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Sample records for antigen ebag9 negatively

  1. Reevaluation of the 22-1-1 antibody and its putative antigen, EBAG9/RCAS1, as a tumor marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor-associated antigens are appreciated as diagnostic markers, but they have also prompted tremendous efforts to develop tumor-specific immunotherapy. A previously cloned tumor-associated antigen, EBAG9, was initially defined by reactivity with the monoclonal antibody 22-1-1. Functionally, the EBAG9-encoded gene-product was believed to induce apoptosis in activated immune cells. However, using a cell-biological approach we identified EBAG9 as a Golgi-resident modulator of O-linked glycan expression, the latter product was then recognized by the 22-1-1 antibody. Secondly, EBAG9 expression was found physiologically in all murine tissues examined. This raised the question if EBAG9 is tumor-specific and mediates apoptosis itself or through O-linked glycans generated, among them the cognate 22-1-1 antigen Tn. We have used immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of 22-1-1 and EBAG9 in various tissues. Correlation between expression of both antigens in cell lines was analysed by immunoblot and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was studied by using flow cytometry and Caspase-Glo™ 3/7 assay kit. Cellular distribution of EBAG9 was analysed by electron and confocal microscopy. Here, we compared expression of the 22-1-1 and EBAG9-defined antigens in normal and neoplastic tissues in situ. In contrast to 22-1-1 staining, EBAG9 is a ubiquitously expressed antigen in all normal and cancerous tissues. Functional studies on the role of 22-1-1 reactive material did not support any evidence for apoptosis induction. Employing electron and confocal microscopy, a refined subcellular localization of EBAG9 at the Golgi was obtained. We suggest that the estrogen-inducible EBAG9 gene-product and the 22-1-1 defined antigen are structurally and functionally separate antigens

  2. EBAG9 modulates host immune defense against tumor formation and metastasis by regulating cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, T; Ikeda, K.; Horie-Inoue, K.; Kondo, T; Takahashi, S.; Inoue, S.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-binding fragment-associated antigen 9 (EBAG9) is a primary estrogen-responsive gene that we previously identified in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using the CpG genomic binding-site cloning technique. The expression of EBAG9 protein is often upregulated in malignant tumors, suggesting that this protein is involved in cancer pathophysiology. In the present study, we investigated the role of EBAG9 in host defense against implanted tumors in Ebag9-knockout (Ebag9KO) mice. MB-49 mou...

  3. V-antigen homologs in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Teiji; Katoh, Hideya; Yasumoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria cause many types of infections in animals from fish and shrimps to humans. Bacteria use Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) to translocate their toxins directly into eukaryotic cells. The V-antigen is a multifunctional protein required for the TTSS in Yersinia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. V-antigen vaccines and anti-V-antigen antisera confer protection against Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections in animal models. The V-antigen forms a pentameric cap structure at the tip of the Type III secretory needle; this structure, which has evolved from the bacterial flagellar cap structure, is indispensable for toxin translocation. Various pathogenic gram-negative bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio spp., and Aeromonas spp. encode homologs of the V-antigen. Because the V-antigens of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria play a key role in toxin translocation, they are potential therapeutic targets for combatting bacterial virulence. In the USA and Europe, these vaccines and specific antibodies against V-antigens are in clinical trials investigating the treatment of Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections. Pathogenic gram-negative bacteria are of great interest because of their ability to infect fish and shrimp farms, their potential for exploitation in biological terrorism attacks, and their ability to cause opportunistic infections in humans. Thus, elucidation of the roles of the V-antigen in the TTSS and mechanisms by which these functions can be blocked is critical to facilitating the development of improved anti-V-antigen strategies. PMID:24641673

  4. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

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    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a global health problem. Current estimates are that 2 billion people have been infected worldwide, of these, 360 million suffer from chronic HBV infection resulting in over 520 000 deaths from acute hepatitis B and 470 000 from cirrhosis or liver cancer(1. The prevalence of hepatitis B carriers varies in different parts of the world, ranging from less than 1% to 15%. In the Middle East, the endemicity is intermittent, with a carrier rate of 2% to 7% (2. It is estimated that over 35% of Iranians have been exposed to the HBV and about 3% are chronic carriers, ranging from 1.7% in Fars Province to over 5% in Sistan and Balouchestan(3. To date, eight different genotypes of the HBV have been identified (A-H. The clinical spectrum of HBV infection ranges from subclinical to acute symptomatic hepatitis or, rarely, fulminant hepatitis during the acute phase and from the inactive HBV infection and chronic hepatitis of various degrees of histologic severity to cirrhosis and its complications during the chronic phase(4,5. Thirty years ago, the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB was thought to require the presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, as a reliable and sensitive marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV replication. Individuals positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg but negative for HBeAg were considered to have non replicative HBV infection, and if their liver enzymes were normal or nearly normal they were referred to as asymptomatic or healthy HBsAg or HBV carriers. On the other hand, if they displayed elevated serum aminotransferases and liver histology indicative of chronic hepatitis, they were generally thought to be suffering from other superimposed or complicating conditions such as hepatitis D virus infection, alcohol-induced, metabolic, autoimmune, druginduced, or other forms of chronic liver disease(6. In the early 1980s it became apparent that HBV could replicate in the absence of HBe

  5. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  6. O-antigen protects gram-negative bacteria from histone killing.

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    Catherine Chaput

    Full Text Available Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  7. H-Y antigen in transsexuality, and how to explain testis differentiation in H-Y antigen-negative males and ovary differentiation in H-Y antigen-positive females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, W; Pfäfflin, F; Wiedeking, C

    1980-01-01

    H-Y antigen was determined in eight transsexual patients. Two of the four male-to-female transsexual patients typed as H-Y antigen-negative, while the other two typed as expected from their phenotypic and gonadal sex, namely H-Y antigen-positive. Of the four female-to-male transsexual patients, three typed as H-Y antigen-positive and one was H-Y antigen-negative, as expected. The presence of normal testes in H-Y antigen-negative males is assumed to result from a mutation of nucleotide sequences of the H-Y structural gene for antigenic determinants. Thus, an H-Y is produced with normal receptor-binding activity which can sustain the testis determination of the bipotent gonadal anlage. In the case of H-Y antigen-positive females with normal ovaries a deletion of the autosomally located H-Y structural gene is assumed. This deletion should affect sequences for repressor-binding (as was suggested for H-Y antigen-positive XX-males) and for receptor-binding activity of the H-Y antigen molecule. The resulting H-Y antigen is unable to bind to the gonadal receptor of the bipotent gonadal anlage. Thus an ovary is determined. The relevance of H-Y antigen for the aetiology of transsexualism is discussed. PMID:7203464

  8. Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  9. Evidence that mycoplasmas, gram-negative bacteria, and certain gram-positive bacteria share a similar protein antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, T.

    1991-01-01

    It was demonstrated that mycoplasmas, gram-negative bacteria, and certain gram-positive bacteria share a similar protein antigen with a molecular weight ranging from 42,000 to 48,000. Western blotting (immunoblotting) with an antibody specific to a 43-kDa membrane protein of Mycoplasma fermentans showed the existence of this protein antigen in all Mycoplasma spp. tested (14 species), Acholeplasma laidlawii (1 strain), and gram-negative bacteria (8 species) but only in Staphylococcus aureus of...

  10. Autoantibodies to neuronal surface antigens in thyroid antibody-positive and -negative limbic encephalitis

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    Erdem Tuzun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid antibodies (Thy-Abs are frequently detected in various autoimmune disorders in coexistence with other systemic autoantibodies. In association with an encephalopathy, they are often taken as evidence of Hashimoto′s encephalitis (HE. However, the presence of Thy-Abs in a cohort of limbic encephalitis (LE patients and their association with anti-neuronal autoimmunity has not been explored. Patients and Methods : We investigated thyroid and anti-neuronal antibodies in the sera of 24 LE patients without identified tumors by cell-based assay and radioimmunoassay and evaluated their clinical features. Results : There was a female predominance in Thy-Ab-positive LE patients. Five of the eight Thy-Ab-positive patients and six of the 16 Thy-Ab-negative patients had antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR or undefined surface antigens on cultured hippocampal neurons. There were trends towards fewer VGKC antibodies (1/8 vs. 5/16, P = 0.159 and more NMDAR antibodies (2/8 vs. 1/16, P = 0.095 among the Thy-Ab-positive LE patients; antibodies to undefined surface antigens were only identified in Thy-Ab-positive patients (2/8 vs. 0/16, P = 0.018. There were no distinguishing clinical features between Thy-Ab-positive patients with and without neuronal antibodies. However, patients with anti-neuronal antibodies showed a better treatment response. Conclusion : Thy-Abs can be found in a high proportion of patients with non-paraneoplastic LE, often in association with antibodies to specific or as yet undefined neuronal surface antigens. These results suggest that acute idiopathic encephalitis patients with Thy-Abs should be closely monitored for ion-channel antibodies and it should not be assumed that they have HE.

  11. Human leucocytic antigen-DR negative acute myeloid leukemia: A diagnostic dilemma for hematopathologist

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    Ashish Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML blast variably express Human leucocytic antigen (HLA.We retrospectively analyzed immunophenotypic and clinical profile of 12 cases of HLA -DR negative AML and correlated with their morphological, cytogenetics and Molecular findings.There is a paucity of literature mentioning morphological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetics characteristics of HLA DR negative AML. Aim: This study was designed to study the morphological, flow cytometric, and cytogenetics characteristics of HLA DR negative AML/non acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia (APML cases. Materials and Methods: Seventeen such cases were diagnosed over a period of 1 year and 8 months. Peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration smears were stained by Wright giemsa and examined by three hematopathologist independently. Immunophenotyping was done using multicolour flow cytometry on BD FACS CANTO II using FACS DIVA software.Conventional Karyotyping was done using Wright giemsa staining (using IKAROS software and florescent in situ hybridization (FISH was done using dual color dual fusion probe from Vysis promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARA fusion gene probe. Molecular analysis using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was done using Thermal Cycler of Applied Biosystem and Gel-Doc by Biorad. Results : Of the 12 cases studied ten were classified as French-American-British (FAB AML-M1. Two case as FAB AML-M2. Morphologically the cells resemble abnormal promyelocytes with bilobation, convoluted and folded nucleus, inconspicuous nucleoli and open chromatin (n = 11 and with blastic morphology, open chromatin, and inconspicuous nucleoli (n = 1.Karyotyping analysis shows normal karyotype (n = 10, del 9q-(n = 1, and t (5:9 (n = 1 respectively.FISH done using dual color dual fusion probe (n = 12 do not show PML-RARA fusion signal.RT-PCR (n = 12 revealed a negative result for PML - RARA fusion transcripts. Conclusion: HLA

  12. Successful kidney transplantation from a hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donor to an antigen-negative recipient using a novel vaccination regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmukteshwar; Hsia-Lin, Andrea; Skiest, Daniel; Germain, Michael; O'Shea, Michael; Braden, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    Transplanting a kidney from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donor to an HBsAg-negative recipient who is naturally immune has been successful in countries endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, in most of these cases, the donors were deceased. We present a report of a successful HBsAg-discordant kidney transplantation in the United States; in this case, a living donor kidney was transplanted to a vaccinated recipient. The wife of a 58-year-old HBsAg-negative man volunteered to donate a kidney to her husband. She had chronic hepatitis B but undetectable HBV DNA. She tested positive for HBsAg and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, but hepatitis B e antigen was undetectable. The recipient failed to develop an antibody response to 3 doses of intramuscular recombinant HBV vaccine given in consecutive months. Immunity was induced by using biweekly intradermal vaccine. However, antibody titer tapered to vaccine resulted in a prolonged anamnestic response, allowing for successful living unrelated donor transplantation. During the 10 years since transplantation, the patient has continued to have normal liver function, with undetectable HBsAg and HBV DNA. Antibody titers to HBsAg slowly decreased to 5.8 mIU/mL during the 10 years. Transplant function has been well preserved. This approach to inducing long-term immunity for transplantation merits further study in the United States. PMID:23219109

  13. Negative Regulation of TGFβ Signaling by Stem Cell Antigen-1 Protects against Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.

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    Troy D Camarata

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury, often caused by an ischemic insult, is associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality, and increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The factors affecting the renal response to injury following ischemia and reperfusion remain to be clarified. We found that the Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1, commonly used as a stem cell marker, is heavily expressed in renal tubules of the adult mouse kidney. We evaluated its potential role in the kidney using Sca-1 knockout mice submitted to acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI, as well as cultured renal proximal tubular cells in which Sca-1 was stably silenced with shRNA. IRI induced more severe injury in Sca-1 null kidneys, as assessed by increased expression of Kim-1 and Ngal, rise in serum creatinine, abnormal pathology, and increased apoptosis of tubular epithelium, and persistent significant renal injury at day 7 post IRI, when recovery of renal function in control animals was nearly complete. Serum creatinine, Kim-1 and Ngal were slightly but significantly elevated even in uninjured Sca-1-/- kidneys. Sca-1 constitutively bound both TGFβ receptors I and II in cultured normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Its genetic loss or silencing lead to constitutive TGFβ receptor-mediated activation of canonical Smad signaling even in the absence of ligand and to KIM-1 expression in the silenced cells. These studies demonstrate that by normally repressing TGFβ-mediated canonical Smad signaling, Sca-1 plays an important in renal epithelial cell homeostasis and in recovery of renal function following ischemic acute kidney injury.

  14. Structure of a TCR with High Affinity for Self-antigen Reveals Basis for Escape from Negative Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Yin; Y Li; M Kerzic; R Martin; R Mariuzza

    2011-12-31

    The failure to eliminate self-reactive T cells during negative selection is a prerequisite for autoimmunity. To escape deletion, autoreactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) may form unstable complexes with self-peptide-MHC by adopting suboptimal binding topologies compared with anti-microbial TCRs. Alternatively, escape can occur by weak binding between self-peptides and MHC. We determined the structure of a human autoimmune TCR (MS2-3C8) bound to a self-peptide from myelin basic protein (MBP) and the multiple sclerosis-associated MHC molecule HLA-DR4. MBP is loosely accommodated in the HLA-DR4-binding groove, accounting for its low affinity. Conversely, MS2-3C8 binds MBP-DR4 as tightly as the most avid anti-microbial TCRs. MS2-3C8 engages self-antigen via a docking mode that resembles the optimal topology of anti-foreign TCRs, but is distinct from that of other autoreactive TCRs. Combined with a unique CDR3 conformation, this docking mode compensates for the weak binding of MBP to HLA-DR4 by maximizing interactions between MS2-3C8 and MBP. Thus, the MS2-3C8-MBP-DR4 complex reveals the basis for an alternative strategy whereby autoreactive T cells escape negative selection, yet retain the ability to initiate autoimmunity.

  15. Capsular Polysaccharide and O-Specific Antigen Divergently Modulate Pulmonary Neutrophil Influx in an Escherichia coli Model of Gram-Negative Pneumonitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Thomas A.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Priore, Roger L.; Carlino, Ulrike B.; Helinski, Jadwiga D.; Knight, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    Enteric gram-negative bacilli cause a severe, often life-threatening pneumonia. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of this infection may lead to improved treatment. Nearly all of the responsible gram-negative bacilli possess capsular polysaccharides and/or an O-specific antigen as part of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We hypothesized that these surface polysaccharides may modulate the pulmonary host response. To investigate this, a rat pneumonitis model was used, and pulmonary ne...

