with a model antigen positioned to use the same translation initiation codon allowed early transgene expression similar to or slightly greater than that achieved by the commonly-used p7.5 or short synthetic promoters. The frequency of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells induced in mice by single shot or adenovirus-prime, rMVA-boost vaccination were similarly equal or marginally enhanced using endogenous promoters at their authentic genomic loci compared to the traditional constructs. The enhancement in immunogenicity observed using the C11R or F11L promoters compared with p7.5 was similar to that obtained with the mH5 promoter compared with p7.5. Furthermore, the growth rates of the viruses were unimpaired and the insertions were genetically stable. Insertion of a transgenic ORF in place of a viral ORF by BAC recombineering can thus provide not only a potent promoter, but also, concomitantly, a suitable insertion site, potentially facilitating development of MVA vaccines expressing multiple recombinant antigens. PMID:22761956

  17. Expression and cellular immunogenicity of a transgenic antigen driven by endogenous poxviral early promoters at their authentic loci in MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toritse Orubu

    Full Text Available CD8(+ T cell responses to vaccinia virus are directed almost exclusively against early gene products. The attenuated strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is under evaluation in clinical trials of new vaccines designed to elicit cellular immune responses against pathogens including Plasmodium spp., M. tuberculosis and HIV-1. All of these recombinant MVAs (rMVA utilize the well-established method of linking the gene of interest to a cloned poxviral promoter prior to insertion into the viral genome at a suitable locus by homologous recombination in infected cells. Using BAC recombineering, we show that potent early promoters that drive expression of non-functional or non-essential MVA open reading frames (ORFs can be harnessed for immunogenic expression of recombinant antigen. Precise replacement of the MVA orthologs of C11R, F11L, A44L and B8R with a model antigen positioned to use the same translation initiation codon allowed early transgene expression similar to or slightly greater than that achieved by the commonly-used p7.5 or short synthetic promoters. The frequency of antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells induced in mice by single shot or adenovirus-prime, rMVA-boost vaccination were similarly equal or marginally enhanced using endogenous promoters at their authentic genomic loci compared to the traditional constructs. The enhancement in immunogenicity observed using the C11R or F11L promoters compared with p7.5 was similar to that obtained with the mH5 promoter compared with p7.5. Furthermore, the growth rates of the viruses were unimpaired and the insertions were genetically stable. Insertion of a transgenic ORF in place of a viral ORF by BAC recombineering can thus provide not only a potent promoter, but also, concomitantly, a suitable insertion site, potentially facilitating development of MVA vaccines expressing multiple recombinant antigens.

  18. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... beta-glucuronidase, resulting in an operon structure in which both genes are transcribed from a common promoter. We show that there is a linear correlation between the expressions of the two genes, which facilitates screening for mutants with suitable enzyme activities. In a second example, we show...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation...

  19. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Juan [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Shixia [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States); Gan, Weihua [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Zhang, Wenhong [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China); Ju, Liwen [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China); Huang, Zuhu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Lu, Shan, E-mail: shan.lu@umassmed.edu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  20. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. ► Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. ► Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. ► DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. ► Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  1. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling induce protective anti-tumor immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, S; Lauemøller, S L; Ruhwald, M;

    2001-01-01

    clinical signs of autoimmune reactions were observed. Thus, it appears possible to evaluate the entire metabolism of any given tumor and use this information rationally to identify multiple epitopes of value in the generation of tumor-specific immunotherapy. We expect that human tumors express similar......Defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are attractive targets for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel genome-wide approach to identify multiple TAA from any given tumor. A panel of transplantable thymomas was established from an inbred p53-/- mouse strain. The resulting tumors were...... examined for gene expression by mRNA microarray scanning. This analysis revealed heterogeneity of the tumors in agreement with the assumption that they represent different tumorigenic events. Several genes were overexpressed in one or more of the tumors. To examine whether overexpressed genes might be used...

  2. The effects of a partitioned var gene repertoire of Plasmodium falciparum on antigenic diversity and the acquisition of clinical immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaminpathy Nimalan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exploits antigenic diversity and within-host antigenic variation to evade the host's immune system. Of particular importance are the highly polymorphic var genes that encode the family of cell surface antigens PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1. It has recently been shown that in spite of their extreme diversity, however, these genes fall into distinct groups according to chromosomal location or sequence similarity, and that recombination may be confined within these groups. Methods This study presents a mathematical analysis of how recombination hierarchies affect diversity, and, by using simple stochastic simulations, investigates how intra- and inter-genic diversity influence the rate at which individuals acquire clinical immunity. Results The analysis demonstrates that the partitioning of the var gene repertoire has a limiting effect on the total diversity attainable through recombination and that the limiting effect is strongly influenced by the respective sizes of each of the partitions. Furthermore, by associating expression of one of the groups with severe malaria it is demonstrated how a small number of infections can be sufficient to protect against disease despite a seemingly limitless number of possible non-identical repertoires. Conclusion Recombination hierarchies within the var gene repertoire of P. falciparum have a severe effect on strain diversity and the process of acquiring immunity against clinical malaria. Future studies will show how the existence of these recombining groups can offer an evolutionary advantage in spite of their restriction on diversity.

  3. Combination of small interfering RNAs mediates greater inhibition of human hepatitis B virus replication and antigen expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhe; XU Ze-feng; YE Jing-jia; YAO Hang-ping; ZHENG Shu; DING Jia-yi

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the inhibitory effect mediated by combination of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting different sites of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts on the viral replication and antigen expression in vitro. Methods: (1) Seven siRNAs targeting surface (S), polymerase (P) or precore (PreC) region ofHBV genome were designed and chemically synthesized.(2) HBV-producing HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with or without siRNAs for 72 h. (3) HBsAg and HBeAg in the cell culture medium were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. (4) Intracellular viral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction). (5) HBV viral mRNA was reverse transcribed and quantified by real-time PCR. (6) The change of cell cycle and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Our data demonstrated that synthetic small interfering RNAs(siRNAs) targeting S and PreC gene could efficiently and specifically inhibit HBV replication and antigen expression. The expression of HBsAg and HBeAg and the replication of HBV could be specifically inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by siRNAs.Furthermore, our results showed that the combination of siRNAs targeting various regions could inhibit HBV replication and antigen expression in a more efficient way than the use of single siRNA at the same final concentration. No apoptotic change was observed in the cell after siRNA treatment. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that siRNAs exerted robust and specific inhibition on HBV replication and antigen expression in a cell culture system and combination of siRNAs targeting different regions exhibited more potency.

  4. Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, T S; Tramuta, C; Catania, S; Matucci, A; Giuffrida, M G; Baro, C; Profiti, M; Bertolotti, L; Rosati, S

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications. PMID:25667423

  5. Expression and Significance of MAGE Genes in Human Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guangxu LI; Song, Pingping; ZHANG, BAIJIANG

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the common malignancies with an extremely poor prognosis, because of the current diagnostic techniques are not easy to find micrometastases. Melanoma associated antigens genes (MAGE) are tumor specific antigen genes, closely related to the occurrence, development and prognosis of lung cancer. The research of MAGE genes provide a new direction for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  6. Gene expression in the Parkinson's disease brain

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Patrick A.; Cookson, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The study of gene expression has undergone a transformation in the past decade as the benefits of the sequencing of the human genome have made themselves felt. Increasingly, genome wide approaches are being applied to the analysis of gene expression in human disease as a route to understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we will summarise current state of gene expression studies of the brain in Parkinson's disease, and examine how these techniques can be used to gain...

  7. Bayesian biclustering of gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jun S; Gu Jiajun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Biclustering of gene expression data searches for local patterns of gene expression. A bicluster (or a two-way cluster) is defined as a set of genes whose expression profiles are mutually similar within a subset of experimental conditions/samples. Although several biclustering algorithms have been studied, few are based on rigorous statistical models. Results We developed a Bayesian biclustering model (BBC), and implemented a Gibbs sampling procedure for its statistical in...

  8. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  9. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Bachkirova, Elena (Davis, CA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA)

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  10. Cloning and expression of the tumor-associated antigen L6.

    OpenAIRE

    Marken, J S; Schieven, G L; Hellström, I; Hellström, K E; Aruffo, A

    1992-01-01

    The L6 cell surface antigen, which is highly expressed on lung, breast, colon, and ovarian carcinomas, has attracted attention as a therapeutic target for murine monoclonal antibodies and their humanized counterparts. Its molecular nature has, however, remained elusive. Here we describe the expression cloning of a cDNA encoding the L6 antigen. COS cells transfected with this cDNA direct the expression of an approximately 24-kDa surface protein that reacts with the two anti-L6 monoclonal antib...

  11. Two methods for the quantitative analysis of surface antigen expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Woźniak

    2004-01-01

    The expression of lineage molecules (CD13 and CD33), c-Kit receptor (CD117), CD34, HLA-DR and adhesion molecule CD49d was assessed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast cells from 32 cases, using direct and indirect quantitative cytometric analysis. High correlation (r=0.8) was found between antigen expression intensity values calculated by direct analysis method (ABC) and by indirect analysis method (RFI). Moreover, the differences in expression intensity of CD13, CD117 and CD34 antigens wer...

  12. Inhibition of Ly-6A antigen expression prevents T cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to the 5' end of the mRNA encoding the Ly-6A protein were used to block the expression of that protein. Using this approach we could inhibit the expression of Ly-6A by 60-80% in antigen-primed lymph node (LN) T cells as well as in the D10 T cell clone. Inhibition of Ly-6 expression resulted in the inability to restimulate in vitro, antigen-primed T cells. It also blocked the activation of normal spleen cells by Con A, monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD3, ...

  13. Genetic control of antibody responses induced by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing a foreign antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagranderie, M; Lo-Man, R; Dériaud, E; Gicquel, B; Gheorghiu, M; Leclerc, C

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing foreign antigens represents a promising candidate for the development of future vaccines and was shown in several experimental models to induce protective immunity against bacterial or parasitic infections. Innate resistance to BCG infection is under genetic control and could modify the immune responses induced against an antigen delivered by such engineered microorganisms. To investigate this question, we analyzed the immune responses of various...

  14. Design and Development of Therapies using Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dotti, Gianpietro; Gottschalk, Stephen; Savoldo, Barbara; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2014-01-01

    Investigators developed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for expression on T cells more than 25 years ago. When the CAR is derived from an antibody, the resultant cell should combine the desirable targeting features of an antibody (e.g. lack of requirement for major histocompatibility complex recognition, ability to recognize non-protein antigens) with the persistence, trafficking and effector functions of a T-cell. This article describes how the past two decades have seen a crescendo of res...

  15. cis sequence effects on gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence and transcriptional variability within and between individuals are typically studied independently. The joint analysis of sequence and gene expression variation (genetical genomics provides insight into the role of linked sequence variation in the regulation of gene expression. We investigated the role of sequence variation in cis on gene expression (cis sequence effects in a group of genes commonly studied in cancer research in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We estimated the proportion of genes exhibiting cis sequence effects and the proportion of gene expression variation explained by cis sequence effects using three different analytical approaches, and compared our results to the literature. Results We generated gene expression profiling data at N = 697 candidate genes from N = 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines for this study and used available candidate gene resequencing data at N = 552 candidate genes to identify N = 30 candidate genes with sufficient variance in both datasets for the investigation of cis sequence effects. We used two additive models and the haplotype phylogeny scanning approach of Templeton (Tree Scanning to evaluate association between individual SNPs, all SNPs at a gene, and diplotypes, with log-transformed gene expression. SNPs and diplotypes at eight candidate genes exhibited statistically significant (p cis sequence effects in our study, respectively. Conclusion Based on analysis of our results and the extant literature, one in four genes exhibits significant cis sequence effects, and for these genes, about 30% of gene expression variation is accounted for by cis sequence variation. Despite diverse experimental approaches, the presence or absence of significant cis sequence effects is largely supported by previously published studies.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen - 2 gene for Korean native pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic distances of the SLA-2 gene, to characterize SLA-2 alleles, and to provide basic genetic information of Korean pigs. The swine leukocyte antigen - 2 (SLA-2) gene in the MHC classical region was cloned with spleen tissues from Korean native pigs ...

  17. Characterization of a transcriptional promoter of human papillomavirus 18 and modulation of its expression by simian virus 40 and adenovirus early antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA present in cells derived from cervical carcinoma that contained human papillomavirus 18 genomes was initiated in the 1.053-kilobase BamHI fragment that covered the complete noncoding region of this virus. When cloned upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, this viral fragment directed the expression of the bacterial enzyme only in the sense orientation. Initiation sites were mapped around the ATG of open reading frame E6. This promoter was active in some human and simian cell lines, and its expression was modulated positively by simian virus 40 large T antigen and negatively by adenovirus type 5 E1a antigen

  18. Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns Using Biclustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarup; Bhattacharyya, Dhruba K; Kalita, Jugal K

    2016-01-01

    Mining microarray data to unearth interesting expression profile patterns for discovery of in silico biological knowledge is an emerging area of research in computational biology. A group of functionally related genes may have similar expression patterns under a set of conditions or at some time points. Biclustering is an important data mining tool that has been successfully used to analyze gene expression data for biologically significant cluster discovery. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce interesting patterns that may be observed in expression data and discuss the role of biclustering techniques in detecting interesting functional gene groups with similar expression patterns. PMID:26350227

  19. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene...... knockout and strong overexpression. However, applications such as metabolic optimization and control analysis necessitate a continuous set of expression levels with only slight increments in strength to cover a specific window around the wildtype expression level of the studied gene; this requirement can...... be met by using promoter libraries. This approach generally consists of inserting a library of promoters in front of the gene to be studied, whereby the individual promoters might deviate either in their spacer sequences or bear slight deviations from the consensus sequence of a vegetative promoter...

  20. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  1. Generation of multi-functional antigen-specific human T-cells by lentiviral TCR gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, M; Tsang, J; Xue, S-A; Escors, D; Cesco-Gaspere, M; Pospori, C; Gao, L; Hart, D; Collins, M; Stauss, H; Morris, E C

    2010-06-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer is an attractive strategy to generate antigen-specific T-cells for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer and chronic viral infection. However, current TCR gene transfer protocols trigger T-cell differentiation into terminally differentiated effector cells, which likely have reduced ability to mediate disease protection in vivo. We have developed a lentiviral gene transfer strategy to generate TCR-transduced human T-cells without promoting T-cell differentiation. We found that a combination of interleukin-15 (IL15) and IL21 facilitated lentiviral TCR gene transfer into non-proliferating T-cells. The transduced T-cells showed redirection of antigen specificity and produced IL2, IFNgamma and TNFalpha in a peptide-dependent manner. A significantly higher proportion of the IL15/IL21-stimulated T-cells were multi-functional and able to simultaneously produce all three cytokines (P<0.01), compared with TCR-transduced T-cells generated by conventional anti-CD3 plus IL2 stimulation, which primarily secreted only one cytokine. Similarly, IL15/IL21 maintained high levels of CD62L and CD28 expression in transduced T-cells, whereas anti-CD3 plus IL2 accelerated the loss of CD62L/CD28 expression. The data demonstrate that the combination of lentiviral TCR gene transfer together with IL15/IL21 stimulation can efficiently redirect the antigen specificity of resting primary human T-cells and generate multi-functional T-cells. PMID:20164855

  2. Surface membrane antigen expression changes induced in vitro by exogenous growth factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilpo, J; Hulkkonen, J; Hurme, M; Vilpo, L

    2002-09-01

    The factors determining the growth and survival of cells in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have remained poorly understood. We investigated the effects of optimal mitogen combinations (OMCs) on the expression of 26 surface membrane antigens among 33 CLL patients. The seven OMCs used were selected after pre-testing 14 combinations of (1) S. aureus Cowan I (SAC), (2) interleukin-2 (IL-2), (3) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and (4) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA; also known as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or PMA). In flow cytometry we revealed that OMCs induced statistically highly significant upregulation of the expression of CD5, CD11c, CD19, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD45, CD45RO, CD95, CD126, CD130 and FMC7, and downregulation of CD20 and CD124 expression. Interestingly, the expression of CD27, CD45RA, CD79b, CD80, CD122 and that of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily members CD21, Ig-kappa, Ig-lambda, Ig-delta and Ig-micro were not significantly affected under similar conditions. The expression of several antigens was co-regulated, suggesting common regulatory pathways. These antigens include CD11c/CD5, CD11c/CD22, CD11c/CD126, CD11c/FMC7 as well as CD27/CD45, CD27/CD45RA and CD27/CD79b. Upregulation of surface antigen expression, induced by OMCs, should be applicable in antibody therapy in vitro and in vivo, and in negative stem cell selection for autotransplantation. Furthermore, the current strategy to enhance cell surface antigen expression may be a versatile tool to raise humoral and cell-mediated host defense against CLL cells. Upregulation of proteins mediating positive growth signals (eg CD25, CD40) and negative signals or apoptosis (eg CD95) may be used to sensitize cells to chemotherapy and programmed cell death. PMID:12200683

  3. Temporal expression and localization patterns of variant surface antigens in clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates during erythrocyte schizogony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bachmann

    Full Text Available Avoidance of antibody-mediated immune recognition allows parasites to establish chronic infections and enhances opportunities for transmission. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum possesses a number of multi-copy gene families, including var, rif, stevor and pfmc-2tm, which encode variant antigens believed to be expressed on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes. However, most studies of these antigens are based on in vitro analyses of culture-adapted isolates, most commonly the laboratory strain 3D7, and thus may not be representative of the unique challenges encountered by P. falciparum in the human host. To investigate the expression of the var, rif-A, rif-B, stevor and pfmc-2tm family genes under conditions that mimic more closely the natural course of infection, ex vivo clinical P. falciparum isolates were analyzed using a novel quantitative real-time PCR approach. Expression patterns in the clinical isolates at various time points during the first intraerythrocytic developmental cycle in vitro were compared to those of strain 3D7. In the clinical isolates, in contrast to strain 3D7, there was a peak of expression of the multi-copy gene families rif-A, stevor and pfmc-2tm at the young ring stage, in addition to the already known expression peak in trophozoites. Furthermore, most of the variant surface antigen families were overexpressed in the clinical isolates relative to 3D7, with the exception of the pfmc-2tm family, expression of which was higher in 3D7 parasites. Immunofluorescence analyses performed in parallel revealed two stage-dependent localization patterns of RIFIN, STEVOR and PfMC-2TM. Proteins were exported into the infected erythrocyte at the young trophozoite stage, whereas they remained inside the parasite membrane during schizont stage and were subsequently observed in different compartments in the merozoite. These results reveal a complex pattern of expression of P. falciparum multi-copy gene families during

  4. Corticosteroids decrease the expression of beta 2-microglobulin and histocompatibility antigens on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Larsen, B; Heron, I; Plesner, T

    1982-01-01

    . Both antigens were found to be decreased, dexamethasone typically in a concentration of 10-6 mol/l causing a decrease in surface beta 2-microglobulin of 15% after an incubation period of 24 hr. The expression of two other lymphocyte surface antigens, Igm and Thy antigens, measured in parallel with beta...

  5. Expression of blood group antigens A and B in pancreas of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENKA GEORGIEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of blood group antigens (BGA A and B in tissues of different vertebrates is still controversial. There are few investigations on vertebrate pancreas and no obvious explanation of their tissue expression. The aim of the present study is to follow and compare the pancreatic expression of BGA A and B in representatives of five vertebrate classes. The biotin-streptavidin-proxidase labeling system was used for immunohistochemical detection of BGA by monoclonal antibodies to human A and B antigens. The present study reveals specific immunoreactivity in acinar and epithelial cells of pancreatic efferent ducts in species free-living vertebrates. The immunoperoxidase staining shows antigenic heterogeneity in the cellular localization. The number of positive cells and the intensity of expression vary in different species. Endothelial cells are positive only in the pancreas of Emys orbicularis. The lack of BGA A and B in some species suggests that the expression of these antigens is dependent not only on the evolutionary level of the species, but mainly on some genetic control mechanisms. The production of BGA A and B and the variability in their cellular localization probably reflect the stage of cell differentiation and the mechanisms of pancreatic secretor function. The presence of histo BGA in endodermal acinar pancreatic cells confirms the assumption for the high antigenic stability and conservatism of these molecules in vertebrate histogenesis and evolution.

  6. Suppression of MHC gene expression in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bernards, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The class I antigens of the major histocompatibility complex play a crucial part in the recognition of foreign antigens by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Some cancer cells exhibit a reduced expression of these antigens and this may help these cells to escape immune surveillance.

  7. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BORJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like recep­tors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune re­sponses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expres­sion was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and domi­nant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis

  8. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart;

    2011-01-01

    endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. Objectives:The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Methods:Microarray technology...... was used to investigate the gene expression of the endolymphatic sac with the surrounding dura. Characteristic and novel endolymphatic sac genes were determined by comparing with expressions in pure dura. Results: In all, 463 genes were identified specific for the endolymphatic sac. Functional...

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding a 13.1 kDa antigenic protein of Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H J; Cho, M S; Jung, S U; Kim, H I; Park, S; Kim, H J; Im, K I

    2001-01-01

    An antigen-related gene was cloned from a cDNA expression library of Naegleria fowleri by immunoscreening with sera obtained from mice that were either immunized with an amoebic lysate or infected with trophozoites. The coding nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene consisted of 357 bases that were translated into 119 amino acids. This gene was designated as nfa1. The predicted amino acid sequence of Nfa1 protein has two potential glycosylation and three potential phosphorylation sites, and its predicted secondary structure consists of four helices and three corners. The deduced amino acid sequence of Nfa1 protein shares 43% identity with the myohemerythrin (myoHr) protein from a marine annelid, Nereis diversicolor, including 100% identity in conserved regions and iron-binding residues. A phylogenetic tree constructed from amino acid sequences placed the N. fowleri Nfa1 protein outside of a cluster of myoHr proteins from eight invertebrates. A purified recombinant protein that migrated as a 13.1 kDa species in SDS-PAGE was produced. This recombinant protein exhibited a strong immunoreactivity with infected, immune, and anti-Nfal sera. In addition, an anti-Nfa1 serum reacted with an amoeba lysate in immunoblotting analysis. The present nfal gene encoding the myoHr-like protein is the first myoHr gene cloned from protozoa, and the Nfal antigen may be useful in diagnostic studies PMID:11831780

  10. Gene expression profiling in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovin, Lone Frier; Brynskov, Jørn; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    2007-01-01

    A central issue in autoimmune disease is whether the underlying inflammation is a repeated stereotypical process or whether disease specific gene expression is involved. To shed light on this, we analysed whether genes previously found to be differentially regulated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA...... differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (MNC) gene expression patterns between 15 newly diagnosed HT patients and 15 matched healthy controls. However, the MNC expression levels of five genes were significantly upregulated in 25 IBD patients, compared to 18 matched healthy controls (CD14, FACL2, FCN1......, RNASE2, VNN2). There was concordance in the directional change for all genes between IBD and RA patients, i.e. increased expression compared to controls. These data show that one third of the genes significantly upregulated in MNC from RA patients were upregulated in patients with other chronic...

  11. Quality measures for gene expression biclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Beatriz; Girldez, Ral; Aguilar-Ruiz, Jess S

    2015-01-01

    An noticeable number of biclustering approaches have been proposed proposed for the study of gene expression data, especially for discovering functionally related gene sets under different subsets of experimental conditions. In this context, recognizing groups of co-expressed or co-regulated genes, that is, genes which follow a similar expression pattern, is one of the main objectives. Due to the problem complexity, heuristic searches are usually used instead of exhaustive algorithms. Furthermore, most of biclustering approaches use a measure or cost function that determines the quality of biclusters. Having a suitable quality metric for bicluster is a critical aspect, not only for guiding the search, but also for establishing a comparison criteria among the results obtained by different biclustering techniques. In this paper, we analyse a large number of existing approaches to quality measures for gene expression biclusters, as well as we present a comparative study of them based on their capability to recognize different expression patterns in biclusters. PMID:25763839

  12. Composition of inflammatory infiltrate and its correlation with HBV/HCV antigen expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bozena Walewska-Zielecka; Kazimierz Madalinski; Joanna Jablonska; Paulina Godzik; Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk; Bogumila Litwinska

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the composition of liver inflammatory infiltrate in biopsy material from patients chronically infected with hepatotropic viruses and to evaluate the correlation of inflammatory infiltrate with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral antigen expression in chronic B and C hepatitis.METHODS: The phenotype of inflammatory cells was evaluated by the EnVision system, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. HBV and HCV antigens were detected with the use of monoclonal anti-HBs, poly-clonal anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively.RESULTS: The cellular composition of liver inflammatory infiltrate was similar in the patients with B and C hepatitis: ~50%-60% of cells were T helper lymphooltes. Approximately 25% were T cytotoxic lymphocytes; B lymphocytes comprised 15% of inflammatory infiltrate; other cells, including NK, totalled 10%. Expression of HLA antigens paralleled inflammatory activity. Portal lymphadenoplasia was found more often in hepatitis C (54.5%) than in hepatitis B (30.6%). Expression of HB-cAg was found more often in chronic B hepatitis of moderate or severe activity. Overall inflammatory activity in HBV-infected cases did not correlate with the intensity of HBsAg expression in hepatooltes. Inflammatory infiltrates accompanied the focal expression of HCV anti-gens. A direct correlation between antigen expression and inflammatory reaction in situ was noted more often in hepatitis C than B.CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the etiology and activity of hepatitis, components of the inflammatory infiltrate in liver were similar. Overall inflammatory activity did not correlate with the expression of HBsAg and HCVAg; HBcAg expression, however, accompanied chronic hepatitis B of moderate and severe activity.

  13. Positron emission tomography imaging of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The merging of molecular biology and nuclear medicine is developed into molecular nuclear medicine. Positron emission tomography (PET) of gene expression in molecular nuclear medicine has become an attractive area. Positron emission tomography imaging gene expression includes the antisense PET imaging and the reporter gene PET imaging. It is likely that the antisense PET imaging will lag behind the reporter gene PET imaging because of the numerous issues that have not yet to be resolved with this approach. The reporter gene PET imaging has wide application into animal experimental research and human applications of this approach will likely be reported soon

  14. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qiangzheng; Guo, Xi; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Perepelov, Andrei V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-07-22

    The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) of Escherichia coli O133 was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O133. The structure of the hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including a two-dimensional (1)H-(1)H ROESY experiment: Functions of genes in the O-antigen gene cluster were putatively identified by comparison with sequences in the available databases and, particularly, an encoded predicted multifunctional glycosyltransferase was assigned to three α-l-rhamnosidic linkages. PMID:27203746

  15. Gene expression trees in lymphoid development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliep Alexander

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulatory processes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation are central to developmental biology. Particularly well studied in this respect is the lymphoid system due to its importance for basic biology and for clinical applications. Gene expression measured in lymphoid cells in several distinguishable developmental stages helps in the elucidation of underlying molecular processes, which change gradually over time and lock cells in either the B cell, T cell or Natural Killer cell lineages. Large-scale analysis of these gene expression trees requires computational support for tasks ranging from visualization, querying, and finding clusters of similar genes, to answering detailed questions about the functional roles of individual genes. Results We present the first statistical framework designed to analyze gene expression data as it is collected in the course of lymphoid development through clusters of co-expressed genes and additional heterogeneous data. We introduce dependence trees for continuous variates, which model the inherent dependencies during the differentiation process naturally as gene expression trees. Several trees are combined in a mixture model to allow inference of potentially overlapping clusters of co-expressed genes. Additionally, we predict microRNA targets. Conclusion Computational results for several data sets from the lymphoid system demonstrate the relevance of our framework. We recover well-known biological facts and identify promising novel regulatory elements of genes and their functional assignments. The implementation of our method (licensed under the GPL is available at http://algorithmics.molgen.mpg.de/Supplements/ExpLym/.

  16. MHC-restricted antigen presentation and recognition: constraints on gene, recombinant and peptide vaccines in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha-Neto E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The target of any immunization is to activate and expand lymphocyte clones with the desired recognition specificity and the necessary effector functions. In gene, recombinant and peptide vaccines, the immunogen is a single protein or a small assembly of epitopes from antigenic proteins. Since most immune responses against protein and peptide antigens are T-cell dependent, the molecular target of such vaccines is to generate at least 50-100 complexes between MHC molecule and the antigenic peptide per antigen-presenting cell, sensitizing a T cell population of appropriate clonal size and effector characteristics. Thus, the immunobiology of antigen recognition by T cells must be taken into account when designing new generation peptide- or gene-based vaccines. Since T cell recognition is MHC-restricted, and given the wide polymorphism of the different MHC molecules, distinct epitopes may be recognized by different individuals in the population. Therefore, the issue of whether immunization will be effective in inducing a protective immune response, covering the entire target population, becomes an important question. Many pathogens have evolved molecular mechanisms to escape recognition by the immune system by variation of antigenic protein sequences. In this short review, we will discuss the several concepts related to selection of amino acid sequences to be included in DNA and peptide vaccines.

  17. Silencing of T lymphocytes by antigen-driven programmed death in recombinant adeno-associated virus vector–mediated gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Victoria M.; Bowen, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are considered promising for human gene replacement because they facilitate stable expression of therapeutic proteins in transduced tissues. Whether the success of gene therapy will be influenced by cellular immune responses targeting transgene-encoded proteins that are potentially immunogenic is unknown. Here we characterized CD8+ T-cell activity against β-galactosidase and enhanced green fluorescent protein, model antigens containing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes that are constitutively produced in murine skeletal muscle after rAAV vector transduction. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in the spleen and liver of mice within 7 days of muscle transduction. CD8+ T-cell frequencies in these organs were stable, and effector functions were intact for months despite ongoing antigen production in muscle. CD8+ T cells also infiltrated transduced muscle, where frequencies were at least 5-fold higher than in untransduced spleen and liver. Significantly, the majority of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in vector-transduced muscle were not functional. Loss of function in the muscle was associated with programmed death of the effector cells. Stable gene expression therefore depended on selective death of CD8+ T cells at the site of antigen production, an effective mechanism for subverting immunity that is also potentially reversible. PMID:18566327

  18. Self-Adjuvanting Bacterial Vectors Expressing Pre-Erythrocytic Antigens Induce Sterile Protection against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eBergmann-Leitner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically inactivated, Gram-negative bacteria that express malaria vaccine candidates represent a promising novel self-adjuvanting vaccine approach. Antigens expressed on particulate bacterial carriers not only target directly to antigen-presenting cells but also provide a strong danger signal thus circumventing the requirement for potent extraneous adjuvants. E. coli expressing malarial antigens resulted in the induction of either Th1 or Th2 biased responses that were dependent on both antigen and sub-cellular localization. Some of these constructs induced higher quality humoral responses compared to recombinant protein and most importantly they were able to induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in a murine model of malaria. In light of these encouraging results, two major Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine targets, the Cell-Traversal protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS fused to the Maltose-binding protein in the periplasmic space and the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP fused to the Outer membrane protein A in the outer membrane were expressed in a clinically relevant, attenuated Shigella strain (Shigella flexneri 2a. This type of live attenuated vector has previously undergone clinical investigations as a vaccine against shigellosis. Using this novel delivery platform for malaria, we find that vaccination with the whole organism represents an effective vaccination alternative that induces protective efficacy against sporozoite challenge. Shigella GeMI-Vax expressing malaria targets warrant further evaluation to determine their full potential as a dual disease, multivalent, self-adjuvanting vaccine system, against both shigellosis and malaria.