  16. Prevalence of p24 antigen among a cohort of HIV antibody negative blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria - the question of safety of blood transfusion in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaro, Erhabor; Mohammed, Ndakotsu; Zama, Isaac; Yakubu, Abdulrahaman; Dorcas, Ikhuenbor; Festus, Aghedo; Kwaifa, Ibrahim; Sani, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Blood transfusions remain a substantial source of HIV in SSA particularly among children and pregnant women. Aims and objectives: This aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of p24 antigen among HIV antibody seronegative blood donors in Sokoto, North West Nigeria. Methods A total of 15,061 HIV antibody negative blood donors with mean age and age range (29.2 ± 8.18 and 18-50 years) were screened for p24 antigen between January 2010 to July 2013 using the Diapro Diagnostic immunoassay kit for P24 antigen (King Hawk Pharmaceuticals Beijing China). Results The overall prevalence of p24 antigen among the HIV antibody negative donors sample was 5.84%. The yearly prevalence was 9.79, 8.12, 2.7 and 2.84% respectively in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Of the total number of blood donor tested, 14,968 (99.38%) were males while 93 (0.62%) were females. The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among male blood donors 873 (5.8%) compared to females 7(0.05%), (p= 0.001). P24 positivity was significantly higher among blood group O blood donors compared to A, B and AB donors (494 (3.29%) compared to 184 (1.89%), 196 (1.30%) and 6 (0.04%)) respectively, p = 0.001). The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among Rhesus positive blood donors compared to Rhesus negative (807 (5.36%) versus 73 (0.48%), p =0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusion in Nigeria is associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. There is the urgent need to optimize the screening of blood donors in Nigeria by the inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening menu. The Nigerian government urgently need to adopt the WHO blood safety strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV through blood transfusion. PMID:25419301

  17. Lower mutation frequency of BCP/precore regions in e antigen-negative chronic HBV-infected children instead of adults patients.

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    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available To describe the Hepatitis B e antigen(HBeAg seroconversion related mutation profiles of the basal core promoter(BCP/precore regions in e antigen seroconverted child patients, a cohort of 245 child patients with CHB and a control patients group of 92 adult patients with CHB were recruited. The mutation frequencies of six nucleotides or nucleotide combinations including nucleotide (nt1896, nt1762/1764, nt1752, nt1846, nt1899 and nt1753 showed significant differences between HBeAg positive and HBeAg-negative child patients groups. The frequencies of these HBeAg seroconversion-related mutations were significantly lower in HBeAg-negative children with CHB than in HBeAg-negative adults with CHB, especially for the mutation G1896A (41.1% vs 91.7%, P<0.001, and the average number of BCP/precore region mutations in samples from HBeAg-negative child patients was also obviously lower than in HBeAg-negative adult patients(3.62±3.03 vs 4.89±2.09, P<0.001, suggesting less impact of mutations in the BCP/precore region on HBeAg seroconversion in child patients than adult patients.

  18. Prostate Cancer Detection and Dutasteride : Utility and Limitations of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Men with Previous Negative Biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Koelble, Konrad; Huland, Hartwig; Hambrock, Thomas; Barentsz, Jelle; Schroder, Fritz H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: We addressed the question whether the change of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in men who use 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) dutasteride is sensitive for the detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Objective: The case of a man using dutasteride diagnosed with Gleason 7 tr

  19. Serological diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in children with pneumonia using protein antigens: A study of cut-offs with positive and negative controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dafne Carvalho; Borges, Igor Carmo; Ivaska, Lauri; Peltola, Ville; Meinke, Andreas; Barral, Aldina; Käyhty, Helena; Ruuskanen, Olli; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria

    2016-06-01

    The etiological diagnosis of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children is difficult, and the use of indirect techniques is frequently warranted. We aimed to study the use of pneumococcal proteins for the serological diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in children with pneumonia. We analyzed paired serum samples from 13 Brazilian children with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (positive control group) and 23 Finnish children with viral pharyngitis (negative control group), all aged pharyngitis were evaluated for oropharyngeal colonization, and none of them carried S. pneumoniae. We used a multiplex bead-based assay with eight proteins: Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and 2, PcpA, PhtD, StkP and PcsB. The optimal cut-off for increase in antibody level for the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection was determined for each antigen by ROC curve analysis. The positive control group had a significantly higher rate of ≥2-fold rise in antibody levels against all pneumococcal proteins, except Ply, compared to the negative controls. The cut-off of ≥2-fold increase in antibody levels was accurate for pneumococcal infection diagnosis for all investigated antigens. However, there was a substantial increase in the accuracy of the test with a cut-off of ≥1.52-fold rise in antibody levels for PcpA. When using the investigated protein antigens for the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection, the detection of response against at least one antigen was highly sensitive (92.31%) and specific (91.30%). The use of serology with pneumococcal proteins is a promising method for the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in children with pneumonia. The use of a ≥2-fold increase cut-off is adequate for most pneumococcal proteins. PMID:26928648

  20. Negative staining and immunoelectron microscopy of adhesion-deficient mutants of Streptococcus salivarius reveal that the adhesive protein antigens are separate classes of cell surface fibril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerkamp, A H; Handley, P S; Baars, A; Slot, J W

    1986-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of the cell wall-associated protein antigens of Streptococcus salivarius HB, which are involved in specific adhesive properties of the cells, was studied. Mutants which had lost the adhesive properties and lacked the antigens at the cell surface were compared with the parent strain. Immunoelectron microscopy of cryosections of cells labeled with affinity-purified, specific antisera and colloidal gold-protein A complexes was used to locate the antigens. Antigen C (AgC), a glycoprotein involved in attachment to host surfaces, was mainly located in the fibrillar layer outside the cell wall. A smaller amount of label was also found throughout the cytoplasmic area in the form of small clusters of gold particles, which suggests a macromolecular association. Mutant HB-7, which lacks the wall-associated AgC, accumulated AgC reactivity intracellularly. Intracellular AgC was often found associated with isolated areas of increased electron density, but sometimes seemed to fill the entire interior of the cell. Antigen B (AgB), a protein responsible for interbacterial coaggregation, was also located in the fibrillar layer, although its distribution differed from that of the wall-associated AgC since AgB was found predominantly in the peripheral areas. A very small amount of label was also found in the cytoplasmic area as discrete gold particles. Mutant HB-V5, which lacks wall-associated AgB, was not labeled in the fibrillar coat, but showed the same weak intracellular label as the parent strain. Immunolabeling with serum against AgD, another wall-associated protein but of unknown function, demonstrated its presence in the fibrillar layer of strain HB. Negatively stained preparations of whole cells of wild-type S. salivarius and mutants that had lost wall-associated AgB or AgC revealed that two classes of short fibrils are carried on the cell surface at the same time. AgB and AgC are probably located on separate classes of short, protease

  1. Relationship Between Hepatic Steatosis and the Elevation of Aminotransferases in HBV-Infected Patients With HBe-Antigen Negativity and a Low Viral Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Ikeda, Naoto; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Takata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Nakano, Chikage; Nishimura, Takashi; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2016-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been suggested to be associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with HBe antigen (HBeAg)-negativity and a low HBV-DNA level. However, few studies have evaluated the association according to histological findings of the liver.Among a total of 198 HBV-infected patients who received a percutaneous liver biopsy, we studied the histological and laboratory findings of HBeAg-negative patients without receiving nucleoside/nucleotide analogues treatment (N = 70) in order to evaluate whether hepatic steatosis and its related metabolic disorders were associated with an elevation in ALT levels in HBeAg-negative patients.In HBeAg-negative patients with a high serum HBV-DNA level (≥2000 IU/mL), the level of HBV-DNA was the only significant factor related to ALT elevation. However, in HBeAg-negative patients with a low HBV-DNA level, the serum ferritin level, and histologically observed hepatic steatosis were significantly associated factors with ALT elevation. When we evaluated 2 metabolic variables (serum ferritin and fasting insulin) that are suggested to be relevant to the presence of progressive disease in Japanese patients, we found that the rate of metabolic disorders was significantly higher among patients with a high ALT level and a low HBV-DNA level than it was among those with other conditions. The triglyceride level and the frequency of moderate or severe hepatic steatosis were significantly higher in patients with a low HBV-DNA level than in those with a high HBV-DNA level.Histologically proven hepatic steatosis and its related metabolic disorders are suggested to be involved in the elevation of aminotransferases of HBeAg-negative patients, particularly those with low HBV-DNA levels. PMID:27124068

  2. PD-L1-deficient mice show that PD-L1 on T cells, antigen-presenting cells, and host tissues negatively regulates T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Latchman, Yvette E.; Liang, Spencer C.; Wu, Yin; Chernova, Tatyana; Sobel, Raymond A.; Klemm, Martina; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H.

    2004-01-01

    Both positive and negative regulatory roles have been suggested for the B7 family member PD-L1(B7-H1). PD-L1 is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), activated T cells, and a variety of tissues, but the functional significance of PD-L1 on each cell type is not yet clear. To dissect the functions of PD-L1 in vivo, we generated PD-L1-deficient (PD-L1–/–) mice. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were markedly enhanced in PD-L1–/– mice compared with wild-type mice in vitro and in vivo. PD-L1–...

  3. Human serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1/Dlk1) increase with obesity, are negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and modulate inflammation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacón, M R; Miranda, M; Jensen, C H;

    2008-01-01

    Insulin Resistance), cytokines (sIL-6), adipokines (adiponectin) and circulating soluble fractions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2). RESULTS: IN the obesity study, levels of FA1 in serum were found to increase with obesity. The S(i) index was negatively dependent on FA1......OBJECTIVE:To investigate fetal antigen 1 (FA1) protein within the context of human obesity and its relation with insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study that analyses circulating levels of FA1 in two selected human cohorts: n=127 men for the study of FA1 circulating levels in the...... context of obesity and insulin sensitivity (S(i)); and n=61 severely obese women before and after bariatric surgery. The response in vitro to FA1 protein on human cell lines of monocytes, preadipocytes and mature adipocytes was studied. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometrical parameters: body mass index, waist...

  4. Viral blips during long-term treatment with standard or double dose lamivudine in HBe antigen negative chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate safety and effect on hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression of a long-term treatment with lamivudine (LAM) at standard (100 mg/d) or double (200 mg/d) dose in chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: This was a case study with matched controls (1:3) in patients with chronic hepatitis B with anti-Hbe antibodies. RESULTS: Twelve patients received LAM 200 mg/d and 35 LAM 100 mg/d, for a median of 28 mo. A primary response (PR; I.e. Negative HBV-DNA with Amplicor assay) was achieved in 100% of LAM-200 patients and 83% of LAM-100 patients. A virological breakthrough occurred in 16.7 and 24.7%, respectively, of the PR-patients, with the appearance of typical LAM resistance mutations in all but one patient. Viremia blips (I.e. Transient HBV-DNA below 80 IU/Ml in patients who tested negative at Amplicor assay) were detected using a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and occurred in seven out of nine patients with subsequent BT and in four out of 32 patients with end-of-study response (77.7% vs 12.5%; P = 0.001) at chi-square test). At the end of the study, 51.4% of LAM-100 patients and 83.3% of LAM-200 patients had remained stably HBV-DNA negative. Double-dose LAM was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment of anti-Hbe positive chronic hepatitis B with double dose lamivudine causes a more profound and stable viral suppression as compared to conventional treatment.

  5. Incidental detection of prostate-specific antigen-negative metastatic prostate cancer initially presented with solitary pulmonary nodule on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 71-year-old male patient with solitary pulmonary nodule underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) showing slightly increased FDG uptake in this nodule. In addition, PET/CT detected hypermetabolic sclerotic bone lesions in the right second rib and 7th thoracic vertebrae, which were interpreted as possible metastases, and mildly increased FDG uptake in the prostate gland highly suspicious of malignancy. The patient's prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was within normal range (3.8 ng/dL). The histopathological examination of the lung nodule and right second rib lesion proved metastases from prostate cancer, then the prostate biopsy-confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma. The unique feature of this case is to emphasize the importance of performing PET/CT for solitary pulmonary nodule in detecting PSA-negative metastatic prostate cancer. This case indicated that it should be kept in mind that, even if the PSA is negative, a lung metastasis of prostate cancer may be an underlying cause in patients evaluated for solitary pulmonary nodule by FDG PET/CT

  6. Interferon and lamivudine combination therapy versus lamivudine monotherapy for hepatitis B e antigen-negative hepatitis B treatment:a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuShi; Yi-HuaWu; Zhe-YueShu; Wan-JunZhang; JunYang; ZhiChen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that only a minority of patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) obtain a sustained response after either interferon (IFN) or nucleos(t)ide analogue monotherapy. Therefore, combination therapy of drugs with synergistic antiviral effects was proposed to have a sustained response in these patients. We compared the effect and safety of lamivudine monotherapy and its combination with IFN including conventional interferon (CON-IFN) and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for HBeAg-negative CHB patients. DATA  SOURCES: A group of three independent reviewers identified 9 eligible randomized controlled trials through electronic searches (MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library Clinical Trials Registry, and the Chinese Medical Database), manual searches, and contact with experts. Sustained virological and biochemical responses were defined as primary efficacy measures. We performed quantitative meta-analyses to assess differences between CON-IFN plus lamivudine combination and lamivudine monotherapy groups. RESULTS: No greater sustained virological and biochemical rates were found in patients receiving CON-IFN/lamivudine combination therapy [29.1% vs. 26.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.50, P=0.94, and 41.8%vs. 40.3%, OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.78-1.65, P=0.51, respectively], though a reduced YMDD mutation rate was achieved in the combination group [8.39% vs. 30.0%, OR=0.16, 95% CI 0.076-0.33, P CONCLUSIONS: Addition of CON-IFN to lamivudine did not improve treatment efficacy but suppressed YMDD mutation by lamivudine. Combination of PEG-IFN and lamivudine might increase the sustained response, and further clinical trials are needed for confirmation.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Antigens Induce Expression of the Negative Regulators SOCS1 and SHP1 in Human Dendritic Cells via Interaction with the Mannose Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsenoor J Klaver

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a common debilitating human parasitic disease in (subtropical areas, however, schistosome infections can also protect against a variety of inflammatory diseases. This has raised broad interest in the mechanisms by which Schistosoma modulate the immune system into an anti-inflammatory and regulatory state. Human dendritic cells (DCs show many phenotypic changes upon contact with Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA. We here show that oxidation of SEA glycans, but not heat-denaturation, abrogates the capacity of SEA to suppress both LPS-induced cytokine secretion and DC proliferation, indicating an important role of SEA glycans in these processes. Remarkably, interaction of SEA glycans with DCs results in a strongly increased expression of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling1 (SOCS1 and SH2-containing protein tyrosine Phosphatase-1 (SHP1, important negative regulators of TLR4 signalling. In addition, SEA induces the secretion of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, and the surface expression of the costimulatory molecules Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1 and OX40 ligand (OX40L, which are known phenotypic markers for the capacity of DCs to polarize naïve T cells into Th2/Treg cell subsets. Inhibition of mannose receptor (MR-mediated internalization of SEA into DCs by blocking with allyl α-D-mannoside or anti-MR antibodies, significantly reduced SOCS1 and SHP1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SEA glycans are essential for induction of enhanced SOCS1 and SHP1 levels in DCs via the MR. Our data provide novel mechanistic evidence for the potential of S. mansoni SEA glycans to modulate human DCs, which may contribute to the capacity of SEA to down-regulate inflammatory responses.

  8. Natural killer cells contribute to hepatic injury and help in viral persistence during progression of hepatitis B e-antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Nandi, M; Pal, S; Mukhopadhyay, D; Chakraborty, B C; Khatun, M; Bhowmick, D; Mondal, R K; Das, S; Das, K; Ghosh, R; Banerjee, S; Santra, A; Chatterjee, M; Chowdhury, A; Datta, S

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B e-antigen negative (e(-)) chronic HBV infection (CHI) encompasses a heterogeneous clinical spectrum ranging from inactive carrier (IC) state to e(-) chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. In the backdrop of dysfunctional virus-specific T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are emerging as innate effectors in CHI. We characterized CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells in clinically well-defined, treatment-naive e(-) patients in IC, e(-)CHB or decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) phase to appraise their role in disease progression. The NK cell frequencies increased progressively with disease severity (IC 8.2%, e(-)CHB 13.2% and LC 14.4%). Higher proportion of NK cells from LC/e(-)CHB expressed CD69, NKp46, NKp44, TRAIL and perforin, the last two being prominent features of CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK subsets, respectively. The frequencies of CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells together with TRAIL(+) CD56(bright) and Perforin(+) CD56(dim) NK cells correlated positively with serum alanine transaminase levels in e(-)CHB/LC. K562 cell-stimulated NK cells from e(-)CHB/LC exhibited significantly greater degranulation but diminished interferon-γ production than IC. Further, Perforin(+) NK cell frequency inversely correlated with autologous CD4(+) T-cell count in e(-) patients and ligands of NK receptors were over-expressed in CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB/LC relative to IC. Co-culture of sorted CD56(dim) NK cells and CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB showed enhanced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis, which was reduced by perforin inhibitor, concanamycin A, suggesting a possible perforin-dependent NK cell-mediated CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Moreover, greater incidence of perforin-expressing NK cells and decline in CD4(+) T cells were noticed intrahepatically in e(-)CHB than IC. Collectively, NK cells contribute to the progression of e(-)CHI by enhanced TRAIL- and perforin-dependent cytolytic activity and by restraining anti-viral immunity through reduced interferon-γ secretion and

  9. Human TRAV1-2-negative MR1-restricted T cells detect S. pyogenes and alternatives to MAIT riboflavin-based antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermeier, Erin W; Laugel, Bruno F; Sewell, Andrew K; Corbett, Alexandra J; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Harriff, Melanie J; Franks, Tamera; Gold, Marielle C; Lewinsohn, David M

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are thought to detect microbial antigens presented by the HLA-Ib molecule MR1 through the exclusive use of a TRAV1-2-containing TCRα. Here we use MR1 tetramer staining and ex vivo analysis with mycobacteria-infected MR1-deficient cells to demonstrate the presence of functional human MR1-restricted T cells that lack TRAV1-2. We characterize an MR1-restricted clone that expresses the TRAV12-2 TCRα, which lacks residues previously shown to be critical for MR1-antigen recognition. In contrast to TRAV1-2(+) MAIT cells, this TRAV12-2-expressing clone displays a distinct pattern of microbial recognition by detecting infection with the riboflavin auxotroph Streptococcus pyogenes. As known MAIT antigens are derived from riboflavin metabolites, this suggests that TRAV12-2(+) clone recognizes unique antigens. Thus, MR1-restricted T cells can discriminate between microbes in a TCR-dependent manner. We postulate that additional MR1-restricted T-cell subsets may play a unique role in defence against infection by broadening the recognition of microbial metabolites. PMID:27527800

  10. Prediction of conformational changes by single mutation in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg identified in HBsAg-negative blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Martono

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection of hepatitis B virus (HBV by host immunity has been suggested to give rise to variants with amino acid substitutions at or around the 'a' determinant of the surface antigen (HBsAg, the main target of antibody neutralization and diagnostic assays. However, there have never been successful attempts to provide evidence for this hypothesis, partly because the 3 D structure of HBsAg molecules has not been determined. Tertiary structure prediction of HBsAg solely from its primary amino acid sequence may reveal the molecular energetic of the mutated proteins. We carried out this preliminary study to analyze the predicted HBsAg conformation changes of HBV variants isolated from Indonesian blood donors undetectable by HBsAg assays and its significance, compared to other previously-reported variants that were associated with diagnostic failure. Results Three HBV variants (T123A, M133L and T143M and a wild type sequence were analyzed together with frequently emerged variants T123N, M133I, M133T, M133V, and T143L. Based on the Jameson-Wolf algorithm for calculating antigenic index, the first two amino acid substitutions resulted in slight changes in the antigenicity of the 'a' determinant, while all four of the comparative variants showed relatively more significant changes. In the pattern T143M, changes in antigenic index were more significant, both in its coverage and magnitude, even when compared to variant T143L. These data were also partially supported by the tertiary structure prediction, in which the pattern T143M showed larger shift in the HBsAg second loop structure compared to the others. Conclusions Single amino acid substitutions within or near the 'a' determinant of HBsAg may alter antigenicity properties of variant HBsAg, which can be shown by both its antigenic index and predicted 3 D conformation. Findings in this study emphasize the significance of variant T143M, the prevalent isolate with highest degree of

  11. Apoptosis is induced by infectious bursal disease virus replication in productively infected cells as well as in antigen-negative cells in their vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, A; Nieper, H; Müller, H

    2001-05-01

    The kinetics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication and induction of apoptosis were investigated in vitro and in vivo. After infection of chicken embryo (CE) cells with IBDV strain Cu-1, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased from 5.8% at 4 h post-infection (p.i.) to 64.5% at 48 h p.i. The proportion of apoptotic cells correlated with IBDV replication. UV-inactivated IBDV particles did not induce apoptosis. Double labelling revealed that, early after infection, the majority of antigen-expressing cells were not apoptotic; double-labelled cells appeared more frequently at later times. Remarkably, apoptotic cells were frequently located in the vicinity of antigen-expressing cells. This indicated that an apoptosis-inducing factor(s) might be released by cells that replicate IBDV. Since interferon (IFN) production has been demonstrated after IBDV infection, IFN was considered to be one of several factors. However, supernatants of infected CE cells in which virus infectivity had been neutralized were not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Similar results were observed in the infected bursae of Fabricius: early after infection, most of the cells either showed virus antigens or were apoptotic. Again, double-labelled cells appeared more frequently late after infection. This suggests that indirect mechanisms might also be involved in the induction of apoptosis in vivo, contributing to the rapid depletion of cells in the IBDV-infected bursa. PMID:11297685

  12. Prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of occult hepatitis B virus among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Significance of hepatitis B core antibodies screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in the liver and/or serum, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Anti-HBc is the most sensitive marker of previous HBV. HBV reactivation in patients under immunosuppressive treatment is life-threatening, occurring in both overt and occult HBV especially in hematological malignancies. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of OBI among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and to determine the significance of anti-HBc screening among this group of patients before receiving chemotherapy. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 72 DLBCL patients negative for HBsAg, HBsAb and hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV). Patients were subjected to investigations including anti-HBc. All patients underwent alanine transaminase (ALT) monitoring before each cycle of chemotherapy and monthly for 12 months after the end of chemotherapy. Patients with suspected OBI were tested for HBV-DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Anti-HBc was detected in 10 of 72 HBsAg negative sera (13.89%) (95% confidence interval 6.9-22.2%). Five of the 10 anti-HBc positive patients in this study had OBI reactivation. Conclusion: The study concluded that anti-HBc screening is mandatory before chemotherapy. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients should be closely observed for signs of HBV reactivation through the regular monitoring of ALT. Prophylaxis lamivudine is recommended for anti-HBc positive patients before chemotherapy.

  13. Fractionation of T cell subsets on Ig anti-Ig columns: isolation of helper T cells from nonresponder mice, demonstration of antigen-specific T suppressor cells, and selection of CD-3 negative variants of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, B; Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    In the present experiments we have explored the possibilities of a modified immunoadsorbent technique to select for (1) mutagenized T cell receptor (Tcr) negative variants of Jurkat T lymphoma cells and (2) purified CD-4+ or CD-8+ T lymphocytes. The basic principle was to make large numbers of...... "autologous" mixed lymphocyte reaction. In addition, the immunoadsorbent method very efficiently selects Tcr/CD-3- variants from mutagenized Jurkat cell populations incubated with anti-CD3 mAb. The described method is easy and quick and can fractionate large numbers of cells; it is the "poor-man's cell sorter...... immunoglobulin (Ig) negative T cells Ig+ by T cell subset-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and to select such cells on Ig anti-Ig columns. Our results demonstrated that Thy-1+, Fc receptor positive, antigen-specific T cells regulate the immune response in mice nonresponders to pork insulin, and the...

  14. Endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging in patients with elevated serum prostate specific antigen with negative trus transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad Ganie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Prostatic biopsy directed with endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging findings in patients with elevated serum PSA and prior negative biopsy, improves the early diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma and accurate localization of prostate cancer within the gland.

  15. Prevalence of antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen and Hepatitis B virus DNA in HBsAg negative healthy blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Gharib; Zadsar, Maryam; Vafaei, Nasrin; SHARIFI, Zohreh; FalahTafti, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus is one of the most important blood born viruses. Although the sensitivity of screening tests has been considerably increased, transmission may still occur due to window period or occult hepatitis B infections (OBIs). This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of the anti-HBc and identifying the HBV DNA in HBsAg negative blood donors. Methods The Blood samples from 2031 HBsAg-negative blood donors were divided into three aliquots and tested for anti-HBc, ant...

  16. Berberine Decreased Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase mRNA Stability through Negative Regulation of Human Antigen R in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Seo, SeungHwan; Choi, Jung-Hye; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2016-07-01

    Berberine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid found in medicinal herbs, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory effects; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for its actions are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of berberine and the molecular mechanisms involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophages and its effects in LPS-induced septic shock in mice. In both macrophage cell types, berberine inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression, but it had no effect on iNOS mRNA transcription. Suppression of LPS-induced iNOS protein expression by berberine occurred via a human antigen R (HuR)-mediated reduction of iNOS mRNA stability. Molecular data revealed that the suppression on the LPS-induced HuR binding to iNOS mRNA by berberine was accompanied by a reduction in nucleocytoplasmic HuR shuttling. Pretreatment with berberine reduced LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR in liver tissues and increased the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. These results show that the suppression of iNOS protein expression by berberine under LPS-induced inflammatory conditions is associated with a reduction in iNOS mRNA stability resulting from inhibition of the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR. PMID:27189969

  17. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  18. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  19. Histocompatibility antigens on astrocytoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschberg, H.; Endresen, L I; Wikeby, P

    1982-01-01

    Biopsies tumour cells from astrocytoma-bearing patients were grown in primary culture for 3-5 days. Both low and high grade tumours were represented in the study. The cultured cells could be shown to express the HLA-A and -B antigens using a multispecific allo-antiserum and a rabbit anti-beta-2 microglobulin antibody. The tumour cells were negative for the HLA-DR determinants when tested with either rabbit anti-Ia-like antisera or specific anti-HLA-DR allo-antisera. They also failed to stimul...

  20. Negative Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Barkman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I will compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus. Unusual? Yes. But my intention herein is not a general comparison; rather, I want to explore to what extent these two men accepted what I call “negative happiness.” What is negative, and by extension, positive, happiness? I think we can prepare ourselves for this distinction with two analogous distinctions: (1) the distinction between positive and negative freedom, wherein positive freedom sees true freedom as interna...

  1. Fractal negations

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor Forteza, Gaspar; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    1994-01-01

    From the concept of attractor of a family of contractive affine transformations in the Euclidean plane R², we study the fractality property of the De Rham function and other singular functions wich derive from it. In particular, we show as fractals the strong negations called k-negations.

  2. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  3. Negative Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Barkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus. Unusual? Yes. But my intention herein is not a general comparison; rather, I want to explore to what extent these two men accepted what I call “negative happiness.” What is negative, and by extension, positive, happiness? I think we can prepare ourselves for this distinction with two analogous distinctions: (1 the distinction between positive and negative freedom, wherein positive freedom sees true freedom as internal control over oneself, while negative freedom sees true freedom as the lack of external coercion, and (2 the distinction between charity and unselfishness, wherein charity stresses selfdenial,though not as an end in itself, whereas unselfishness emphasizes notprimarily doing good things for others but rather going without them ourselves. Thus, in regard to positive and negative happiness, we can say that while positive happiness sees true happiness as a substantial good that makes virtue a constituent of happiness and regards happiness as something more than the avoidance of suffering, negative happiness sees true happiness as simply the absence of suffering.

  4. Cancer vaccine--Antigenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Antigenics is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine based on heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The vaccine [HSPPC-96, Oncophage] is in a pivotal phase III clinical trial for renal cancer at 80 clinical sites worldwide. The trial is enrolling at least 500 patients who are randomised to receive surgical removal of the primary tumour followed by out-patient treatment with Oncophage((R)) or surgery only. This study was initiated on the basis of results from a pilot phase I/II study and preliminary results from a phase II study in patients with renal cell cancer. In October 2001, Oncophage was designated as a fast-track product by the Food and Drug Administration in the US for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Oncophage is in phase I/II trials in Italy for colorectal cancer (30 patients) and melanoma. The trials in Italy are being conducted at the Istituto dei Tumouri, Milan (in association with Sigma-Tau). Preliminary data from the phase II trial for melanoma was presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in Florida, USA, in October 2001. Oncophage is also in a phase I/II (42 patients) and a phase II trial (84 patients) in the US for renal cell cancer, a phase II trial in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (35 patients), a phase II trial in the US for sarcoma (20-35 patients), a phase I/II trial in the US for melanoma (36 patients), and phase I/II trials in Germany for gastric (30 patients) and pancreatic cancers. A pilot phase I trial in patients with pancreatic cancer began in the US in 1997 with 5 patients enrolled. In November 2000, Antigenics announced that this trial had been expanded to a phase I/II study which would now include survival as an endpoint and would enroll 5 additional patients. The US trials are being performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The trials in Germany are being carried out at Johannes Gutenberg-University Hospital, Mainz. Oncophage is an autologous vaccine consisting of

  5. H-Y antigen expression in different tissues from transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoljar, M; Eicher, W; Eiermann, W; Cleve, H

    1981-01-01

    H-Y-antigen expression was analyzed in patients with transsexuality. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and various tissues were examined using the cytotoxicity assay of Goldberg et al. (1971). Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy male and female subjects were used as controls as well as tissues from non-transsexual individuals and from male and female C57B1/6J mice. In three female-to-male transsexuals the peripheral blood lymphocytes were H-Y antigen positive. In these patients also their ovaries, uterus, and mammae were found to be H-Y antigen positive. Three male-to-female transsexuals were examined. The peripheral blood lymphocytes in two of these patients were found to be H-Y antigen negative. Their testes were also H-Y antigen negative, as well as the epididymus, the corpus cavernosum penis, and the cremaster muscle which was analyzed in one of them. One male-to-female transsexual had peripheral blood lymphocytes which were H-Y antigen positive; this patient had testis and corpus cavernosum penis which were also H-Y-antigen positive. PMID:7262869

  6. Detection of hepatitis A viral antigen by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With coded samples, the effectiveness and specificity of a micro-SPIRA procedure for rapidly and quantitatively detecting type A hepatitis-associated antigen in large numbers of specimens from infected liver, stool, or serum has been demonstrated. Samples which were judged to be negative by IEM were found to contain significant levels of HAV antigen by this immunoradiometric technique. The detection of significant levels of HAV antigen in infected chimpanzees supports epidemiologic evidence of viremia during the acute stage of the disease. The results of this study suggest that the diagnosis of type A hepatitis by a convention serologic procedure may now be at hand. (auth)

  7. Failure of a novel, rapid antigen and antibody combination test to detect antigen-positive HIV infection in African adults with early HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kilembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute HIV infection (prior to antibody seroconversion represents a high-risk window for HIV transmission. Development of a test to detect acute infection at the point-of-care is urgent. METHODS: Volunteers enrolled in a prospective study of HIV incidence in four African cities, Kigali in Rwanda and Ndola, Kitwe and Lusaka in Zambia, were tested regularly for HIV by rapid antibody test and p24 antigen ELISA. Five subgroups of samples were also tested by the Determine Ag/Ab Combo test 1 Antigen positive, antibody negative (acute infection; 2 Antigen positive, antibody positive; 3 Antigen negative, antibody positive; 4 Antigen negative, antibody negative; and 5 Antigen false positive, antibody negative (HIV uninfected. A sixth group included serial dilutions from a p24 antigen-positive control sample. Combo test results were reported as antigen positive, antibody positive, or both. RESULTS: Of 34 group 1 samples with VL between 5x105 and >1.5x107 copies/mL (median 3.5x106, 1 (2.9% was detected by the Combo antigen component, 7 (20.6% others were positive by the Combo antibody component. No group 2 samples were antigen positive by the Combo test (0/18. Sensitivity of the Combo antigen test was therefore 1.9% (1/52, 95% CI 0.0, 9.9. One false positive Combo antibody result (1/30, 3.3% was observed in group 4. No false-positive Combo antigen results were observed. The Combo antigen test was positive in group 6 at concentrations of 80 pg/mL, faintly positive at 40 and 20 pg/mL, and negative thereafter. The p24 ELISA antigen test remained positive at 5 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Although the antibody component of the Combo test detected antibodies to HIV earlier than the comparison antibody tests used, less than 2% of the cases of antigen-positive HIV infection were detected by the Combo antigen component. The development of a rapid point-of-care test to diagnose acute HIV infection remains an urgent goal.