  19. Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Bryan E; Asrican, Rose; Lim, So-Yon; Sixsmith, Jaimie D; Lukose, Regy; Souther, Sommer J R; Rayasam, Swati D G; Saelens, Joseph W; Chen, Ching-Ju; Seay, Sarah A; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Magtanong, Leslie; Vermeul, Kim; Pajanirassa, Priyadharshini; Jimenez, Amanda E; Ng, Tony W; Tobin, David M; Porcelli, Steven A; Larsen, Michelle H; Schmitz, Joern E; Haynes, Barton F; Jacobs, William R; Lee, Sunhee; Frothingham, Richard

    2015-07-01

    The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful generation of recombinant BCG strains possessing consistent insert expression has encountered challenges in stability. Here, we describe a method for the development of large recombinant BCG accession lots which stably express the lentiviral antigens, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag, using selectable leucine auxotrophic complementation. Successful establishment of vaccine stability stems from stringent quality control criteria which not only screen for highly stable complemented BCG ΔleuCD transformants but also thoroughly characterize postproduction quality. These parameters include consistent production of correctly sized antigen, retention of sequence-pure plasmid DNA, freeze-thaw recovery, enumeration of CFU, and assessment of cellular aggregates. Importantly, these quality assurance procedures were indicative of overall vaccine stability, were predictive for successful antigen expression in subsequent passaging both in vitro and in vivo, and correlated with induction of immune responses in murine models. This study has yielded a quality-controlled BCG ΔleuCD vaccine expressing HIV gp120 that retained stable full-length expression after 10(24)-fold amplification in vitro and following 60 days of growth in mice. A second vaccine lot expressed full-length SIV Gag for >10(68)-fold amplification in vitro and induced potent antigen-specific T cell populations in vaccinated mice. Production of large, well-defined recombinant BCG ΔleuCD lots can allow confidence that vaccine materials for immunogenicity and protection studies are not negatively affected by instability or differences between freshly grown production batches. PMID:25924766

  20. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics.

  1. Microarray Gene Expression Analysis to Evaluate Cell Type Specific Expression of Targets Relevant for Immunotherapy of Hematological Malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Pont

    Full Text Available Cellular immunotherapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of hematological cancers by donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and more recently by targeted therapy with chimeric antigen or T-cell receptor-engineered T cells. However, dependent on the tissue distribution of the antigens that are targeted, anti-tumor responses can be accompanied by undesired side effects. Therefore, detailed tissue distribution analysis is essential to estimate potential efficacy and toxicity of candidate targets for immunotherapy of hematological malignancies. We performed microarray gene expression analysis of hematological malignancies of different origins, healthy hematopoietic cells and various non-hematopoietic cell types from organs that are often targeted in detrimental immune responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation leading to graft-versus-host disease. Non-hematopoietic cells were also cultured in the presence of IFN-γ to analyze gene expression under inflammatory circumstances. Gene expression was investigated by Illumina HT12.0 microarrays and quality control analysis was performed to confirm the cell-type origin and exclude contamination of non-hematopoietic cell samples with peripheral blood cells. Microarray data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR showing strong correlations between both platforms. Detailed gene expression profiles were generated for various minor histocompatibility antigens and B-cell surface antigens to illustrate the value of the microarray dataset to estimate efficacy and toxicity of candidate targets for immunotherapy. In conclusion, our microarray database provides a relevant platform to analyze and select candidate antigens with hematopoietic (lineage-restricted expression as potential targets for immunotherapy of hematological cancers.

  2. Role for elevated H-2 antigen expression in resistance to neoplasia caused by radiation-induced leukemia virus. Enhancement of effective tumor surveillance by killer lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance to neoplasia caused by radiation-induced leukemia virus (RadLV) is mediated by gene(s) in the H-2D region of the major histocompatibility complex. The previous observation that rapid increases in cellular synthesis and cell-surface expression of H-2 antigens are detectable immediately after virus inoculation has suggested that altered expression of H-2 antigens may play a significant role in the mechanism(s) of host defense to virus infection. This concept is supported by the following observations. First, cell-mediated immunity against RadLV transformed or infected cells can be detected with ease when H-2-positive target cells are used in the cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) assay. Second, resistant mice develop greater numbers of effectors when infected with RadLV than do susceptible mice. Third, injection of normal (uninfected) thymocytes into syngeneic recipients of resistant or susceptible H-2 type does not stimulate a CML response. However, injection of RadLV infected thymocytes from resistant mice produces a vigorous CMI response, and such thymocytes elicit the strongest response at a time when both H-2 and viral antigen expression is elevated. By contrast, injection of infected thymocytes from susceptible mice, which express viral antigens, but low levels of H-2 antigens, does not stimulate a CML reaction. These findings may explain the easier induction of leukemia found by many investigators when virus is inoculated into neonatal mice and the preferential thymus tropism of some oncogenic type-C RNA virus. Cells expressing very low levels of H-2, such as thymocytes, may serve as permissive targets for virus infection because they lack an important component (H-2 antigens) of the dual or altered recognition signal required to trigger a defensive host immune response

  3. Expression of recombinant Araraquara Hantavirus nucleoprotein in insect cells and its use as an antigen for immunodetection compared to the same antigen expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff Jose LC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigens for Hantavirus serological tests have been produced using DNA recombinant technology for more than twenty years. Several different strategies have been used for that purpose. All of them avoid the risks and difficulties involved in multiplying Hantavirus in the laboratory. In Brazil, the Araraquara virus is one of the main causes of Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. Methods In this investigation, we report the expression of the N protein of the Araraquara Hantavirus in a Baculovirus Expression System, the use of this protein in IgM and IgG ELISA and comparison with the same antigen generated in E. coli. Results The protein obtained, and purified in a nickel column, was effectively recognized by antibodies from confirmed HCPS patients. Comparison of the baculovirus generated antigen with the N protein produced in E. coli showed that both were equally effective in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our results therefore indicate that either of these proteins can be used in serological tests in Brazil.

  4. Bimodal gene expression patterns in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky Yuri; Bugrim Andrej; Shi Weiwei; Kirillov Eugene; Bessarabova Marina; Nikolskaya Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We identified a set of genes with an unexpected bimodal distribution among breast cancer patients in multiple studies. The property of bimodality seems to be common, as these genes were found on multiple microarray platforms and in studies with different end-points and patient cohorts. Bimodal genes tend to cluster into small groups of four to six genes with synchronised expression within the group (but not between the groups), which makes them good candidates for robust conditional ...

  5. Topological Features In Cancer Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Svetlana; Krishnamoorthy, Bala

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for exploring cancer gene expression data based on tools from algebraic topology. Our method selects a small relevant subset from tens of thousands of genes while simultaneously identifying nontrivial higher order topological features, i.e., holes, in the data. We first circumvent the problem of high dimensionality by dualizing the data, i.e., by studying genes as points in the sample space. Then we select a small subset of the genes as landmarks to construct topologic...

  6. Identity Gene Expression in Proteus Mirabilis

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Karine Alexine; Wenren, Larissa Man-Yin; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Swarming colonies of independent Proteus mirabilis isolates recognize each other as foreign and do not merge together, whereas apposing swarms of clonal isolates merge with each other. Swarms of mutants with deletions in the ids gene cluster do not merge with their parent. Thus, ids genes are involved in the ability of P. mirabilis to distinguish self from nonself. Here we have characterized expression of the ids genes. We show that idsABCDEF genes are transcribed as an operon, and we define ...

  7. A comparative gene expression database for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormestad Mattias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As whole genome and transcriptome sequencing gets cheaper and faster, a great number of 'exotic' animal models are emerging, rapidly adding valuable data to the ever-expanding Evo-Devo field. All these new organisms serve as a fantastic resource for the research community, but the sheer amount of data, some published, some not, makes detailed comparison of gene expression patterns very difficult to summarize - a problem sometimes even noticeable within a single lab. The need to merge existing data with new information in an organized manner that is publicly available to the research community is now more necessary than ever. Description In order to offer a homogenous way of storing and handling gene expression patterns from a variety of organisms, we have developed the first web-based comparative gene expression database for invertebrates that allows species-specific as well as cross-species gene expression comparisons. The database can be queried by gene name, developmental stage and/or expression domains. Conclusions This database provides a unique tool for the Evo-Devo research community that allows the retrieval, analysis and comparison of gene expression patterns within or among species. In addition, this database enables a quick identification of putative syn-expression groups that can be used to initiate, among other things, gene regulatory network (GRN projects.

  8. Differential gene expression during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Krieger

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of epimastigotes into metacyclic trypomastigotes involves changes in the pattern of expressed genes, resulting in important morphological and functional differences between these developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In order to identify and characterize genes involved in triggering the metacyclogenesis process and in conferring to metacyclic trypomastigotes their stage specific biological properties, we have developed a method allowing the isolation of genes specifically expressed when comparing two close related cell populations (representation of differential expression or RDE. The method is based on the PCR amplification of gene sequences selected by hybridizing and subtracting the populations in such a way that after some cycles of hybridization-amplification genes specific to a given population are highly enriched. The use of this method in the analysis of differential gene expression during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis (6 hr and 24 hr of differentiation and metacyclic trypomastigotes resulted in the isolation of several clones from each time point. Northern blot analysis showed that some genes are transiently expressed (6 hr and 24 hr differentiating cells, while others are present in differentiating cells and in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Nucleotide sequencing of six clones characterized so far showed that they do not display any homology to gene sequences available in the GeneBank.

  9. Wide Distribution of O157-Antigen Biosynthesis Gene Clusters in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Iguchi; Hiroki Shirai; Kazuko Seto; Tadasuke Ooka; Yoshitoshi Ogura; Tetsuya Hayashi; Kayo Osawa; Ro Osawa

    2011-01-01

    Most Escherichia coli O157-serogroup strains are classified as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which is known as an important food-borne pathogen for humans. They usually produce Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 and/or Stx2, and express H7-flagella antigen (or nonmotile). However, O157 strains that do not produce Stxs and express H antigens different from H7 are sometimes isolated from clinical and other sources. Multilocus sequence analysis revealed that these 21 O157:non-H7 strains tested in this stud...

  10. Expression of MHC class II antigens in human B-cell leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, K.; Krajewski, A S; Dewar, A E

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have summarized our experiences of serological analysis of MHC class II antigen expression in human B cell malignant disease. Cells from a large number of cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been examined for expression of class II antigens. Using a number of monoclonal antibodies which in some cases are specific for class II subregion products (DP, DQ and DR), MHC class II antigens were detected by indirect immunofluores...

  11. Medullary Epithelial Cells of the Human Thymus Express a Highly Diverse Selection of Tissue-specific Genes Colocalized in Chromosomal Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gotter, Jörn; Brors, Benedikt; Hergenhahn, Manfred; Kyewski, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of tissue-specific self-antigens in the thymus imposes T cell tolerance and protects from autoimmune diseases, as shown in animal studies. Analysis of promiscuous gene expression in purified stromal cells of the human thymus at the single and global gene level documents the species conservation of this phenomenon. Medullary thymic epithelial cells overexpress a highly diverse set of genes (>400) including many tissue-specific antigens, disease-associated autoantigens, a...

  12. Viral Engineering of Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expression on Murine and Human T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, Joanne A; Afsahi, Arya; Bramson, Jonathan L; Helsen, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of a bolus of tumor-specific T lymphocytes into cancer patients is a promising therapeutic strategy. In one approach, tumor specificity is conferred upon T cells via engineering expression of exogenous receptors, such as chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we describe the generation and production of both murine and human CAR-engineered T lymphocytes using retroviruses. PMID:27581020

  13. ENCYSTATION AND EXPRESSION OF CYST ANTIGENS BY 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyst form of Giardia lamblia is responsible for transmission of giardiasis, a major waterborne intestinal disease. These studies demonstrate for the first time expression of cyst antigens and encystation of G. lamblia in vitro by both morphologic and immunologic criteria. The...

  14. Phytochrome-regulated Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter H. Quail

    2007-01-01

    Identification of all genes involved in the phytochrome (phy)-mediated responses of plants to their light environment is an important goal in providing an overall understanding of light-regulated growth and development. This article highlights and integrates the central findings of two recent comprehensive studies in Arabidopsis that have identified the genome-wide set of phy-regulated genes that respond rapidly to red-light signals upon first exposure of dark-grown seedlings, and have tested the functional relevance to normal seedling photomorphogenesis of an initial subset of these genes. The data: (a) reveal considerable complexity in the channeling of the light signals through the different phy-family members (phyA to phyE) to responsive genes; (b) identify a diversity of transcription-factor-encoding genes as major early, if not primary, targets of phy signaling, and, therefore, as potentially important regulators in the transcriptional-network hierarchy; and (c) identify auxin-related genes as the dominant class among rapidly-regulated, hormone-related genes. However, reverse-genetic functional profiling of a selected subset of these genes reveals that only a limited fraction are necessary for optimal phy-induced seedling deetiolation.

  15. Meta-analysis of differentially expressed genes in osteosarcoma based on gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zuozhang; Chen, Yongbin; Fu, Yu; Yang, Yihao; Zhang, Ya; Chen, Yanjin; Li, Dongqi

    2014-01-01

    Background To uncover the genes involved in the development of osteosarcoma (OS), we performed a meta-analysis of OS microarray data to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and biological functions associated with gene expression changes between OS and normal control (NC) tissues. Methods We used publicly available GEO datasets of OS to perform a meta-analysis. We performed Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and Pr...

  16. 原发性肝细胞癌与HLA-DRB1基因多态性及DR抗原表达的关系%Association of HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and expression of DR antigen with primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘焕峰; 李东复; 孙天虹; 王秀娟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of human leucocyte antigen-DRB1 alleles and expression of HLA-DR antigen with Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) in Han population of Jilin area. Methods HLA-DRB1 alleles in 61 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 44 patients with hepatic cirrhosis, 62 patients with HCC, and 50 healthy controls were analyzed by using polymerase chain re-action/sequence specific primer technique. Meanwhile the expression of HLA-DR antigen in HCC tis-sues, tissues adjacent to HCC and nomal liver tissues was detected with immunohistochemical method. Results The frequency of HLA-DRB1 * 1201-3 allele in chronic hepatitis B group was higher than that in healthy control group(17. 21% vs. 8. 00% ,P=0. 0427, RR=2. 391). The frequency of HLA-DRB1 * 0701 allele in chronic hepatitis B group, hepatic cirrhosis group and HCC group was markedly higher than that in healthy control group(11. 48% vs. 2. 00%, P=0. 0066, RR=6.35; 12.50% vs.2.00%, P=0.0046, RR=7.00; 11.29% vs. 2.00%, P=0.0073, RR=6.236). The frequency of HLA-DRB1 * 1501-5 allele in HCC group was higher than that in healthy control group(18. 55% vs.9.00%, P=0. 0423, RR= 2. 303). The expression of HLA-DR antigen was negative in hepatocytes of nomal liver tissues and tissues adjacent to HCC, while 34.2% of HCC tissues expressed DR antigen which distributed on the cytomembrane and/or in cytoplasm intensively. Expression of DR antigen in HCC was not associated with tumor size, tumor lymphocyte infiltration and tumor metastasis(P>0.05) ,but it was associated with histological grade. The rate of HLA-DR antigen expression in well-differenciated cases was higher than that in poorly-differenciated ones(P0.05),与分化程度有关(P<0.05).结论 HLA-DRB1*1201-3、HLA-DRB1*0701等基因型与吉林地区汉族人群慢性乙型肝炎患病相关联,乙型肝炎肝硬化患病与HLA-DRB1*0701等位基因型相关联,肝癌患病与HLA-DRB1*1501-5、HLA-DRB1*0701等位基因型及DR表达量相关联.

  17. Bacterial antigen expression is an important component in inducing an immune response to orally administered Salmonella-delivered DNA vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Gahan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Salmonella to deliver heterologous antigens from DNA vaccines is a well-accepted extension of the success of oral Salmonella vaccines in animal models. Attenuated S. typhimurium and S. typhi strains are safe and efficacious, and their use to deliver DNA vaccines combines the advantages of both vaccine approaches, while complementing the limitations of each technology. An important aspect of the basic biology of the Salmonella/DNA vaccine platform is the relative contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression in production of the vaccine antigen. Gene expression in DNA vaccines is commonly under the control of the eukaryotic cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. The aim of this study was to identify and disable putative bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter and evaluate the immunogenicity of the resulting DNA vaccine delivered orally by S. typhimurium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results reported here clearly demonstrate the presence of bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter. These promoters have homology to the bacterial consensus sequence and functional activity. To disable prokaryotic expression from the CMV promoter a series of genetic manipulations were performed to remove the two major bacterial promoters and add a bacteria transcription terminator downstream of the CMV promoter. S. typhimurium was used to immunise BALB/c mice orally with a DNA vaccine encoding the C-fragment of tetanus toxin (TT under control of the original or the modified CMV promoter. Although both promoters functioned equally well in eukaryotic cells, as indicated by equivalent immune responses following intramuscular delivery, only the original CMV promoter was able to induce an anti-TT specific response following oral delivery by S. typhimurium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that prokaryotic expression of the antigen and co-delivery of this protein by Salmonella are at least partially responsible for the successful

  18. Dietary influences over proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the locust midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Zudaire, E. (Enrique); Simpson, S J; Illa, I.; Montuenga, L M

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of variations in dietary protein (P) and digestible carbohydrate (C), the quantity of food eaten, and insect age during the fifth instar on the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the epithelial cells of the midgut (with special reference to the midgut caeca) in the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. Densitometric analysis of PCNA-immunostained cells was used as an indirect measure of the levels of expression of PCNA, and a P...

  19. Fas antigen expression and its relationship with apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma and noncancerous tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    K. Higaki; Yano, H.; Kojiro, M.

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis, a programmed cell death, can be observed in the tissues of viral or autoimmune hepatitis and of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fas antigen (Fas) was proposed as a protein that triggers apoptosis. To elucidate the relationship between Fas expression and its location in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, we histochemically examined Fas expression by using 25 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and their corresponding noncancerous tissues, which were surgically obtained from the same patients. I...

  20. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra Suryanarayana; Vanlalhmuaka,; Bharti Mankere; Monika Verma; Kulanthaivel Thavachelvam; Urmil Tuteja

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA) is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression cons...

  1. Intragraft gene expression profile associated with the induction of tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Jacqueline M

    2008-02-01

    immune response" suggesting that up-regulated genes identified in these grafts promote survival in the presence of an immune response. The expression of the incompatible carbohydrate antigen (αGal was reduced by 2 months post-transplant when compared with the expression of this gene at Day 10 post-transplant. These results suggest that the gal carbohydrate antigen is downmodulated over time in grafts that demonstrate tolerance. Conclusion Our study suggests that tolerance is associated with intragraft gene expression changes that render the heart resistant to immune-mediated rejection. Genes associated with stress and immunity are up-regulated, however cytoprotective genes HO-1, Bcl2 and A20 were not up-regulated. The expression of the gal carbohydrate, the key target initiating an immune response in this model, is down-regulated in the post-transplant period.

  2. Extracting expression modules from perturbational gene expression compendia

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijck Patrick; Maere Steven; Kuiper Martin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Compendia of gene expression profiles under chemical and genetic perturbations constitute an invaluable resource from a systems biology perspective. However, the perturbational nature of such data imposes specific challenges on the computational methods used to analyze them. In particular, traditional clustering algorithms have difficulties in handling one of the prominent features of perturbational compendia, namely partial coexpression relationships between genes. Biclus...

  3. Transcription factor oscillations induce differential gene expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Keng Boon; Yio, Wee Kheng; Surana, Uttam; Chiam, Keng Hwee

    2012-06-01

    Intracellular protein levels of diverse transcription factors (TFs) vary periodically with time. However, the effects of TF oscillations on gene expression, the primary role of TFs, are poorly understood. In this study, we determined these effects by comparing gene expression levels induced in the presence and in the absence of TF oscillations under same mean intracellular protein level of TF. For all the nonlinear TF transcription kinetics studied, an oscillatory TF is predicted to induce gene expression levels that are distinct from a nonoscillatory TF. The conditions dictating whether TF oscillations induce either higher or lower average gene expression levels were elucidated. Subsequently, the predicted effects from an oscillatory TF, which follows sigmoid transcription kinetics, were applied to demonstrate how oscillatory dynamics provide a mechanism for differential target gene transactivation. Generally, the mean TF concentration at which oscillations occur relative to the promoter binding affinity of a target gene determines whether the gene is up- or downregulated whereas the oscillation amplitude amplifies the magnitude of the differential regulation. Notably, the predicted trends of differential gene expressions induced by oscillatory NF-κB and glucocorticoid receptor match the reported experimental observations. Furthermore, the biological function of p53 oscillations is predicted to prime the cell for death upon DNA damage via differential upregulation of apoptotic genes. Lastly, given N target genes, an oscillatory TF can generate between (N-1) and (2N-1) distinct patterns of differential transactivation. This study provides insights into the mechanism for TF oscillations to induce differential gene expressions, and underscores the importance of TF oscillations in biological regulations. PMID:22713556

  4. ST6GalNAc-I controls expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos, Nuno T; Bennett, Eric P; Gomes, Joana;

    2011-01-01

    Sialyl-Tn is a simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigen aberrantly expressed in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and in the precursor lesion intestinal metaplasia. Sialyl-Tn tumour expression is an independent indicator of poor prognosis. We have previously shown in vitro that ST6GalNAc-I and ST6Gal......-Tn biosynthesis. We developed novel monoclonal antibodies specific for ST6GalNAc-I and evaluated its expression in gastrointestinal tissues. ST6GalNAc-I was detected in normal colon mucosa co-localized with O-acetylated sialyl-Tn. Expression was largely unaltered in colorectal adenocarcinomas. In contrast, we...

  5. Production of dengue virus envelope protein domain III-based antigens in tobacco chloroplasts using inducible and constitutive expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschamel, Johanna; Lössl, Andreas; Ruf, Stephanie; Wang, Yanliang; Skaugen, Morten; Bock, Ralph; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is a disease in many parts of the tropics and subtropics and about half the world's population is at risk of infection according to the World Health Organization. Dengue is caused by any of the four related dengue virus serotypes DEN-1, -2, -3 and -4, which are transmitted to people by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Currently there is only one vaccine (Dengvaxia(®)) available (limited to a few countries) on the market since 2015 after half a century's intensive efforts. Affordable and accessible vaccines against dengue are hence still urgently needed. The dengue envelop protein domain III (EDIII), which is capable of eliciting serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, has become the focus for subunit vaccine development. To contribute to the development of an accessible and affordable dengue vaccine, in the current study we have used plant-based vaccine production systems to generate a dengue subunit vaccine candidate in tobacco. Chloroplast genome engineering was applied to express serotype-specific recombinant EDIII proteins in tobacco chloroplasts using both constitutive and ethanol-inducible expression systems. Expression of a tetravalent antigen fusion construct combining EDIII polypeptides from all four serotypes was also attempted. Transplastomic EDIII-expressing tobacco lines were obtained and homoplasmy was verified by Southern blot analysis. Northern blot analyses showed expression of EDIII antigen-encoding genes. EDIII protein accumulation levels varied for the different recombinant EDIII proteins and the different expression systems, and reached between 0.8 and 1.6 % of total cellular protein. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the chloroplast compartment as a production site for an EDIII-based vaccine candidate against dengue fever and presents a Gateway(®) plastid transformation vector for inducible transgene expression. PMID:27116001

  6. Optogenetic Control of Gene Expression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yick-Bun Chan

    Full Text Available To study the molecular mechanism of complex biological systems, it is important to be able to artificially manipulate gene expression in desired target sites with high precision. Based on the light dependent binding of cryptochrome 2 and a cryptochrome interacting bHLH protein, we developed a split lexA transcriptional activation system for use in Drosophila that allows regulation of gene expression in vivo using blue light or two-photon excitation. We show that this system offers high spatiotemporal resolution by inducing gene expression in tissues at various developmental stages. In combination with two-photon excitation, gene expression can be manipulated at precise sites in embryos, potentially offering an important tool with which to examine developmental processes.

  7. Dynamic modeling of gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, N. S.; Maritan, A.; Cieplak, M.; Fedoroff, N. V.; Banavar, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the time evolution of gene expression levels by using a time translational matrix to predict future expression levels of genes based on their expression levels at some initial time. We deduce the time translational matrix for previously published DNA microarray gene expression data sets by modeling them within a linear framework by using the characteristic modes obtained by singular value decomposition. The resulting time translation matrix provides a measure of the relationships among the modes and governs their time evolution. We show that a truncated matrix linking just a few modes is a good approximation of the full time translation matrix. This finding suggests that the number of essential connections among the genes is small.

  8. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV antigen expression in lymphoblastoid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Yih Yih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against the expression of three EBV antigens, latent membrane protein (LMP1, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1 and Z Epstein-Barr reactivation activator (ZEBRA were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The observation that the methanol extracts and their fractions from Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis exhibited inhibitory activity against EBV proteins in three Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines at concentrations as low as 20 μg/ml suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds against EBV.

  9. Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of established tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Kate; Ryan, Matthew G; Myers, Kevin A; Shaw, David; Wang, Who; Kingsman, Susan M; Stern, Peter L; Carroll, Miles W

    2002-10-01

    The human oncofetal antigen 5T4 (h5T4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by a wide spectrum of cancers, including colorectal, ovarian, and gastric, but with a limited normal tissue expression. Such properties make 5T4 an excellent putative target for cancer immunotherapy. The murine homologue of 5T4 (m5T4) has been cloned and characterized, which allows for the evaluation of immune intervention strategies in "self-antigen" in vivo tumor models. We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses based on the highly attenuated and modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA strain), expressing h5T4 (MVA-h5T4), m5T4 (MVA-m5T4), and Escherichia coli LacZ (MVA-LacZ). Immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with MVA-h5T4 and MVA-m5T4 constructs induced antibody responses to human and mouse 5T4, respectively. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice vaccinated with MVA-h5T4 were challenged with syngeneic tumor line transfectants, B16 melanoma, and CT26 colorectal cells that express h5T4. MVA-h5T4-vaccinated mice showed significant tumor retardation compared with mice vaccinated with MVA-LacZ or PBS. In active treatment studies, inoculation with MVA-h5T4 was able to treat established CT26-h5T4 lung tumor and to a lesser extent B16.h5T4 s.c. tumors. Additionally, when C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with MVA-m5T4 were challenged with B16 cells expressing m5T4, resulting growth of the tumors was significantly retarded compared with control animals. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with MVA-m5T4 showed no signs of autoimmune toxicity. These data support the use of MVA-5T4 for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:12481437

  10. Generation of an attenuated Salmonella-delivery strains expressing adhesin and toxin antigens for progressive atrophic rhinitis, and evaluation of its immune responses in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hoyeon; Hur, Jin; Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-09-01

    An expression/secretion plasmid containing genes encoding the FimA, CP39, PtfA, ToxA and F1P2 antigens associated with porcine pneumonic pasteurellosis and progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) was constructed and harbored in an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium, which was used as the vaccine candidate. The immune responses induced by this delivery strain were investigated in a murine model. Each antigen secreted from the delivery strain was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided equally into two groups; group A were intranasally inoculated with the mixture of the five delivery strains, and group B were inoculated with sterile PBS. In group A, all antigen-specific serum IgG were significantly increased compared to those of group B from the 2nd week post-inoculation (WPI) till the 8th WPI. All antigen-specific mucosal IgA in group A were also significantly greater than those of group B. In addition, the significant splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses, the elevations of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+) and B-cell populations, and the induction of IFN-γ expression in group A were observed. In conclusion, the mixture of five delivery strains expressing specific antigen for these diseases was found to be capable of inducing significant humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:25045826

  11. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José;

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification ...... controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases....

  12. Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Schoech, Armin; Zabet, Nicolae Radu

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion (3D diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA) when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both ...

  13. Transcription Factor Oscillations Induce Differential Gene Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Keng Boon; Yio, Wee Kheng; Surana, Uttam; Chiam, Keng Hwee

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular protein levels of diverse transcription factors (TFs) vary periodically with time. However, the effects of TF oscillations on gene expression, the primary role of TFs, are poorly understood. In this study, we determined these effects by comparing gene expression levels induced in the presence and in the absence of TF oscillations under same mean intracellular protein level of TF. For all the nonlinear TF transcription kinetics studied, an oscillatory TF is predicted to induce ge...

  14. Blood gene expression signatures predict exposure levels

    OpenAIRE

    P.R. Bushel; Heinloth, A. N.; Li, J.; Huang, L.; Chou, J. W.; Boorman, G A; Malarkey, D.E.; Houle, C. D.; S. M. Ward; Wilson, R. E.; Fannin, R. D.; Russo, M W; Watkins, P B; Tennant, R. W.; Paules, R S

    2007-01-01

    To respond to potential adverse exposures properly, health care providers need accurate indicators of exposure levels. The indicators are particularly important in the case of acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication, the leading cause of liver failure in the U.S. We hypothesized that gene expression patterns derived from blood cells would provide useful indicators of acute exposure levels. To test this hypothesis, we used a blood gene expression data set from rats exposed to APAP to train classifie...

  15. Energy intake and adiponectin gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Liping; Lee, Bonggi; Kinney, Brice; Yoo, Hyung sun; Shao, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia and decreased adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) have been well observed in obese subjects and animal models. However, the mechanism for obesity-associated hypoadiponectinemia is still largely unknown. To investigate the regulatory role of energy intake, dietary fat, and adiposity in adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin level, a series of feeding regimens was employed to manipulate energy intake and dietary fat in obese-prone C57BL/6, ge...

  16. Comparative gene expression between two yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics brings insight into sequence evolution, but even more may be learned by coupling sequence analyses with experimental tests of gene function and regulation. However, the reliability of such comparisons is often limited by biased sampling of expression conditions and incomplete knowledge of gene functions across species. To address these challenges, we previously systematically generated expression profiles in Saccharomyces bayanus to maximize functional coverage as compared to an existing Saccharomyces cerevisiae data repository. Results In this paper, we take advantage of these two data repositories to compare patterns of ortholog expression in a wide variety of conditions. First, we developed a scalable metric for expression divergence that enabled us to detect a significant correlation between sequence and expression conservation on the global level, which previous smaller-scale expression studies failed to detect. Despite this global conservation trend, between-species gene expression neighborhoods were less well-conserved than within-species comparisons across different environmental perturbations, and approximately 4% of orthologs exhibited a significant change in co-expression partners. Furthermore, our analysis of matched perturbations collected in both species (such as diauxic shift and cell cycle synchrony demonstrated that approximately a quarter of orthologs exhibit condition-specific expression pattern differences. Conclusions Taken together, these analyses provide a global view of gene expression patterns between two species, both in terms of the conditions and timing of a gene's expression as well as co-expression partners. Our results provide testable hypotheses that will direct future experiments to determine how these changes may be specified in the genome.

  17. Bayesian biclustering of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biclustering of gene expression data searches for local patterns of gene expression. A bicluster (or a two-way cluster is defined as a set of genes whose expression profiles are mutually similar within a subset of experimental conditions/samples. Although several biclustering algorithms have been studied, few are based on rigorous statistical models. Results We developed a Bayesian biclustering model (BBC, and implemented a Gibbs sampling procedure for its statistical inference. We showed that Bayesian biclustering model can correctly identify multiple clusters of gene expression data. Using simulated data both from the model and with realistic characters, we demonstrated the BBC algorithm outperforms other methods in both robustness and accuracy. We also showed that the model is stable for two normalization methods, the interquartile range normalization and the smallest quartile range normalization. Applying the BBC algorithm to the yeast expression data, we observed that majority of the biclusters we found are supported by significant biological evidences, such as enrichments of gene functions and transcription factor binding sites in the corresponding promoter sequences. Conclusions The BBC algorithm is shown to be a robust model-based biclustering method that can discover biologically significant gene-condition clusters in microarray data. The BBC model can easily handle missing data via Monte Carlo imputation and has the potential to be extended to integrated study of gene transcription networks.

  18. Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2013-07-18

    The modeling of gene networks from transcriptional expression data is an important tool in biomedical research to reveal signaling pathways and to identify treatment targets. Current gene network modeling is primarily based on the use of Gaussian graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which generate counts of mRNAtranscripts in cell samples.We propose a generalized linear model to fit the discrete gene expression data and assume that the log ratios of the mean expression levels follow a Gaussian distribution.We restrict the gene network structures to decomposable graphs and derive the graphs by selecting the covariance matrix of the Gaussian distribution with the hyper-inverse Wishart priors. Furthermore, we incorporate prior network models based on gene ontology information, which avails existing biological information on the genes of interest. We conduct simulation studies to examine the performance of our discrete graphical model and apply the method to two real datasets for gene network inference. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Translational control of gene expression and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Müller, Christine; Leutz, Achim

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, translational control has been shown to be crucial in the regulation of gene expression. Research in this field has progressed rapidly, revealing new control mechanisms and adding constantly to the list of translationally regulated genes. There is accumulating evidence that trans

  20. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  1. Expression and Significance of MAGE Genes in Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxu LI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the common malignancies with an extremely poor prognosis, because of the current diagnostic techniques are not easy to find micrometastases. Melanoma associated antigens genes (MAGE are tumor specific antigen genes, closely related to the occurrence, development and prognosis of lung cancer. The research of MAGE genes provide a new direction for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  2. Two methods for the quantitative analysis of surface antigen expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Woźniak

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The expression of lineage molecules (CD13 and CD33, c-Kit receptor (CD117, CD34, HLA-DR and adhesion molecule CD49d was assessed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML blast cells from 32 cases, using direct and indirect quantitative cytometric analysis. High correlation (r=0.8 was found between antigen expression intensity values calculated by direct analysis method (ABC and by indirect analysis method (RFI. Moreover, the differences in expression intensity of CD13, CD117 and CD34 antigens were found between leukemic and normal myeloblasts. This may be helpful in identification of leukemic cells in the diagnostics of minimal residual disease after treatment in AML patients.

  3. Transcriptional Regulation of Fucosyltransferase 1 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Taniuchi; Koji Higai; Tomomi Tanaka; Yutaro Azuma; Kojiro Matsumoto

    2013-01-01

    The α 1,2-fucosyltransferase I (FUT1) enzyme is important for the biosynthesis of H antigens, Lewis B, and Lewis Y. In this study, we clarified the transcriptional regulation of FUT1 in the DLD-1 colon cancer cell line, which has high expression of Lewis B and Lewis Y antigens, expresses the FUT1 gene, and shows α 1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT) activity. 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a FUT1 transcriptional start site −10 nucleotides upstream of the site registered at NM_000148 in...

  4. Antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies isolated from B cells expressing constitutively active STAT5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc A Scheeren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against specific pathogens have a high therapeutic potential, but are difficult to generate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Memory B cells were immortalized by expressing an inducible active mutant of the transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5. Active STAT5 inhibits the differentiation of B cells while increasing their replicative life span. We obtained cloned B cell lines, which produced antibodies in the presence of interleukin 21 after turning off STAT5. We used this method to obtain monoclonal antibodies against the model antigen tetanus toxin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we describe a novel and relatively simple method of immortalizing antigen-specific human B cells for isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. These results show that STAT5 overexpression can be employed to isolate antigen specific antibodies from human memory B cells.

  5. Familial aggregation analysis of gene expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Shao-Qi; Xu Liang-De; Zhang Guang-Mei; Li Xia; Li Lin; Shen Gong-Qing; Jiang Yang; Yang Yue-Ying; Gong Bin-Sheng; Jiang Wei; Zhang Fan; Xiao Yun; Wang Qing K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Traditional studies of familial aggregation are aimed at defining the genetic (and non-genetic) causes of a disease from physiological or clinical traits. However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis b...

  6. Diagnostic Utility of Gene Expression Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Chengjie; Yan, Yan; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Two crucial problems arise from a microarray experiment in which the primary objective is to locate differentially expressed genes for the diagnosis of diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s. The first problem is the detection of a subset of genes which provides an optimum discriminatory power between diseased and normal subjects, and the second problem is the statistical estimation of discriminatory power from the optimum subset of genes between two groups of subjects. We develop a new meth...

  7. Evolutionary Approach for Relative Gene Expression Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Czajkowski; Marek Kretowski

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify t...

  8. Synergistic effect of silencing the expression of tick protective antigens 4D8 and Rs86 in Rhipicephalus sanguineus by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Naranjo, Victoria; Blouin, Edmour F; Kocan, Katherine M

    2006-07-01

    Tick proteins have been shown to be useful for the development of vaccines which reduce tick infestations. Potential tick protective antigens have been identified and characterized, in part, by use of RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi allows for analysis of gene function by characterizing the impact of loss of gene expression on tick physiology. Herein, we used RNAi in Rhipicephalus sanguineus to evaluate gene functions of two tick protective antigens, 4D8 and Rs86, the homologue of Bm86, on tick infestation, feeding and oviposition. Silencing of 4D8 alone resulted in decreased tick attachment, survival, feeding and oviposition. Although the effect of Rs86 RNAi was less pronounced, silencing of this gene also reduced tick weight and oviposition. Most notably, simultaneous silencing of 4D8 and Rs86 by RNAi resulted in a synergistic effect in which tick survival, attachment, feeding, weight and oviposition were profoundly reduced. Microscopic evaluation of tick tissues revealed that guts from dual injected ticks were distended with epithelial cells sparsely distributed along the basement membrane. These results demonstrated the synergistic effect of the silencing expression of two tick protective genes. Inclusion of multiple tick protective antigens may, therefore, enhance the efficacy of tick vaccines. PMID:16518610

  9. FARO server: Meta-analysis of gene expression by matching gene expression signatures to a compendium of public gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen Henrik B; Manijak Mieszko P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. Findings To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, ...

  10. Expression of Cpgp40/15 in Toxoplasma gondii: a surrogate system for the study of Cryptosporidium glycoprotein antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, R M; Kim, K; Khan, F; Ward, H D

    2003-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a waterborne enteric coccidian that causes diarrheal disease in a wide range of hosts. Development of successful therapies is hampered by the inability to culture the parasite and the lack of a transfection system for genetic manipulation. The glycoprotein products of the Cpgp40/15 gene, gp40 and gp15, are involved in C. parvum sporozoite attachment to and invasion of host cells and, as such, may be good targets for anticryptosporidial therapies. However, the function of these antigens appears to be dependent on the presence of multiple O-linked alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine (alpha-GalNAc) determinants. A eukaryotic expression system that would produce proteins bearing glycosylation patterns similar to those found on the native C. parvum glycoproteins would greatly facilitate the molecular and functional characterization of these antigens. As a unique approach to this problem, the Cpgp40/15 gene was transiently expressed in Toxoplasma gondii, and the expressed recombinant glycoproteins were characterized. Antisera to gp40 and gp15 reacted with the surface membranes of tachyzoites expressing the Cpgp40/15 construct, and this reactivity colocalized with that of antiserum to the T. gondii surface protein SAG1. Surface membrane localization was dependent on the presence of the glycophosphatidylinositol anchor attachment site present in the gp15 coding sequence. The presence of terminal O-linked alpha-GalNAc determinants on the T. gondii recombinant gp40 was confirmed by reactivity with Helix pomatia lectin and the monoclonal antibody 4E9, which recognizes alpha-GalNAc residues, and digestion with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. In addition to appropriate localization and glycosylation, T. gondii apparently processes the gp40/15 precursor into the gp40 and gp15 component glycopolypeptides, albeit inefficiently. These results suggest that a surrogate system using T. gondii for the study of Cryptosporidium biology may be useful. PMID:14500524

  11. High-throughput identification of antigen-specific TCRs by TCR gene capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnemann, Carsten; Heemskerk, Bianca; Kvistborg, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) genes into patient T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of both viral infections and cancer. Although efficient methods exist to identify antibodies for the treatment of these diseases, comparable strategies to identify TCRs have been lacking. We...... have developed a high-throughput DNA-based strategy to identify TCR sequences by the capture and sequencing of genomic DNA fragments encoding the TCR genes. We establish the value of this approach by assembling a large library of cancer germline tumor antigen-reactive TCRs. Furthermore, by exploiting...... knowledge of antigen specificities, which may be the first step toward the development of autologous TCR gene therapy to target patient-specific neoantigens in human cancer....

  12. Abnormal expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in brain glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein are important factors to regulate cell cycle. While, the combination of them can provide exactly objective markers to evaluate prognosis of patients with brain glioma needs to be further studied based on pathological level.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in both injured and normal brain glioma tissues and analyze the effect of them on onset and development of brain glioma.DESIGN: Case contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 63 patients with brain glioma were selected from Department of Neurosurgery,the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from July 1996 to June 2000. There were 38 males and 25 females and their ages ranged from 23 to 71 years. Based on pathological classification and grading standards of brain glioma, patients were divided into grade Ⅰ - tⅡ (n =30) and grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ (n =33). All cases received one operation but no radiotherapy and chemiotherapy before operation. Sample tissues were collected from tumor parenchyma. Non-neoplastic brain tissues were collected from another 12 non-tumor subjects who received craniocerebral trauma infra-decompression and regarded as the control group. There were 10 males and 2 females and their ages ranged from 16 to 54 years. The experiment had got confirmed consent from local ethic committee and the collection was provided confirmed consent from patients and their relatives. All samples were restained with HE staining so as to diagnose as the brain glioma.While, all patients with brain glioma received radiotherapy after operation and their survival periods were followed up.METHODS: Primary lesion wax of brain glioma was cut into serial sections and stained with S-P immunohistochemical staining. Brown substance which was observed in tumor nucleus was regarded as the

  13. Application of multidisciplinary analysis to gene expression.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuefel (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Kang, Huining (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Fields, Chris (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Cowie, Jim R. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Sibirtsev, Valeriy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Mosquera-Caro, Monica P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Xu, Yuexian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Shawn Bryan; Helman, Paul (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Andries, Erik (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ar, Kerem (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Potter, Jeffrey (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Willman, Cheryl L. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Murphy, Maurice H. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cancer, at the genomic level, could lead to individualized patient diagnostics and treatments. The developments to follow will signal a significant paradigm shift in the clinical management of human cancer. Despite our initial hopes, however, it seems that simple analysis of microarray data cannot elucidate clinically significant gene functions and mechanisms. Extracting biological information from microarray data requires a complicated path involving multidisciplinary teams of biomedical researchers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computational linguists. The integration of the diverse outputs of each team is the limiting factor in the progress to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with the molecular biology of cancer. Specifically, one must deal with sets of significant genes identified by each method and extract whatever useful information may be found by comparing these different gene lists. Here we present our experience with such comparisons, and share methods developed in the analysis of an infant leukemia cohort studied on Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. In particular, spatial gene clustering, hyper-dimensional projections, and computational linguistics were used to compare different gene lists. In spatial gene clustering, different gene lists are grouped together and visualized on a three-dimensional expression map, where genes with similar expressions are co-located. In another approach, projections from gene expression space onto a sphere clarify how groups of genes can jointly have more predictive power than groups of individually selected genes. Finally, online literature is automatically rearranged to present information about genes common to multiple groups, or to contrast the differences between the lists. The combination of these methods has improved our understanding of infant leukemia. While the complicated reality of the biology dashed our initial, optimistic hopes for simple answers from

  14. Clock gene expression during development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumová, Alena; Bendová, Zdeňka; Sládek, Martin; Kováčiková, Zuzana; El-Hennamy, Rehab; Laurinová, Kristýna; Illnerová, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 191, Suppl.658 (2007), s. 18-18. ISSN 1748-1708. [Joint meeting of The Slovak Physiological Society, The Physiological Society and The Federation of European Physiological Societies. 11.09.2007-14.09.2007, Bratislava] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpr1 * clock genes * suprachiasmatic nucleus * rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  15. Protein L: a novel reagent for the detection of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) expression by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhili; Chinnasamy Nachimuthu; Morgan Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been significant progress in the last two decades on the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. Structurally CARs consist of a single chain antibody fragment directed against a tumor-associated antigen fused to an extracellular spacer and transmembrane domain followed by T cell cytoplasmic signaling moieties. Currently several clinical trials are underway using gene modified peripheral blood lymp...

  16. Gene Expression Correlation for Cancer Diagnosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbing Ling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor prognosis for late-stage, high-grade, and recurrent cancers has been motivating cancer researchers to search for more efficient biomarkers to identify the onset of cancer. Recent advances in constructing and dynamically analyzing biomolecular networks for different types of cancer have provided a promising novel strategy to detect tumorigenesis and metastasis. The observation of different biomolecular networks associated with normal and cancerous states led us to hypothesize that correlations for gene expressions could serve as valid indicators of early cancer development. In this pilot study, we tested our hypothesis by examining whether the mRNA expressions of three randomly selected cancer-related genes PIK3C3, PIM3, and PTEN were correlated during cancer progression and the correlation coefficients could be used for cancer diagnosis. Strong correlations (0.68≤r≤1.0 were observed between PIK3C3 and PIM3 in breast cancer, between PIK3C3 and PTEN in breast and ovary cancers, and between PIM3 and PTEN in breast, kidney, liver, and thyroid cancers during disease progression, implicating that the correlations for cancer network gene expressions could serve as a supplement to current clinical biomarkers, such as cancer antigens, for early cancer diagnosis.

  17. Gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle after gene electrotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Zibert, John R; Gissel, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene transfer by electroporation (DNA electrotransfer) to muscle results in high level long term transgenic expression, showing great promise for treatment of e.g. protein deficiency syndromes. However little is known about the effects of DNA electrotransfer on muscle fibres. We have...... therefore investigated transcriptional changes through gene expression profile analyses, morphological changes by histological analysis, and physiological changes by force generation measurements. DNA electrotransfer was obtained using a combination of a short high voltage pulse (HV, 1000 V/cm, 100 mus......) followed by a long low voltage pulse (LV, 100 V/cm, 400 ms); a pulse combination optimised for efficient and safe gene transfer. Muscles were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and excised at 4 hours, 48 hours or 3 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes were...

  18. Gene expression profiling: can we identify the right target genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Loyd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling allows the simultaneous monitoring of the transcriptional behaviour of thousands of genes, which may potentially be involved in disease development. Several studies have been performed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, which aim to define genetic links to the disease in an attempt to improve the current understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of the disease and target pathways for intervention. Expression profiling has shown a clear difference in gene expression between IPF and normal lung tissue, and has identified a wide range of candidate genes, including those known to encode for proteins involved in extracellular matrix formation and degradation, growth factors and chemokines. Recently, familial pulmonary fibrosis cohorts have been examined in an attempt to detect specific genetic mutations associated with IPF. To date, these studies have identified families in which IPF is associated with mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C, or with mutations in genes encoding components of telomerase. Although rare and clearly not responsible for the disease in all individuals, the nature of these mutations highlight the importance of the alveolar epithelium in disease pathogenesis and demonstrate the potential for gene expression profiling in helping to advance the current understanding of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Regulation of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, M J; Sims, M J; Krawinkel, U

    1989-05-01

    The molecular genetic events leading to Ig expression and their control formed the topic of a recent EMBO workshop. This report by Michael Taussig, Martin Sims and Ulrich Krawinkel discusses contributions dealing with genes expressed in early pre-B cells, the mechanism of rearrangement, aberrant rearrangements seen in B cells of SCID mice, the feedback control of rearrangement as studied in transgenic mice, the control of Ig expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and class switching. PMID:2787158

  20. Epigenetic aspects of lymphocyte antigen receptor gene rearrangement or 'when stochasticity completes randomness'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sébastien; Fernandez, Bastien; Ferrier, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    To perform their specific functional role, B and T lymphocytes, cells of the adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates, need to express one (and, preferably, only one) form of antigen receptor, i.e. the immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor (TCR), respectively. This end goal depends initially on a series of DNA cis-rearrangement events between randomly chosen units from separate clusters of V, D (at some immunoglobulin and TCR loci) and J gene segments, a biomolecular process collectively referred to as V(D)J recombination. V(D)J recombination takes place in immature T and B cells and relies on the so-called RAG nuclease, a site-specific DNA cleavage apparatus that corresponds to the lymphoid-specific moiety of the VDJ recombinase. At the genome level, this recombinase's mission presents substantial biochemical challenges. These relate to the huge distance between (some of) the gene segments that it eventually rearranges and the need to achieve cell-lineage-restricted and developmentally ordered routines with at times, mono-allelic versus bi-allelic discrimination. The entire process must be completed without any recombination errors, instigators of chromosome instability, translocation and, potentially, tumorigenesis. As expected, such a precisely choreographed and yet potentially risky process demands sophisticated controls; epigenetics demonstrates what is possible when calling upon its many facets. In this vignette, we will recall the evidence that almost from the start appeared to link the two topics, V(D)J recombination and epigenetics, before reviewing the latest advances in our knowledge of this joint venture. PMID:23278765

  1. Gene expressions changes in bronchial epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remy, S.; Verstraelen, S.; Van Den Heuvel, R.;

    2014-01-01

    cells were exposed during 6, 10, and 24 h to 4 respiratory sensitizers and 6 non-respiratory sensitizers (3 skin sensitizers and 3 respiratory irritants) at a concentration inducing 20% cell viability loss after 24 h. Changes in gene expression were evaluated using Agilent Whole Human Genome 4 x 44 K...... differentially expressed compared to vehicle control for each chemical. The results show that the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response is activated in the cell line after stimulation with all of the chemicals that were selected in our study, and that - at the level of gene expression - this pathway shows no...

  2. The human application of gene therapy to re-program T-cell specificity using chimeric antigen receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan DGuerrero; Judy SMoyes; Laurence JN Cooper

    2014-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells is a promising approach to treat cancers. Primary human T cells can be modified using viral and non-viral vectors to promote the specific targeting of cancer cells via the introduction of exogenous T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). This gene transfer displays the potential to increase the specificity and potency of the anticancer response while decreasing the systemic adverse effects that arise from conventional treatments that target both cancerous and healthy cells. This review highlights the generation of clinical-grade T cells expressing CARs for immunotherapy, the use of these cels to target B-cellmalignancies and, particularly, the first clinical trials deploying the Sleeping Beauty gene transfer system, which engineers T cells to target CD19+ leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

  3. Introduction to the Gene Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segundo-Val, Ignacio San; Sanz-Lozano, Catalina S

    2016-01-01

    In 1941, Beadle and Tatum published experiments that would explain the basis of the central dogma of molecular biology, whereby the DNA through an intermediate molecule, called RNA, results proteins that perform the functions in cells. Currently, biomedical research attempts to explain the mechanisms by which develops a particular disease, for this reason, gene expression studies have proven to be a great resource. Strictly, the term "gene expression" comprises from the gene activation until the mature protein is located in its corresponding compartment to perform its function and contribute to the expression of the phenotype of cell.The expression studies are directed to detect and quantify messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of a specific gene. The development of the RNA-based gene expression studies began with the Northern Blot by Alwine et al. in 1977. In 1969, Gall and Pardue and John et al. independently developed the in situ hybridization, but this technique was not employed to detect mRNA until 1986 by Coghlan. Today, many of the techniques for quantification of RNA are deprecated because other new techniques provide more information. Currently the most widely used techniques are qPCR, expression microarrays, and RNAseq for the transcriptome analysis. In this chapter, these techniques will be reviewed. PMID:27300529

  4. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy. PMID:7542671

  5. Conservation of the gene encoding streptococcal antigen I/II in oral streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, J K; Kelly, C G; Munro, G; Whiley, R A; Lehner, T.

    1991-01-01

    The spaP gene of Streptococcus mutans serotype c encodes a major cell surface protein, streptococcal antigen (SA) I/II, with an Mr of 185,000, that is thought to be involved in bacterial adhesion to teeth. Proteins with significant amino acid sequence homology to SA I/II have also been found in S. sobrinus and S. sanguis. The objectives of this study were to investigate the conservation of the spaP gene in the mutans groups of streptococci and to determine whether homologous genes were presen...

  6. Regulation of gene expression in human tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault Joanne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, are common among professional and recreational athletes. These injuries result in a significant amount of morbidity and health care expenditure, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to tendinopathy. Methods We have used histological evaluation and molecular profiling to determine gene expression changes in 23 human patients undergoing surgical procedures for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. Results Diseased tendons exhibit altered extracellular matrix, fiber disorientation, increased cellular content and vasculature, and the absence of inflammatory cells. Global gene expression profiling identified 983 transcripts with significantly different expression patterns in the diseased tendons. Global pathway analysis further suggested altered expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the lack of an appreciable inflammatory response. Conclusions Identification of the pathways and genes that are differentially regulated in tendinopathy samples will contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics.

  7. Impaired cell surface expression of HLA-B antigens on mesenchymal stem cells and muscle cell progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiba Isa

    Full Text Available HLA class-I expression is weak in embryonic stem cells but increases rapidly during lineage progression. It is unknown whether all three classical HLA class-I antigens follow the same developmental program. In the present study, we investigated allele-specific expression of HLA-A, -B, and -C at the mRNA and protein levels on human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue as well as striated muscle satellite cells and lymphocytes. Using multicolour flow cytometry, we found high cell surface expression of HLA-A on all stem cells and PBMC examined. Surprisingly, HLA-B was either undetectable or very weakly expressed on all stem cells protecting them from complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC using relevant human anti-B and anti-Cw sera. IFNgamma stimulation for 48-72 h was required to induce full HLA-B protein expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that IFNgamma induced a 9-42 fold increase of all six HLA-A,-B,-C gene transcripts. Interestingly, prior to stimulation, gene transcripts for all but two alleles were present in similar amounts suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate the constitutive expression of HLA-A,-B, and -C. Locus-restricted expression of HLA-A, -B and -C challenges our current understanding of the function of these molecules as regulators of CD8(+ T-cell and NK-cell function and should lead to further inquiries into their expression on other cell types.

  8. Expressions of Lewis y Antigen andα1,2-fucose Transferase Gene in Ovarian Cancer Cell Line%Lewis y抗原及α1,2-岩藻糖转移酶基因在卵巢癌细胞系中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀云; 林蓓; 刘娟娟; 高利利; 王燕燕; 刘大我; 严丽梅; 张淑兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the expressions of Lewis y antigen and α1,2 - fucose transferase (α1,2-fucosyltransferases,α1,2-FT)gene FUT1 in ovarian cancer cell lines and their influences on proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells.Methods The immuocytochemical method and immunocyto-fluorescence methold were used to detect the expression of Lewis y antigen in RMG-I-H and RMG-I,highly metastatic human ovarian cancer cell line HO8910PM and the parental cell line HO8910,drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line COC1/DDP and the parental cell line COC1 ,which were transfected by α1,2-FT gene( FUT1 ).Real-time PCR and RT-PCR were used to determine the changes of α1 ,2-FT expression in these six cell lines.Results Results of the immunochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis showed that the expression intensities of Lewis y in RMG-I-H(53.90±4.33),HO8910PM(37.31±0.19),COC1/DDP (28.52+1.45) were higher than the corresponding parental cell lines RMG-I (32.18±0.64),HO8910( 14.96±0.61 ),COC1(19.26±0.83) (P < 0.05).The mRNA expressions of α1 ,2-fucosyltransferases in RMG-I-H,HO8910 PM and COC1/DDP were higher than the corresponding cell lines RMG-I,HO8910 and COC1 (P<0.05).Conclusion Lewis y antigen on human ovarian cancer cell surface is closely related to the proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells.%目的 探讨卵巢癌细胞系中Lewis y抗原及α1,2-岩藻糖转移酶(α1,2-FT)基因FUT1表达变化对卵巢癌细胞增殖、耐药和转移的影响.方法 采用免疫细胞化学法、免疫细胞荧光法测定α1,2-FT基因FUT1转染前后的人卵巢癌细胞系RMG-I和RMG-I-H、人卵巢癌高转移细胞系H08910PM及亲本细胞系H08910、人卵巢癌耐药细胞系COC1/DDP及亲本细胞系COC1中Lewis y抗原的表达.利用RT-PCR法及real-time PCR法检测上述6种细胞中FUT1基因表达的变化.结果 经免疫化学方法和免疫细胞荧光法分析,在RMG-I-H、H08910PM及COC1/DDP

  9. Interferon-induced changes in expression of antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies on malignant and nonmalignant mononuclear hematopoietic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Ritz, J; Hokland, P

    1983-01-01

    HLA-antigens detected by beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2-M) could be demonstrated for peripheral blood mononuclear cells, non-T cells, Null cells, activated T cells, fetal thymocytes, adherent cells, and on four malignant non-T lymphoblastoid cell lines. In contrast, no significant differences were...... number as well as the amount of lymphocytes expressing the T10 antigen. It thus seems that the enhancing effect of IFN on resting cells of the immune system is highly selective. On the four lymphoblastoid cell lines, the expression of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) was...... significantly decreased concomitantly with the increase in MHC-antigens. On the other hand, the density of both a HLA-D related Ia antigen (I2) and a B-lymphocyte differentiation antigen (B1) remained unaltered following IFN treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  10. Successful vaccination with a polyvalent live vector despite existing immunity to an expressed antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexner, C; Murphy, B R; Rooney, J F; Wohlenberg, C; Yuferov, V; Notkins, A L; Moss, B

    1988-09-15

    A global vaccination strategy must take into account production and delivery costs as well as efficacy and safety. A heat-stable, polyvalent vaccine that requires only one inoculation and induces a high level of humoral and cellular immunity against several diseases is therefore desirable. A new approach is to use live microorganisms such as mycobacteria, enteric bacteria, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and poxviruses as vaccine vectors. A potential limitation of live polyvalent vaccines, however, is existing immunity within the target population not only to the vector, but to any of the expressed antigens. This could restrict replication of the vector, curtail expression of antigens, and reduce the total immune response to the vaccine. Recently acquired immunity to vaccinia virus can severely limit the efficacy of a live recombinant vaccinia-based vaccine, so a strategy involving closely spaced inoculations with the same vector expressing different antigens may present difficulties. We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses surface proteins from two diverse pathogens, influenza A virus haemagglutinin and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D. Mice that had recently recovered from infection with either HSV-1 or influenza A virus could still be effectively immunized with the double recombinant. PMID:2842693

  11. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens in porcine leptospiral nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, E; Del Piero, F; Aresu, L; Sciarrone, F; Vicari, N; Mattiello, S; Tagliabue, S; Fabbi, M; Scanziani, E

    2009-09-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) is required for the presentation of antigens to CD4 helper T cells. During nephritis, not only primary antigen presenting cells such as histiocytes and lymphocytes, but also cytokine-stimulated tubular epithelial cells express MHCII. Leptospirosis in fattening pigs is characterized by several degrees of nephritis, from absence of lesions to severe multifocal tubulo-interstitial inflammation. Renal tissue from 20 8-month-old pigs with spontaneous nephritis and 6 control pigs without renal lesions were investigated for leptospirosis by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IHC for MHCII also was performed on renal samples. Serum samples were tested for different serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Control pigs were free of interstitial nephritis and negative for leptospirosis by all tests. In pigs with nephritis, serology was positive for serovar Pomona in 19/20 pigs. In 16 of these 19 pigs, leptospiral renal infection was confirmed by PCR and/or indirect IHC. Nephritic lesions were classified histologically into perivascular lymphocytic (4 pigs), lymphofollicular (6 pigs), lymphohistiocytic (8 pigs), and neutrophilic (2 pigs) pattern. MHCII expression by histiocytes and lymphocytes was observed in all lesions. Prominent MHCII expression in regenerating tubular epithelium was observed in lymphofollicular and lymphohistiocytic nephritis. No tubular colocalization between leptospiral and MHCII antigen was observed. Results suggest that during leptospiral nephritis, MHCII contributes to the intensity of the inflammatory response. Furthermore de novo MHCII expression in regenerating tubules may play a role in the defence mechanism against leptospiral tubular colonization. PMID:19179617

  12. Noise minimization in eukaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Giaever, Guri; Kumm, Jochen; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-01-15

    All organisms have elaborate mechanisms to control rates of protein production. However, protein production is also subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. Several recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have investigated the relationship between transcription and translation rates and stochastic fluctuations in protein levels, or more generally, how such randomness is a function of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the fundamental question of whether stochasticity in protein expression is generally biologically relevant has not been addressed, and it remains unknown whether random noise in the protein production rate of most genes significantly affects the fitness of any organism. We propose that organisms should be particularly sensitive to variation in the protein levels of two classes of genes: genes whose deletion is lethal to the organism and genes that encode subunits of multiprotein complexes. Using an experimentally verified model of stochastic gene expression in S. cerevisiae, we estimate the noise in protein production for nearly every yeast gene, and confirm our prediction that the production of essential and complex-forming proteins involves lower levels of noise than does the production of most other genes. Our results support the hypothesis that noise in gene expression is a biologically important variable, is generally detrimental to organismal fitness, and is subject to natural selection.