  8. Identification of two new protective pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine antigen candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Noelle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite years of effort, a licensed malaria vaccine is not yet available. One of the obstacles facing the development of a malaria vaccine is the extensive heterogeneity of many of the current malaria vaccine antigens. To counteract this antigenic diversity, an effective malaria vaccine may need to elicit an immune response against multiple malaria antigens, thereby limiting the negative impact of variability in any one antigen. Since most of the malaria vaccine antigens that have been evaluated in people have not elicited a protective immune response, there is a need to identify additional protective antigens. In this study, the efficacy of three pre-erythrocytic stage malaria antigens was evaluated in a Plasmodium yoelii/mouse protection model. Methods Mice were immunized with plasmid DNA and vaccinia virus vectors that expressed one, two or all three P. yoelii vaccine antigens. The immunized mice were challenged with 300 P. yoelii sporozoites and evaluated for subsequent infection. Results Vaccines that expressed any one of the three antigens did not protect a high percentage of mice against a P. yoelii challenge. However, vaccines that expressed all three antigens protected a higher percentage of mice than a vaccine that expressed PyCSP, the most efficacious malaria vaccine antigen. Dissection of the multi-antigen vaccine indicated that protection was primarily associated with two of the three P. yoelii antigens. The protection elicited by a vaccine expressing these two antigens exceeded the sum of the protection elicited by the single antigen vaccines, suggesting a potential synergistic interaction. Conclusions This work identifies two promising malaria vaccine antigen candidates and suggests that a multi-antigen vaccine may be more efficacious than a single antigen vaccine.

  9. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567

  10. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  11. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  12. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All About Food Allergies Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size What's in ... sample is used to determine if H. pylori antigens are present in your child's gastrointestinal (GI) system. ...

  13. Immunoassay of antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described of immunoassay of an antigen in a liquid sample wherein a complex is formed between antigen contained in the said sample and two or more antibody reagents, and the said complex is bound to a solid support by non-covalent bonding as defined herein: and the amount of complex becoming bound to the support is determined; the process employing at least one monoclonal antibody reagent. Labelling methods including radioactive, fluorimetric and enzyme labelling may be used to effect determination of the binding ofthe complex to the solid support. The solid support may take the form of particles, beads, wall-coatings on the reaction vessel or an insert of large surface area. The method is particularly applicable to the assay of TSH, CEA, HCG, alphafeto protein, immunoglobulins, viruses, allergens, bacteria, toxins, drugs and vitamins. Use of monoclonal reagents improves the specificity of the process, and also decreases non-specific binding

  14. Localization of Enterobacterial Common Antigen: Immunogenic and Nonimmunogenic Enterobacterial Common Antigen-Containing Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Rinno, J.; Golecki, J R; Mayer, H

    1980-01-01

    In rabbits immunized with intact bacteria, the immune response to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) predominantly consists of the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies. This is not dependent on whether the animals are immunized for a short (2 weeks) or a long (3 months) period of time. The highest ECA-specific immunoglobulin G titers were observed after a short immunization with living bacteria. ECA-specific antisera were obtained by absorption with appropriate ECA-negative mutants...

  15. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens. PMID:16517916

  16. Interferon-gamma-like molecule induces Ia antigens on cultured mast cell progenitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, G H; Clark-lewis, I.; McKimm-Breschkin, J L; Schrader, J W

    1982-01-01

    Persisting (P) cells (murine cells that resemble mast cells and grow continuously in vitro for prolonged periods in the presence of a specific growth factor) did not express detectable levels of Ia antigens (murine class II major histocompatibility antigens) when their growth was supported by partially purified P cell-stimulating factor. However, when these Ia-negative P cells were transferred to medium conditioned by concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells, Ia antigens appeared within 24 hr. ...

  17. Control of T cell antigen reactivity via programmed TCR downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Alena M; Xiong, Huizhong; Leiner, Ingrid M; Sušac, Bože; Glickman, Michael S; Pamer, Eric G; van Heijst, Jeroen W J

    2016-04-01

    The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is unique in that its affinity for ligand is unknown before encounter and can vary by orders of magnitude. How the immune system regulates individual T cells that display very different reactivity to antigen remains unclear. Here we found that activated CD4(+) T cells, at the peak of clonal expansion, persistently downregulated their TCR expression in proportion to the strength of the initial antigen recognition. This programmed response increased the threshold for cytokine production and recall proliferation in a clone-specific manner and ultimately excluded clones with the highest antigen reactivity. Thus, programmed downregulation of TCR expression represents a negative feedback mechanism for constraining T cell effector function with a suitable time delay to thereby allow pathogen control while avoiding excess inflammatory damage. PMID:26901151

  18. Class II-targeted antigen is superior to CD40-targeted antigen at stimulating humoral responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frleta, D; Demian, D; Wade, W F

    2001-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of using monoclonal antibodies to target antigen (avidin) to different surface molecules expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC). In particular, we targeted CD40 to test whether the "adjuvant" properties of CD40 signaling combined with targeted antigen would result in enhanced serologic responses. We targeted avidin to class II as a positive control and to CD11c as a negative control. These surface proteins represent an ensemble of surface molecules that signal upon ligation and that are expressed on professional APC, in particular dendritic cells (DC). We observed that targeting class II molecules on APC was superior to targeting CD40, or CD11c. However, CD40 and CD11c could function as targets for antigen bound monoclonal antibodies under certain conditions. Interestingly, inclusion of anti-CD40 mAb with the targeting anti-class II-targeted antigens negatively affects humoral response, suggesting that CD40 signaling under certain conditions may suppress processing and/or presentation of targeted antigen. PMID:11360928

  19. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  20. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and...

  1. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  2. Antigenic variants of rabies virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, TJ; Koprowski, H

    1980-01-01

    Antigenic variants of CVS-11 strain of rabies virus were selected after treatment of virus populations with monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoprotein antigen of the virus. These variants resisted neutralization by the hybridoma antibody used for their selection. Two independently mutating antigenic sites could be distinguished when five variants were tested with nine hybridoma antibodies. The frequency of single epitope variants in a cloned rabies virus seed was approximately 1:...

  3. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective:to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) infection.Methods:Serum soluble antigen of H.pylori was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H.pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test(RUT).histologic examination and serology,Results:The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46% ,91.07%,91.67% and 76.12%,respectively.The prevalence rate of werum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergong endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT methods(P>0.05).Conclusions:The detection of serum H.pylori soluble antigen(HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate,and convenient,not affected by the memorizing raction of serum antibody;is more sensitive,more specific and suitable for dinical diagriosis,and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H.pylori as well as for detection in children and pregnant women.

  4. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobac ter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Methods: Serum soluble antigen of H. p ylor i was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H. pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test ( RUT ), histo logi c examination and serology. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive pred ictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46%, 91.07%, 91.67% a nd 76.12 %, respectively. The prevalence rate of serum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergoing endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT met hods ( P>0.05 ). Conclusions: The detection of serum H. pylori solub le antigen( HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate, and convenie nt, not affected by the memorizing reaction of serum antibody; is more sensitive , m ore specific and suitable for clinical diagnosis, and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H. pylori as well as for detection in children and pre gnant women.

  5. Method to conjugate polysaccharide antigens to surfaces for the detection of antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Lind, Peter; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    A new generic method for the conjugation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-derived polysaccharide antigens from gram-negative bacteria has been developed using Salmonella as a model. After removal of lipid A from the LPS by mild acidolysis, the polysaccharide antigen was conjugated to polystyrene...... against Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin. The presented method was compared with a similar method for conjugation of Salmonella polysaccharide antigens to surfaces. Here, the new method showed higher antigen coupling efficiency by detecting low concentrations of antibodies. Furthermore, the...... polysaccharide-conjugated beads showed preserved bioactivity after 1 year of use....

  6. 9 CFR 113.407 - Pullorum antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pullorum antigen. 113.407 Section 113... and Reagents § 113.407 Pullorum antigen. Pullorum Antigen shall be produced from a culture of... standard for stained antigen K's and 50 ±10 times McFarland No. 1 standard for tube antigen....

  7. The Impacts of Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Positivity on Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Erkol Ižnal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to clarify the impacts of H. pylori infection on disease activity and clinical findings of AS. Material and Method: Forty-eight patients with AS were included in this study. The demographic data including age, sex, durations of the disease and medication of the patients were recorded. The laboratory analysis comprised Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and H. pylori antigen determination in gaita. The disease activity, functional disability and clinical status were assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI, The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional index (BASFI and The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI respectively. We divided patients according to H. pylori antigen positivity in gaita as H. pylori positive and negative patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 41.9 11.8. CRP levels were slightly but not significantly higher in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients without H. pylori antigen in gaita (p=0.08. There was no significant difference in terms of ESR levels, BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients with negative H. pylori antigen in gaita (p-values were >0.05 for all. In regression model BASDAI score was found to have no relationship with H. pylori antigen positivity, ESR and CRP levels (p-values were >0.05 for all. Discussion: H. pylori seemed to have probable impacts on the disease activity of AS. Studies with greater patient population and longer follow-up periods are warranted to enlighten this issue.

  8. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi: circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bongertz

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Circulating antigens were detected in sera of mice experimentally infected with a high close of Trypanosoma cruzi by reaction with sera from chronically infected mice. The immunodiffusion reaction between homologous acute and chronic sera produced four precipitation lines. By reaction with chronic mouse serum, circulating antingens were detected in sera from heavily infected hamsters, dogs, rabbits and in sera from chagasic patients. A reaction was also found in urine from acutely infected mice and dogs. Trypanosoma cruzi exoantigen was detected in trypanosome culture medium and in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. Attempts to isolate the antigens are described.Antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de camundongos infectados experimentalmente com elevadas doses de Trypanosoma cruzi pela reação com soros obtidos de camundongos em fase crônica de infecção. A reação de imunodifusão entre soros homólogos agudo e crônico produziu quatro linhas de precipitação. Por reação com soro crônico de camundongo antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de crícetos, cães e coelhos infectados com doses elevadas de Trypanosoma cruzi e em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Uma reação foi também observada com urina de camundongos e cães infectados de forma aguda. Exoantígeno de Trypanosoma cruzi foi detectado em meio de cultura de tripanosomas e em sobrenadantes de culturas de células infectadas. Tentativas de isolamento dos antigenos são descritas.

  10. Cancer antigen 125 and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses recently reported progress in cancer antigen 125 as a prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Serum cancer antigen 125 levels measured preoperatively in both early and late stage ovarian cancer may be of prognostic value. Before...... cancer antigen 125 determination may be implemented into clinical practice, cut-off levels must be evaluated and internationally defined. Studies examining serum cancer antigen 125 levels after surgery but before, during, or after treatment confirmed that changes in serum levels are of prognostic value....... Furthermore, recent studies have shown that the level of expression of cancer antigen 125 in tissue may be an independent prognostic indicator in late stage ovarian cancer. SUMMARY: Prognostic markers may potentially help to individualize treatment within subgroups of patients. In a recent study the level of...

  11. Blinded search for varicella zoster virus in giant cell arteritis (GCA)-positive and GCA-negative temporal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Don; White, Teresa; Khmeleva, Nelly; Katz, Bradley J; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-05-15

    Recent analysis of archived temporal arteries (TAs) acquired from 13 pathology laboratories in the US, Canada, Iceland, France, Germany and Israel from patients with pathologically-verified giant cell arteritis (GCA-positive) and TAs from patients with clinical features and laboratory abnormalities of GCA but whose TAs were pathologically negative (GCA-negative) revealed VZV antigen in most TAs from both groups. Despite formalin-fixation, VZV DNA was also found in many VZV-antigen positive sections that were scraped, subjected to DNA extraction, and examined by PCR with VZV-specific primers. Importantly, in past studies, the pathological diagnosis (GCA-positive or -negative) was known to the neurovirology laboratory. Herein, GCA-positive and GCA-negative TAs were provided by an outside institution and examined by 4 investigators blinded to the pathological diagnoses. VZV antigen was found in 3/3 GCA-positive TAs and in 4/6 GCA-negative TAs, and VZV DNA in 1/3 VZV antigen-positive, GCA-positive TAs and in 3/4 VZV antigen-positive, GCA-negative TAs. VZV DNA was also detected in one GCA-negative, VZV-antigen negative TA. Overall, the detection of VZV antigen in 78% of GCA-positive and GCA-negative TAs is consistent with previous reports on the prevalence of VZV antigen in patients with clinically suspect GCA. PMID:27084233

  12. On French negation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Zeijlstra

    2009-01-01

    Two main characteristics of French negation are (i) that the language is a so-called Negative Concord (NC) language; and (ii) that French exhibits so-called embracing negation. NC refers to the phenomenon where multiple negative expressions yield only one negation. Embracing negation means that the

  13. Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antigen using immunofiltration and antigen-competition ELISA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, G Dhinakar; Rajanathan, T M C; Kumar, C Senthil; Ramathilagam, G; Hiremath, Geetha; Shaila, M S

    2008-06-22

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sheep and goats in India. An immunofiltration-based test has been developed using either mono-specific serum/monoclonal antibodies (mAb) prepared against a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus (RPV) cross-reactive with PPR virus. This method consists of coating ocular swab eluate from suspected animals onto a nitrocellulose membrane housed in a plastic module, which is allowed to react with suitable dilutions of a mAb or a mono-specific polyclonal antibody. The antigen-antibody complex formed on the membrane is then detected by protein A-colloidal gold conjugate, which forms a pink colour. In the immunofiltration test, concordant results were obtained using either PPRV mAb or mono-specific serum. Another test, an antigen-competition ELISA which relies on the competition between plate-coated recombinant truncated 'N' protein of RPV and the PPRV 'N' protein present in ocular swab eluates (sample) for binding to the mono-specific antibody against N protein of RPV (in liquid phase) was developed. The cut-off value for this test was established using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive and negative oculo-nasal swab samples. Linear correlation between percent inhibition (PI) values in antigen-competition ELISA and virus infectivity titres was 0.992. Comparison of the immunofiltration test with the antigen-competition ELISA yielded a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. These two tests can serve as a screening (immunofiltration) and confirmatory (antigen-competition ELISA) test, respectively, in the diagnosis of PPR in sheep or goats. PMID:18182256

  14. HLA antigens in Japanese patients with myasthenia gravis.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuki, K; Juji, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Takamizawa, M; Maeda, H.; Soda, M; Nomura, Y; Segawa, M.