  13. Phasevarions mediate random switching of gene expression in pathogenic Neisseria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogitha N Srikhanta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression. In Haemophilus influenzae, the random switching of the modA gene controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a "phasevarion", via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable mod genes are also present in Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggesting that phasevarions may occur in these important human pathogens. Phylogenetic studies on phase-variable mod genes associated with type III restriction modification (R-M systems revealed that these organisms have two distinct mod genes--modA and modB. There are also distinct alleles of modA (abundant: modA11, 12, 13; minor: modA4, 15, 18 and modB (modB1, 2. These alleles differ only in their DNA recognition domain. ModA11 was only found in N. meningitidis and modA13 only in N. gonorrhoeae. The recognition site for the modA13 methyltransferase in N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 was identified as 5'-AGAAA-3'. Mutant strains lacking the modA11, 12 or 13 genes were made in N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae and their phenotype analyzed in comparison to a corresponding mod ON wild-type strain. Microarray analysis revealed that in all three modA alleles multiple genes were either upregulated or downregulated, some of which were virulence-associated. For example, in N. meningitidis MC58 (modA11, differentially expressed genes included those encoding the candidate vaccine antigens lactoferrin binding proteins A and B. Functional studies using N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 and the clinical isolate O1G1370 confirmed that modA13 ON and OFF strains have distinct phenotypes in antimicrobial resistance, in a primary human cervical epithelial cell model of infection, and in biofilm formation. This study, in conjunction with our previous work in H. influenzae, indicates

  14. Cross-platform expression profiling demonstrates that SV40 small tumor antigen activates Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt signaling in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously analyzed human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines for the effects that simian virus 40 (SV40) small tumor antigen (ST) has on gene expression using Affymetrix U133 GeneChips. To cross-validate and extend our initial findings, we sought to compare the expression profiles of these cell lines using an alternative microarray platform. METHODS: We have analyzed matched cell lines with and without expression of SV40 ST using an Applied Biosystems (AB) microarray platform that uses single 60-mer oligonucleotides and single-color quantitative chemiluminescence for detection. RESULTS: While we were able to previously identify only 456 genes affected by ST with the Affymetrix platform, we identified 1927 individual genes with the AB platform. Additional technical replicates increased the number of identified genes to 3478 genes and confirmed the changes in 278 (61%) of our original set of 456 genes. Among the 3200 genes newly identified as affected by SV40 ST, we confirmed 20 by QRTPCR including several components of the Wnt, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways, consistent with SV40 ST activation of these developmental pathways. While inhibitors of Notch activation had no effect on cell survival, cyclopamine had a potent killing effect on cells expressing SV40 ST. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that SV40 ST expression alters cell survival pathways to sensitize cells to the killing effect of Hedgehog pathway inhibitors

  15. The ganglioside antigen GD2 is surface-expressed in Ewing sarcoma and allows for MHC-independent immune targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Kailayangiri, S; Altvater, B; Meltzer, J; Pscherer, S; Luecke, A.; Dierkes, C. (Christian); Titze, U; Leuchte, K; Landmeier, S. (Silke); Hotfilder, M; Dirksen, U; Hardes, J.; Gosheger, G.; Juergens, H; Rossig, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies are needed to cure disseminated Ewing sarcoma. Primitive neuroectodermal features and a mesenchymal stem cell origin are both compatible with aberrant expression of the ganglioside antigen GD2 and led us to explore GD2 immune targeting in this cancer. Methods: We investigated GD2 expression in Ewing sarcoma by immunofluorescence staining. We then assessed the antitumour activity of T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor specific for GD2 against E...

  16. Targeted gene delivery to the synovial pannus in antigen-induced arthritis by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xi; Tang, Yuanjiao; Leng, Qianying; Zhang, Lingyan; Qiu, Li

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique to improve the in vivo transfection efficiency of the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the synovial pannus in an antigen-induced arthritis rabbit model. A mixture of microbubbles and plasmids was locally injected into the knee joints of an antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) rabbits. The plasmid concentrations and ultrasound conditions were varied in the experiments. We also tested local articular and intravenous injections. The rabbits were divided into five groups: (1) ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid; (2) ultrasound+plasmid; (3) microbubble+plasmid; (4) plasmid only; (5) untreated controls. EGFP expression was observed by fluorescent microscope and immunohistochemical staining in the synovial pannus of each group. The optimal plasmid dosage and ultrasound parameter were determined based on the results of EGFP expression and the present and absent of tissue damage under light microscopy. The irradiation procedure was performed to observe the duration of the EGFP expression in the synovial pannus and other tissues and organs, as well as the damage to the normal cells. The optimal condition was determined to be a 1-MHz ultrasound pulse applied for 5 min with a power output of 2 W/cm(2) and a 20% duty cycle along with 300 μg of plasmid. Under these conditions, the synovial pannus showed significant EGFP expression without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The EGFP expression induced by the local intra-articular injection was significantly more increased than that induced by the intravenous injection. The EGFP expression in the synovial pannus of the ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid group was significantly higher than that of the other four groups (P<0.05). The expression peaked on day 5, remained detectable on day 40 and disappeared on day 60. No EGFP expression was detected in the other tissues and organs. The UTMD

  17. Variant surface antigens, virulence genes and the pathogenesis of malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deitsch, Kirk W; Hviid, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The first Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting was held 2-5 February 2000 in Lorne, Australia. Following the meeting, Brian Cooke, Mats Wahlgren and Ross Coppel predicted that research into the molecular details of the mechanisms behind sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes would "become...... increasingly more complicated, with further interactions, receptors, ligands and functional domains". Furthermore, they cautioned that "the challenge will be not to lose ourselves in the molecular detail, but remain focused on the role of [the var genes and other multigene families] in pathogenesis of malaria......". We contemplate on these statements, following the recent second Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting, which was held at the same venue on 2-5 February 2004....

  18. Regulatory mechanisms for floral homeotic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongchi; Mara, Chloe

    2010-02-01

    Proper regulation of floral homeotic gene (or ABCE gene) expression ensures the development of floral organs in the correct number, type, and precise spatial arrangement. This review summarizes recent advances on the regulation of floral homeotic genes, highlighting the variety and the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved. As flower development is one of the most well characterized developmental processes in higher plants, it facilitates the discovery of novel regulatory mechanisms. To date, mechanisms for the regulation of floral homeotic genes range from transcription to post-transcription, from activators to repressors, and from microRNA- to ubiquitin-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. Region-specific activation of floral homeotic genes is dependent on the integration of a flower-specific activity provided by LEAFY (LFY) and a region- and stage-specific activating function provided by one of the LFY cofactors. Two types of regulatory loops, the feed-forward and the feedback loop, provide properly timed gene activation and subsequent maintenance and refinement in proper spatial and temporal domains of ABCE genes. Two different microRNA/target modules may have been independently recruited in different plant species to regulate C gene expression. Additionally, competition among different MADS box proteins for common interacting partners may represent a mechanism in whorl boundary demarcation. Future work using systems approaches and the development of non-model plants will provide integrated views on floral homeotic gene regulation and insights into the evolution of morphological diversity in flowering plants. PMID:19922812

  19. Estimation of growth rate of Skeletonema costatum based on relative expression amount of PCNA gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shanying; YU Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Partial sequence of Skeletonema costatum proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was obtained by reverse transcriptase PCR(RT-PCR) and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) techniques.Based on the obtained PCNA and cytochrome b gene(Cyt b gene) sequences,a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) method was developed to detect the expres-sion S.costatum PCNA gene,and this method was applied to study the relationship between the growth rate of S.costatum and the average expression amount of PCNA gene in a single cell.The expression amount of PCNA gene had large variation in cells col-lected at different culture phases,and the trend was well consistent with the growth rate,which suggested that the expression amount of PCNA gene correlated well with the cell division,and the PCNA could be a promising indicator for the S.costatum cell proliferation.Furthermore,using the PCNA gene as the objective gene and the Cyt b gene as the house-keeping gene,a new method for estimating the in situ growth rate of S.costatum was established by analysis of the relative expression quantity (REQ) of the PCNA gene.

  20. Biological and clinical meaning of myeloid antigen expression in the acute lymphocytic leukemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 238 children presenting with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) authors studied the possible association between the myeloid antigens expression with determined biologic and clinic features at disease onset. The cellular immunophenotyping was performed by ultraimmunocytochemical method. From the total of diagnosed ALLs, the 21,8% were LLA-Mi+. There was a lymphadenopathies predominance (71,2%), splenomegaly (65,4%) and hepatomegaly (57,7%) in patients with LLA-Mi+ and very significant differences (p =0,003, p = 0,0068, and p = 0,000, respectively. There was also alight predominance of mediastinum adenopathies, CNS infiltration and hemorrahagic manifestations in patients with LLA-Mi+, no statistically significant. Results showed that in our patients the myeloid antigen expression on the lymphoid blasts influenced on appearance of determined presentation of morphologic and clinical features in children

  1. 增殖细胞核抗原、人类N-myc下游调节基因1在肝细胞性肝癌中的表达及临床意义%Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and human N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and their significances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永明; 范文艳; 高建芝; 许娜; 崔鑫华; 徐振平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and to confer the biological behavior and the clinical significance in the hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Documented specimens were selected, containing 58 cases of primary liver cancer, 34 cases of cirrhosis and 15 cases of normal tissues. H-E staining was performed to observe the morphology, and immunohistochemistry SABC method to study the expression of PCNA and NDRG1 in primary liver cancer. Results: The expression rate of PCNA in primary liver cancer was significantly higher than that of liver cirrhosis tissues and normal liver tissues. The expression of PCNA in hepatocellular carcinoma was not related to the patient gender, age, HbsAg-positive, AFP level, independent of location and diameter of the tumor. NDRG1 expression was gradually decreased in the normal liver tissues, cirrhesis liver tissues and primary liver tissues; There were no significant difference between the cirrhosis group and the normal liver tissue group; The expression of NDRG1 in hepatocellular carcimoma was not related to the patient gender, age, HbsAg-positive, AFP level, in dependent of location and diameter of the tumor. The expression of NDRG1 in HCC was negatively correlated with PCNA in this experiment. Conclusion: PCNA and NDRG1 in hepatocellular carcinoma play an important role in their development processes. Joint detection contributes to the early cancer detection, early diagnosis and early treatment.%目的:研究增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)及人类N-myc下游调节基因1(NDRG1)在人肝细胞性肝癌中的表达情况,探讨其与肝癌生物学行为的关系及临床意义.方法:选择有存档的原发性肝癌标本58例,肝硬化34例,正常肝组织标本15例,用H-E染色观察组织形态,用免疫组织化学SABC检测PCNA和NDRG1的表达.结果:肝癌组织中PCNA表达明显高于肝硬化组

  2. Quality measures for gene expression biclusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pontes

    Full Text Available An noticeable number of biclustering approaches have been proposed proposed for the study of gene expression data, especially for discovering functionally related gene sets under different subsets of experimental conditions. In this context, recognizing groups of co-expressed or co-regulated genes, that is, genes which follow a similar expression pattern, is one of the main objectives. Due to the problem complexity, heuristic searches are usually used instead of exhaustive algorithms. Furthermore, most of biclustering approaches use a measure or cost function that determines the quality of biclusters. Having a suitable quality metric for bicluster is a critical aspect, not only for guiding the search, but also for establishing a comparison criteria among the results obtained by different biclustering techniques. In this paper, we analyse a large number of existing approaches to quality measures for gene expression biclusters, as well as we present a comparative study of them based on their capability to recognize different expression patterns in biclusters.

  3. Gene expression following acute morphine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loguinov, A V; Anderson, L M; Crosby, G J; Yukhananov, R Y

    2001-08-28

    The long-term response to neurotropic drugs depends on drug-induced neuroplasticity and underlying changes in gene expression. However, alterations in neuronal gene expression can be observed even following single injection. To investigate the extent of these changes, gene expression in the medial striatum and lumbar part of the spinal cord was monitored by cDNA microarray following single injection of morphine. Using robust and resistant linear regression (MM-estimator) with simultaneous prediction confidence intervals, we detected differentially expressed genes. By combining the results with cluster analysis, we have found that a single morphine injection alters expression of two major groups of genes, for proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration and for cytoskeleton-related proteins. RNAs for these proteins were mostly downregulated both in the medial striatum and in lumbar part of the spinal cord. These transitory changes were prevented by coadministration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Data indicate that microarray analysis by itself is useful in describing the effect of well-known substances on the nervous system and provides sufficient information to propose a potentially novel pathway mediating its activity. PMID:11526201

  4. Synthesis and expression of CDw75 antigen in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased ST6Gal I activity has been associated with the α(2,6)sialylation enhancement of membrane glycoconjugates observed in metastatic colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Siaα(2,6)Galβ(1,4)GlcNAc sequence, known as CDw75, is a sialylated carbohydrate determinant generated by the ST6Gal I. This epitope has been reported to be associated with the progression of gastric and colorectal tumours, hence there are only a few conclusive studies to date. By radioisotopic techniques we evaluated the ST6Gal I activity in healthy, transitional and tumour tissues from 43 patients with CRC. By immunohistochemistry we assessed the CDw75 expression in 25 colorectal adenomas, 43 tumours, 13 transitional and 28 healthy tissues of CRC patients. ST6Gal I activity was likewise found to be statistically higher in tumour tissue respect to healthy tissue from CRC patients. CDw75 expression was positive in 20% of colorectal adenomas. Furthermore, 70% of tumour specimens and 8.3% of transitional specimens were positive for CDw75 expression, whereas none of the healthy ones showed the presence of the epitope. The major contribution of this study is the inclusion of data from transitional tissue and the analysis of CDw75 antigen expression in CRC and in colorectal adenomas, little known so far. ST6Gal I activity and CDw75 antigen expression were increased in CRC. Although their comparison did not reach the statistical significance, a great extent of patients showed both, an enhanced tumour ST6Gal I activity and an increased CDw75 expression in the tumour tissue. So, these two variables may play a role in malignant transformation. The expression of CDw75 in colorectal adenomas suggests that this antigen may be a tumour marker in CRC

  5. Cloning and surface expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigen in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, J B; Hatano, K; Meluleni, G S; Pier, G B

    1992-01-01

    As a step toward developing recombinant oral vaccines, we have explored the feasibility of expression of O polysaccharide antigens from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Escherichia coli. We cloned in E. coli HB101 a 26.2-kilobase DNA fragment from P. aeruginosa strain PA103 that specifies the production of the O polysaccharide of Fisher immunotype 2 (IT-2) strains. The recombinant organism incorporated the P. aeruginosa IT-2 O polysaccharide onto the core of the E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tra...

  6. Isoniazid induces expression of the antigen 85 complex in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Garbe, T R; Hibler, N S; Deretic, V

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to isoniazid induced the expression of several secreted proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses indicated that two of the prominent isonicotinic acid hydrazide-inducible polypeptides were members of the antigen 85 complex, recently demonstrated to have mycolyltransferase activity. We postulate the existence of an intermediate, whose production is inhibited by isonicotinic acid hydrazide, which plays a negative feedback...

  7. Milk-induced eczema is associated with the expansion of T cells expressing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Abernathy-Carver, K J; Sampson, H A; Picker, L. J.; Leung, D Y

    1995-01-01

    The extravasation of T cells at sites of inflammation is critically dependent on the activity of homing receptors (HR) involved in endothelial cell recognition and binding. Two such HR (the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen [CLA] and L-selectin) have been shown to be selectively involved in T cell migration to skin and peripheral lymph nodes, respectively. This study was designed to assess the relationship between the organ specificity of an allergic reaction to food and the expression of HR on T ...

  8. Slime Production and Expression of the Slime-Associated Antigen by Staphylococcal Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ammendolia, M. G.; R. Di Rosa; Montanaro, L; Arciola, C. R.; Baldassarri, L.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to produce slime and to express a slime-associated antigen was examined in a collection of staphylococcal clinical isolates. Slime-producing strains were found among coagulase-negative staphylococci in percentages comparable to those reported in other studies; surprisingly, a high percentage of Staphylococcus aureus strains also were able to produce this extracellular material. In the latter case, this ability was strongly dependent on the presence of an additional carbohydrate so...

  9. T cells expressing VHH-directed oligoclonal chimeric HER2 antigen receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnani, Fatemeh Rahimi; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) originated from antibodies is a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. Several unsuccessful trials, however, highlight the need for alternative conventional binding domains and the better combination of...... costimulatory endodomains for CAR construction to improve the effector functions of the engineered T cells. Camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs), which are the smallest single domain antibodies, can endow great targeting ability to CAR-engineered T cells....

  10. THE CONSTRUCTION AND EXPRESSION OF THE MURINE SCFV GENE IN E. COLI AGAINST HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying; Chen Wei; Li Xu

    2006-01-01

    Objective To obtain the gene of murine Single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) against human cervical cancer and to express it in E. coli. Methods The variable region gene fragments of the heavy and light chains, which were amplified respectively using recombinant DNA techniques from CsA125 hybridoma cells, were spliced together through a flexible linker to ScFv against human cervical cancer. The ScFv genes were then cloned into expression vector pCANTAB 5E and expressed in E. coli HB2151 and TG1 respectively. The soluble ScFv were characterized by SDS PAGE and Western blot. The antigen-binding activities of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv were assayed by ELISA and cell immunohistochemical analysis. Results The expressed ScFv antibodies were soluble and phage displayed. The soluble ScFv secreted and expressed in E. coli HB2151 induced by IPTG were confirmed with SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. The specific binding capacity of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv to the surface associated antigen of human cervical cancer cell line was further confirmed with immunohistochemical studies. Conclusion The soluble and phage displayed ScFv expressed in E. coli against human cervical cancer showed high, specific affinity for the cervical cancer cell line surface associated antigen.

  11. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  12. Co-expression of tumor antigen and interleukin-2 from an adenoviral vector augments the efficiency of therapeutic tumor vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Nørgaard Nielsen, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    approach where the target antigen fused to Ii is expressed from the adenoviral E1 region and IL-2 is expressed from the E3 region. Immunization of mice with this new vector construct resulted in an augmented primary effector CD8+ T-cell response. Furthermore, in a melanoma model we observed significantly...... prolonged tumor control in vaccinated wild type (WT) mice. The improved tumor control required antigen-specific cells, since no tumor control was observed, unless the melanoma cells expressed the vaccine targeted antigen. We also tested our new vaccine in immunodeficient (CD80/86 deficient) mice. Following...

  13. Expression of MPB83 from Mycobacterium bovis in Brucella abortus S19 induces specific cellular immune response against the recombinant antigen in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabio y García, Julia V; Bigi, Fabiana; Rossetti, Osvaldo; Campos, Eleonora

    2010-12-01

    Immunodominant MPB83 antigen from Mycobacterium bovis was expressed as a chimeric protein fused to either β-galactosidase, outer membrane lipoprotein OMP19 or periplasmic protein BP26 in gram-negative Brucella abortus S19, in all cases driven by each gene's own promoter. All fusion proteins were successfully expressed and localized in the expected subcellular fraction. Moreover, OMP19-MPB83 was processed as a lipoprotein when expressed in B. abortus. Splenocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant S19 strains carrying the genes coding for the heterologous antigens in replicative plasmids, showed equally specific INF-γ production in response to MPB83 stimulation. Association to the lipid moiety of OMP19 presented no advantage in terms of immunogenicity for MPB83. In contrast, fusion to BP26, which was encoded by an integrative plasmid, resulted in a weaker immune response. None of the constructions affected the survival rate or the infection pattern of Brucella. We concluded that B. abortus S19 is an appropriate candidate for the expression of M. bovis antigens both associated to the membrane or cytosolic fraction and may provide the basis for a future combined vaccine for bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis. PMID:20888425

  14. PPVVP2基因与PCV2ORF2不同抗原表位重组真核表达载体的构建及其免疫原性%Construction and immune efficacy of eukaryotic expression vectors of PPV VP2 gene with different antigen epitopes of PCV20RF2 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志文; 郭万柱; 唐玉香; 朱玲; 陈燕凌; 徐凯; 梅淼

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the immune efficacy of recombinant plasmids of PPV VP2 with different antigen epitopes of PCV20RF2,the antigen epitope of A(117-131 aa),B(157-183 aa),C(165-200 aa) and VP2 gene were obtained by PCR from PCV2 SC strain and PPV SC-1 strain respectively, and three recombinant plasmids including pCI -A-VP2, pCI-B-VP2,pCI-C-VP2 were constructed separately. Three recombinant plasmids were transferred into MDBK cells respectively,and examined by indirect immunofluorescence technology. Female mice were inoculated with the recombinant plasmids respectively,and the immune efficacy was detected by the MTT assay, FCM and ELISA. Fluorescence was ob- served in the cells after transfection with pCI -A-VP2, pCI-B-VP2, pCI-C-VP2. The immune efficacy of three recombinant plasmids was significantly higher than the negative control group and pCI-B-VP2 was the highest among the three plasmids. It indicated that antigen epitopes B of PCV20RF2 can be used to study the two joint vaccines with other virus.%为了研究PCV2ORF2的不同抗原表位重组PPVVP2基因真核表达质粒的体外表达情况与免疫原性,分别以PCV2SC株和PPVSC-1株为模板,扩增PCV2ORF2的抗原表位基因A、B、c(A:117~131aa,B:157~183aa,C:165~200aa)和PPVVP2基因。将A、B、C基因分别与PPVVP2基因串联,并插入到pCI真核表达载体中,构建了能同时表达PPVVP2蛋白和PCV20RF2抗原表位的重组质粒pCI—A—VP2、pCI13-Vp2、pCI—C—VP2。将重组真核表达质粒转染MDBK细胞,用间接免疫荧光试验检测各个质粒在细胞中的表达情况;并将其免疫小鼠,采用MTT比色法、流式细胞术和ELISA法检测免疫效果。结果显示,3种重组表达质粒转染细胞48h后都能检测到较强的免疫荧光;免疫小鼠后14~42d诱导的T淋巴细胞转化效率、CD4+/CD8+细胞比值以及PPV和PCV2抗体均显著高于对照组,且pCI—13-VP2免疫效率高于

  15. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  16. CD66 carcinoembryonic antigens mediate interactions between Opa-expressing Neisseria gonorrhoeae and human polymorphonuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Owen, S D; Dehio, C; Haude, A; Grunert, F; Meyer, T F

    1997-06-16

    Colonization of urogenital tissues by the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is characteristically associated with purulent exudates of polymorphonuclear phagocytes (PMNs) containing apparently viable bacteria. Distinct variant forms of the phase-variable opacity-associated (Opa) outer membrane proteins mediate the non-opsonized binding and internalization of N. gonorrhoeae by human PMNs. Using overlay assays and an affinity isolation technique, we demonstrate the direct interaction between Opa52-expressing gonococci and members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family which express the CD66 epitope. Gonococci and recombinant Escherichia coli strains synthesizing Opa52 showed specific binding and internalization by transfected HeLa cell lines expressing the CD66 family members BGP (CD66a), NCA (CD66c), CGM1 (CD66d) and CEA (CD66e), but not that expressing CGM6 (CD66b). Bacterial strains expressing either no opacity protein or the epithelial cell invasion-associated Opa50 do not bind these CEA family members. Consistent with their different receptor specificities, Opa52-mediated interactions could be inhibited by polyclonal anti-CEA sera, while Opa50 binding was instead inhibited by heparin. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we observed a marked recruitment of CD66 antigen by Opa52-expressing gonococci on both the transfected cell lines and infected PMNs. These data indicate that members of the CEA family constitute the cellular receptors for the interaction with, and internalization of, N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:9218786

  17. Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required. Results The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages. Conclusions In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub

  18. Intersex related gene expression profiles in clams Scrobicularia plana: Molecular markers and environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Expression of intersex-related genes was analysed in clam gonads sampled from the Channel. • Genes were differentially expressed at sites with varying levels of intersex and contaminants. • Correlations between gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling sites were identified. • No single gene expression studied correlated with intersex incidence. - Abstract: Intersex, the appearance of female characteristics in male gonads, has been identified in several aquatic species. It is a widespread phenomenon in populations of the bivalve, Scrobicularia plana, from the southwest coast of the U.K. Genes previously identified as differentially expressed (ferritin, testicular haploid expressed gene, THEG, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; receptor activated protein kinase C, RACK; cytochrome B, CYB; and cytochrome c oxidase 1, COX1) in intersex clams relative to normal male clams, were selected for characterisation and an environmental survey of the Channel region. Transcripts were significantly differentially expressed at sites with varying intersex incidence and contaminant burdens. Significant correlations between specific gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling locations have been identified, though no single gene was associated with intersex incidence. The results highlight the difficulty in understanding the intersex phenomenon in molluscs where there is still a lack of knowledge on the control of normal reproduction

  19. Form follows function - the three-dimensional structure of antigen receptor gene loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2014-04-01

    Antigen receptor genes are assembled during lymphocyte development from individual gene segments by a somatic gene rearrangement process named V(D)J recombination. This process is tightly regulated to ensure the generation of an unbiased broad primary repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, and to prevent aberrant recombination products that could initiate lymphomagenesis. One important mode of regulation that has recently been discovered for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus is the adoption of distinct three-dimensional structures of the locus. Changes in the spatial conformation are thought to ensure the appropriate access of the V(D)J recombinase machinery at each developmental stage, and the formation of extensive chromosome loops has been implicated in allowing equal access to widely dispersed gene elements. PMID:24549092

  20. Parsimonious selection of useful genes in microarray gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    González Navarro, Félix Fernando; Belanche Muñoz, Luis Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Machine Learning methods have of late made significant efforts to solving multidisciplinary problems in the field of cancer classification in microarray gene expression data. These tasks are characterized by a large number of features and a few observations, making the modeling a non-trivial undertaking. In this work we apply entropic filter methods for gene selection, in combination with several off-the-shelf classifiers. The introduction of bootstrap resampling techniques permits the achiev...

  1. Gene expression profiles in irradiated cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying cellular response to radiation may provide new avenues to develop innovative predictive tests of radiosensitivity of tumours and normal tissues and to improve individual therapy. Nowadays very few studies describe molecular changes induced by hadrontherapy treatments, therefore this field has to be explored and clarified. High-throughput methodologies, such as DNA microarray, allow us to analyse mRNA expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in order to discover new genes and pathways as targets of response to hadrontherapy. Our aim is to elucidate the molecular networks involved in the sensitivity/resistance of cancer cell lines subjected to hadrontherapy treatments with a genomewide approach by using cDNA microarray technology to identify gene expression profiles and candidate genes responsible of differential cellular responses

  2. Genetic analysis of the capsule polysaccharide (K antigen and exopolysaccharide genes in pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris J Glenn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus has undergone rapid changes in both K- and O-antigens, making detection of outbreaks more difficult. In order to understand these rapid changes, the genetic regions encoding these antigens must be examined. In Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, both O-antigen and capsular polysaccharides are encoded in a single region on the large chromosome; a similar arrangement in pandemic V. parahaemolyticus would help explain the rapid serotype changes. However, previous reports on "capsule" genes are controversial. Therefore, we set out to clarify and characterize these regions in pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 by gene deletion using a chitin based transformation strategy. Results We generated different deletion mutants of putative polysaccharide genes and examined the mutants by immuno-blots with O and K specific antisera. Our results showed that O- and K-antigen genes are separated in V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6; the region encoding both O-antigen and capsule biosynthesis in other vibrios, i.e. genes between gmhD and rjg, determines the K6-antigen but not the O3-antigen in V. parahaemolyticus. The previously identified "capsule genes" on the smaller chromosome were related to exopolysaccharide synthesis, not K-antigen. Conclusion Understanding of the genetic basis of O- and K-antigens is critical to understanding the rapid changes in these polysaccharides seen in pandemic V. parahaemolyticus. This report confirms the genetic location of K-antigen synthesis in V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 allowing us to focus future studies of the evolution of serotypes to this region.

  3. Extracting expression modules from perturbational gene expression compendia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dijck Patrick

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compendia of gene expression profiles under chemical and genetic perturbations constitute an invaluable resource from a systems biology perspective. However, the perturbational nature of such data imposes specific challenges on the computational methods used to analyze them. In particular, traditional clustering algorithms have difficulties in handling one of the prominent features of perturbational compendia, namely partial coexpression relationships between genes. Biclustering methods on the other hand are specifically designed to capture such partial coexpression patterns, but they show a variety of other drawbacks. For instance, some biclustering methods are less suited to identify overlapping biclusters, while others generate highly redundant biclusters. Also, none of the existing biclustering tools takes advantage of the staple of perturbational expression data analysis: the identification of differentially expressed genes. Results We introduce a novel method, called ENIGMA, that addresses some of these issues. ENIGMA leverages differential expression analysis results to extract expression modules from perturbational gene expression data. The core parameters of the ENIGMA clustering procedure are automatically optimized to reduce the redundancy between modules. In contrast to the biclusters produced by most other methods, ENIGMA modules may show internal substructure, i.e. subsets of genes with distinct but significantly related expression patterns. The grouping of these (often functionally related patterns in one module greatly aids in the biological interpretation of the data. We show that ENIGMA outperforms other methods on artificial datasets, using a quality criterion that, unlike other criteria, can be used for algorithms that generate overlapping clusters and that can be modified to take redundancy between clusters into account. Finally, we apply ENIGMA to the Rosetta compendium of expression profiles for

  4. [Construction of recombinant adenoviral vector expressing genes of the conservative influenza proteins M2 and nucleoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmagambetov, I B; Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Lysenko, A A; Garas, M N; Shmarov, M M; Logunov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a highly contagious and one of the most massive infection diseases. General epidemiological significance has a strain, which belongs to subtype A. A high degree of genetic variety leads to the permanent changes in the antigenic structure of the influenza virus. Therefore, the current influenza vaccines require periodic updating of the composition of strains. Presently, it is important to develop a universal vaccine that can protect against different strains of influenza A virus at the same time and is based on the conserved antigens of the influenza virus. The recombinant adenovirus vectors expressing genes of conserved viral antigenes may be a promising candidate vaccine against influenza A. Using the method of the homologous recombination, we developed in this study recombinant adenovirus of fifth serotype that expresses genes of the ion channel M2 and nucleoprotein NP of the influenza virus A. Genes of the consensus protein M2 and NP of human influenza A virus were included into the structure of the viral genome. The expression of the antigens M2 and NP using recombinant adenovirus vector was detected by a Western blot assay. The immunogenicity of the developed recombinant adenovirus vector was demonstrated by the intranasal immunization of laboratory mice. PMID:25080815

  5. Gene expression profiling in sinonasal adenocarcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Sébille-Rivain Véronique; Malard Olivier; Guisle-Marsollier Isabelle; Ferron Christophe; Renaudin Karine; Quéméner Sylvia; Tripodi Dominique; Verger Christian; Géraut Christian; Gratas-Rabbia-Ré Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are uncommon tumors which develop in the ethmoid sinus after exposure to wood dust. Although the etiology of these tumors is well defined, very little is known about their molecular basis and no diagnostic tool exists for their early detection in high-risk workers. Methods To identify genes involved in this disease, we performed gene expression profiling using cancer-dedicated microarrays, on nine matched samples of sinonasal adenocarcinomas and n...

  6. Sp1 regulates human huntingtin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruitao; Luo, Yawen; Ly, Philip T T; Cai, Fang; Zhou, Weihui; Zou, Haiyan; Song, Weihong

    2012-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats results in neuronal loss in the striatum and cortex. Mutant huntingtin (HTT) may cause toxicity via a range of different mechanisms. Recent studies indicate that impairment of wild-type HTT function may also contribute to HD pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating HTT expression have not been well defined. In this study, we cloned 1,795 bp of the 5' flanking region of the human huntingtin gene (htt) and identified a 106-bp fragment containing the transcription start site as the minimal region necessary for promoter activity. Sequence analysis reveals several putative regulatory elements including Sp1, NF-κB, HIF, CREB, NRSF, P53, YY1, AP1, and STAT in the huntingtin promoter. We found functional Sp1 response elements in the huntingtin promoter region. The expression of Sp1 enhanced huntingtin gene transcription and the inhibition of Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation reduced huntingtin gene expression. These results suggest that Sp1 plays an important role in the regulation of the human huntingtin gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests that the dysregulation of Sp1-mediated huntingtin transcription, combining with mutant huntingtin's detrimental effect on other Sp1-mediated downstream gene function, may contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:22399227

  7. Simian virus 40 T antigen as a carrier for the expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition epitopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, T. M.; Bonneau, R H; Tevethia, M J; Tevethia, S S

    1993-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen can immortalize a wide variety of mammalian cells in culture. We have taken advantage of this property of T antigen to use it as a carrier for the expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition epitopes. DNA sequences corresponding to an H-2Db-restricted SV40 T-antigen site I (amino acids 205 to 215) were translocated into SV40 T-antigen DNA at codon positions 350 and 650 containing EcoRI linkers. An H-2Kb-restricted herpes simplex virus glycopro...

  8. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito;

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that tumors arising from tissues such as kidney, pancreas, liver and stomach are particularly refractory to treatment. Searching for new anticancer drugs using cells in culture has yielded some effective therapies, but these refractory tumors remain intractable. Studies that...... survival might, therefore, act through such a matrix-to-cell suppression of apoptosis. Indeed, correlative mining of gene expression and patient survival databases suggests that poor survival in patients with metastatic cancer correlates highly with tumor expression of a common theme: the genes involved in...

  9. Epigenetic control of antioxidant gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular. Fecha de lectura: 29-10-2015 To respond to exogenous and endogenous stimuli, organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to modulate the quantity, duration and the type of response to these stimuli. Of these mechanisms, one of the most important is the regulation of gene expression. This regulation of gene expression occurs at various levels but especially by th...

  10. Argudas: arguing with gene expression information

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Kenneth; Burger, Albert

    2010-01-01

    In situ hybridisation gene expression information helps biologists identify where a gene is expressed. However, the databases that republish the experimental information are often both incomplete and inconsistent. This paper examines a system, Argudas, designed to help tackle these issues. Argudas is an evolution of an existing system, and so that system is reviewed as a means of both explaining and justifying the behaviour of Argudas. Throughout the discussion of Argudas a number of issues will be raised including the appropriateness of argumentation in biology and the challenges faced when integrating apparently similar online biological databases.

  11. T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors can cause anaphylaxis in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Maus, Marcela V.; Haas, Andrew R; Beatty, Gregory L.; Albelda, Steven M.; Levine, Bruce L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yangbing; Kalos, Michael; June, Carl H.

    2013-01-01

    T cells can be redirected to overcome tolerance to cancer by engineering with integrating vectors to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). In preclinical models, we have previously demonstrated that transfection of T cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) coding for a CAR is an alternative strategy that has antitumor efficacy and the potential to evaluate the on-target off-tumor toxicity of new CAR targets safely due to transient mRNA CAR expression. Here, we report the safety observed in four ...

  12. Visualizing Gene Expression In Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlage, R.S.

    1998-11-02

    Visualizing bacterial cells and describing their responses to the environment are difficult tasks. Their small size is the chief reason for the difficulty, which means that we must often use many millions of cells in a sample in order to determine what the average response of the bacteria is. However, an average response can sometimes mask important events in bacterial physiology, which means that our understanding of these organisms will suffer. We have used a variety of instruments to visualize bacterial cells, all of which tell us something different about the sample. We use a fluorescence activated cell sorter to sort cells based on the fluorescence provided by bioreporter genes, and these can be used to select for particular genetic mutations. Cells can be visualized by epifluorescent microscopy, and sensitive photodetectors can be added that allow us to find a single bacterial cell that is fluorescent or bioluminescent. We have also used standard photomultipliers to examine cell aggregates as field bioreporter microorganisms. Examples of each of these instruments show how our understanding of bacterial physiology has changed with the technology.

  13. Identification of New Antigens in Visceral Leishmaniasis by Expression Cloning and Immunoblotting with Sera of Kala-Azar Patients from Bihar, India†

    OpenAIRE

    Theinert, Stephan M.; Basu, Rajatava; Forgber, Michael; Roy, Syamal; Sundar, Shyam; Walden, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Sera of kala-azar patients from Bihar, India, were used to identify Leishmania donovani antigens encoded by a phage expression library. Ten antigens were identified, five of which have not been described as leishmania antigens before. The antigens specifically react with sera of leishmania-infected patients but not of toxoplasma- or plasmodium-infected patients.

  14. Expression and Purification of a Novel Computationally Designed Antigen for Simultaneously Detection of HTLV-1 and HBV Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Heydari Zarnagh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational tools are reliable alternatives to laborious work in chimeric protein design. In this study, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques for simultaneous detection of anti-HTLV-I and anti-HBV in infected sera. Databases were searched for amino acid sequences of HBV/HLV-I diagnostic antigens. The immunodominant fragments were selected based on propensity scales. The diagnostic antigen was designed using these fragments. Secondary and tertiary structures were predicted and the B-cell epitopes were mapped on the surface of built model. The synthetic DNA coding antigen was sub-cloned into pGS21a expression vector. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that glutathione fused antigen was highly expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 cells. The recombinant antigen was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. ELISA results showed that soluble antigen could specifically react with the HTLV-I and HBV infected sera. This specific antigen could be used as suitable agent for antibody-antigen based screening tests and can help clinicians in order to perform quick and precise screening of the HBV and HTLV-I infections.

  15. Intersex related gene expression profiles in clams Scrobicularia plana: Molecular markers and environmental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocan, Corina M; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Langston, William J; Pope, Nick; Cornelius, Keith; Hill, E M; Alvarez-Munoz, Diana; Indiveri, Paolo; Lerebours, Adelaide; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2015-06-30

    Intersex, the appearance of female characteristics in male gonads, has been identified in several aquatic species. It is a widespread phenomenon in populations of the bivalve, Scrobicularia plana, from the southwest coast of the U.K. Genes previously identified as differentially expressed (ferritin, testicular haploid expressed gene, THEG, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; receptor activated protein kinase C, RACK; cytochrome B, CYB; and cytochrome c oxidase 1, COX1) in intersex clams relative to normal male clams, were selected for characterisation and an environmental survey of the Channel region. Transcripts were significantly differentially expressed at sites with varying intersex incidence and contaminant burdens. Significant correlations between specific gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling locations have been identified, though no single gene was associated with intersex incidence. The results highlight the difficulty in understanding the intersex phenomenon in molluscs where there is still a lack of knowledge on the control of normal reproduction. PMID:25746199

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression in Parasitic Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Horn, David

    2016-05-11

    Protozoan parasites colonize numerous metazoan hosts and insect vectors through their life cycles, with the need to respond quickly and reversibly while encountering diverse and often hostile ecological niches. To succeed, parasites must also persist within individuals until transmission between hosts is achieved. Several parasitic protozoa cause a huge burden of disease in humans and livestock, and here we focus on the parasites that cause malaria and African trypanosomiasis. Efforts to understand how these pathogens adapt to survive in varied host environments, cause disease, and transmit between hosts have revealed a wealth of epigenetic phenomena. Epigenetic switching mechanisms appear to be ideally suited for the regulation of clonal antigenic variation underlying successful parasitism. We review the molecular players and complex mechanistic layers that mediate the epigenetic regulation of virulence gene expression. Understanding epigenetic processes will aid the development of antiparasitic therapeutics. PMID:27173931

  17. Prokaryotic Expression and Identification of the Main Antigenic Domain Gene in NS2-3 of Classical Swine Fever Virus%猪瘟病毒NS2-3抗原集中区基因的原核表达及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫; 朱艳平; 宁红梅; 银梅; 郭东光; 鲁毅; 王选年

    2013-01-01

    To identify the main antigen domain of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS2-3, a method of detecting antibody of classical swine fever virus was established. CSFV genome plasmid as PCR template, the main antigenic domain of CSFV NS2-3 was amplified by PCR, amd PCR products was cloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-32a(+) vector to obtain the recombinant expression plasmid, named as pET32a-NS2-3-1. The recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into E. coli Rosetta (DE3) and inducible expression by IPTG. The expression products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by Western-blot. The recombinant plasmid pET32a-NS2-3-1 was highly expressed, induced 5 hours could get a large number of recombinant protein at 28℃, and the recombinant protein reacted strongly with the C-Positive serum of CSFV. The main antigenic domain protein in NS2-3 of CSFV was obtained, which has good antigenicity for detecting antibodies against CSFV.%  为获得猪瘟病毒(classical swine fever virus, CSFV) NS2-3抗原集中区蛋白,并建立CSFV抗体快速检测方法.本研究以CSFV全长基因组质粒为模板,PCR扩增NS2-3抗原表位集中区,利用扩增片段和克隆载体,构建重组表达质粒,命名为pET32a-NS2-3-1.重组表达质粒转化Rosetta (DE3)细胞,利用IPTG诱导表达, SDS-PAGE电泳和Western-blot鉴定重组表达产物.结果表明,重组质粒pET32a-NS2-3-1在28℃诱导5 h得到高效表达,重组蛋白能够与兔抗CSFV阳性血清发生反应.获得CSFV NS2-3抗原集中区蛋白,并且获得的重组蛋白具有抗原性,能够作为CSFV抗体检测的抗原.

  18. Gene expression profiling analysis of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIN, JI-GANG; LIU, XIAN-YING; WANG, BIN; WANG, DAN-YANG; WEI, MAN; FANG, HUA; XIANG, MEI

    2016-01-01

    As a gynecological oncology, ovarian cancer has high incidence and mortality. To study the mechanisms of ovarian cancer, the present study analyzed the GSE37582 microarray. GSE37582 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and included data from 74 ovarian cancer cases and 47 healthy controls. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using linear models for microarray data package in R and were further screened for functional annotation. Next, Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was conducted. The interaction associations of the proteins encoded by the DEGs were searched using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized by Cytoscape. Moreover, module analysis of the PPI network was performed using the BioNet analysis tool in R. A total of 284 DEGs were screened, consisting of 145 upregulated genes and 139 downregulated genes. In particular, downregulated FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) was an oncogene, while downregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) was a tumor suppressor gene and upregulated cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) was classed as an ‘other’ gene. The enriched functions included collagen catabolic process, stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases cascade and insulin receptor signaling pathway. Meanwhile, FOS (degree, 15), CD44 (degree, 9), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2; degree, 7), CDKN1A (degree, 7) and matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3; degree, 6) had higher connectivity degrees in the PPI network for the DEGs. These genes may be involved in ovarian cancer by interacting with other genes in the module of the PPI network (e.g., BCL2-FOS, BCL2-CDKN1A, FOS-CDKN1A, FOS-CD44, MMP3-MMP7 and MMP7-CD44). Overall, BCL2, FOS, CDKN1A, CD44, MMP3 and MMP7 may be correlated with ovarian cancer. PMID:27347159

  19. Potentiation of anthrax vaccines using protective antigen-expressing viral replicon vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Chao; An, Huai-Jie; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    DNA vaccines require improvement for human use because they are generally weak stimulators of the immune system in humans. The efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved using a viral replicon as vector to administer antigen of pathogen. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the conventional non-viral DNA, viral replicon DNA or viral replicon particles (VRP) vaccines encoding different forms of anthrax protective antigen (PA) for specific immunity and protective potency against anthrax. Our current results clearly suggested that these viral replicon DNA or VRP vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) induced stronger PA-specific immune responses than the conventional non-viral DNA vaccines when encoding the same antigen forms, which resulted in potent protection against challenge with the Bacillus anthracis strain A16R. Additionally, the naked PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines without the need for high doses or demanding particular delivery regimens elicited robust immune responses and afforded completely protective potencies, which indicated the potential of the SFV replicon as vector of anthrax vaccines for use in clinical application. Therefore, our results suggest that these PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax. PMID:25102364

  20. SIGNIFICANCE OF EXPRESS OF SOME NONHORMONAL ANTIGENS IN PANCREATIC ENDOCRINE TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiyao

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the express of some nonhormonal antigens in pancreatic endocrine tumors. Methods: The nonhormonal antigens including Alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (α-HCG), progesterone receptors (PR), 7B2, HISL-19, in normal pancreatic islets and in 52cases of pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: It was found that HCG can be detected in PET but not in normal islet cells. HCG immunoreactivity was expressed by 3 of 28 (10.7%) benign PET and by 14 of 24 (58.3%)malignant PET. PR was found by 20 of 28 (71.4%) benign PET and by 7 of 24 (29%) malignant PET. 7B2 was detected by 23 of 28 (82.1%) benign PET and by 13 of 24(54.2%) malignant PET. HISL-19 was appeared by 23 of 28 benign PET and by 11 of 24 (46%) malignant PET.Golgitype persisted in 87.5% malignant tumors.Conclusion: The assay of nonhormonal antigens may be well defined the clinico-pathological characteristics of PET.

  1. Changes in tumor-antigen expression profile as human small-cell lung cancers progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group has previously observed that in patients with small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs), the expression of a tumor antigen, glioma big potassium (gBK) ion channel, is higher at the time of death than when the cancer is first treated by surgical resection. This study aimed to determine whether this dichotomy was common in other potential lung tumor antigens by examining the same patient samples using our more extensive profile analysis of tumor-antigen precursor protein (TAPP). We then tested the hypothesis that therapeutic intervention may inadvertently cause this increased gBK production. SCLC samples (eight surgical resections and three autopsy samples) and three control lungs were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for 42 potential TAPPs that represent potential T-cell-mediated immunological targets. Twenty-two TAPP mRNAs displayed the same profile as gBK, i.e., more mRNAs were expressed at autopsy than in their surgical counterparts. B-cyclin and mouse double minute 2, human homolog of P53-binding protein were elevated in both autopsy and surgical specimens above the normal-lung controls. When HTB119 cells were incubated with doxorubicin, gBK was strongly induced, as confirmed by intracellular flow cytometry with a gBK-specific antibody. Our findings suggested that more immunological targets became available as the tumor responded to chemotherapy and proceeded toward its terminal stages

  2. [Stable and efficient expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenxi; Li, Shichong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Miao; Ye, Lingling; Wu, Yanzhuo; Xu, Mingbo; Chen, Zhaolie

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrying preS sequences could be an ideal candidate for a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine with higher efficacy. Here we report the success in achieving efficient and stable expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells. The HMRCHEF53u/Neo-S/preS1 expression vector carrying S/preS1 gene was constructed and transfected into CHO-S cells. A stable and high-expression CHO cell line, named 10G6, was selected by ELISA and limiting dilution analysis. Western blotting analysis showed S/preS1 expressed from 10G6 cells possessed both S and preS1 antigenicity. 10G6 cells displayed characters of favorable growth and stable S/preS1 expression in repeated batch cultures as evaluated by viable cell density, viability and S/preS1 concentration. And cultivation of 10G6 cells in fed-batch mode resulted in S/preS1 production at 17-20 mg/L with viable cell density at 7 x 10(6)-10 x 10(6) cells/mL. PMID:24660628

  3. Integrating heterogeneous gene expression data for gene regulatory network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sîrbu, Alina; Ruskin, Heather J; Crane, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are complex biological systems that have a large impact on protein levels, so that discovering network interactions is a major objective of systems biology. Quantitative GRN models have been inferred, to date, from time series measurements of gene expression, but at small scale, and with limited application to real data. Time series experiments are typically short (number of time points of the order of ten), whereas regulatory networks can be very large (containing hundreds of genes). This creates an under-determination problem, which negatively influences the results of any inferential algorithm. Presented here is an integrative approach to model inference, which has not been previously discussed to the authors' knowledge. Multiple heterogeneous expression time series are used to infer the same model, and results are shown to be more robust to noise and parameter perturbation. Additionally, a wavelet analysis shows that these models display limited noise over-fitting within the individual datasets. PMID:21948152

  4. Aberrant Gene Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    Summary Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) is an aggressive cancer of the bone marrow, affecting formation of blood cells during haematopoiesis. This thesis presents investigation of AML using mRNA gene expression profiles (GEP) of samples extracted from the bone marrow of healthy and diseased subjects...

  5. The Low Noise Limit in Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy D Dar

    Full Text Available Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiency can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. These results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1 a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2 high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.

  6. Paradoxornis webbianus bulomachus Transcriptome or Gene expression [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Study Type Sample Organism Sequencing Platform Transcriptome Analysis Paradoxornis web...e Length Download SRR392516 SRS259594 Transcriptome Analysis Paradoxornis webbian...t/Resources DRASearch - DDBJ/DRA ENA Browser - EBI/ENA Paradoxornis webbianus bulomachus Transcriptome or Gene expression ...

  7. Global gene expression in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, K.; Klemm, Per

    2003-01-01

    antimicrobial treatments and host immune defence responses. Escherichia coli has been used as a model organism to study the mechanisms of growth within adhered communities. In this study, we use DNA microarray technology to examine the global gene expression profile of E. coli during sessile growth compared...

  8. Population-level control of gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevozhay, Dmitry; Adams, Rhys; van Itallie, Elizabeth; Bennett, Matthew; Balazsi, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    Gene expression is the process that translates genetic information into proteins, that determine the way cells live, function and even die. It was demonstrated that cells with identical genomes exposed to the same environment can differ in their protein composition and therefore phenotypes. Protein levels can vary between cells due to the stochastic nature of intracellular biochemical events, indicating that the genotype-phenotype connection is not deterministic at the cellular level. We asked whether genomes could encode isogenic cell populations more reliably than single cells. To address this question, we built two gene circuits to control three cell population-level characteristics: gene expression mean, coefficient of variation and non-genetic memory of previous expression states. Indeed, we found that these population-level characteristics were more predictable than the gene expression of single cells in a well-controlled environment. This research was supported by the NIH Director's New Innovator Award 1DP2 OD006481-01 and Welch Foundation Grant C-1729.

  9. Cluster Analysis of Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Domany, E

    2002-01-01

    The expression levels of many thousands of genes can be measured simultaneously by DNA microarrays (chips). This novel experimental tool has revolutionized research in molecular biology and generated considerable excitement. A typical experiment uses a few tens of such chips, each dedicated to a single sample - such as tissue extracted from a particular tumor. The results of such an experiment contain several hundred thousand numbers, that come in the form of a table, of several thousand rows (one for each gene) and 50 - 100 columns (one for each sample). We developed a clustering methodology to mine such data. In this review I provide a very basic introduction to the subject, aimed at a physics audience with no prior knowledge of either gene expression or clustering methods. I explain what genes are, what is gene expression and how it is measured by DNA chips. Next I explain what is meant by "clustering" and how we analyze the massive amounts of data from such experiments, and present results obtained from a...

  10. Purification and characterization of fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Rosenthal, P; Griffin, J D;

    1983-01-01

    Fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) were purified from both fetal liver and fetal bone marrow by immune rosetting with sheep erythrocytes coated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Dual...... antigen. Furthermore, using methanol-fixed cells, it could be shown that approximately 20% contained intracytoplasmic mu chains (cyto-mu) and that approximately 15% were positive for the terminal transferase enzyme (TdT) marker. The CALLA+ fetal cells thus closely resemble the childhood acute...... lymphoblastic leukemia cell with respect to surface marker phenotype. A population of CALLA- cells devoid of mature erythroid and myeloid surface markers was found to contain higher numbers of TdT+ cells but lower numbers of cyto-mu, B1, and Ia+ cells than the CALLA+ subset. In vitro analysis of normal...

  11. Gene Expression Commons: an open platform for absolute gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Seita

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling using microarrays has been limited to comparisons of gene expression between small numbers of samples within individual experiments. However, the unknown and variable sensitivities of each probeset have rendered the absolute expression of any given gene nearly impossible to estimate. We have overcome this limitation by using a very large number (>10,000 of varied microarray data as a common reference, so that statistical attributes of each probeset, such as the dynamic range and threshold between low and high expression, can be reliably discovered through meta-analysis. This strategy is implemented in a web-based platform named "Gene Expression Commons" (https://gexc.stanford.edu/ which contains data of 39 distinct highly purified mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor/differentiated cell populations covering almost the entire hematopoietic system. Since the Gene Expression Commons is designed as an open platform, investigators can explore the expression level of any gene, search by expression patterns of interest, submit their own microarray data, and design their own working models representing biological relationship among samples.

  12. Regulation of methane genes and genome expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John N. Reeve

    2009-09-09

    At the start of this project, it was known that methanogens were Archaeabacteria (now Archaea) and were therefore predicted to have gene expression and regulatory systems different from Bacteria, but few of the molecular biology details were established. The goals were then to establish the structures and organizations of genes in methanogens, and to develop the genetic technologies needed to investigate and dissect methanogen gene expression and regulation in vivo. By cloning and sequencing, we established the gene and operon structures of all of the “methane” genes that encode the enzymes that catalyze methane biosynthesis from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This work identified unique sequences in the methane gene that we designated mcrA, that encodes the largest subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, that could be used to identify methanogen DNA and establish methanogen phylogenetic relationships. McrA sequences are now the accepted standard and used extensively as hybridization probes to identify and quantify methanogens in environmental research. With the methane genes in hand, we used northern blot and then later whole-genome microarray hybridization analyses to establish how growth phase and substrate availability regulated methane gene expression in Methanobacterium thermautotrophicus ΔH (now Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus). Isoenzymes or pairs of functionally equivalent enzymes catalyze several steps in the hydrogen-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. We established that hydrogen availability determine which of these pairs of methane genes is expressed and therefore which of the alternative enzymes is employed to catalyze methane biosynthesis under different environmental conditions. As were unable to establish a reliable genetic system for M. thermautotrophicus, we developed in vitro transcription as an alternative system to investigate methanogen gene expression and regulation. This led to the discovery that an archaeal protein

  13. Construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment against Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 antigen for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatchi, R; Charumathi, J; Ravishankaran, R; Kaliraj, P; Meenakshisundaram, S

    2016-01-01

    Global programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF) require mapping, monitoring and evaluation using filarial antigen diagnostic kits. To meet this objective, a functional single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) specific for filarial Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 (Wb-SXP-1) antigen was constructed for the diagnosis of active filarial infection, an alternative to the production of complete antibodies using hybridomas. The variable heavy chain (VH) and the variable light chain (kappa) (Vκ) genes were amplified from the mouse hybridoma cell line and were linked together with a flexible linker by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv construct (Vκ-Linker-VH) was expressed as a fusion protein with N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) without the addition of reducing agents. Immunoblotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyse the antigen binding affinity of purified ScFv. The purified ScFv was found to recognize recombinant and native Wb-SXP-1 antigen in microfilariae (Mf)-positive patient sera. The affinity of ScFv was comparable with that of the monoclonal antibody. The development of recombinant ScFv to replace monoclonal antibody for detection of filarial antigen was achieved. The recombinant ScFv was purified, on-column refolded and its detection ability validated using field samples. PMID:26693887

  14. Comparative gene expression of intestinal metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Cho, Hee-Jung; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Lee, Dong-Goo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Jin-Suk; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression profiles of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the intestine of mouse, rat and human. Total RNA was isolated from the duodenum and the mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays. Detected genes from the intestine of mouse, rat and human were ca. 60% of 22690 sequences, 40% of 8739 and 47% of 12559, respectively. Total genes of metabolizing enzymes subjected in this study were 95, 33 and 68 genes in mouse, rat and human, respectively. Of phase I enzymes, the mouse exhibited abundant gene expressions for Cyp3a25, Cyp4v3, Cyp2d26, followed by Cyp2b20, Cyp2c65 and Cyp4f14, whereas, the rat showed higher expression profiles of Cyp3a9, Cyp2b19, Cyp4f1, Cyp17a1, Cyp2d18, Cyp27a1 and Cyp4f6. However, the highly expressed P450 enzymes were CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F3, CYP2C18, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A7, CYP11B1 and CYP2B6 in the human. For phase II enzymes, glucuronosyltransferase Ugt1a6, glutathione S-transferases Gstp1, Gstm3 and Gsta2, sulfotransferase Sult1b1 and acyltransferase Dgat1 were highly expressed in the mouse. The rat revealed predominant expression of glucuronosyltransferases Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7, sulfotransferase Sult1b1, acetyltransferase Dlat and acyltransferase Dgat1. On the other hand, in human, glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, glutathione S-transferases MGST3, GSTP1, GSTA2 and GSTM4, sulfotransferases ST1A3 and SULT1A2, acetyltransferases SAT1 and CRAT, and acyltransferase AGPAT2 were dominantly detected. Therefore, current data indicated substantial interspecies differences in the pattern of intestinal gene expression both for P450 enzymes and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. This genomic database is expected to improve our understanding of interspecies variations in estimating intestinal prehepatic clearance of oral drugs. PMID:19746353

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of Fucosyltransferase 1 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Taniuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The α1,2-fucosyltransferase I (FUT1 enzyme is important for the biosynthesis of H antigens, Lewis B, and Lewis Y. In this study, we clarified the transcriptional regulation of FUT1 in the DLD-1 colon cancer cell line, which has high expression of Lewis B and Lewis Y antigens, expresses the FUT1 gene, and shows α1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT activity. 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a FUT1 transcriptional start site −10 nucleotides upstream of the site registered at NM_000148 in the DataBase of Human Transcription Start Sites (DBTSS. Using the dual luciferase assay, FUT1 gene expression was shown to be regulated at the region −91 to −81 nt to the transcriptional start site, which contains the Elk-1 binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of this region revealed the Elk-1 binding site to be essential for FUT1 transcription. Furthermore, transfection of the dominant negative Elk-1 gene, and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIp assay, supported Elk-1-dependent transcriptional regulation of FUT1 gene expression in DLD-1 cells. These results suggest that a defined region in the 5′-flanking region of FUT1 is critical for FUT1 transcription and that constitutive gene expression of FUT1 is regulated by Elk-1 in DLD-1 cells.

  16. From gene expressions to genetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2009-03-01

    A method based on the principle of entropy maximization is used to identify the gene interaction network with the highest probability of giving rise to experimentally observed transcript profiles [1]. In its simplest form, the method yields the pairwise gene interaction network, but it can also be extended to deduce higher order correlations. Analysis of microarray data from genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chemostat cultures exhibiting energy metabollic oscillations identifies a gene interaction network that reflects the intracellular communication pathways. These pathways adjust cellular metabolic activity and cell division to the limiting nutrient conditions that trigger metabolic oscillations. The success of the present approach in extracting meaningful genetic connections suggests that the maximum entropy principle is a useful concept for understanding living systems, as it is for other complex, nonequilibrium systems. The time-dependent behavior of the genetic network is found to involve only a few fundamental modes [2,3]. [4pt] REFERENCES:[0pt] [1] T. R. Lezon, J. R. Banavar, M. Cieplak, A. Maritan, and N. Fedoroff, Using the principle of entropy maximization to infer genetic interaction networks from gene expression patterns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 19033-19038 (2006) [0pt] [2] N. S. Holter, M. Mitra, A. Maritan, M. Cieplak, J. R. Banavar, and N. V. Fedoroff, Fundamental patterns underlying gene expression profiles: simplicity from complexity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8409-8414 (2000) [0pt] [3] N. S. Holter, A. Maritan, M. Cieplak, N. V. Fedoroff, and J. R. Banavar, Dynamic modeling of gene expression data, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 1693-1698 (2001)

  17. The uteroglobin promoter targets expression of the SV40 T antigen to a variety of secretory epithelial cells in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmöller, A; Halter, R; Gómez-La-Hoz, E; Gröne, H J; Suske, G; Paul, D; Beato, M

    1994-10-01

    Adenocarcinomas derived from the lining epithelia of various organs are the most common malignant tumors in human pathology and about 50% are hormone dependent. The tissue-specific and hormally regulated expression of the rabbit uteroglobin gene is secretory epithelial cells could provide a means of establishing in vivo models for a variety of human tumors originating from such tissues. We have generated trangenic mice inheriting a hybrid gene containing 4.7 kb of the rabbit uteroglobin 5'-flanking sequences fused to the SV40 T antigen encoding region. All transgenic founders examined exhibited bronchio-alveolar adenocarcinomas, probably due to expression of the transgene in Clara cells. Most founders also developed tumors of the submandibular salivary gland, and adenocarcinomas of the stomach. Adenocarcinomas and dysplasias in epithelial cells of the male and female genital tract were found in single founders. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that T antigen expression interfered with stable maintenance of the differentiated phenotype as documented by expression of the endogenous uteroglobin gene. One founder gave rise to a mouse line, UT7.1. Transgenic descendants of UT7.1 developed lung adenocarcinomas and, depending on the genetic background, exhibited tumors of the stomach, the salivary gland and the pancreas. Sporadically male descendants developed prostatic adenocarcinoma whereas females developed dysplasias and adenocarcinomas of the uterus and the oviduct. Thus, the UT7.1 mouse line could be a useful model for several epithelial neoplasias. PMID:8084586

  18. Expression and prognostic significance of cancer-testis antigens (CTA in intrahepatic cholagiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun-xiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs are suitable targets for cancer-specific immunotherapy. The aim of the study is to investigate the expression of CTAs in intrahepatic cholagiocarcinoma (IHCC and evaluate their potential therapeutic values. Methods Eighty-nine IHCC patients were retrospectively assessed for their expression of CTAs and HLA Class I by immunohistochemistry using the following antibodies: MA454 recognizing MAGE-A1, 57B recognizing multiple MAGE-A (MAGE-A3/A4, E978 recognizing NY-ESO-1, and EMR8-5 recognizing HLA class I. The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of individual CTA markers and their combination were further evaluated. Results The expression rates of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 were 29.2%, 27.0% and 22.5%, respectively. The concomitant expression of CTAs and HLA class I antigen was observed in 33.7% of the IHCC tumors. We found that positive MAGE-3/4 expression correlated with larger tumor size (≥ 5 cm, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Moreover, we identified 52 cases (58.4% of IHCC patients with at least one CTA marker expression, and this subgroup displayed a higher frequency of larger tumor size and a shorter survival than the other cases. Furthermore, expression of at least one CTA marker was also an independent prognostic factor in patients with IHCC. Conclusion Our data suggest that specific immunotherapy targeted CTAs might be a novel treatment option for IHCC patients.