    1990-01-01

    HLA antigens in 104 Japanese patients and 41 families with myasthenia gravis (MG) were investigated. The frequencies of DR9 and DRw13 were significantly increased in the patients who developed MG before 3 yr of age. The DQw3 antigen was positive for all the patients that developed MG before 15 yr with only one exception. All the examined cases that developed MG before 3 yr (including this DQw3 negative patient) had the same DQA and DQB DNA restriction fragments. These HLA frequencies decrease...

  15. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  16. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  17. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation as...... meaning of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive...

  18. Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Ekskretori-Sekretori pada Sapi Bali yang Terinfeksi Fasciola gigantica (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF EXCRET0RY-SECRETORY ANTIGENS IN BALI CATLLE INFECTED BY FASCIOLA GIGANTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Oka Winaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the distribution of excretory-secretory (ES F. gigantica in liver tissue of infected balicattle a research was establisihed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs againts ES antigens. Immortalmouse myeloma cells were fused with the lymphocytes derived from the spleen of mice that immunizedwith ES antigen. The mAbs were tested for their specificity by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. Five specific mAbs againts ES antigens were isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetectionof ES antigens in liver tissue of bali cattle. Immunohistochemical ES antigens were not detected in paraffinembeded tissue of negative confirmed fasciolosis samples. ES antigens was detected in hepatocytes andcytoplasm of bile duct epithelims in the bali cattle that infected with fasciolosis in moderate intensity.Therfore indicated that mAbs produced in this study are applicable for detecting ES antigens in bali cattleinfected by F. gigantica.

  19. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  20. Natural Selection Promotes Antigenic Evolvability

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P. D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes...

  1. Rapid detection of antibodies against cytomegalovirus induced immediate early and early antigens by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Musiani; Carpi, C; Zerbini, M

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibodies against cytomegalovirus induced immediate early antigens and early antigens was developed using purified nuclear antigens and was compared with the indirect immunofluorescence test. The tests were comparable in their ability to detect positive and negative sera, and antibody titres determined by both assays were similar. The use of ELISA for the detection of antibodies against cytomegalovirus induced immediate early and ear...

  2. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik; Iversen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  3. T Cells Expressing CD19/CD20 Bispecific Chimeric Antigen Receptors Prevent Antigen Escape by Malignant B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zah, Eugenia; Lin, Meng-Yin; Silva-Benedict, Anne; Jensen, Michael C; Chen, Yvonne Y

    2016-06-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown remarkable curative potential against advanced B-cell malignancies, but multiple trials have also reported patient relapses due to the emergence of CD19-negative leukemic cells. Here, we report the design and optimization of single-chain, bispecific CARs that trigger robust cytotoxicity against target cells expressing either CD19 or CD20, two clinically validated targets for B-cell malignancies. We determined the structural parameters required for efficient dual-antigen recognition, and we demonstrate that optimized bispecific CARs can control both wild-type B-cell lymphoma and CD19(-) mutants with equal efficiency in vivo To our knowledge, this is the first bispecific CAR capable of preventing antigen escape by performing true OR-gate signal computation on a clinically relevant pair of tumor-associated antigens. The CD19-OR-CD20 CAR is fully compatible with existing T-cell manufacturing procedures and implementable by current clinical protocols. These results present an effective solution to the challenge of antigen escape in CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, and they highlight the utility of structure-based rational design in the development of receptors with higher-level complexity. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 498-508. ©2016 AACRSee related Spotlight by Sadelain, p. 473. PMID:27059623

  4. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    complementizer and the subject. This little-studied phenomenon is referred to as preposed negation. The article investigates the syntax and semantics of preposed negation from a primarily descriptive point of view. It is argued that preposed negation is associated with negated verum-focus of a clause lacking an...... (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects and...

  5. Method to conjugate polysaccharide antigens to surfaces for the detection of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ulrik; Lind, Peter; Riber, Ulla

    2014-11-15

    A new generic method for the conjugation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-derived polysaccharide antigens from gram-negative bacteria has been developed using Salmonella as a model. After removal of lipid A from the LPS by mild acidolysis, the polysaccharide antigen was conjugated to polystyrene microbeads modified with N-alkyl hydroxylamine and N-alkyl-O-methyl hydroxylamine surface groups by incubation of antigen and beads for 16 h at 40 °C without the need for coupling agents. The efficiency of the new method was evaluated by flow cytometry in model samples and serum samples containing antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin. The presented method was compared with a similar method for conjugation of Salmonella polysaccharide antigens to surfaces. Here, the new method showed higher antigen coupling efficiency by detecting low concentrations of antibodies. Furthermore, the polysaccharide-conjugated beads showed preserved bioactivity after 1 year of use. PMID:25076184

  6. Enhanced expression of beta2-microglobulin and HLA antigens on human lymphoid cells by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, I; Hokland, M; Berg, K

    1979-01-01

    Mononuclear cells from the blood of healthy normal humans were kept in cultures under nonstimulating conditions for 16 hr in the presence or absence of human interferon. The relative quantities of HLA antigens and beta(2)-microglobulin on the cultured cells were determined by quantitative...... immunofluorescence (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) and by the capacity of cells to absorb out cytotoxic antibodies against the relevant antigens. Interferons of different origin and purities enhanced the expression of HLA antigens and beta(2)-microglobulins, whereas membrane immunoglobulins and antigens...... recognized by antiserum raised against human brain and T cells were the same on interferon-treated and control cells. Similar interferon effects were observed on an Epstein-Barrvirus-negative Burkitt lymphoma cell line. The enhanced expression of histocompatibility antigen subsequent to intereferon treatment...

  7. Evaluation of Diagnos Malaria Stix test (antigen detection assay) for diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haris M; Shujatullah, Fatima; Shahid, M; Raza, Adil; Malik, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Malaria is one of the most common parasitic infection in India. The diagnosis largely depends on peripheral blood smear examination. Newer diagnostic methods like various antigen detection assays are now in use for prompt diagnosis and treatment. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of Diagnos Malaria Stix (antigen detection) assay in diagnosis of malaria. This involves detection of PfHRP-2 antigen and P.V. specific pLDH antigen. 162 patients with signs and symptoms of malaria included in the study. Leishman stained blood smear examination was done for all patients. Commercially available Diagnos Malaria Stix assay was used. Diagnos Malaria Stix showed sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values of 100% each while Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Leishman stained blood smear examination were 45.45%, 100%, 100% and 92% respectively. PMID:22471175

  8. Post immunization Hib antigen detection in the CSF of a patient with meningococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, A N; Araj, G F; Mroueh, S M

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of meningococcal meningitis where the cerebrospinal fluid was negative for Neisseria meningitidis but positive for Haemophilus influenzae type b by rapid antigen detection test. We believe that this was due to prior immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. We recommend caution in interpretation of the rapid antigen detection tests especially in patients who had been vaccinated against organisms screened by these tests. PMID:9421943

  9. Epithelial membrane antigen in cells from the uterine cervix: immunocytochemical staining of cervical smears.

    OpenAIRE

    Valkova, B; Ormerod, M G; Moncrieff, D.; Coleman, D V

    1984-01-01

    Smears made from cervical scrapes have been stained immunocytochemically for epithelial membrane antigen using a polyclonal antiserum and two monoclonal antibodies. With the polyclonal antiserum malignant cells and those showing dysplasia consistently expressed the antigen. Normal cells were generally negative, with the exception of some metaplastic cells. The monoclonal antibodies, although they stained the abnormal cells less consistently, gave the same pattern of staining. All three antibo...

  10. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  11. Immunization with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 Pilin Provides O-Antigen-Specific Protection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Horzempa, Joseph; Held, Thomas K.; Cross, Alan S.; Furst, Dana; Qutyan, Mohammed; Neely, Alice N.; Castric, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The O antigen is both a major structural outer membrane component and the dominant epitope of most gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 produces a type IV pilus and covalently links an O-antigen repeating unit to each pilin monomer. Here we show that immunization of mice with pure pilin from strain 1244 by use of either the mouse respiratory model or the thermal injury model resulted in protection from challenge with a pilus-null O-antigen-producing 1244 mutant. These results p...

  12. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hála, K.; Plachý, Jiří; Kaufman, J.

    New York : Academic Press, 1998 - (Pastoret, P.; Griebel, P.; Bazin, H.; Govaerts, A.), s. 92-95 ISBN 0-12-546401-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0670 Keywords : chicken MHC * histocompatibility antigens * disease resistance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  14. Influence of clinical and laboratory variables on faecal antigen ELISA results in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2015-06-01

    False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. PMID:25920770

  15. Genome Scale Identification of Treponema pallidum Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    McKevitt, Matthew; Brinkman, Mary Beth; McLoughlin, Melanie; Perez, Carla; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Weinstock, George M.; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Antibody responses for 882 of the 1,039 proteins in the proteome of Treponema pallidum were examined. Sera collected from infected rabbits were used to systematically identify 106 antigenic proteins, including 22 previously identified antigens and 84 novel antigens. Additionally, sera collected from rabbits throughout the course of infection demonstrated a progression in the breadth and intensity of humoral immunoreactivity against a representative panel of T. pallidum antigens.

  16. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  17. Plague virulence antigens from Yersinia enterocolitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, P B; Zahorchak, R J; Brubaker, R R

    1980-01-01

    The virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica, biotype 2, serotype O:8, in mice is related to its ability to produce plague V and W antigens. V and W antigens in Y. enterocolitica are shown to be immunologically identical to the previously described V and W antigens of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

  18. Molecular characterization of common treponemal antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanff, P A; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1983-01-01

    A molecular characterization of cross-reactive antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter that are reactive with normal and syphilitic human sera is described. At least 8 common polypeptides, 14 T. pallidum-specific antigens, and 2 T. phagedenis biotype Reiter-specific antigens were identified.

  19. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  20. Antigenicity analysis of Vibrio harveyi TS-628 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yingxue; WANG Jun; WANG Shifeng; YAN Qingpi

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi,the major causative agent of vibriosis,affects a diverse range of marine cultured organisms over a wide geographical area.However,reports about screening the effective antigen and research on vaccines of V.harveyi are scarce.Flagellin,lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins (OMP) are major immunogenic antigens in many Gram-negative bacteria.In this study,the flagellin,OMP and LPS of the V.harveyi TS-628 strain isolated from infected groupers were extracted and Western blot analysis was used to detect the antigenicity of these extractions.Results of the Western blot assay reveal that there are four positive flagellin bands:35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa and 52 kDa bands displayed the strongest positive reaction.There are five positive OMP bands about 35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,47 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa appeared to have the strongest positive reaction although the other four proteins also displayed strong reactions.However,LPS is Western blot-negative.These results indicate that the 43 kDa and 52 kDa flagellin and OMP of size 43 kDa,52 kDa can be candidates for developing vaccines against V.harveyi.

  1. CD133 antigen expression in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much attention has been recently focused on the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the initiation and progression of solid malignancies. Since CSCs are able to proliferate and self-renew extensively, thus sustaining tumor growth, the identification of CSCs through their antigenic profile might have relevant clinical implications. In this context, CD133 antigen has proved to be a marker of tumor cells with stemness features in several human malignancies. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical role of the immunohistochemically assessed expression of CD133 in a large single Institution series of ovarian cancer patients. The study included 160 cases admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Catholic University of Campobasso and Rome. CD133 antigen was identified by the monoclonal mouse anti-CD133-1 antibody (clone CD133 Miltenyi biotec). In the overall series CD133 positive tumor cells were observed in 50/160 (31.2%) cases. A diffuse cytoplasmic pattern was identified in 30/50 (60.0%), while an apical cytoplasmic pattern was found in 20/50 (40.0%) of CD133 positive tumors. As of September 2008, the median follow up was 37 months (range: 2–112). During the follow up period, progression and death of disease were observed in 123 (76.9%), and 88 (55.0%) cases, respectively. There was no difference in TTP between cases with negative (median TTP = 23 months) versus positive CD133 expression (median TTP = 24 months) (p value = 0.3). Similar results were obtained for OS. When considering the TTP and OS curves according to the pattern of CD133 expression, a trend to a worse prognosis for cases with diffuse cytoplasmic versus the apical cytoplasmic pattern was documented, although the statistical significance was not reached. The immunohistochemical assessment of CD133 expression seems not to provide additional prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients. The role of the different pattern of CD133 immunoreaction deserves further investigation in a larger

  2. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals

  3. Interpretations of Negative Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a frequency interpretation of negative probability, as well as of extended probability, demonstrating that to a great extent, these new types of probabilities, behave as conventional probabilities. Extended probability comprises both conventional probability and negative probability. The frequency interpretation of negative probabilities gives supportive evidence to the axiomatic system built in (Burgin, 2009; arXiv:0912.4767) for extended probability as it is demonstra...

  4. Mini-review: Strategies for Variation and Evolution of Bacterial Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Foley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Across the eubacteria, antigenic variation has emerged as a strategy to evade host immunity. However, phenotypic variation in some of these antigens also allows the bacteria to exploit variable host niches as well. The specific mechanisms are not shared-derived characters although there is considerable convergent evolution and numerous commonalities reflecting considerations of natural selection and biochemical restraints. Unlike in viruses, mechanisms of antigenic variation in most bacteria involve larger DNA movement such as gene conversion or DNA rearrangement, although some antigens vary due to point mutations or modified transcriptional regulation. The convergent evolution that promotes antigenic variation integrates various evolutionary forces: these include mutations underlying variant production; drift which could remove alleles especially early in infection or during life history phases in arthropod vectors (when the bacterial population size goes through a bottleneck; selection not only for any particular variant but also for the mechanism for the production of variants (i.e., selection for mutability; and overcoming negative selection against variant production. This review highlights the complexities of drivers of antigenic variation, in particular extending evaluation beyond the commonly cited theory of immune evasion. A deeper understanding of the diversity of purpose and mechanisms of antigenic variation in bacteria will contribute to greater insight into bacterial pathogenesis, ecology and coevolution with hosts.

  5. Neurofibromatosis type 2 tumor suppressor protein, NF2, induces proteasome-mediated degradation of JC virus T-antigen in human glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Beltrami

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 protein (NF2 has been shown to act as tumor suppressor primarily through its functions as a cytoskeletal scaffold. However, NF2 can also be found in the nucleus, where its role is less clear. Previously, our group has identified JC virus (JCV tumor antigen (T-antigen as a nuclear binding partner for NF2 in tumors derived from JCV T-antigen transgenic mice. The association of NF2 with T-antigen in neuronal origin tumors suggests a potential role for NF2 in regulating the expression of the JCV T-antigen. Here, we report that NF2 suppresses T-antigen protein expression in U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells, which subsequently reduces T-antigen-mediated regulation of the JCV promoter. When T-antigen mRNA was quantified, it was determined that increasing expression of NF2 correlated with an accumulation of T-antigen mRNA; however, a decrease in T-antigen at the protein level was observed. NF2 was found to promote degradation of ubiquitin bound T-antigen protein via a proteasome dependent pathway concomitant with the accumulation of the JCV early mRNA encoding T-antigen. The interaction between T-antigen and NF2 maps to the FERM domain of NF2, which has been shown previously to be responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a ternary complex among NF2, T-antigen, and the tumor suppressor protein, p53 within a glioblastoma cell line. Further, these proteins were detected in various degrees in patient tumor tissue, suggesting that these associations may occur in vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrate that NF2 negatively regulates JCV T-antigen expression by proteasome-mediated degradation, and suggest a novel role for NF2 as a suppressor of JCV T-antigen-induced cell cycle regulation.

  6. Negative tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade

  7. The antigenic properties of human prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antigenic properties of human prolactin (HPr) were studied using various methods of radio-immuno assay. The homologous system, the difficulty of which resides in the preparation of the tracer, easily permits measurement of physiological levels. In this system, blood prolactin in the monkey has an antigenicity comparable with that of human prolactin, whereas growth hormone and human chorionic somatotropin have feeble or nil antigenic relationship with HPr. Human, sheep and pig prolactins have variable antigenic cross-reactions depending on the immune serum used. These antigenic cross reactions may be applied to the isolation of amniotic prolactin. Human blood prolactin has several components of different molecular weight, but antigenicity comparable with that of pituitary HPr

  8. Double-antigen sandwich ELISA for the detection of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Xiu, Bingshui; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Kun; Feng, Xiaoyan; Song, Xiaoguo; Zhu, Cuixia; Ling, Shigan; Zhang, Heqiu

    2011-01-01

    A double-antigen sandwich ELISA was developed a detection of HCV antibodies by a recombinant multi-epitope HCV antigen and a biotin-streptavidin amplification system. Three plasma specimens from 1708 individuals who were suspected previously to be HCV-positive using an HCV antibody diagnostic kit (Chuangxin, Xiamen, China) displayed negative results when using the ELISA. These results were validated by a recombinant immunoblotting assay (two were negative, and one was indeterminate). Among 889 blood specimens donated for clinical evaluation, 246 were positive and 630 were negative using the ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 98.7% and 100%, respectively. In 43 donors and 14 patients with chronic hepatitis C, the detectable rates for HCV IgM by both ELISA and the HCV anti-IgM detection reagents (Huimin, Shenyang, China) were 100%, and the detectable rate for HCV IgG using an indirect HCV-antibody detection kit (GWK, Beijing, China) was 98.3%. Thus, the double-antigen sandwich ELISA exhibits strong specificity and sensitivity and has been approved by the China State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). The performance of the double-antigen sandwich ELISA was similar to the Ortho ELISA 3.0. It did not give false-negative results otherwise IgM was undetectable using an indirect HCV-antibody detection kit. This ELISA provides another method for the detection of HCV antibodies. PMID:21029749

  9. The antigenicity of tobacco mosaic virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Regenmortel, M H

    1999-01-01

    The antigenic properties of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) have been studied extensively for more than 50 years. Distinct antigenic determinants called neotopes and cryptotopes have been identified at the surface of intact virions and dissociated coat protein subunits, respectively, indicating that the quaternary structure of the virus influences the antigenic properties. A correlation has been found to exist between the location of seven to ten residue-long continuous epitopes in the TMV coa...

  10. Histocompatibility antigens in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Soutar, C A; Coutts, I.; Parkes, W R; Dodi, I. A.; Gauld, S; Castro, J E; Turner-Warwick, M

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five histocompatibility antigens have been measured in 100 coal miners with pneumoconiosis attending a pneumoconiosis medical panel and the results compared with a panel of 200 normal volunteers not exposed to dust. Chest radiographs were read independently by three readers according to the ILO U/C classification. On a combined score, 40 men were thought to have simple pneumoconiosis and 60 men complicated pneumoconiosis. The number of antigens tested and associations between antigens ...

  11. Isolation of Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens were isolated from intact worms in the cold by using Nonidet P-40. Proof of the tegumental nature of the antigens was shown by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical technique at the light microscope level. The potential of F. hepatica tegument antigens for the immunodiagnosis of rabbit and human fascioliasis was shown by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion, although cross-reactivity was evident in one of six serum samples from patients infected with Schi...

  12. Antigenic contents of Treponema pallidum preparations.

    OpenAIRE

    Wos, S M; Wicher, K

    1986-01-01

    In investigations of syphilis various Treponema pallidum antigens are used to study the immune responses of naturally or experimentally infected hosts. In the past these antigen preparations have rarely been examined for their antigenic contents and activity. In the present study, supernatant, sediment, and solubilised preparations of T pallidum Nichols strain (20 X 10(9) organisms/ml) and T phagedenis biotype Reiter were examined by modified counterimmunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting fo...

  13. Performance of the ELISA test for swine cysticercosis using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, P S; Vaz, A J; Germano, P M; Nakamura, P M

    2000-02-29

    Studies were conducted to evaluate antigens of Taenia solium (Tso) and Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) cysticerci in the ELISA test for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. The samples analyzed were cysticercosis positive and negative control sera and heterologous sera. Four antigens were assayed: vesicular fluid (VF) and crude (T) Tcra and scolex (S) and crude (T) Tso. All antigens showed good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best followed by T-Tcra. Sensitivity rates of ELISA were respectively, in 2nd and 3rd standard deviation cut-offs, 96.0 and 80.0% for the VF antigen and specificity of 97.5 and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was verified only for hidatidosis and ascaridiosis. Due to the high performance observed, the ELISA test using Tcra antigens should be recommended for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. PMID:10681029

  14. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  15. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  16. Molecular basis of D-negative phenotype (literature review and case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of the D-negative phenotype formation in humans is presented in this article. Causes of true and false D-negative phenotype appearance are described. The basis of true D-negative phenotype are changes in the genome, that lead to complete lack of RhD antigen expression on the red blood cells surface, or defective expression of RhD antigen, not detectable by serological methods. The reason for the false D-negative phenotype is the insufficient sensitivity of routine serological methods. Cases of true and false D-negative phenotype identified during the examination of the Russia residents are described. We were able to identify one case of true (RHDψ and five cases of false D-negative phenotype (RHD weak type 2 – two cases, RHD weak type 15 – one case and RHD weak type 20 – two cases by molecular method.

  17. Urinary IgG antibody against mixed heat-killed coliform antigen and lipopolysaccharide core antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, A P; Edmond, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether antibody to lipopolysaccharide-core (LPS-core) antigen is an important component of the antibody, detected by mixed heat-killed coliform antigen, in urine from patients with suspected urinary tract infection. METHODS: LPS-core antigen and mixed heat-killed coliform antigen were used in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure IgG antibody in midstream urine samples. Seventy two samples from students attending their general practitioner with symptoms s...

  18. Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to early antigen(s) of human cytomegalovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Waner, J L; Kong, N; Biano, S

    1983-01-01

    The lymphocytes of asymptomatic, seropositive donors demonstrated blastogenic responses to early antigens of human cytomegalovirus whether or not antibodies to early antigens were detectable. The lymphocytes of six of nine patients with active cytomegalovirus infections gave stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 2.00 with antigens of productively infected cells, whereas only two patients demonstrated comparable stimulation indexes with early antigens. Four patients with stimulation ...

  19. Combination of cancer antigen 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen can improve ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the tumour marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in combination with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) to differentiate between malignant ovarian and malignant non-ovarian disease.......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the tumour marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in combination with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) to differentiate between malignant ovarian and malignant non-ovarian disease....

  20. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2 respectively). When 18 additional B. b...

  1. Application of the antigen ELISA for monitoring the effectiveness of the tsetse and trypanosomosis control campaign in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibody and antigen-detection ELISA were used to screen sera originating from a tsetse free area. In addition, bovine samples from tsetse infested areas were analysed using the Buffy Coat Technique (BCT) and the antigen ELISA. Few samples from a negative control population were detected positive resulting in a very good specificity for both tests. When screening a trypanosome infected population the BCT detected more acute and the Ag-ELISA more chronic infections. In conclusion, the antigen ELISA should be used in combination with the BCT, especially in geographical areas where the BCT does not detect any patent infections. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  3. Tunneling with negative tension

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Kate

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new family of thin-wall instantons, with negative tension bubble walls, that mediate tunneling between Minkowski or de Sitter vacua. Some of these instantons can have exponentially enhanced tunneling rates, and would dominate the Euclidean path integral, representing a severe non-perturbative instability in any theory which supports them. We give two constructions of these instantons in theories which are perturbatively stable, but violate the null energy condition. One construction uses a scalar field theory with higher-derivative kinetic term, and is similar to the Coleman-de Luccia positive tension instanton. The other construction employs a negative-tension boundary arising from Z_2 orbifolding: it resembles a "bubble of nothing" which nucleates and grows, consuming the surrounding de Sitter or Minkowski spacetime. We explain how the spectral flow for fluctutations about the thin-wall tunneling solutions automatically protects causality, for both positive and negative tension instantons. We ...

  4. Antigenic profiling of Yersinia pestis infection in the Wyoming coyote (Canis latrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernati, G.; Edwards, W.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Little, S.F.; Andrews, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Yersinia pestis is classified as a "high-virulence" pathogen, some host species are variably susceptible to disease. Coyotes (Canis latrans) exhibit mild, if any, symptoms during infection, but antibody production occurs postinfection. This immune response has been reported to be against the F1 capsule, although little subsequent characterization has been conducted. To further define the nature of coyote humoral immunity to plague, qualitative serology was conducted to assess the antiplague antibody repertoire. Humoral responses to six plasmid-encoded Y. pestis virulence factors were first examined. Of 20 individual immune coyotes, 90% were reactive to at least one other antigen in the panel other than F1. The frequency of reactivity to low calcium response plasmid (pLcr)-encoded Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA) and Yersinia outer protein D (YopD) was significantly greater than that previously observed in a murine model for plague. Additionally, both V antigen and plasminogen activator were reactive with over half of the serum samples tested. Reactivity to F1 was markedly less frequent in coyotes (35%). Twenty previously tested antibody-negative samples were also examined. While the majority were negative across the panel, 15% were positive for 1-3 non-F1 antigens. In vivo-induced antigen technology employed to identify novel chromosomal genes of Y. pestis that are up-regulated during infection resulted in the identification of five proteins, including a flagellar component (FliP) that was uniquely reactive with the coyote serum compared with immune serum from two other host species. Collectively, these data suggest that humoral immunity to pLcr-encoded antigens and the pesticin plasmid (pPst)-encoded Pla antigen may be relevant to plague resistance in coyotes. The serologic profile of Y. pestis chromosomal antigens up-regulated in vivo specific to C. latrans may provide insight into the differences in the pathogen-host responses during Y. pestis infection.

  5. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  6. Transmission of hepatitis-B virus through salivary blood group antigens in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine an association between transmission of hepatitis B virus and secretor and non-secretor status of salivary blood group antigens. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Physiology and Division of Hepatology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2007 to 2009. Methodology: Eighty eight known patients, who were positive for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen [HBsAg] were recruited. Saliva was collected for investigating the secretor and non-secretor status by using blood typing kit number Kemtec Educational Science USA. Hepatitis B Surface antigen test was performed on Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Polymerase chain reaction [PCR] on saliva was also carried out in High Performance Thermal Cycler-Palm- Cycler [Corbett Life Science, Sydney, Australia] and enzymatic amplification of extracted viral DNA was performed using primers covering the promoter of the core region of HBV. Results: Out of the 88 subjects, 61 belong to blood group O, 20 to A and 7 subjects to blood group B. Fifty subjects were secretors [salivary blood group antigens positive] and 38 subjects were non-secretors [salivary blood group antigens negative]. Among core gene positive 25 (69.4%) were secretors and 11 (30.6%) were non-secretors. However, in core gene negative 25 (48.1%) were secretors and 27 (51.9%) were non-secretors. Conclusion: The result shows an association [p=0.047] between secretor and non-secretors status of the salivary blood group antigens with core gene positive and core gene negative. (author)

  7. Sialic acid-modified antigens impose tolerance via inhibition of T-cell proliferation and de novo induction of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Ilarregui, Juan M; Verstege, Marleen I; Cornelissen, Lenneke A M; Schetters, Sjoerd T T; Engels, Steef; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; Veninga, Henrike; den Haan, Joke M M; van Berkel, Lisette A; Samsom, Janneke N; Crocker, Paul R; Sparwasser, Tim; Berod, Luciana; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van Kooyk, Yvette; Unger, Wendy W J

    2016-03-22

    Sialic acids are negatively charged nine-carbon carboxylated monosaccharides that often cap glycans on glycosylated proteins and lipids. Because of their strategic location at the cell surface, sialic acids contribute to interactions that are critical for immune homeostasis via interactions with sialic acid-binding Ig-type lectins (siglecs). In particular, these interactions may be of importance in cases where sialic acids may be overexpressed, such as on certain pathogens and tumors. We now demonstrate that modification of antigens with sialic acids (Sia-antigens) regulates the generation of antigen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells via dendritic cells (DCs). Additionally, DCs that take up Sia-antigen prevent formation of effector CD4(+) and CD8(+)T cells. Importantly, the regulatory properties endowed on DCs upon Sia-antigen uptake are antigen-specific: only T cells responsive to the sialylated antigen become tolerized. In vivo, injection of Sia-antigen-loaded DCs increased de novo Treg-cell numbers and dampened effector T-cell expansion and IFN-γ production. The dual tolerogenic features that Sia-antigen imposed on DCs are Siglec-E-mediated and maintained under inflammatory conditions. Moreover, loading DCs with Sia-antigens not only inhibited the function of in vitro-established Th1 and Th17 effector T cells but also significantly dampened ex vivo myelin-reactive T cells, present in the circulation of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data indicate that sialic acid-modified antigens instruct DCs in an antigen-specific tolerogenic programming, enhancing Treg cells and reducing the generation and propagation of inflammatory T cells. Our data suggest that sialylation of antigens provides an attractive way to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance. PMID:26941238

  8. Review of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    development of antibodies and shedding of detectable amounts of MAP. At present, available diagnostic assays are limited by the lack of MAP specific antigens included in these assays resulting in poor specificity. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of diagnostic MAP antigen...... candidates described to date with special emphasis on antigen candidates tested for CMI responses. Relevant information on 115 different MAP antigens was systematically extracted from literature and summarized in 6 tables of CMI antigens, secreted antigens, cell wall and membrane antigens, lipoprotein...... antigens, heat shock antigens and hypothetical antigens. Strategies for evaluation of novel antigen candidates are discussed critically. Relatively few of the described antigens were evaluated for their use in CMI based diagnostic assays and so far, no obvious candidate has been identified for this...

  9. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen ...

  10. Serological analysis of cell surface antigens of null cell acute lymphocytic leukemia by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, R; Tanimoto, M; Takahashi, T.; Ogata, S; Nishida, K; Namikawa, R.; Nishizuka, Y; Ota, K.

    1982-01-01

    Nine antigens systems were defined. Two were related to HLA-A,B,C and to Ia-like antigens; the others could be grouped into three categories. (i) NL-22, NL-1: NL-22 antibody reacted with leukemia cells from 12 to 16 cases of null cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (null-ALL) but not with any other type of leukemia tested or with lymphoid cells of various origins. Among cultured cell lines tested, one (NALM-6) of three null-ALL cell lines was positive, the others were negative. Absorption analysi...