  19. Surface expression of Mo3e antigen by activated human monocytes and U-937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R.F. III; Bury, M.J.; Liu, D.Y.

    1986-03-05

    The surface expression of a protease-sensitive antigen, Mo3e, by activated human monocytes and U-937 cells is a plasma membrane feature of the activated state. Mo3e, which is an 80 kD protein on Western blot analysis, may represent the surface receptor for migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as evidenced by inhibition of MIF responsiveness produced by anti-Mo3e monoclonal antibody. Mo3e is barely detectable (by surface immunofluorescence) on freshly isolated monocytes but becomes expressed in high antigen density during 18-24 hrs culture in medium containing E. coli lipopolysaccharide (> 1 ng/ml), 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (5-10 nM), or muramyl dipeptide (0.1-1 ..mu..M). In U-937 cells, Mo3e surface expression is detectable after 24 hrs exposure to PMA and other pharmacological activators of protein kinase C: 4..beta..-phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate, 4..beta..-phorbol 12, 13 didecanoate, mezerein, or Sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol. The biologically-inactivate phorbol compounds, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol 12, 13 didecanoate and 4/sub ..beta../-phorbol do not stimulate Mo3e expression. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, has a synergistic effect on Mo3e expression stimulated by PMA; conversely, calcium antagonists block PMA-induced Mo3e expression. These results suggest the involvement of protein kinase C activation and intracellular calcium mobilization in the stimulated expression of Mo3e by activated human mononuclear phagocytes.

  20. Gene Expression in the Spinal Cord in Female Lewis Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Induced with Myelin Basic Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Inglis, Hayley R.; Judith M. Greer; Pamela A. McCombe

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the best available model of multiple sclerosis, can be induced in different animal strains using immunization with central nervous system antigens. EAE is associated with inflammation and demyelination of the nervous system. Micro-array can be used to investigate gene expression and biological pathways that are altered during disease. There are few studies of the changes in gene expression in EAE, and these have mostly been done in a...

  1. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SWINE LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN-6 GENE GENERATED FROM SPLEENTISSUE OF KOREAN NATIVE PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to search genetic variants, to investigate phylogenetic relationships between pig breeds and to provide basic genetic information of Korean Native Pigs (KNP using the variations of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen-6 (SLA-6 gene. Cloning of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA-6 gene in the MHC non-classical region was performed with spleen tissues of Korean Native Pigs (KNP. Sequencing analysis identified 10 genetic variants positioned at nucleotides 108 (T>C, 251 (G>A, 324 (C>A, 460 (T>C, 556 (T>C, 559 (A>G, 598 (G>A, 665 (T>C, 920 (G>A and 1,115 (G>A. The identified sequences were submitted into GenBank with accession numbers (DQ992502-10 and DQ976363 according to the specified locations of each SNP. Clustering analysis revealed that KNP was formed to a major group, showing close genetic relationships with SLA-6*0105, SLA-6*01w01 and SLA-6*w02sa01 alleles except DQ992503. KNP showed the low nucleotide diversity with significant differences of the ratio of ti/tv (transition/transversion compared with other breeds. The identified variants of the SLA-6 gene are useful information to differentiate phylogenetic relationships between KNP and other pig breeds. The unique results of the SLA-6 SNPs of KNP will serve as reference study for further analyses of gene fixations in evolution studies."

  2. Human leukocyte antigen-G expression in differentiated human airway epithelial cells: lack of modulation by Th2-associated cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G is a nonclassical class I antigen with immunomodulatory roles including up-regulation of suppressor T regulatory lymphocytes. HLA-G was recently identified as an asthma susceptibility gene, and expression of a soluble isoform, HLA-G5, has been demonstrated in human airway epithelium. Increased presence of HLA-G5 has been demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from patients with mild asthma; this suggests a role for this isoform in modulating airway inflammation though the mechanisms by which this occurs is unclear. Airway inflammation associated with Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 is a principal feature of asthma, but whether these cytokines elicit expression of HLA-G is not known. Methods We examined gene and protein expression of both soluble (G5 and membrane-bound (G1 HLA-G isoforms in primary differentiated human airway epithelial cells collected from normal lungs and grown in air-liquid interface culture. Cells were treated with up to 10 ng/ml of either IL-4, IL-5, or IL-13, or 100 ng/ml of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10, or 10,000 U/ml of the Th1-associated cytokine interferon-beta, for 24 hr, after which RNA was isolated for evaluation by quantitative PCR and protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Results HLA-G5 but not G1 was present in dAEC as demonstrated by quantitative PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Neither G5 nor G1 expression was increased by the Th2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-5 or IL-13 over 24 hr, nor after treatment with IL-10, but was increased 4.5 ± 1.4 fold after treatment with 10,000 U/ml interferon-beta. Conclusions These data demonstrate the constitutive expression of a T lymphocyte regulatory molecule in differentiated human airway epithelial cells that is not modulated by Th2-associated cytokines.

  3. Defining the expression of marker genes in equine mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Guest

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Deborah J Guest1, Jennifer C Ousey1, Matthew RW Smith21Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU; 2Reynolds House Referrals, Greenwood Ellis and Partners, 166 High Street, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 9WS, UKAbstract: Mesenchymal stromal (MS cells have been derived from multiple sources in the horse including bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood. To date these cells have been investigated for their differentiation potential and are currently being used to treat damage to horse musculoskeletal tissues. However, no work has been done in horse MS cells to examine the expression profile of proteins and cell surface antigens that are expressed in human MS cells. The identification of such profiles in the horse will allow the comparison of putative MS cells isolated from different laboratories and different tissues. At present it is difficult to ascertain whether equivalent cells are being used in different reports. Here, we report on the expression of a range of markers used to define human MS cells. Using immunocytochemistry we show that horse MS cells homogenously express collagens, alkaline phosphatase activity, CD44, CD90 and CD29. In contrast, CD14, CD79α and the embryonic stem cell markers Oct-4, SSEA (stage specific embryonic antigen -1, -3, -4, TRA (tumor rejection antigen -1–60 and -1–81 are not expressed. The MS cells also express MHC class I antigens but do not express class II antigens, although they are inducible by treatment with interferon gamma (IFN-γ.Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, equine, gene expression

  4. Construction, expression and characterization of the engineered antibody against tumor surface antigen, p185c-erbB-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene encodes a 185kDa protein p185, which belongs to epidermal growth factorreceptor family. Amplification of this gene has been shown to correlate with poor clinical prognosis forcertain cancer patients. The monoclonal antibody A21 which directed against p185 specifically inhibitsproliferation of tumor cells overexpressing p185, hence allows it to be a candidate for targeted therapy. Inorder to overcome several drawbacks of murine MAb, we cloned its VH and VL genes and constructed thesingle-chain Fv (scFv) through a peptide linker. The recombinant scFvA21 was expressed in Escherichiacoli and purified by the affinity column. Subsequently it was characterized by ELISA, Western blot, cellimmunohistochemistry and FACS. All these assays showed the binding activity to extracellular domain(ECD) of p185. Based on those properties of scFvA21, we further constructed the scFv-Fc fusion moleculewith a homodimer form and the recombinant product was expressed in mammalian cells. In a series ofsubsequent analysis this fusion protein showed identical antigen binding site and activity with the parentantibody. These anti-p185 engineered antibodies have promised to be further modified as a tumor targetingdrugs, with a view of application in the diagnosis and treatment of human breast cancer.

  5. Outlier Analysis for Gene Expression Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Yan; Guo-Liang Chen; Yi-Fei Shen

    2004-01-01

    The rapid developments of technologies that generate arrays of gene data enable a global view of the transcription levels of hundreds of thousands of genes simultaneously. The outlier detection problem for gene data has its importance but together with the difficulty of high dimensionality. The sparsity of data in high dimensional space makes each point a relatively good outlier in the view of traditional distance-based definitions. Thus, finding outliers in high dimensional data is more complex. In this paper, sme basic outlier analysis algorithms are discussed and a new genetic algorithm is presented. This algorithm is to find best dimension projections based on a revised cell-based algorithm and to give explanations to solutions. It can solve the outlier detection problem for gene expression data and for other high dimensional data as well.

  6. Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-03-01

    Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.

  7. Screening a Novel Human Breast Cancer-Associated Antigen from a cDNA Expression Library of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhua Yang; Lin Zhang; Ruifang Niu; Defa Wang; Yurong Shi; Xiyin Wei; Yi Yang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this research was to clone and express the antigen of the previously prepared monoclonal antibody named M4G3.METHODS Western blots were used to screen a breast cancer cell line that overexpresses the M4G3-associated antigen. A λ zap cDNA expression library of breast cancer cells was constructed and screened using M4G3 as a probe to clone the antigen. The positive clones were subcloned and identified by homologous comparison using BLAST.RESULTS The λ zap cDNA expression library had 1.0x106 independent clones. Fifteen positive clones were isolated following 3 rounds of immunoscreening and identified as being from Mycoplasma pulmonis.CONCLUSION The specific antigen that matched the monoclonal M4G3 antibody is an unknown protein of M. pulmonis. This work is helpful for the further study of the association of M. pulmonis infection with breast cancer.

  8. A novel hepatitis B virus mutant with A-to-G at nt551 in the surface antigen gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Biao Chen; De-Xing Fang; Fa-Qing Li; Hui-Ying Jing; Wei-Guo Tan; Su-Qin Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutant of hepatitisB virus (HBV) is one of the important factors that result inimmune escape and cause failure of immunization. In thisstudy we reported and characterized a novel HBV mutantwith A-to-G at nt551 and intended to provide theoreticaldata for prevention of HBV infection in China.METHODS: A methodology comprising polymerase chainreaction (PCR) amplifying, M13 bacteriophage cloning andnucleotide sequencing was used to analyze the sera of thepediatric patient who was hepatitis B (HB) immune failure.Expression plasmids containing the mutant S gene and awild-type (adr) S gene were constructed respectively andthe recombinant HBsAg were expressed in COS-7 cells underthe regulation of SV40 early promoter. The recombinantproteins were investigated for their immunological reactivitywith different monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against 'a'determinant and vaccine-raised human neutralizingantibodies.RESULTS: It was found that there was a new point mutationat nt551 of the HBV (adr) genome from A to G, leading to asubstitution of methionine (Met) to valine (Val) at position133 in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg. Compared to the wild-type HBsAg, the binding activity of the muant HBsAg tomAbs (A6, A11 and S17) and to vaccine-raised human anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) decreased significantly.CONCLUSION: According to the facts that the patient hasbeen immunized with HB vaccine and that the serum is anti-HBs positive and HBsAg negative, and based on thenucleotide sequence analysis of the mutant HBV S geneand its alteration of antigenicity, the HBV is considered tobe a new vaccine-induced immune escape mutant differentfrom the known ones.

  9. Auto-transporter A protein of Neisseria meningitidis: a potent CD4+ T-cell and B-cell stimulating antigen detected by expression cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Tahar, K; Wooldridge, K G; Turner, D P; Atta, M; Todd, I; Ala'Aldeen, D A

    2000-09-01

    A meningococcal genomic expression library was screened for potent CD4+ T-cell antigens, using patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). One of the most promising positive clones was fully characterized. The recombinant meningococcal DNA contained a single, incomplete, open reading frame (ORF), which was fully reconstructed with reference to available genomic sequence data. The gene was designated autA (auto-transporter A) as its peptide sequence shares molecular characteristics of the auto-transporter family of proteins. Only a single copy of this gene was detected in the meningococcal, and none in the gonococcal, genomic sequence databases. The complete autA gene, when cloned into an expression vector, expressed a protein of approximately 68 kDa. Purified rAutA recalled strong secondary T-cell responses in PBLs of patients and some healthy donors, and induced strong primary T-cell responses in healthy donors. The human B-cell immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of AutA, purified under native conditions, was confirmed in dot immunoblot experiments. Immunoblots with rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rAutA demonstrated the conserved nature, antigenicity and cross-reactivity of AutA amongst meningococci of different serogroups and strains representing different hypervirulent lineages. AutA showed homology with another meningococcal and gonococcal ORF (designated AutB). AutB was cloned and expressed and used to raise an autB-specific antiserum. Immunoblot experiments indicated that AutB is not expressed in meningococci and does not cross-react with AutA. Thus, AutA, being a potent CD4+ T-cell and B-cell-stimulating antigen, which is highly conserved, deserves further investigation as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:10972828

  10. Development and Characterization of a Stable Vero Cell Line Constitutively Expressing Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) Hemagglutinin Protein and Its Potential Use as Antigen in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serosurveillance of PPRV▿

    OpenAIRE

    V. Balamurugan; Sen, A; Saravanan, P; Rasool, T. J.; Yadav, M. P.; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed and characterized a stable Vero cell line constitutively expressing Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) hemagglutinin (H) protein and assessed its potential use as diagnostic antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPRV H gene of the vaccine strain (Sungri-96) was amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector (pTarget), and subsequently transfected and expressed in Vero cells. A stable Vero cell line was developed after ...

  11. Screening and Primary Characterization of New Antigen Genes of Schistosoma Japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 易新元; 李先平; 曾宪芳; 章洁

    2004-01-01

    To find Schistosoma japonicum(S.j) new antigen gene thus provide more useful vaccine candidates, the cDNA library of S. j adult worm was screened with sera of rabbits immtmized with the membrane antigens of Schistosoma japonicum hepato-portal schistosomula (SjHmAg). The positive clones were amplified by PCR and sequenced, then the sequences of clones were compared with all sequences in GenBank database using Blast process. The new clones were submitted to GenBank for accession numbers. Fifteen positive clones were obtained after three rounds of i mmunoscreening. The size of S. j cDNA fragments in positive clones ranged from 0.7 kb-3.0 kb after automatically excised with the helper phage. Sequence analysis revealed that partial sequence of clone M5 had significant homology with S.j mitochondria rnRNA, the other positive clones were new S.j genes. M2 clone sequence (GenBank accession number AF502579) was 730 bp long it had a 117 bp open reading frame (ORF). The sequence of M15 (GenBank accession number AF502582) has no transmembrane region and encodes 92 amino acids, and its protein contains a ferredoxins iron-sulfur binding region signature and two VWFC signal regions. The size of M1 ,M8, M9, M12( GenBank accession numbers: AF502578, AF502580, AF500622, AF502581 ) ranges from 402 bp to 766 bp. It concluded that the sera from rabbit immunized with SjHmAg could recognize S. j specific antigens molecules, and these antigens may induce the protective immunity against S.j infection.

  12. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots. PMID:26663562

  13. Expression of ras oncogene and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen in carcinomas of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consecutive 50 cases of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix diagnosed in 1992 were subjected to immunohistochemical study for ras oncogene product (p21) and MHC class II (DR) antigen using a microprobe immunostainer. Activated ras and aberrant DR expression were noted in 26 cases (52%) and 11 cases (22%) of cervical squamous cell carcinomas, respectively, without difference among histologic types. The reaction was mainly intracytoplasmic, with granular staining pattern and diffuse distribution. No direct histologic correlation between ras and DR expression was found. Four cases with HPV 16/18 DNA in superficial koilocytotic cells, revealed by in situ hybridization, showed various expression of ras and DR, and these 3 factors histologically did not seem to be affected one another. (Author)

  14. CD80 antigen expression as a predictor of ex vivo chemosensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivekäs, Ilkka; Hulkkonen, Janne; Hurme, Mikko; Vilpo, Leena; Vilpo, Juhani

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the correlation between expression of 31 surface membrane antigens and chemosensitivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 patients with CLL. The sensitivity of CLL cells to nine drugs (2'-chlorodeoxyadenosine, cisplatin, chlorambucil, cyclosporin A, doxorubicin, fludarabine, prednisolone, verapamil and vincristine) and two types of irradiation (gamma and UV-irradiation) was determined from dose-response curves of 4-day cultures ex vivo. The results indicated that the CLL cases responding to purine analogs (2'-chlorodeoxyadenosine and fludarabine) can be identified according to CD80 expression: all resistant cases had low or negative CD80 expression. No other correlations were revealed. CD80 may be a surrogate chemosensitivity marker for purine analogs. PMID:11916516

  15. Nuclear antigen expression by ultraviolet light irradiation - a contribution to the UV-induced autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given about nuclear antigen expression due to UVB, UVA, and PUVA. UVB alters DNA resulting in strong immunogenic UVDNA and complementary antibodies. Antibodies to UVDNA cross react with double-stranded DNA. UVDNA plays a (hypothetical) role in the induction of cutaneous lesions in lupus erythematosus (LE). Investigations about SS-A/Ro expression due to UVB seem to be more important under this view. Antibodies against SS-A/Ro are related to an increased photosensitivity in LE. PUVA and UVA are able to induce antinuclear antibodies of unknown specificity. It is likely that PUVA enhances SS-A/Ro expression in vitro. The results are discussed in sense of LE photobiology and unwanted side effects of photo(chemo)therapy in psoriasis. (author)

  16. Differentially expressed genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified through serial analysis of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hustinx, Steven R; Cao, Dengfeng; Maitra, Anirban;

    2004-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel tumor markers. The publicly available online SAGE libraries of normal and neoplastic tissues (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SAGE/) have recently been expanded; in addition, a more complete annotation of the human...... genome and better biocomputational techniques have substantially improved the assignment of differentially expressed SAGE "tags" to human genes. These improvements have provided us with an opportunity to re-evaluate global gene expression in pancreatic cancer using existing SAGE libraries. SAGE libraries...... generated from six pancreatic cancers were compared to SAGE libraries generated from 11 non-neoplastic tissues. Compared to normal tissue libraries, we identified 453 SAGE tags as differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer, including 395 that mapped to known genes and 58 "uncharacterized" tags. Of the...

  17. Gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle after gene electrotransfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Jens

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer by electroporation (DNA electrotransfer to muscle results in high level long term transgenic expression, showing great promise for treatment of e.g. protein deficiency syndromes. However little is known about the effects of DNA electrotransfer on muscle fibres. We have therefore investigated transcriptional changes through gene expression profile analyses, morphological changes by histological analysis, and physiological changes by force generation measurements. DNA electrotransfer was obtained using a combination of a short high voltage pulse (HV, 1000 V/cm, 100 μs followed by a long low voltage pulse (LV, 100 V/cm, 400 ms; a pulse combination optimised for efficient and safe gene transfer. Muscles were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP and excised at 4 hours, 48 hours or 3 weeks after treatment. Results Differentially expressed genes were investigated by microarray analysis, and descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate the effects of 1 electroporation, 2 DNA injection, and 3 time after treatment. The biological significance of the results was assessed by gene annotation and supervised cluster analysis. Generally, electroporation caused down-regulation of structural proteins e.g. sarcospan and catalytic enzymes. Injection of DNA induced down-regulation of intracellular transport proteins e.g. sentrin. The effects on muscle fibres were transient as the expression profiles 3 weeks after treatment were closely related with the control muscles. Most interestingly, no changes in the expression of proteins involved in inflammatory responses or muscle regeneration was detected, indicating limited muscle damage and regeneration. Histological analysis revealed structural changes with loss of cell integrity and striation pattern in some fibres after DNA+HV+LV treatment, while HV+LV pulses alone showed preservation of cell integrity. No difference in the force generation capacity was observed in

  18. Gene expression profiling in sinonasal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébille-Rivain Véronique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are uncommon tumors which develop in the ethmoid sinus after exposure to wood dust. Although the etiology of these tumors is well defined, very little is known about their molecular basis and no diagnostic tool exists for their early detection in high-risk workers. Methods To identify genes involved in this disease, we performed gene expression profiling using cancer-dedicated microarrays, on nine matched samples of sinonasal adenocarcinomas and non-tumor sinusal tissue. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on two additional sets of tumors. Results Among the genes with significant differential expression we selected LGALS4, ACS5, CLU, SRI and CCT5 for further exploration. The overexpression of LGALS4, ACS5, SRI, CCT5 and the downregulation of CLU were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed for LGALS4 (Galectin 4, ACS5 (Acyl-CoA synthetase and CLU (Clusterin proteins: LGALS4 was highly up-regulated, particularly in the most differentiated tumors, while CLU was lost in all tumors. The expression of ACS5, was more heterogeneous and no correlation was observed with the tumor type. Conclusion Within our microarray study in sinonasal adenocarcinoma we identified two proteins, LGALS4 and CLU, that were significantly differentially expressed in tumors compared to normal tissue. A further evaluation on a new set of tissues, including precancerous stages and low grade tumors, is necessary to evaluate the possibility of using them as diagnostic markers.

  19. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone λHB''-1 from a phage λgt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone λHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone λHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the λHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone λHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens

  20. Construction and characterization of calreticulin-HBsAg fusion gene recombinant adenovirus expression vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To generate recombinant adenoviral vector con-taining calreticulin (CRT)-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fusion gene for developing a safe, effective and HBsAg-specific therapeutic vaccine.METHODS: CRT and HBsAg gene were fused using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), endonuclease diges-tion and ligation methods. The fusion gene was cloned into pENTR/D-TOPO transfer vector after the base pairs of DNA (CACC) sequence was added to the 5′ end. Adenoviral expression vector containing CRT-HBsAg fusion gen...

  1. Structure of a gene encoding a murine thymus leukemia antigen, and organization of Tla genes in the BALB/c mouse

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    We have determined the DNA sequence of a gene encoding a thymus leukemia (TL) antigen in the BALB/c mouse, and have more definitively mapped the cloned BALB/c Tla-region class I gene clusters. Analysis of the sequence shows that the Tla gene is less closely related to the H-2 genes than H-2 genes are to one another or to a Qa-2,3-region genes. The Tla gene, 17.3A, contains an apparent gene conversion. Comparison of the BALB/c Tla genes with those from C57BL shows that BALB/c has more Tla-regi...

  2. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Nicole R.; Hecht, Karen A.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas; Rorrer, Gregory L.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-01-08

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins incorporating a tetracysteine tag for site-directed labeling with biarsenical affinity probes and either EGFP or single chain antibody to test colocalization of probes with the EGFP-tagged recombinant protein or binding of biosilica-immobilized antibodies to large and small molecule antigens, respectively. Site-directed labeling with the biarsenical probes demonstrated colocalization with EGFP-encoded proteins in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting their use in studying biosilica maturation. Isolated biosilica transformed with a single chain antibody against either the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) effectively bound the respective antigens. A marked increase in fluorescence lifetime of the TNT surrogate Alexa Fluor 555-trinitrobenzene reflected the high binding specificity of the transformed isolated biosilica. These results demonstrated the potential use of biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies as binders for large and small molecule antigens in sensing and therapeutics.

  3. Design and development of therapies using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, Gianpietro; Gottschalk, Stephen; Savoldo, Barbara; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2014-01-01

    Investigators developed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for expression on T cells more than 25 years ago. When the CAR is derived from an antibody, the resultant cell should combine the desirable targeting features of an antibody (e.g. lack of requirement for major histocompatibility complex recognition, ability to recognize non-protein antigens) with the persistence, trafficking, and effector functions of a T cell. This article describes how the past two decades have seen a crescendo of research which has now begun to translate these potential benefits into effective treatments for patients with cancer. We describe the basic design of CARs, describe how antigenic targets are selected, and the initial clinical experience with CAR-T cells. Our review then describes our own and other investigators' work aimed at improving the function of CARs and reviews the clinical studies in hematological and solid malignancies that are beginning to exploit these approaches. Finally, we show the value of adding additional engineering features to CAR-T cells, irrespective of their target, to render them better suited to function in the tumor environment, and discuss how the safety of these heavily modified cells may be maintained. PMID:24329793

  4. A systematic screen for genes expressed in definitive endoderm by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Steven JM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The embryonic definitive endoderm (DE gives rise to organs of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract including the liver, pancreas and epithelia of the lung and colon. Understanding how DE progenitor cells generate these tissues is critical to understanding the cause of visceral organ disorders and cancers, and will ultimately lead to novel therapies including tissue and organ regeneration. However, investigation into the molecular mechanisms of DE differentiation has been hindered by the lack of early DE-specific markers. Results We describe the identification of novel as well as known genes that are expressed in DE using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE. We generated and analyzed three longSAGE libraries from early DE of murine embryos: early whole definitive endoderm (0–6 somite stage, foregut (8–12 somite stage, and hindgut (8–12 somite stage. A list of candidate genes enriched for expression in endoderm was compiled through comparisons within these three endoderm libraries and against 133 mouse longSAGE libraries generated by the Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression Project encompassing multiple embryonic tissues and stages. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we confirmed that 22/32 (69% genes showed previously uncharacterized expression in the DE. Importantly, two genes identified, Pyy and 5730521E12Rik, showed exclusive DE expression at early stages of endoderm patterning. Conclusion The high efficiency of this endoderm screen indicates that our approach can be successfully used to analyze and validate the vast amount of data obtained by the Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression Project. Importantly, these novel early endoderm-expressing genes will be valuable for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms that regulate endoderm development.

  5. Gene transfer and expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in variant HT-29c cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Lars Boenicke; Bradley D. Howard; Ilka Vogel; Hoiger Kalthoff

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in retrovirally transduced variant HT29 cells.METHODS: The retroviral vector prkat EGFP/neo was constructed and transfected into the 293T cell using a standard calcium phosphate precipitation method. HT-29c cells (selected from HT-29 cells) were transduced by a retroviral vector encoding the GEFP gene. The fluorescence intensity of colorectal carcinoma HT-29c cells after transduced with the EGFP bearing retrovirus was visualized using fluorescence microscope and fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Multiple biological behaviors of transduced cells such as the proliferating potential and the expression of various antigens were comparatively analyzed between untransduced and transduced cells in vitro. EGFP expression of the fresh tumor tissue was assessed in vivo.RESULTS: After transduced, HT-29c cells displayed a stable and long-term EGFP expression under the nonselective conditionsin vitro. After cells were successively cultured to passage 50 in vitro, EGFP expression was still at a high level. Their biological behaviors, such as expression of tumor antigens, proliferation rate and aggregation capability were not different compared to untransduced parental cells in vitro. In subcutaneous tumors, EGFP was stable and highly expressed.CONCLUSION: An EGFP expressing retroviral vector was used to transduce HT-29c cells. The transduced cells show a stable and long-term EGFP expression in vitro and in vivo.These cells with EGFP are a valuable tool forin vivo research of tumor metastatic spread.

  6. Tumorigenic activity of Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Spurgeon, Megan E.; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lambert, Paul F.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contain wild type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogeni...

  7. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant Boophilus microplus Bm86 antigen expressed by transformed Pichia pastoris cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, R; Cremata, J; Rodríguez, M; Besada, V; Falcón, V; de la Fuente, J

    1996-02-01

    In the present paper we report the biochemical characteristics of the recombinant tick (Boophilus microplus) gut antigen Bm86 that previously has been cloned, expressed and recovered at high levels in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The results demonstrate that rBm86 had a modification at position 92 (Thr replaced by Ile) and aggregated, forming particles ranging between 17 and 40 nm. The rBm86 was N-glycosylated, having at least two non-glycosylated sequons (Asn-329 and Asn-363) and a ratio of only 0.4/65 (free Cys/total Cys)/mol of protein. PMID:8867893

  8. Cloning and expression of a deoxyribonucleic acid fragment that encodes for the adhesive antigen K99.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Embden, J D; de Graaf, F K; Schouls, L M; Teppema, J S

    1980-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments of the naturally occurring conjugative K99 plasmid were cloned into vectors pBR322 and pBR325. The smallest deoxyribonucleic acid segment obtained that still expressed K99 was 4.5 megadaltons in size. With regard to the serological, adhesive, and morphological properties, no differences in the nature of the K99 antigen was observed between Escherichia coli strains carrying recombinant plasmids and those carrying pRI9901. Furthermore, the regulation of K99 expre...

  9. Construction of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) Expressing Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The T lymphocyte response has been shown to be the determinant in the clearance of many viral infections.Hence, therapeutic vaccine candidates against HBV are designed to enhance this response of the immune system.Vaccinia virus vector-based vaccines have been proposed as excellent candidates to elicit long-term and strong T lymphocyte mediated immune responses. In this study, the recombinant MVA expressing HBV surface antigen has been constructed, which can elicit a potent T cell mediated response. The ELISA results for the surface protein in the medium of the recombinant MVA, strongly indicate that the recombinant virus has been successfully obtained.

  10. Expression of myeloid differentiation antigens on normal and malignant myeloid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, J D; Ritz, J; Nadler, L M; Schlossman, S F

    1981-01-01

    A series of monoclonal antibodies have been characterized that define four surface antigens (MY3, MY4, MY7, and MY8) of human myeloid cells. They were derived from a fusion of the NS-1 plasmacytoma cell line with splenocytes from a mouse immunized with human acute myelomonocytic leukemia cells. MY3 and MY4 are expressed by normal monocytes and by greater than 90% of patients with acute monocytic leukemia or acute myelomonocytic leukemia, but are detected much less often on other types of myel...

  11. Cloning, expression and antigenicity of the L. donovani reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Kemp, K; Theander, T G;

    2001-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania undergoes a morphological and biochemical transformation from the promastigote to the amastigote form during its life cycle, which is reflected in the expression of stage-specific proteins. One of these proteins shows homology to a superfamily of reductase proteins......, or not at all. The results indicate the presence of cross-reacting CD45R0 memory T-cells in individuals not exposed to Leishmania. Several previous studies have shown that T-cells from nonexposed individuals often respond to crude Leishmania antigen preparations. The present study suggests that this reactivity...

  12. Identification of a Coccidioides immitis antigen 2 domain that expresses B-cell-reactive epitopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Y; Tryon, V; Magee, D M; Cox, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Antigen 2 (Ag2), a major immunoreactive component of Coccidioides immitis mycelium- and spherule-phase cell walls, was recently cloned in our laboratory and was shown to elicit T-cell responses in Coccidioides-immune mice. In this investigation, we evaluated recombinant Ag2 (rAg2) and PCR-generated Ag2 truncations for expression of B-cell-reactive epitopes in enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays with sera from patients with active coccidioidomycosis, a hyperimmune goat anti-Ag2 s...