  11. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation

  12. Further characterization of filarial antigens by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Dissanayake, S.; Galahitiyawa, S. C.; Ismail, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of an antigen isolated from sera of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected patients and Setaria digitata antigen SD2-4 is reported. Both antigens showed carbohydrate (glycoprotein) staining. The W. bancrofti antigen had an apparent relative molecular mass of 35 000 while the S. digitata antigen SD2-4 migrated at the marker dye position on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SDS treatment of these antigens did not abolish the precipita...

  13. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

    OpenAIRE

    A Jafarzadeh; Kazemi Arababadi, M; M. Mirzaee A. Pourazar

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive ...

  14. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using crude Leishmania and recombinant antigens as a diagnostic marker for canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Yoshie do Rosário

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The performances of ELISA assays with different antigen preparations, such as Leishmania amazonensis or L. chagasi lysates and the recombinant antigens rK-39 and rK-26, were compared using sera or eluates from dried blood collected on filter paper to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Brazil. Of 115 IFAT-reactive dogs at 1:40 titre, 106 (92.2% were positive in parasitological exams (skin and/or spleen. These animals were compared to healthy animals (n = 25, negative for IFAT at a titre of 1:40 and parasitological exams. The sensitivities of crude and recombinant antigens were similar and remarkably high for both sera and eluates (97-100%. Specificity was higher than 96% for sera and eluates for different antigens, except for L. chagasi antigen using eluates (88%. Concordance values among the tests were higher either for sera or eluates (J = 0.95-1.00. High concordances were observed between sera and eluates tested with different antigens (kappa = 0.93-0.97. Crude and recombinant antigens identified different clinical phases of canine leishmaniasis. These results show that eluates could be used in canine surveys to identify L. chagasi infection. Recombinant antigens added little when compared to crude antigen in identifying positive dogs. Cross-reactivity with other diseases whose distribution often overlaps VL-endemic areas is a limitation of crude antigen use however.

  15. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A.; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R.; Crispe, I. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nano-scale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The con...

  16. Barriers to antigenic escape by pathogens: trade-off between reproductive rate and antigenic mutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bush Robin M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A single measles vaccination provides lifelong protection. No antigenic variants that escape immunity have been observed. By contrast, influenza continually evolves new antigenic variants, and the vaccine has to be updated frequently with new strains. Both measles and influenza are RNA viruses with high mutation rates, so the mutation rate alone cannot explain the differences in antigenic variability. Results We develop a new hypothesis to explain antigenic stasis versus change. We first note that the antigenically static viruses tend to have high reproductive rates and to concentrate infection in children, whereas antigenically variable viruses such as influenza tend to spread more widely across age classes. We argue that, for pathogens in a naive host population that spread more rapidly in younger individuals than in older individuals, natural selection weights more heavily a rise in reproductive rate. By contrast, pathogens that spread more readily among older individuals gain more by antigenic escape, so natural selection weights more heavily antigenic mutability. Conclusion These divergent selective pressures on reproductive rate and antigenic mutability may explain some of the observed differences between pathogens in age-class bias, reproductive rate, and antigenic variation.

  17. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of backreactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as $B$ in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact $B^2$ scaling of the probe limit resul...

  18. Think (Gram) negative!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main driver of antibiotic resistance, which again increases broad spectrum antibiotic use, resulting in a vicious circle that is difficult to interrupt. The present commentary highlights important findings of a surveillance study of antimicrobial use and resistance in German ICUs over 8 years with a focus on Gram-negative resistance. PMID:20587087

  19. Negative und positive Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Scharpf, F.

    2008-01-01

    Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den Wirkungen der europäischen Integration auf das Grundproblem traditioneller wie moderner Politischer Ökonomie: Die Arbeitsteilung zwischen Staat und Markt. Im Mittelpunkt steht die "negative Integration" und ihr einzigartiger Erfolg bei der Beseitigung der in den Nachkriegsjahrzehnten gewonnenen Kontrolle des Nationalstaates über seine ökonomischen Außengrenzen. Durch die "Konstitutionalisierung" des Wettbewerbsrechts haben die Europäische Kommission ...

  20. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction...

  1. Negative agency costs

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Thépot

    2009-01-01

    Managerial opportunism is commonly considered as destructive for the parties involved in an agency relationship. Using a close formulation to Jensen and Meckling’s equity model, we consider an agency relationship between a manager and an investor. The latter is assumed to benefit from a market power through external funding opportunities. For high values of the prevailing rate of interest, we prove that the agency costs can be negative, either when the manager or the investor acts as the lead...

  2. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens

  3. Variations in O-antigen biosynthesis and O-acetylation associated with altered phage sensitivity in Escherichia coli 4s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knirel, Yuriy A; Prokhorov, Nikolai S; Shashkov, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Liu, Bin; Kostryukova, Elena S; Larin, Andrey K; Golomidova, Alla K; Letarov, Andrey V

    2015-03-01

    The O polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (O antigen) of Gram-negative bacteria often serves as a receptor for bacteriophages that can make the phage dependent on a given O-antigen type, thus supporting the concept of the adaptive significance of the O-antigen variability in bacteria. The O-antigen layer also modulates interactions of many bacteriophages with their hosts, limiting the access of the viruses to other cell surface receptors. Here we report variations of O-antigen synthesis and structure in an environmental Escherichia coli isolate, 4s, obtained from horse feces, and its mutants selected for resistance to bacteriophage G7C, isolated from the same fecal sample. The 4s O antigen was found to be serologically, structurally, and genetically related to the O antigen of E. coli O22, differing only in side-chain α-D-glucosylation in the former, mediated by a gtr locus on the chromosome. Spontaneous mutations of E. coli 4s occurring with an unusually high frequency affected either O-antigen synthesis or O-acetylation due to the inactivation of the gene encoding the putative glycosyltransferase WclH or the putative acetyltransferase WclK, respectively, by the insertion of IS1-like elements. These mutations induced resistance to bacteriophage G7C and also modified interactions of E. coli 4s with several other bacteriophages conferring either resistance or sensitivity to the host. These findings suggest that O-antigen synthesis and O-acetylation can both ensure the specific recognition of the O-antigen receptor following infection by some phages and provide protection of the host cells against attack by other phages. PMID:25512310

  4. Detection of HIV-1 antigen based on magnetic tunnel junction sensor and magnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Zhou, Y; Pong, P W T

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it is evidenced that the individuals newly infected HIV are transmitting the virus prior to knowing their HIV status. Identifying individuals that are early in infection with HIV antibody negative (window period) remains problematic. In the newly infected individuals, HIV antigen p24 is usually present in their serum or plasma 7-10 days before the HIV antibody. After antibody production initiates, the p24 antigen is bound into immune complexes. That means the detectable p24 antigens in serum/plasma are short-lived, and their amount is in the pg/ml range. Thus, a rapid quantitative bio-detection system with high-sensitivity is required to achieve early disease diagnosis. Magnetoresistive (MR) biosensor with ultra-high sensitivity possesses great potential in this area. In this study, a p24 detection assay using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensor and 20-nm magnetic nanoparticles is reported.

  5. Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pereira Silva

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum IgG antibodies in Western blotting (WB using a Strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. In addition, the WB results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT results. Serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, and 40 healthy individuals. S. ratti was obtained from fecal culture of experimentally infected Rattus rattus. For IFAT, S. ratti larvae were used as antigen and S. ratti larval antigenic extracts were employed in WB and ELISA. Eleven S. ratti antigenic components were predominantly recognized by IgG antibodies in sera of patients with strongyloidiasis. There was a positive concordance for the three tests in 87.5% of the cases of strongyloidiasis. The negative concordance in the three tests was 94% and 97.5%, in patients with other intestinal parasitoses and healthy individuals, respectively. In cases of positive ELISA and negative IFAT results, diagnosis could be confirmed by WB. ELISA, IFAT, and WB using S. ratti antigens showed a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, WB using S. ratti larval extract was able to recognize 11 immunodominant antigenic components, showing to be a useful tool to define the diagnosis in cases of equivocal serology.

  6. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells mm9 All antigens Blood CD4 CD8 double negative...692954,SRX692966 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells mm9 All antigens Blood CD4 CD8 double negative...091667,SRX091665 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells mm9 All antigens Blood CD4 CD8 double negative...091663,SRX091665 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells mm9 All antigens Blood CD4 CD8 double negative...692952,SRX692966 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4_CD8_double_negative_cells.bed ...

  10. Distribution of H.pylori antigens in gastric mucosa and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆新良; 钱可大; 唐训球; 朱永良

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of H.p),lori antigens in the gastric mucosa in patients with H.pylori infection, and the relationship between the distribution and gastric cancer. Methods: Of 112 patients confirmed by pathological study to have chronic superficial gastritis, precancerous changes (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or atypical hyperplasia) and gastric cancer, 28 were H.pylori negative and 84 were H.pylori positive. H.pylori antigens in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: The H.pylori positive group, comprised 12 of 22 (50.0%) in the chronic superficial gastritis group, 22 of 25 (88.0%) in the precancerous changes group and 13 of 35 (37.1%) in the gastric cancer group. The positive rates of H.pylori antigens in the cytoplasm progressively increased, respectively at 0.0% (0/12), 63.6% (14/22) and 84.6% (11/13) for the same groups (χ2= 19.76, P=0.000); H.pylori antigens were located in the mucus layer and above the neck of the mucosal gland in 9 of 12 (75.0%) cases with chronic superficial gastritis, at the neck of the mucosal gland and the isthmus in 12 of 22 (54.5%) cases with precancerous changes, below the isthmus in 9 of 13 (69.2%) cases with gastric cancer (χ2=25.30, P=0.000). In the H.pvlori negative group, no H.pylori antigen was observed. Conclusion: With the progression of chronic superficial gastritis→precancerous changes→gastric cancer, H.pylori antigens progressively migrated from the outer part to the inner part of the cell, and from the superficial to the deep gastric mucosa.

  11. Distribution of H.pylori antigens in gastric mucosa and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆新良; 钱可大; 唐训球; 朱永良

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of H. pylori antigens in the gastric mucosa in patients with H. pylori infection, and the relationship between the distribution and gastric cancer. Methods: Of 112 patients confirmed by pathological study to have chronic superficial gastritis, precancerous changes (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or atypical hyperplasia) and gastric cancer, 28 were H. pylori negative and 84 were H. pylori positive. H. pylori antigens in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: The H. pylori positive group, comprised 12 of 22 (50.0%) in the chronic superficial gastritis group, 22 of 25 (88.0%) in the precancerous changes group and 13 of 35 (37.1%) in the gastric cancer group. The positive rates of H. pylori antigens in the cytoplasm progressively increased, respectively at 0.0% (0/12),63.6% (14/22) and 84.6% (11/13) for the same groups (χ2=19.76, P=0.000); H.pylori antigens were located in the mucus layer and above the neck of the mucosal gland in 9 of 12 (75.0%) cases with chronic superficial gastritis, at the neck of the mucosal gland and the isthmus in 12 of 22 (54.5%) cases with precancerous changes, below the isthmus in 9 of 13 (69.2%) cases with gastric cancer (x2=25.30, P=0.000). In the H. pylori negative group, no H.pylori antigen was observed. Conclusion: With the progression of chronic superficial gastritis→precancerous changes→gastric cancer, H. pylori antigens progressively migrated from the outer part to the inner part of the cell, and from the superficial to the deep gastric mucosa.

  12. Mapping Epitopes on a Protein Antigen by the Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmerson, Ronald; Paterson, Yvonne

    1986-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody bound to a protein antigen decreases the rate of proteolytic cleavage of the antigen, having the greatest effect on those regions involved in antibody contact. Thus, an epitope can be identified by the ability of the antibody to protect one region of the antigen more than others from proteolysis. By means of this approach, two distinct epitopes, both conformationally well-ordered, were characterized on horse cytochrome c.

  13. MYELIN ANTIGEN LOAD INFLUENCES ANTIGEN PRESENTATION AND SEVERITY OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTOIMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Jaini, Ritika; Popescu, Daniela C.; Flask, Chris A.; Macklin, Wendy B.; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to understand the impact of self-antigen load on manifestation of organ specific autoimmunity. Using a transgenic mouse model characterized by CNS hypermyelination, we show that larger myelin content results in greater severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis attributable to an increased number of microglia within the hypermyelinated brain. We conclude that a larger self-antigen load affects an increase in number of tissue resident antigen presenting cells...

  14. Tales of Antigen Evasion from CAR Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Both T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors and tumor-specific antibodies can successfully target some malignancies, but antigen escape can lead to relapse. Two articles in this issue of Cancer Immunology Research explore what effective countermeasures may prevent it. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 473-473. ©2016 AACRSee articles by Zah et al., p. 498, and Rufener et al., p. 509. PMID:27252092

  15. Antigen detection for human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Harry, D J; Jennings, M B; Yee, J.; Carlson, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The recent development of enzyme immunoassay procedures for the direct determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens has been of significant benefit in both clinical and research applications. The historical development of HIV antigen assays as well as their current and future applications for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory are reviewed. A detailed description of selected commercially available assays is presented, and a comparison is made of various parameters, in...

  16. Characterization of an antigenically distinct porcine rotavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, J C; Clarke, I. N.; McCrae, M A

    1982-01-01

    A porcine virus with rotavirus morphology, which was antigenically unrelated to previously described rotaviruses, is described. Particles with an outer capsid layer measured 75 nm and those lacking the outer layer were 63 nm in diameter. Particles which resembled cores were also identified. The virus was shown to be antigenically distinct from other rotaviruses as judged by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy, and it failed to protect piglets from challenge with porcine rotaviru...

  17. Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbour, A. G.; Restrepo, B I

    2000-01-01

    Several pathogens of humans and domestic animals depend on hematophagous arthropods to transmit them from one vertebrate reservoir host to another and maintain them in an environment. These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of transmission. By convergent evolution, bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. Borrelia spp. and Anaplasma marg...

  18. Negative refractive index metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie J. Padilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.

  19. Negatively buoyant starting jets

    OpenAIRE

    Marugán-Cruz, C.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2009-01-01

    The initial development of negatively buoyant jets has been investigated experimentally and numerically, focusing on the role played by gravity in the evolution of the leading vortex ring. Under the experimental conditions considered in this work, the densimetric Froude number, Fr= ρjU²j/[(ρ₀ − ρj) gD] , which represents the ratio between the jet momentum and the buoyancy forces, emerges as the most relevant parameter characterizing the dynamics of the flow. Two different flow regimes h...