  13. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus surface antigen expression by small hairpin RNA in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Gang Yang; Zhi Chen; Qin Ni; Ning Xu; Jun-Bin Shao; Hang-Ping Yao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-hepatitis B virus effect of RNA interference (RNAi) using small hairpin RNA (shRNA)expression vector.METHODS: Hepatitis B virus surface antigen green fluorescent protein (HBs-GFP) fusion vector and shRNA expression vectors were constructed and cotransfected transiently into HepG2 cells. mRNAs extracted from HepG2 cells were detected by real-time PCR. Fluorescence of HBs-GFP protein was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The effective shRNA expression vector was transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells. HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2.2.15 cells were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) method.RESULTS: FACS revealed that shRNA targeting at HBsAg reduced the GFP signal by 56% compared to the control.Real-time PCR showed that HBs-GFP mRNA extracted from HepG2 cells cotransfected with pAVU6+27 and HBs-GFP expression plasmids decreased by 90% compared to the empty vector control. The expressions of HBsAg and HBeAg were also inhibited by 43% and 64%, respectively.CONCLUSION: RNAi using shRNA expression vector can inhibit the expression of HBsAg, providing a fresh approach to screening the efficient small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).

  14. FARO server: Meta-analysis of gene expression by matching gene expression signatures to a compendium of public gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manijak, Mieszko P.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially...... circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. FINDINGS: To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700...... Arabidopsis microarray experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/faro/....

  15. FARO server: Meta-analysis of gene expression by matching gene expression signatures to a compendium of public gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Henrik B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. Findings To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700 Arabidopsis microarray experiments. Conclusions Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/faro/.

  16. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déziel Eric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation point. This type of group behaviour is still poorly understood and its characterization provides important information on bacterial structured communities such as biofilms. Using GeneChip® Affymetrix microarrays, we obtained the transcriptomic profiles of both bacterial populations located at the tip of migrating tendrils and swarm center of swarming colonies and compared these profiles to that of a bacterial control population grown on the same media but solidified to not allow swarming motility. Results Microarray raw data were corrected for background noise with the RMA algorithm and quantile normalized. Differentially expressed genes between the three conditions were selected using a threshold of 1.5 log2-fold, which gave a total of 378 selected genes (6.3% of the predicted open reading frames of strain PA14. Major shifts in gene expression patterns are observed in each growth conditions, highlighting the presence of distinct bacterial subpopulations within a swarming colony (tendril tips vs. swarm center. Unexpectedly, microarrays expression data reveal that a minority of genes are up-regulated in tendril tip populations. Among them, we found energy metabolism, ribosomal protein and transport of small molecules related genes. On the other hand, many well-known virulence factors genes were globally repressed in tendril tip cells. Swarm center cells are distinct and appear to be under oxidative and copper stress responses. Conclusions Results reported in this study show that, as opposed to

  17. An Egr-1-specific DNAzyme regulates Egr-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JUNBIAO; GUO, CHANGLEI; WANG, RAN; HUANG, LULI; LIANG, WANQIAN; LIU, RUNNAN; SUN, BING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to transfect rat aortic smooth muscle cells with an early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1)-specific DNAzyme (ED5), to observe its effect on Egr-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and to elucidate the mechanism of ED5-mediated inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. VSMCs in primary culture obtained by tissue block adhesion were identified by morphological observation and α smooth muscle actin (α-SM-actin) immunocytochemistry. The cells were then transfected with ED5 or scrambled ED5 (ED5SCR). The three groups of cells used in the present study were the control group, ED5 group and ED5SCR group. The expression levels of Egr-1 and PCNA protein were detected following transfection by analyzing and calculating the integral optical density value in each group. Primary culture of VSMCs and transfection of ED5 and ED5SCR were successfully accomplished. Following stimulation with 10% fetal calf serum, the Egr-1 protein was expressed most strongly at 1 h and demonstrated a declining trend over time; the expression of PCNA protein began at 4 h, peaked at 24 h and then demonstrated a slightly declining trend over time. Compared with the control group and the ED5SCR group, ED5 inhibited the expression of Egr-1 and PCNA (P<0.05). ED5 was able to inhibit the expression of Egr-1 and PCNA proteins in VSMCs to a certain extent and VSMC proliferation in vitro. DNAzyme gene therapy may be useful as a new method for treating vascular proliferative diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. PMID:23737882

  18. Construction of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium Strain expressing Helicobacter pylori conservative region of adhesin antigen and its immunogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bai; Ya-Li Zhang; Ji-De Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a non-resistant and attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) strain which expresses conservative region of adhesion AB of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and evaluate its immunogenicity.METHODS: The AB gene amplified by PCR was inserted into the expression vector pYA248 containing asd gene and through two transformations introduced into the delta Cya, delta Crp, delta Asd attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain, constructing balanced lethal attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strains X4072 (pYA248-AB). Bridged ELISA method was used to measure the expression of AB antigen in sonic ate and culture supernatant. According to the method described by Meacock, stability of the recombinant was evaluated. Semi-lethal capacity test was used to evaluate the safety of recombinant. The immunogenicity of recombinant was evaluated with animal experiments.RESULTS: The attenuated S. typhimurium X4072 (pYA248-AB) which expresses AB was successfully constructed.Furthermore, bridged ELISA assay showed that the content of AB in recombinant X4072 (pYA248- AB) culture supematant was higher than that was in thallus lyric liquor. And after recombinant X4072 (pYA248- AB) was cultured for 100generations without selection pressure, the entire recombinant bacteria selected randomly could grow, and the AB antigen was defected positive by ELISA. The growth curve of the recombinant bacteria showed that the growth states of X4072 (pYA248) and X4072 (pYA248-AB) were basically consistent. The survival rate of C57BL/6 was still 100%, at 30 d after mice taking X4072 (pYA248-AB) 1.0×1010 cfu orally. Oral immunization of mice with X4072 (pYA248-AB)induced a specific immune response.CONCLUSION: In vitro recombinant plasmid appears to be stable and experiments on animals showed that the recombinant strains were safe and immunogenic in vitro,which providing a new live oral vaccine candidate for protection and care of H pylori infection.

  19. Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Darren CJ; Sweetman, Crystal; Ford, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related bi...

  20. Microglial MHC antigen expression after ischemic and kainic acid lesions of the adult rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, B.R.; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Diemer, Nils Henrik;

    1993-01-01

    Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology......Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology...

  1. OryzaExpress: An Integrated Database of Gene Expression Networks and Omics Annotations in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Kazuki; Hongo, Kohei; Suwabe, Keita; Shimizu, Akifumi; Nagayama, Taishi; Abe, Reina; Kikuchi, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Naoki; Fujii, Takaaki; Yokoyama, Koji; Tsuchida, Hiroko; Sano, Kazumi; Mochizuki, Takako; Oki, Nobuhiko; Horiuchi, Youko

    2010-01-01

    Similarity of gene expression profiles provides important clues for understanding the biological functions of genes, biological processes and metabolic pathways related to genes. A gene expression network (GEN) is an ideal choice to grasp such expression profile similarities among genes simultaneously. For GEN construction, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) has been widely used as an index to evaluate the similarities of expression profiles for gene pairs. However, calculation of PCCs...

  2. Identifying Driver Genes in Cancer by Triangulating Gene Expression, Gene Location, and Survival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouam, Sigrid; Miller, Lance D; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Driver genes are directly responsible for oncogenesis and identifying them is essential in order to fully understand the mechanisms of cancer. However, it is difficult to delineate them from the larger pool of genes that are deregulated in cancer (ie, passenger genes). In order to address this problem, we developed an approach called TRIAngulating Gene Expression (TRIAGE through clinico-genomic intersects). Here, we present a refinement of this approach incorporating a new scoring methodology to identify putative driver genes that are deregulated in cancer. TRIAGE triangulates – or integrates – three levels of information: gene expression, gene location, and patient survival. First, TRIAGE identifies regions of deregulated expression (ie, expression footprints) by deriving a newly established measure called the Local Singular Value Decomposition (LSVD) score for each locus. Driver genes are then distinguished from passenger genes using dual survival analyses. Incorporating measurements of gene expression and weighting them according to the LSVD weight of each tumor, these analyses are performed using the genes located in significant expression footprints. Here, we first use simulated data to characterize the newly established LSVD score. We then present the results of our application of this refined version of TRIAGE to gene expression data from five cancer types. This refined version of TRIAGE not only allowed us to identify known prominent driver genes, such as MMP1, IL8, and COL1A2, but it also led us to identify several novel ones. These results illustrate that TRIAGE complements existing tools, allows for the identification of genes that drive cancer and could perhaps elucidate potential future targets of novel anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25949096

  3. DNA supercoiling and bacterial gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Charles J

    2006-01-01

    DNA in bacterial cells is maintained in a negatively supercoiled state. This contributes to the organization of the bacterial nucleoid and also influences the global gene expression pattern in the cell through modulatory effects on transcription. Supercoiling arises as a result of changes to the linking number of the relaxed double-stranded DNA molecule and is set and reset by the action of DNA topoisomerases. This process is subject to a multitude of influences that are usually summarized as environmental stress. Responsiveness of linking number change to stress offers the promise of a mechanism for the wholesale adjustment of the transcription programme of the cell as the bacterium experiences different environments. Recent data from DNA microarray experiments support this proposition. The emerging picture is one of DNA supercoiling acting at or near the apex of a regulatory hierarchy where it collaborates with nucleoid-associated proteins and transcription factors to determine the gene expression profile of the cell. PMID:17338437

  4. Insights into SAGA function during gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Histone modifications are a crucial source of epigenetic control. SAGA (Spt–Ada–Gcn5 acetyltransferase) is a chromatin-modifying complex that contains two distinct enzymatic activities, Gcn5 and Ubp8, through which it acetylates and deubiquitinates histone residues, respectively, thereby enforcing a pattern of modifications that is decisive in regulating gene expression. Here, I discuss the latest contributions to understanding the roles of the SAGA complex, highlighting the characterization of the SAGA-deubiquitination module, and emphasizing the functions newly ascribed to SAGA during transcription elongation and messenger-RNA export. These findings suggest that a crosstalk exists between chromatin remodelling, transcription and messenger-RNA export, which could constitute a checkpoint for accurate gene expression. I focus particularly on the new components of human SAGA, which was recently discovered and confirms the conservation of the SAGA complex throughout evolution. PMID:19609321

  5. Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieber-Emmons Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of breast cancer patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS continues to grow. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that DCIS can progress to invasive disease. Carbohydrate-mediated cell-cell adhesion and tumor-stroma interaction play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor aggressive behavior. Breast carcinogenesis may reflect quantitative as well as qualitative changes in oligosaccharide expression, which may provide a useful tool for early detection of breast cancer. Because tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA are implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression of selected TACA by lectin histochemistry on DCIS specimens from the archival breast cancer tissue array bank of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Methods For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA. We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002 and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004. Conclusion The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk.

  6. Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of breast cancer patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) continues to grow. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that DCIS can progress to invasive disease. Carbohydrate-mediated cell-cell adhesion and tumor-stroma interaction play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor aggressive behavior. Breast carcinogenesis may reflect quantitative as well as qualitative changes in oligosaccharide expression, which may provide a useful tool for early detection of breast cancer. Because tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression of selected TACA by lectin histochemistry on DCIS specimens from the archival breast cancer tissue array bank of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I) and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA). We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors. We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002) and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004). The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk

  7. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells with Greater Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) Expression Exhibit Higher Levels of Metalloproteinase Activity and Are More Aggressive In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chiao Hsu; Kurt Mildenstein; Kordell Hunter; Olena Tkachenko; Mullen, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) is a gene that is expressed in activated lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and stem cells of a variety of tissues in mice. Despite decades of study its functions remain poorly defined. These studies explored the impact of expression of this stem cell associated gene in acute lymphoid leukemia. Higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 expression led to more aggressive leukemia growth in vivo and earlier death of hosts. Leukemias expressing higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 ex...

  8. Use of human antigen presenting cell gene array profiling to examine the effect of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax on primary human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaya; Kampani, Karan; Datta, Suman; Wigdahl, Brian; Flaig, Katherine E; Jain, Pooja

    2006-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia and a progressive demyelinating disorder termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). One of the most striking features of the immune response in HAM/TSP centers on the expansion of HTLV-1-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) compartment in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid. More than 90% of the HTLV-1-specific CTLs are directed against the viral Tax (11-19) peptide implying that Tax is available for immune recognition by antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). DCs obtained from HAM/TSP patients have been shown to be infected with HTLV-1 and exhibit rapid maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that presentation of Tax peptides by activated DCs to naIve CD8(+) T cells may play an important role in the induction of a Tax-specific CTL response and neurologic dysfunction. In this study, a pathway-specific antigen presenting cell gene array was used to study transcriptional changes induced by exposure of monocyte-derived DCs to extracellular HTLV-1 Tax protein. Approximately 100 genes were differentially expressed including genes encoding toll-like receptors, cell surface receptors, proteins involved in antigen uptake and presentation and adhesion molecules. The differential regulation of chemokines and cytokines characteristic of functional DC activation was also observed by the gene array analyses. Furthermore, the expression pattern of signal transduction genes was also significantly altered. These results have suggested that Tax-mediated DC gene regulation might play a critical role in cellular activation and the mechanisms resulting in HTLV-1-induced disease. PMID:16595374

  9. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Gomez; Esther Ramirez, M.; Mercedes Calixto-Galvez; Olivia Medel; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or dru...

  10. Plant Male Sterility Induced by Anti-Gene CYP86MFin Brassica oleracea var. Italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An anti-gene CYP86MF was introduced into hypocotyls of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica Plenck) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the transgenic plants were obtained by kanamycin selection. The results of PCR, Southern blot and Northern blot indicated that the anti-CYP86MF has been integrated into chromosome of the transgenic plant.And also, plants with hypogenetic stamina or ungerminated pollen were observed. The transgenic male sterility plant could fructify via artificial pollination with normal pollen. Thus it was proved that the pistil of male sterility plant was normally developed, and the sterility originated from anti-CYP86MF.

  11. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination. PMID:21775062

  12. Expression of androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen in male breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The androgen-regulated proteins prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) are present in high concentrations in normal prostate and prostatic cancer and are considered to be tissue-specific to prostate. These markers are commonly used to diagnose metastatic prostate carcinoma at various sites including the male breast. However, expression of these two proteins in tumors arising in tissues regulated by androgens such as male breast carcinoma has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study we analyzed the expression of PSA, PSAP and androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry in 26 cases of male breast carcinomas and correlated these with the expression of other prognostic markers. AR, PSA and PSAP expression was observed in 81%, 23% and 0% of carcinomas, respectively. Combined expression of AR and PSA was observed in only four tumors. Although the biological significance of PSA expression in male breast carcinomas is not clear, caution should be exercised when it is used as a diagnostic marker of metastatic prostate carcinoma

  13. Opisthorchis viverrini-antigen induces expression of MARCKS during inflammation-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techasen, Anchalee; Loilome, Watcharin; Namwat, Nisana; Duenngai, Kunyarat; Cha'on, Ubon; Thanan, Raynoo; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Miwa, Masanao; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2012-03-01

    Myristoylated alanine rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) has been implicated in PKC-mediated membrane-cytoskeleton alterations that underlie lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage responses. MARCKS is postulated to be involved in inflammation-associated CCA based on its overexpression in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were to investigate localization patterns of MARCKS in hamster and human tissue during cholangiocarcinogenesis and to examine the involvement of MARCKS in inflammation. MARCKS protein expression was found prominently in inflammatory cells of Opisthorchis viverrini-treated as well as O. viverrini plus N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-treated hamsters from week 2 to week 3 of treatment. The positive signal decreased during week 4 to week 12, then increased again at week 26 when CCA developed. At the last time point the expression of MARCKS was observed in both cancer and inflammatory cells. MARCKS protein expression was also found in inflammatory cells, including macrophages in human CCA tissues. O. viverrini excretory/secretory products or worm antigen induced MARCKS mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human U937 macrophage cell line. The relative mRNA expression of MARCKS in white blood cells of O. viverrini-infected patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P = 0.02). Thus, MARCKS is significantly expressed in macrophages and plays a role in inflammation-related CCA induced by O. viverrini. PMID:21763456

  14. Analysis of gene expression in rabbit muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the demand for high quality food. Meat and meat products may be considered as irreplaceable in human nutrition. Breeding livestock to higher content of lean meat and the use of modern hybrids entails problems with the quality of meat. Analysing of livestock genomes could get us a great deal of important information, which may significantly affect the improvement process. Domestic animals are invaluable resources for study of the molecular architecture of complex traits. Although the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for economically important traits in domestic animals has achieved remarkable results in recent decades, not all of the genetic variation in the complex traits has been captured because of the low density of markers used in QTL mapping studies. The genome wide association study (GWAS, which utilizes high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, provides a new way to tackle this issue. New technologies now allow producing microarrays containing thousands of hybridization probes on a single membrane or other solid support. We used microarray analysis to study gene expression in rabbit muscle during different developmental age stages. The outputs from GeneSpring GX sotware are presented in this work. After the evaluation of gene expression in rabbits, will be selected genes of interest in relation to meat quality parameters and will be further analyzed by the available methods of molecular biology and genetics.

  15. Dynamic gene expression in the human cerebral cortex distinguishes children from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Kirstin N; Weckle, Amy; Chugani, Harry T; Tarca, Adi L; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Boddy, Amy M; Abbas, Asad; Raaum, Ryan L; Grégoire, Lucie; Lipovich, Leonard; Grossman, Lawrence I; Uddin, Monica; Goodman, Morris; Wildman, Derek E

    2012-01-01

    In comparison with other primate species, humans have an extended juvenile period during which the brain is more plastic. In the current study we sought to examine gene expression in the cerebral cortex during development in the context of this adaptive plasticity. We introduce an approach designed to discriminate genes with variable as opposed to uniform patterns of gene expression and found that greater inter-individual variance is observed among children than among adults. For the 337 transcripts that show this pattern, we found a significant overrepresentation of genes annotated to the immune system process (pFDR ~/= 0). Moreover, genes known to be important in neuronal function, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are included among the genes more variably expressed in childhood. We propose that the developmental period of heightened childhood neuronal plasticity is characterized by more dynamic patterns of gene expression in the cerebral cortex compared to adulthood when the brain is less plastic. That an overabundance of these genes are annotated to the immune system suggests that the functions of these genes can be thought of not only in the context of antigen processing and presentation, but also in the context of nervous system development. PMID:22666384

  16. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  17. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Tamer Z. [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbial Molecular Biology, AGERI, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Division of Biomedical Sciences, Zewail University, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Zhang, Fengrui [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thiem, Suzanne M., E-mail: smthiem@msu.edu [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  18. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  19. The similarity of gene expression between human and mouse tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Dowell, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis of human and mouse microarray data reveals conservation of patterns of gene expression that will help to better characterize the evolution of gene expression. See research article: http://genomebiology.com/2010/11/12/R124

  20. Human GATA-3: a lineage-restricted transcription factor that regulates the expression of the T cell receptor alpha gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, I C; Vorhees, P; Marin, N; Oakley, B K; Tsai, S F; Orkin, S H; Leiden, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to its role in the recognition of foreign antigens, the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha gene serves as a model system for studies of developmentally-regulated, lineage-specific gene expression in T cells. TCR alpha gene expression is restricted to cells of the TCR alpha/beta+ lineage, and is controlled by a T cell-specific transcriptional enhancer located 4.5 kb 3' to the C alpha gene segment. The TCR alpha enhancer contains four nuclear protein binding sites called T alpha 1-T alpha ...

  1. Surface co-expression of two different PfEMP1 antigens on single Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes facilitates binding to ICAM1 and PECAM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Louise; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Bengtsson, Anja;

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens play a major role in cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE), antigenic variation, and immunity to malaria. The current consensus on control of variant surface antigen expression is that only one PfEMP1 encoded by one var...... gene is expressed per cell at a time. We measured var mRNA transcript levels by real-time Q-PCR, analysed var gene transcripts by single-cell FISH and directly compared these with PfEMP1 antigen surface expression and cytoadhesion in three different antibody-selected P. falciparum 3D7 sub-lines using......-line was found to bind both CD31/PECAM1 and CD54/ICAM1 and to adhere twice as efficiently to human endothelial cells, compared to infected cells having only one PfEMP1 variant on the surface. These new results on PfEMP1 antigen expression indicate that a re-evaluation of the molecular mechanisms involved...

  2. EXPRESSION OF P53 PROTEIN AND PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN IN HUMAN GESTATION TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄铁军; 王志忠; 方光光; 刘志恒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between p53 protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and benign or malignant gestational trophoblastic disease (MGTD). Methods: The histotomic sections of 48 patients with gestational trophoblastic disease and 24 patients of normal chorionic villi were stained using immunohistochemistry. The monoclonal antibodies were used to determine p53 protein and PCNA. Results: The frequency of p53 and PCNA positive expression were significantly different among the chorionic villi of normal pregnancy, hydratidiform mole (HM) and MGTD. But neither p53 nor PCNA has any relation with the clinical staging or metastasis of MGTD. Conclusion: Both P53 and PCNA are valuable in diagnosis of human gestational trophoblastic disease.

  3. Cyclic enterobacterial common antigen: Potential contaminant of bacterially expressed protein preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported the identification of the cyclic enterobacterial common antigen (ECACYC) polysaccharide in E. coli strains commonly used for heterologous protein expression (PJA Erbel et al., J. Bacteriol.185 (2003): 1995). Following this initial report, interactions among several NMR groups established that characteristic N-acetyl signals of ECACYC have been observed in 15N-1H HSQC spectra of samples of various bacterially-expressed proteins suggesting that this water-soluble carbohydrate is a common contaminant. We provide NMR spectroscopic tools to recognize ECACYC in protein samples, as well as several methods to remove this contaminant. Early recognition of ECA-based NMR signals will prevent time-consuming analyses of this copurifying carbohydrate

  4. IDO expressing fibroblasts promote the expansion of antigen specific regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Terry-Ann; Jalili, Reza Baradar; Farrokhi, Ali; Ghahary, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (Tregs) can be induced and expanded by dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Here we report that a possible alternative to DCs are IDO expressing dermal fibroblasts (DFs), which are easier to isolate and sustain in culture compared to DCs. When mouse splenocytes were co-cultured with IDO expressing DFs, a significant increase in frequency and the number of Tregs was found compared to those of control group (13.16%±1.8 vs. 5.53%±1.2, pa subset of Tregs which can be used to generate antigen-specific immune tolerance. PMID:23891282

  5. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Daniel K.; Rajshekhar Y Gaji; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been describe...

  6. Prostate-specific antigen and hormone receptor expression in male and female breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate carcinoma is among the most common solid tumors to secondarily involve the male breast. Prostate specific antigen (PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP are expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissue, and immunohistochemical staining for these markers is often used to confirm the prostatic origin of metastatic carcinoma. PSA expression has been reported in male and female breast carcinoma and in gynecomastia, raising concerns about the utility of PSA for differentiating prostate carcinoma metastasis to the male breast from primary breast carcinoma. This study examined the frequency of PSA, PSAP, and hormone receptor expression in male breast carcinoma (MBC, female breast carcinoma (FBC, and gynecomastia. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PSAP, AR, ER, and PR was performed on tissue microarrays representing six cases of gynecomastia, thirty MBC, and fifty-six FBC. Results PSA was positive in two of fifty-six FBC (3.7%, focally positive in one of thirty MBC (3.3%, and negative in the five examined cases of gynecomastia. PSAP expression was absent in MBC, FBC, and gynecomastia. Hormone receptor expression was similar in males and females (AR 74.1% in MBC vs. 67.9% in FBC, p = 0.62; ER 85.2% vs. 68.5%, p = 0.18; and PR 51.9% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.82. Conclusions PSA and PSAP are useful markers to distinguish primary breast carcinoma from prostate carcinoma metastatic to the male breast. Although PSA expression appeared to correlate with hormone receptor expression, the incidence of PSA expression in our population was too low to draw significant conclusions about an association between PSA expression and hormone receptor status in breast lesions.

  7. The transcriptional regulation of regucalcin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Regucalcin, which is discovered as a calcium-binding protein in 1978, has been shown to play a multifunctional role in many tissues and cell types; regucalcin has been proposed to play a pivotal role in keeping cell homeostasis and function for cell response. Regucalcin and its gene are identified in over 15 species consisting of regucalcin family. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of regucalcin from vertebrate species is highly conserved in their coding region with throughout evolution. The regucalcin gene is localized on the chromosome X in rat and human. The organization of rat regucalcin gene consists of seven exons and six introns and several consensus regulatory elements exist upstream of the 5'-flanking region. AP-1, NF1-A1, RGPR-p117, β-catenin, and other factors have been found to be a transcription factor in the enhancement of regucalcin gene promoter activity. The transcription activity of regucalcin gene is enhanced through intracellular signaling factors that are mediated through the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear protein in vitro. Regucalcin mRNA and its protein are markedly expressed in the liver and kidney cortex of rats. The expression of regucalcin mRNA in the liver and kidney cortex has been shown to stimulate by hormonal factors (including calcium, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, insulin, estrogen, and dexamethasone) in vivo. Regucalcin mRNA expression is enhanced in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy of rats in vivo. The expression of regucalcin mRNA in the liver and kidney with pathophysiological state has been shown to suppress, suggesting an involvement of regucalcin in disease. Liver regucalcin expression is down-regulated in tumor cells, suggesting a suppressive role in the development of carcinogenesis. Liver regucalcin is markedly released into the serum of rats with chemically induced liver injury in vivo. Serum regucalcin has a potential sensitivity as a specific biochemical marker of chronic

  8. TIM-4, expressed by medullary macrophages, regulates respiratory tolerance by mediating phagocytosis of antigen-specific T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Albacker, Lee A; Yu, Sanhong; Bedoret, Denis; Lee, Wan-Ling; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Monahan, Sheena; Freeman, Gordon J.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to antigen induces T cell tolerance via several overlapping mechanisms that limit the immune response. While the mechanisms involved in the development of Treg cells have received much attention, those that result in T cell deletion are largely unknown. Herein, we show that F4/80+ lymph node medullary macrophages expressing TIM-4, a phosphatidylserine receptor, remove antigen-specific T cells during respiratory tolerance, thereby reducing secondary T cell responses. Block...

  9. Gene expression regulators--MicroRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fang; YIN Q. James

    2005-01-01

    A large class of non-coding RNAs found in small molecule RNAs are closely associated with the regulation of gene expression, which are called microRNA (miRNA). MiRNAs are coded in intergenic or intronic regions and can be formed into foldback hairpin RNAs. These transcripts are cleaved by Dicer, generating mature miRNAs that can silence their target genes in different modes of action. Now, research on small molecule RNAs has gotten breakthrough advance in biology. To discover miRNA genes and their target genes has become hot topics in RNA research. This review attempts to look back the history of miRNA discovery, to introduce the methods of screening miRNAs, to localize miRNA loci in genome, to seek miRNA target genes and the biological function, and to discuss the working mechanisms of miRNAs. Finally, we will discuss the potential important roles of miRNAs in modulating the genesis, development, growth, and differentiation of organisms. Thus, it can be predicted that a complete understanding of miRNA functions will bring us some new concepts, approaches and strategies for the study of living beings.

  10. Digital gene expression analysis of the zebra finch genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Terry

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand patterns of adaptation and molecular evolution it is important to quantify both variation in gene expression and nucleotide sequence divergence. Gene expression profiling in non-model organisms has recently been facilitated by the advent of massively parallel sequencing technology. Here we investigate tissue specific gene expression patterns in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata with special emphasis on the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC. Results Almost 2 million 454-sequencing reads from cDNA of six different tissues were assembled and analysed. A total of 11,793 zebra finch transcripts were represented in this EST data, indicating a transcriptome coverage of about 65%. There was a positive correlation between the tissue specificity of gene expression and non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio of genes, suggesting that genes with a specialised function are evolving at a higher rate (or with less constraint than genes with a more general function. In line with this, there was also a negative correlation between overall expression levels and expression specificity of contigs. We found evidence for expression of 10 different genes related to the MHC. MHC genes showed relatively tissue specific expression levels and were in general primarily expressed in spleen. Several MHC genes, including MHC class I also showed expression in brain. Furthermore, for all genes with highest levels of expression in spleen there was an overrepresentation of several gene ontology terms related to immune function. Conclusions Our study highlights the usefulness of next-generation sequence data for quantifying gene expression in the genome as a whole as well as in specific candidate genes. Overall, the data show predicted patterns of gene expression profiles and molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. Expression of MHC genes in particular, corresponds well with expression

  11. Methodological Considerations For Gene Expression Profiling Of Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Atz, Mary; Walsh, David; Cartagena, Preston; Li, Jun; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Overman, Kevin; Stein, Richard; Tomita, Hiro; Potkin, Steven; Myers, Rick; Watson, Stanley J.; Jones, E G; Akil, Huda; Bunney, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of postmortem brain tissue represent important resources for understanding neuropsychiatric illnesses. The impact(s) of quality covariables on the analysis and results of gene expression studies are important questions. This paper addressed critical variables which might affect gene expression in two brain regions. Four broad groups of quality indicators in gene expression profiling studies (clinical, tissue, RNA, and microarray quality) were identified. These quality...

  12. The gene expression fingerprint of human heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Fen-Lai; Moravec, Christine S.; Li, Jianbo; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; McCarthy, Patrick M; Young, James B.; Bond, Meredith

    2002-01-01

    Multiple pathways are responsible for transducing mechanical and hormonal stimuli into changes in gene expression during heart failure. In this study our goals were (i) to develop a sound statistical method to establish a comprehensive cutoff point for identification of differentially expressed genes, (ii) to identify a gene expression fingerprint for heart failure, (iii) to attempt to distinguish different etiologies of heart failure by their gene expression fingerprint, and (iv) to identify...

  13. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M.; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P.; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of gene...

  14. Expression and significance of C-fos and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the small intestinal tissue of human fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-hong LIU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the expression rule of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA,C-fos proteins and apoptosis genes in the small intestinal tissue of human fetus.Methods At the second-to fourth-month of gestation,the expressions of cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in 16 specimens of human fetal small intestinal tissue by using the immunohistochemical methods and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL.Results At the second to fourth month of gestation,all the PCNA and C-fos proteins were positively expressed in the small intestinal tissues and cells of human fetus.With the increase in gestational period,the positive cell number and average intensity(AI of PCNA protein increased gradually(P < 0.01.The positive cell number of C-fos protein increased first,and then decreased,while the AI of C-fos protein stably increased in the small intestinal tissues and cells of human fetus(P < 0.01.At the second to fourth month of gestation,TUNEL positive cells were seen to distribute in each layer of the small intestinal tissues of human fetus.With the increase of age,all the positive cell number and AI of TUNEL positive cells showed a tendency of decrease following increase in the small intestine of human fetus(P < 0.01.Conclusions PCNA,C-fos and apoptosis gene participate in adjusting the growth and development of the cells and tissues in the small intestine of human fetus.In the third month of gestation,especially,proliferation and apoptosis are significantly increased in the small intestinal tissue of human fetus,which may be the key period of intestinal tissue development.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Nikola A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare recessive disorder that is characterized by extreme sensitivity to UV light. UV light exposure results in the formation of DNA damage such as cyclobutane dimers and (6-4 photoproducts. Nucleotide excision repair (NER orchestrates the removal of cyclobutane dimers and (6-4 photoproducts as well as some forms of bulky chemical DNA adducts. The disease XP is comprised of 7 complementation groups (XP-A to XP-G, which represent functional deficiencies in seven different genes, all of which are believed to be involved in NER. The main clinical feature of XP is various forms of skin cancers; however, neurological degeneration is present in XPA, XPB, XPD and XPG complementation groups. The relationship between NER and other types of DNA repair processes is now becoming evident but the exact relationships between the different complementation groups remains to be precisely determined. Using gene expression analysis we have identified similarities and differences after UV light exposure between the complementation groups XP-A, XP-C, XP-D, XP-E, XP-F, XP-G and an unaffected control. The results reveal that there is a graded change in gene expression patterns between the mildest, most similar to the control response (XP-E and the severest form (XP-A of the disease, with the exception of XP-D. Distinct differences between the complementation groups with neurological symptoms (XP-A, XP-D and XP-G and without (XP-C, XP-E and XP-F were also identified. Therefore, this analysis has revealed distinct gene expression profiles for the XP complementation groups and the first step towards understanding the neurological symptoms of XP.

  16. Gene Expression Versus Sequence for Predicting Function:Glia Maturation Factor Gamma Is Not A Glia Maturation Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelG.Walker

    2003-01-01

    It is standard practice,whenever a researcher finds a new gene,to search databases for genes that have a similar sequence.It is not standard practice,whenever a researcher finds a new gene,to search for genes that have similar expression(coexpression).Failure to perform co-expression searches has lead to incorrect conclusions about the likely function of new genes,and has lead to wasted laboratory attempts to confirm functions incorrectly predicted.We present here the example of Glia Maturation Factor gamma(GMF-gamma).Despite its name,it has not been shown to participate in glia maturation.It is a gene of unknown function that is similar in sequence to GMF-beta.The sequence homology and chromosomal location led to an unsuccessful searchfor GMF-gamma mutations in glioma.We examined GMF-gamma expression in 1432 human cDNA libraries.Highest expression occurs in phagocytic,antigen-presenting and other hematopoietic cells.We found GMF-gamma mRNA in almost every tissue examined,with expression in nervous tissue no higher than in any other tissue.Our evidence indicates that GMF-gamma participates in phagocytosis in antigen presenting cells.Searches for genes with similar sequences should be supplemented with searches for genes with similar expression to avoid incorrect predictions.

  17. Gene Expression Versus Sequence for Predicting Function: Glia Maturation Factor Gamma Is Not A Glia Maturation Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael G. Walker

    2003-01-01

    It is standard practice, whenever a researcher finds a new gene, to search databases for genes that have a similar sequence. It is not standard practice, whenever a researcher finds a new gene, to search for genes that have similar expression (coexpression). Failure to perform co-expression searches has lead to incorrect conclusions about the likely function of new genes, and has lead to wasted laboratory attempts to confirm functions incorrectly predicted. We present here the example of Glia Maturation Factor gamma (GMF-gamma). Despite its name, it has not been shown to participate in glia maturation. It is a gene of unknown function that is similar in sequence to GMF-beta. The sequence homology and chromosomal location led to an unsuccessful search for GMF-gamma mutations in glioma.We examined GMF-gamma expression in 1432 human cDNA libraries. Highest expression occurs in phagocytic, antigen-presenting and other hematopoietic cells.We found GMF-gamma mRNA in almost every tissue examined, with expression in nervous tissue no higher than in any other tissue. Our evidence indicates that GMF-gamma participates in phagocytosis in antigen presenting cells. Searches for genes with similar sequences should be supplemented with searches for genes with similar expression to avoid incorrect predictions.

  18. ST6GalNAc-I controls expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos, Nuno T; Bennett, Eric Paul; Gomes, Joana; Magalhaes, Ana; Gomes, Catarina; David, Leonor; Dar, Imran Parvez; Jeanneau, Marie Charlotte; DeFrees, Shawn; Krustrup, Dorrit; Vogel, Lotte; Kure, Elin H; Burchell, Joy; Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce; Clausen, Henrik; Mandel, Ulla; Reis, Celso A

    2011-01-01

    Sialyl-Tn is a simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigen aberrantly expressed in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and in the precursor lesion intestinal metaplasia. Sialyl-Tn tumour expression is an independent indicator of poor prognosis. We have previously shown in vitro that ST6GalNAc-I and ST6Gal......NAc-II sialyltransferases can synthesize sialyl-Tn. The aim of the present study was to establish whether ST6GalNAc-I is the major enzyme responsible for the expression of sialyl-Tn. We used a model of CHO-ldlD cells producing only MUC1-Tn glycoform and showed that ST6GalNAc-I is the key-enzyme leading to sialyl......-Tn biosynthesis. We developed novel monoclonal antibodies specific for ST6GalNAc-I and evaluated its expression in gastrointestinal tissues. ST6GalNAc-I was detected in normal colon mucosa co-localized with O-acetylated sialyl-Tn. Expression was largely unaltered in colorectal adenocarcinomas. In contrast, we...

  19. Mtp-40 and alpha antigen gene fragment amplification for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Colombian clinical specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Rosalba; Romero Rosa Elena; Patarroyo Manuel Elkin; Murillo Luis Angel

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the use of Mtp-40 and alpha antigen polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification fragments for the precise tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis was evaluated. One hundred and ninety two different samples were obtained from 113 patients with suspected TB. Mtp-40 and alpha antigen protein genes were amplified by the PCR technique and compared to both the "gold standard" (culture) test, as well as the clinical parameters (including a clinical record and X-ray film exam in 113 patients). T...

  20. Role of recombination activating genes in the generation of antigen receptor diversity and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishana, Mayilaadumveettil; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2012-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is the process by which antibody and T-cell receptor diversity is attained. During this process, antigen receptor gene segments are cleaved and rejoined by non-homologous DNA end joining for the generation of combinatorial diversity. The major players of the initial process of cleavage are the proteins known as RAG1 (recombination activating gene 1) and RAG2. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of RAGs as a sequence-specific nuclease and its pathological role as a structure-specific nuclease. The first part of the review discusses the basic mechanism of V(D)J recombination, and the last part focuses on how the RAG complex functions as a sequence-specific and structure-specific nuclease. It also deals with the off-target cleavage of RAGs and its implications in genomic instability. PMID:23039142

  1. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Enterobacter cloacae G3421.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Filatov, Andrei V; Wang, Min; Shashkov, Alexander S; Wang, Lei; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-06-01

    The O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Enterobacter cloacae G3421 and studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. In addition, partial solvolysis with anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid was applied, which cleaved selectively the α-l-rhamnopyranosidic linkages. The following structure of the branched hexasaccharide repeating unit was established. The O-polysaccharide studied shares the β-l-Rhap-(1→4)-α-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap trisaccharide fragment with the O-polysaccharide of Shigella boydii type 18. The O-antigen gene cluster of E. cloacae G3421 was sequenced. Functions of genes in the cluster, including those for glycosyltransferases, were tentatively assigned by a comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure. PMID:27131290

  2. Studying the Complex Expression Dependences between Sets of Coexpressed Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Huerta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisms simplify the orchestration of gene expression by coregulating genes whose products function together in the cell. The use of clustering methods to obtain sets of coexpressed genes from expression arrays is very common; nevertheless there are no appropriate tools to study the expression networks among these sets of coexpressed genes. The aim of the developed tools is to allow studying the complex expression dependences that exist between sets of coexpressed genes. For this purpose, we start detecting the nonlinear expression relationships between pairs of genes, plus the coexpressed genes. Next, we form networks among sets of coexpressed genes that maintain nonlinear expression dependences between all of them. The expression relationship between the sets of coexpressed genes is defined by the expression relationship between the skeletons of these sets, where this skeleton represents the coexpressed genes with a well-defined nonlinear expression relationship with the skeleton of the other sets. As a result, we can study the nonlinear expression relationships between a target gene and other sets of coexpressed genes, or start the study from the skeleton of the sets, to study the complex relationships of activation and deactivation between the sets of coexpressed genes that carry out the different cellular processes present in the expression experiments.

  3. Regulated expression of an introduced MHC H-2K bm1 gene in murine embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rosenthal; S. Wright; H. Cedar; R.A. Flavell (Richard); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe transplantation antigens H-2K, H-2D and H-2L are developmentally regulated, highly polymorphic cell surface proteins encoded by the major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC). First detectable on the early embryo, they are subsequently expressed on most somatic cells of the adult mo

  4. Antigen-specific tolerance induced by IL-10 gene modified immature dendritic cells in experimental autoimmune myocarditis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-min; LI Yue; LIU Wei; GAO Cheng; ZHOU Bao-guo; YANG Shu-sen; WANG Zheng; ZHANG Rui-hong; GAN Run-tao; KONG Yi-hui

    2006-01-01

    Background Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) in rats is a T-cell-mediated disorder. The initiation and maintenance of autoimmune responses in EAM depend on the maturation state of dendritic cells. IL-10 is a pleiotrophic immunomodulatory cytokine that functions at different levels of the immune response, so it has emerged as a promising therapeutic factor for the treatment of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that IL-10 gene modified bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells (iDCs) ameliorate EAM and to explore the underlying mechanisms.Methods EAM was induced using the methods of cardiac myosin immunization on day 0 and day 7. Immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were generated without or with the stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the phenotype was analyzed by flow cytometry. Some of the iDCs were transfected by pcDNA3-IL-10 plasmid. 2 × 106/per rat mature DC (mDC), immature DC (iDC), pcDNA3 transfected iDC,pcDNA3-IL-10 transfected iDC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were injected intravenously for treatment 5 days after the first immunization. On day 21, HE staining was performed to detect the myocardial inflammation and T lymphocyte proliferation assay was used to determine the effects of IL-10 gene transfected iDC on autoreactive T cell proliferation. Expression of IκB, the inhibitor of NF-κB pathway, was determined by Western blot. Results BMDCs generated in a medium supplemented with granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were relatively immature, as determined by flow cytometry. However, stimulation with LPS induced these cells to become mature (m)DCs with higher levels of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-Ⅱ and costimulatory molecules. Intravenous administration of iDCs, especially pcDNA3-IL-10 transfected iDC,ameliorated the histopathological severity of the myosin induced-EAM, and the effect was lost after the DCs

  5. Genes and Proteins Differentially Expressed during In Vitro Malignant Transformation of Bovine Pancreatic Duct Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jesnowski

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic carcinoma has an extremely bad prognosis due to lack of early diagnostic markers and lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, we have established an in vitro model recapitulating the first steps in the carcinogenesis of the pancreas. SV40 large T antigen-immortalized bovine pancreatic duct cells formed intrapancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors on k-rasmut transfection after orthotopic injection in the nude mouse pancreas. Here we identified genes and proteins differentially expressed in the course of malignant transformation using reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization and 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, respectively. We identified 34 differentially expressed genes, expressed sequence tags, and 15 unique proteins. Differential expression was verified for some of the genes or proteins in samples from pancreatic carcinoma. Among these genes and proteins, the majority had already been described either to be influenced by a mutated ras or to be differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, thus proving the feasibility of our model. Other genes and proteins (e.g., BBC1, GLTSCR2, and rhoGDlα, up to now, have not been implicated in pancreatic tumor development. Thus, we were able to establish an in vitro model of pancreatic carcinogenesis, which enabled us to identify genes and proteins differentially expressed during the early steps of malignant transformation.

  6. Expression and Antigenic Characterization of the Epitope-G1 of the Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus Glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The epitope-G1 gene of Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) glycoprotein was synthesised by PCR and cloned into expression vector pPIC9K to construct recombinant plasmid pPIC9K-G1. Then the pPIC9K-G1 was linearized and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS 115. The recombinant P. pastoris strains were selected by a G418 transformation screen and confirmed by PCR. After being induced with methanol, an expressed protein with 26 kDa molecular weight was obtained, which was much bigger than the predicted size (15.54 kDa). Deglycosylation analysis indicated the recombinant G1 was glycosylated. Western blot and ELISA tests, as well as rabbit immunization and specificity experiments indicated that the target protein had both higher reaction activity and higher immunocompetence and specificity. The recombinant G1 protein could be used as a coating antigen to develop an ELISA kit for bovine ephemeral fever diagnosis.

  7. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  8. Gene Expression Profile Changes in Germinating Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Pingfang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Water absorption is a prerequisite for seed germination.During imbibition,water influx causes the resumption of many physiological and metabolic processes in growing seed.In order to obtain more complete knowledge about the mechanism of seed germination,two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was applied to investigate the protein profile changes of rice seed during the first 48 h of imbibition.Thirtynine differentially expressed proteins were identified,including 19 down-regulated and 20 up-regulated proteins.Storage proteins and some seed development- and desiccation-associated proteins were down regulated.The changed patterns of these proteins indicated extensive mobilization of seed reserves.By contrast,catabolism-associated proteins were up regulated upon imbibition.Semi-quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that most of the genes encoding the down- or upregulated proteins were also down or up regulated at mRNA level.The expression of these genes was largely consistent at mRNA and protein levels.In providing additional information concerning gene regulation in early plant life,this study will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

  9. Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbola, Abidemi A.; Cox, Gerald F.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Hafler, David A.; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Chess, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The recent descriptions of widespread random monoallelic expression (RMAE) of genes distributed throughout the autosomal genome indicate that there are more genes subject to RMAE on autosomes than the number of genes on the X chromosome where X-inactivation dictates RMAE of X-linked genes. Several of the autosomal genes that undergo RMAE have independently been implicated in human Mendelian disorders. Thus, parsing the relationship between allele-specific expression of these genes and disease...

  10. Novel redox nanomedicine improves gene expression of polyion complex vector

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuko Toh, Toru Yoshitomi, Yutaka Ikeda and Yukio Nagasaki

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy has generated worldwide attention as a new medical technology. While non-viral gene vectors are promising candidates as gene carriers, they have several issues such as toxicity and low transfection efficiency. We have hypothesized that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affects gene expression in polyplex supported gene delivery systems. The effect of ROS on the gene expression of polyplex was evaluated using a nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP) as an RO...

  11. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  12. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling

  13. Performance Analysis of Enhanced Clustering Algorithm for Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, T; Elayaraja, E

    2011-01-01

    Microarrays are made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression profiles of thousands of genes under various experimental conditions. It is used to identify the co-expressed genes in specific cells or tissues that are actively used to make proteins. This method is used to analysis the gene expression, an important task in bioinformatics research. Cluster analysis of gene expression data has proved to be a useful tool for identifying co-expressed genes, biologically relevant groupings of genes and samples. In this paper we applied K-Means with Automatic Generations of Merge Factor for ISODATA- AGMFI. Though AGMFI has been applied for clustering of Gene Expression Data, this proposed Enhanced Automatic Generations of Merge Factor for ISODATA- EAGMFI Algorithms overcome the drawbacks of AGMFI in terms of specifying the optimal number of clusters and initialization of good cluster centroids. Experimental results on Gene Expression Data show that the proposed EAGMFI algorithms could identify compact clus...

  14. Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin derived from the tropical plant Curcuma longa has a long history of use as a dietary agent, food preservative, and in traditional Asian medicine. It has been used for centuries to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Extensive research over several decades has attempted to identify the molecular mechanisms of curcumin action. Curcumin modulates numerous molecular targets by altering their gene expression, signaling pathways, or through direct interaction. Curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1), growth factors (e.g., VEGF, EGF, FGF), growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, HER-2, AR), enzymes (e.g., COX-2, LOX, MMP9, MAPK, mTOR, Akt), adhesion molecules (e.g., ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), apoptosis related proteins (e.g., Bcl-2, caspases, DR, Fas), and cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1). Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1, STAT) and their signaling pathways. Based on its ability to affect multiple targets, curcumin has the potential for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancers, arthritis, allergies, atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative disease, hepatic disorders, obesity, diabetes, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of modulation of gene expression by curcumin. PMID:22996381

  15. Expression of Tac antigen component of bovine interleukin-2 receptor in different leukocyte populations infected with Theileria parva or Theileria annulata

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, D A; Prospero, T D; Roditi, I J; Kelke, C; Baumann, I.; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O; Ahmed, J. S.; Baldwin, C L; Clevers, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Tac antigen component of the bovine interleukin-2 receptor was expressed as a Cro-beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used to raise antibodies in rabbits. These antibodies were used for flow cytofluorimetric analysis to investigate the expression of Tac antigen in a variety of Theileria parva-infected cell lines and also in three Theileria annulata-infected cell lines. Cells expressing Tac antigen on their surface were found in all T. parva-infected cell lines tested...

  16. Seeking gene relationships in gene expression data using support vector machine regression

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Robert; DeHoff Kevin; Amos Christopher I; Shete Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Several genetic determinants responsible for individual variation in gene expression have been located using linkage and association analyses. These analyses have revealed regulatory relationships between genes. The heritability of expression variation as a quantitative phenotype reflects its underlying genetic architecture. Using support vector machine regression (SVMR) and gene ontological information, we proposed an approach to identify gene relationships in expression data provid...

  17. An inducible transgenic mouse model for immune mediated hepatitis showing clearance of antigen expressing hepatocytes by CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cebula

    Full Text Available The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreER(T2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred K(b/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance.

  18. Analysis of antigen-specific, Ig-restricted cell-free material made by I-J+ Ly-1 cells (Ly-1 TsiF) that induces Ly-2+ cells to express suppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, K; Murphy, D; Cantor, H; Gershon, R K

    1981-11-01

    A set of T cells defined by a unique profile of cell surface alloantigens (phenotype Ly-1+2-; Qa-1+; I-J+) produces biologically active cell-free material(s) (Ly-1 TsiF) which induces another T cell set (cell surface phenotype Ly-1,2+; I-J/; Qa-1+) to participate in the suppression of primary immune responses to heterologous erythrocytes. The suppression is specific for the inducing antigen, and the Ly-1 TsiF binds antigen in a specific way. The activity of Ly-1 TsiF can be removed by anti-I-J immunosorbents and will not be expressed if the functional producer and acceptor cells do not share gene products that are encoded in or are tightly linked to the VH portion of the Ig complex. There is no requirement for the Ly-1 TsiF and its acceptor cell(s) to share major histocompatibility complex gene products. Thus, for optimal induction of antigen-specific suppression by cell-gree materials from Ly-1 T cells, three necessary conditions must be met: (a) antigen recognition by Ly-1 TsiF; (b) the expression of I-J gene products and (c) identify of VH-linked Ig locus gene products (or other products influenced by those genes) on both the inducer molecule and its acceptor cell. The role of the Ig-linked restriction is particularly intriguing, and its possible meaning is considered in detail. PMID:6173228

  19. Effect of particulation on the immunogenic and protective properties of the recombinant Bm86 antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J C; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; Soto, A; Redondo, M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-02-01

    The recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris is obtained in a highly particulated form, as a distinguish feature of this expression system. This particulated protein, the active principle of the recombinant vaccine Gavac against the cattle tick, have shown high immunogenic and protective properties, probably associated with its own characteristics. To evaluate the effects of particulation on the properties of Bm86, three groups of calves were immunized with particulated or non-particulated recombinant Bm86 and the anti-Bm86 antibody response determined. Animals were challenged with a controlled tick infestation and the protective capacities of both proteins assessed. Humoral immune response and protection in cattle vaccinated with the particulated antigen were higher. These experiments suggested that particulation of the Bm86 expressed in P. pastoris is an important feature for the protective properties of the antigen in vaccine preparations. PMID:9607058

  20. The Effects of Triptolide on HLA Antigens Expression of Corneal Epithelial Cells Induced by Interferon-γin Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhao; Yiezi Liu; Quanfu Li

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of immunosuppressants triptolide (TL) and cyclosporine A (CSA) on HLA antigens expression induced by interferon-γ(INF -γ) in vitro.Method: By using an indirect immunofluorescent method and analysing with ACAS-570, the abnormal HLA antigen expression of cultured corneal epithelial cells was induced by INF-γ. After incubation with one of the immunosuppressants (CSA, TL) for 72 hrs, the amount of HLA-A BC and HLA-DR antigens was measured.Result: There was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) between the group with CSA and the positive control group without CSA. In contrast to CSA, TL dramatically inhibited INF-γ induced expression of HLA antigens of corneal epithelial cells (P<0.001), compared with the control group without TL.Conclusion: TL had direct inhibition on the expression of HLA-ABCand HLA-DR antigens induced by INF-γin vitro, while CSA had no obvious inhibition. Eye Science 2000; 16:34 ~ 37.

  1. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  2. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2013-01-01

    The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and vaccination with MAGE-A3 in patients with MAGE-A3-positive...... NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC....

  3. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces cell-surface Ro/SSA antigen expression by human keratinocytes in vitro: a possible mechanism for the UVR induction of cutaneous lupus lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.K. (Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom))

    1992-06-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are useful markers of connective tissue disease. In this study, UVB but not UVA induced the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on keratinocyte surfaces in vitro. This expression was also found with the extractable nuclear antigens RnP and Sm, but not with single or double-stranded DNA. The expression was prevented by blocking protein synthesis, suggesting that it was an active process. The results suggest that UVB exposure may result in the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on the surfaces of basal keratinocytes in vivo. This antigen could then bind circulating antibody leading to the cutaneous lesions in neonatal and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (Author).

  4. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces cell-surface Ro/SSA antigen expression by human keratinocytes in vitro: a possible mechanism for the UVR induction of cutaneous lupus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinuclear antibodies are useful markers of connective tissue disease. In this study, UVB but not UVA induced the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on keratinocyte surfaces in vitro. This expression was also found with the extractable nuclear antigens RnP and Sm, but not with single or double-stranded DNA. The expression was prevented by blocking protein synthesis, suggesting that it was an active process. The results suggest that UVB exposure may result in the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on the surfaces of basal keratinocytes in vivo. This antigen could then bind circulating antibody leading to the cutaneous lesions in neonatal and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (Author)

  5. Gene expression profiling of cutaneous wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sequence of events leading to wound repair has been described at the cellular and, to a limited extent, at the protein level this process has yet to be fully elucidated. Genome wide transcriptional analysis tools promise to further define the global picture of this complex progression of events. Study Design This study was part of a placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial in which basal cell carcinomas were treated topically with an immunomodifier – toll-like receptor 7 agonist: imiquimod. The fourteen patients with basal cell carcinoma in the placebo arm of the trial received placebo treatment consisting solely of vehicle cream. A skin punch biopsy was obtained immediately before treatment and at the end of the placebo treatment (after 2, 4 or 8 days. 17.5K cDNA microarrays were utilized to profile the biopsy material. Results Four gene signatures whose expression changed relative to baseline (before wound induction by the pre-treatment biopsy were identified. The largest group was comprised predominantly of inflammatory genes whose expression was increased throughout the study. Two additional signatures were observed which included preferentially pro-inflammatory genes in the early post-treatment biopsies (2 days after pre-treatment biopsies and repair and angiogenesis genes in the later (4 to 8 days biopsies. The fourth and smallest set of genes was down-regulated throughout the study. Early in wound healing the expression of markers of both M1 and M2 macrophages were increased, but later M2 markers predominated. Conclusion The initial response to a cutaneous wound induces powerful transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory stimuli which may alert the host defense. Subsequently and in the absence of infection, inflammation subsides and it is replaced by angiogenesis and remodeling. Understanding this transition which may be driven by a change from a mixed macrophage population to predominately M2

  6. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with TSP labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis.

  7. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with 32P labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis

  8. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously identified the mycobacterial high G+C codon usage bias as a limiting factor in heterologous expression of MAP proteins from Lb.salivarius, and demonstrated that codon optimisation of a synthetic coding gene greatly enhances MAP protein production. Here, we effectively demonstrate ...

  9. Clustering gene expression data using graph separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Bangaly; Pinet, Nicolas; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Sigayret, Alain; Berry, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has used graphs to modelize expression data from microarray experiments, in view of partitioning the genes into clusters. In this paper, we introduce the use of a decomposition by clique separators. Our aim is to improve the classical clustering methods in two ways: first we want to allow an overlap between clusters, as this seems biologically sound, and second we want to be guided by the structure of the graph to define the number of clusters. We test this approach with a well-known yeast database (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our results are good, as the expression profiles of the clusters we find are very coherent. Moreover, we are able to organize into another graph the clusters we find, and order them in a fashion which turns out to respect the chronological order defined by the the sporulation process. PMID:18391236

  10. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  11. Mining Association Rules among Gene Functions in Clusters of Similar Gene Expression Maps

    OpenAIRE

    An, Li; Obradovic, Zoran; Smith, Desmond; Bodenreider, Olivier; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    Association rules mining methods have been recently applied to gene expression data analysis to reveal relationships between genes and different conditions and features. However, not much effort has focused on detecting the relation between gene expression maps and related gene functions. Here we describe such an approach to mine association rules among gene functions in clusters of similar gene expression maps on mouse brain. The experimental results show that the detected association rules ...

  12. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and truncated V antigens protects animals against lethal plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, B; Berlier, W; Osorio, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis.. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  13. A Recombinant Raccoon Poxvirus Vaccine Expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and Truncated V Antigens Protects Animals against Lethal Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Berlier, Willy; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas. PMID:26344891

  14. A Recombinant Raccoon Poxvirus Vaccine Expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and Truncated V Antigens Protects Animals against Lethal Plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonie E. Rocke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307—a truncated version of the V protein provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  15. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J; Gjerstorff, Morten F

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is emerging as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment, and identifying antigen targets for specific types of cancer is critical to optimizing therapeutic efficacy. Cancer/testis antigens are highly promising targets for immunotherapy due to their cancer-specific expression and...... other CT antigens, such as MAGE-A proteins. Surprisingly, we detected no ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in the 67 lung cancers (mainly non-small lung cancer) and 189 breast cancers, while MAGE-A proteins were present in 15% and 7-16% of these tumor types, respectively. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase...... and SAGE1 cancer/testis antigens are not promising targets for immunotherapy of breast and lung cancer....

  16. Effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on expression of surface antigens in endothelial cells of human umbilical veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culture of endothelial cells of human umbilical veins and avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) immunochemical technique were used in the experiment to detect the surface antigens in endothelial cells. Endothelial cells separated from five umbilical cords in original culture were divided into two groups, irradiated and non-irradiated. The cells were irradiated with 15 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at dose rates of 21.78 cGy/min. Then antigens RBC A, HLA-ABC, HLA-DR, CD4 and CD8 were assayed for both groups by the method of ABC. The results showed that the values of integrated optical density (IOD) for the surface antigens in the irradiated cells were lower than those in the non-irradiated cells with the difference in antigen expression in endothelial cells being significant (P<0.05) between the two groups

  17. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in gonad and associated storage tissue of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: seasonal immunodetection and expression in laser microdissected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alban; Jouaux, Aude; Mathieu, Michel; Sourdaine, Pascal; Lelong, Christophe; Kellner, Kristell; Heude Berthelin, Clothilde

    2010-04-01

    To understand the processes involved in tissue remodeling associated with the seasonal reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gigas, we used immunodetection and expression measurements of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The expression of the PCNA gene was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the whole gonadal area compared with laser microdissected gonad and storage tissue. Results underlined the advantage of the laser microdissection approach to detect expression, mainly for early stages of spermatogenesis. In the storage tissue, PCNA expression was reduced in the gonadal tubules, but immunolabeled hemocytes and vesicular cells were detected when the storage tissue was being restored. In the gonadal tubules, the PCNA gene was more highly expressed in males than in females. As soon as spermatogenesis was initiated, PCNA expression showed a high and constant level. In females, the expression level increased gradually until the ripe stage. The immunological approach established the involvement of peritubular cells in gonadal tubule expansion during early gametogenesis. In both sexes, gonial mitosis was immunodetected throughout the reproductive cycle. In males, the occurrence of two types of spermatogonia was ascertained by differential immunolabeling, and intragonadal somatic cell proliferation was noted. As expected, immunolabeling was never observed from stage II spermatocytes to spermatozoa. In females, positively stained cells were detected from oogonia to growing oocytes with various labeled intracellular locations. PMID:20151153

  18. Ascorbic Acid and Gene Expression: Another Example of Regulation of Gene Expression by Small Molecules?

    OpenAIRE

    Belin, Sophie; Kaya, Ferdinand; Burtey, Stéphane; Fontes, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C, AA) has long been considered a food supplement necessary for life and for preventing scurvy. However, it has been reported that other small molecules such as retinoic acid (vitamin A) and different forms of calciferol (vitamin D) are directly involved in regulating the expression of numerous genes. These molecules bind to receptors that are differentially expressed in the embryo and are therefore crucial signalling molecules in vertebrate development. The question is...

  19. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Expression and Resistance to Radiation and 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Jaberie, Hajar; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of tumor resistance is critical for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) overexpression on UV-and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced apoptosis and autophagy in colorectal cancer cells. We used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, NaB and DNA demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) to induce CEA expression in HT29/219 and SW742 colorectal cancer cell lines. MTT assay was used to measure IC50 value of the cells exposed to graded concentrations of 5- FU with either 0.1 mM NaB or 1 μM 5-AZA for 72 h . Using CHO- and SW742-CEA transfectants, we also investigated the effect of CEA expression on UV- and 5-FU-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Treatment of HT29/219 cell line with NaB and 5-AZA increased CEA expression by 29% and 31%, respectively. Compared with control cells, the IC50 value for 5-FU of NaB and 5-AZA-treated cells increased by 40% and 57%, respectively. Treatment of SW742 cells with NaB or 5-AZA increased neither CEA expression nor the IC50 value for 5-FU. In comparison to parental cells, CEA expression also significantly protected transfected cells against UV-induced apoptosis. Decreased proportions of autophagy and apoptosis were also observed in 5-FU treated SW742- and CHO-CEA transfectants. We conclude that CEA expression can effectively protect colorectal cancer cells against radiation and drug-induced apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:27478804

  20. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.