  20. "Enzyme-Linked Immunotransfer Blot Analysis of Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Fasciola hepatica in Diagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis, a liver disease in most part of the world and particularly in north of Iran. Diagnosis of the diseases is anchored in coprological manner but serological methods are preferable due to some obscurities. In this study, sera obtained from human patients infected with Fasciola hepatica were tested by the enzymelinked immunotrotransfer blot (EITB technique with the parasite s somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. The study included sera from 40 patients infected with F. hepatica, 20 infected with hydatidosis, 6 with toxocariasis, 10 with strongyloidiasis, 10 with amoebiasis, 5 with malaria and 30 normal controls. By this assay, most pf the serum samples from humans with fascioliasis recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 27 and 29 kDa using both antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for somatic antigen were 91.0%, 96.2%, 95.2% and 92.7% respectively, while these parameters as for ES antigen were 95.2%, 98.0%, 97.5% and 96.2%, correspondingly. Totally, two cases of reactions for the first antigen and one for the latter were verified. The study suggests that the 27 and 29 kDa bands for two antigens in EITB test could be considered for the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  1. Use of radiolabeled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen for the detection and localization of diverse cancers by external photoscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether tumors containing carcinoembryonic antigen could be detected by administration of a radiolabeled, affinity-purified, goat IgG having 70% immunoreactivity against carcinoembryonic antigen, 18 patients with a history of cancer of diverse histopathology received an average total dose of 1.0 mCi of 131I-labeled IgG. Total-body photoscans were performed with a gamma scintillation camera at various intervals after administration of the radioactive antibody. Ordinary photoscans proved difficult to interpret because of blood-pool background radioactivity, thus necessitating the computer subtraction of radioactive blood-pool agents from the antibody's 131I activity. Tumor location could be demonstrated at 48 hours after injection in almost all cases studied. The scans were negative in patients without demonstrable tumors or with tumors apparently devoid of carcinoembryonic antigen. Circulating antigen levels of up to 350 ng per milliliter did not prevent successful tumor imaging after injection of the radioantibody

  2. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  3. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  4. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  5. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  6. Polarized negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H- and D- beams in excess of 10 μA can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 μA, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized 3He- ions is followed by some concluding remarks

  7. Influence of various desinfectants on the radioimmuno-assay for Australia antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At normal room temperature dilution series were produced out of pooled serum, serum previously treated with UV irradiation and beta propiolacton, and serum of patients with hepatitis type B and various desinfectants. After differing incubation times the Australia antigen titre was measured in the radioimmunoassay. Electronmicroscopic examinations should detect possible morphologic changes of the Dane particles. The counts/min. measured for Australia antigen after an incubation with aldehyde-containing preparations, are below the limit value with serum treated previously with UV light and beta propiolacton; in negative Australia-antigen-positive serum the counts/min. are close to the limit value. The antigenity is clearly reduced. The comparison with an insulin containing serum showed that also the radioimmunoassay was influenced by the aldehyde. A direct influence of the aldehydes on the protein seems to be possible. From this results that the radioimmunoassay for Australia antigen cannot be used as the exclusive method for measuring the efficacy of desinfectants compared to Dane particles. The morphologic changes of the Dane particles observed in the electronic microscope confirm the supposition that the desinfectants influence the hepatitis viruses. (orig./MG)

  8. Use of antigens labelled with radioisotopes in serological epidemiology. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief status report of intended cooperative projects is presented. Some sera were available for testing diptheria, tetanus, smallpox and typhoid antibody formation. Some very preliminary work was carried out on the diagnosis of staphyloenterotoxicosis. A preliminary report on radioisotope-labelled cercarial antigens has been published elsewhere. Lipopolysaccharide complexes were labelled with 14C-sodium acetate for studying sera in diseases caused by gram-negative cocci (meningococci and gonococci). Leptospiral antigens were studied using 14C-glucose. Of the other Trepanomataceae, borreliae and the cultivable syphilis T. pallidum were tested, using 14C-amino acid mixture. The study of trypanosomes was continued. Labelling with 125I proved effective but the antigens could also be labelled with 14C (borohydrate- 14C-formaldehyde). In schistosomiasis, defatted cercariae were used as antigen. Malarial diagnosis with the aid of Plasmodium knowlesi and Pl. gallinarum as antigens for human Plasmodia proved inconclusive. Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin was successfully labelled with 125I. Progress was achieved in viral diagnosis by using the inhibition test (influenza A virus and vaccinia virus being used as models for RNA and DNA viruses, respectively)

  9. Performance of cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay using saliva in Ugandans with CD4 <100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kwizera

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis can best be diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid India ink microscopy, cryptococcal antigen detection, or culture. These require invasive lumbar punctures. The utility of cryptococcal antigen detection in saliva is unknown. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the point-of-care cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CrAg LFA in saliva.We screened HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy naïve persons with symptomatic meningitis (n = 130 and asymptomatic persons with CD4+<100 cells/µL entering into HIV care (n = 399 in Kampala, Uganda. The diagnostic performance of testing saliva was compared to serum/plasma cryptococcal antigen as the reference standard.The saliva lateral flow assay performance was overall more sensitive in symptomatic patients (88% than in asymptomatic patients (27%. The specificity of saliva lateral flow assay was excellent at 97.8% in the symptomatic patients and 100% in asymptomatic patients. The degree of accuracy of saliva in diagnosing cryptococcosis and the level of agreement between the two sample types was better in symptomatic patients (C-statistic 92.9, κ-0.82 than in asymptomatic patients (C-statistic 63.5, κ-0.41. Persons with false negative salvia CrAg tests had lower levels of peripheral blood CrAg titers (P<0.001.There was poor diagnostic performance in testing saliva for cryptococcal antigen, particularly among asymptomatic persons screened for preemptive treatment of cryptococcosis.

  10. Moral expressivism and sentential negation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This paper advances three necessary conditions on a successful account of sentential negation. First, the ability to explain the constancy of sentential meaning across negated and unnegated contexts (the Fregean Condition). Second, the ability to explain why sentences and their negations are inconsistent, and inconsistent in virtue of the meaning of negation (the Semantic Condition). Third, the ability of the account to generalize regardless of the topic of the negated sentence (the Generalit...

  11. STANDARDIZATION OF PROCEDURES OF Plasmodium falciparum ANTIGEN PREPARATION FOR SEROLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVILA Sandra L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to standardize the technical variables for preparation and storage of Plasmodium falciparum and of antigen components extracted with the amphoteric detergent Zwittergent. P. falciparum obtained from in vitro culture was stored at different temperatures and for different periods of time. For each variable, antigen components of the parasite were extracted in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors and submitted or not to later dialysis. Products were stored for 15, 30 and 60 days at different temperatures and immunological activity of each extract was determined by SDS-PAGE and ELISA using positive or negative standard sera for the presence of IgG directed to blood stage antigens of P. falciparum. Antigen extracts obtained from parasites stored at -20oC up to 10 days or at -70oC for 2 months presented the best results, showing well-defined bands on SDS-PAGE and Western blots and presenting absorbance values in ELISA that permitted safe differentiation between positive and negative sera.

  12. A microwave antigen retrieval method using two heating steps for enhanced immunostaining on aldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Cong, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Ying-Ying; Zhai, Xiao-Yue

    2016-06-01

    Antigen retrieval is an immunohistochemical procedure that results in better exposure of target antigens in aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections to antibodies. However, the commercially recommended or conventional protocols for antigen retrieval do not always succeed in expressing the target antigen. Here, an improved method was developed for antigen retrieval from aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded histological sections. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), tight junction proteins Claudin-2 and Claudin-7, and water channel aquaporins in kidney tissue were selected as test antigens. Typically, PCNA and Claudin-2 and Claudin-7 show negative, weak, or nonspecific immunoreactions with conventional antigen retrieval methods using microwave heating. In the present study, microwave heating was performed twice with an interval of 30 min between the two steps to allow the buffer solution to cool. Sodium citrate buffer (10 mM sodium citrate, pH 6.0) was used for PCNA, and Tris-EDTA buffer (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.0) was used for the Claudins. Compared with conventionally prepared tissues, the tissues exhibited both enhanced and specific immunostaining, and well-preserved morphology. In conclusion, the conventional protocol could be supplemented with a second microwave heating step to improve the expression of antigens that do not respond well to the conventional method. PMID:27002723

  13. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modisa Sekhamo Motswaledi

    Full Text Available Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population.348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status.The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1.The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  14. HLA antigens in Japanese patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, K; Juji, T; Tokunaga, K; Takamizawa, M; Maeda, H; Soda, M; Nomura, Y; Segawa, M

    1990-01-01

    HLA antigens in 104 Japanese patients and 41 families with myasthenia gravis (MG) were investigated. The frequencies of DR9 and DRw13 were significantly increased in the patients who developed MG before 3 yr of age. The DQw3 antigen was positive for all the patients that developed MG before 15 yr with only one exception. All the examined cases that developed MG before 3 yr (including this DQw3 negative patient) had the same DQA and DQB DNA restriction fragments. These HLA frequencies decreased as the age of onset increased, and no significant association was observed in adult-onset MG. No patients had B8, DR3, and DQw2. The relative risk was higher for the DR9/DRw13 heterozygotes (37.4) than for DR9 (16.4) or DRw13 (7.1) in the childhood-onset MG. Statistical analysis suggested that DR9 and DRw13 (or DQw1 and DQw3) act synergistically in the disease development. Family study revealed diverse DR9 haplotypes. The most frequent DRw13 haplotype was Bw44-BFF-C4A3B1-DRw13-DQw1, which may be evolutionarily related to the caucasian B8-DR3-DQw2 haplotype. These results showed that MG in early childhood in Japanese individuals is genetically different from that in adulthood and that in caucasians. Images PMID:1974553

  15. Antigenic scheme for Citrobacter koseri (syn. C. diversus, Levinea malonatica); three new antigens recognized in strains from Israel.

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, R. J.; Rowe, B; Sechter, I; Cahan, D.; Altman, G.

    1981-01-01

    An antigenic scheme for Citrobacter koseri was described previously and consisted of 14 'O' antigens. Three additional antigens are now added to the scheme and type strains for these antigens are designated. Their origins and their biochemical and serological reactions are described.

  16. Development of tools to target antigen through mannose receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Zaigham

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are unique antigen presenting cells which play a major role in antigen presentation and initiation of the immune response by regulating B- and T- cell activation. Antigen targeting to DC receptors is an effective, safe and specific method for vaccine development. The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor expressed by subpopulations of DC and antigen targeting through MR leads to enhanced antigen uptake and presentation to T -cells. This makes MR a favourite recep...

  17. Correlation between the e-antigen, Pre-S2 antigen and DNA of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg), Pre-S1 antigen (Pre-S1), Pre-S2 antigen (Pre-S2) and DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: The blood samples of 268 cases of viral B hepatitis were collected. The HBV DNA of all samples were tested by fluorescent-quantitating PCR method, and HBeAg were assayed by time-resolved fluoro-immunoassay method, and their Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbentassay method. Results: The positive rates of HBeAg, Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 in HBV DNA positive group were 48.2%, 76.4% and 100% respectively, and 1.6%, 36.3% and 32.3% respectively in HBV DNA negative group. There was significantly difference between the HBeAg, Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 positive rates of the two groups (Chi-square test, P<0.01). Conclusions: There was positive relationship between the HBeAg, Pre-S1, Pre-S2 and DNA which all were indicators of HBV reproduction. Comparing to HBV DNA, Pre-S2 was the most, Pre-S1 the second, and HBeAg the third sensitive indicator for evaluating HBV reproduction. Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 could be used as the supplementary indicator for the reproduction of HBV. (authors)

  18. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  19. Negative Entropy of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  20. Elementary study on the antigenicity of SARS-CoV Mc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU QIONG HU; WEI ZHAO; WEN BING ZHANG; HUI JUN YAN; LI FANG JIANG; ZHI WEI LIU; ZHI HUA LIU; BEI GUO LONG

    2006-01-01

    To test the antigenic activity of M protein (Mc protein) in the inner membrane of SARS-CoV,SARS-CoV Mc protein's bases locating inside the membrane were cloned, the His-fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and analyzed for its antigenic activity. Among those 7 clinically diagnosed patients' sera, there were 5 positive and 2 negative in reaction with His-fusion protein. All of the 20 healthy persons'sera and rabbit anti-OC43 and 229E were of negative reaction with His-fusion protein. The animals immunized with His-fusion protein have produced multi-clonal antibody. The His-fusion protein could specially react with clinically diagnosed SARS patients' sera and the animals immunized with His-fusion protein could produce specifically multi-clonal antibody, but it could not react with the sera of healthy persons and the rabbit anti-OC43 and 229E.

  1. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  2. Radioimmunoassay in the detection of the hepatitis Be antigen/antibody system in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to e (anti-HBe) was developed and sera of 71 asymptomatic chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), in 44 of whom liver biopsy was obtained, were tested. In addition, testing for Dane particle associated DNA polymerase activity was performed in all sera. HBeAg was detected in 14 subjects (19.7%) and anti-HBe in 46 (64.8%). The highest proportion of HBeAg positivity (40%) was found among carriers with histological evidence of chronic hepatitis, whereas anti-HBe was present in 80% of carriers with normal liver histology, in 58% of carriers with non-specific reactive hepatitis and in 60% of carriers with chronic liver lesions. DNA polymerase activity was present in 92.8% of sera positive for HBeAg, in 13% of sera positive for anti HBe, and in 9% of sera negative for both markers. Our results demonstrate that not all HBsAg carriers reactive to HBeAg show evidence of chronic hepatitis nor, conversely, that anti-HBe is invariably associated with the healthy carrier state of HBsAg. Finally, circulating Dane particles, as revealed by the presence of serum specific DNA polymerase activity, may also be present in anti-HBe positive sera other than those of some HBsAg carriers lacking both HBeAg and anti-HBe. (orig.)

  3. Improvement in the specificity of assays for detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Weare, J A; Robertson, E F; Madsen, G; Hu, R; Decker, R H

    1991-01-01

    Reducing agents dramatically alter the specificity of competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). A specificity improvement was demonstrated with a new assay which utilizes microparticle membrane capture and chemiluminescence detection as well as a current radioimmunoassay procedure (Corab: Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). The effect was most noticeable with elevated negative and weakly reactive samples. In both systems, reductants increased separation of a...

  4. Isoniazid induces expression of the antigen 85 complex in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Garbe, T R; Hibler, N S; Deretic, V

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to isoniazid induced the expression of several secreted proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses indicated that two of the prominent isonicotinic acid hydrazide-inducible polypeptides were members of the antigen 85 complex, recently demonstrated to have mycolyltransferase activity. We postulate the existence of an intermediate, whose production is inhibited by isonicotinic acid hydrazide, which plays a negative feedback...

  5. Slime Production and Expression of the Slime-Associated Antigen by Staphylococcal Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ammendolia, M. G.; R. Di Rosa; Montanaro, L; Arciola, C. R.; Baldassarri, L.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to produce slime and to express a slime-associated antigen was examined in a collection of staphylococcal clinical isolates. Slime-producing strains were found among coagulase-negative staphylococci in percentages comparable to those reported in other studies; surprisingly, a high percentage of Staphylococcus aureus strains also were able to produce this extracellular material. In the latter case, this ability was strongly dependent on the presence of an additional carbohydrate so...

  6. Distribution of the Ca (Oxford) antigen in lung neoplasms and non-neoplastic lung tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradinas, F. J.; Boxer, G.; Bagshawe, K D

    1984-01-01

    The Ca (Oxford) antigen was originally isolated from a malignant neoplasm and with few exceptions was reported to discriminate between malignant and non-malignant neoplasms or normal tissues. Using the Ca 1 antibody we have studied the Ca distribution in 54 lung neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. Staining of tumours was very focal and the proportion of positive cells varied from about 50% for adenocarcinomas to less than 1% for oat cell carcinomas, which were often negative. F...

  7. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  8. Comparison of direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of clinical specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnich, L L; Ray, C G

    1982-01-01

    Immunofluorescence staining methods for respiratory syncytial virus antigen detection were compared. Of 50 specimens originally positive for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence and culture, 49 were positive by repeat direct immunofluorescence and 32 were positive by indirect immunofluorescence. Additional results obtained on specimens originally negative for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence, culture, or both indicate that direct immunofluorescence ...

  9. Radioimmunoassay for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated Nuclear Antigen (EBNA). Binding of iodinated antibodies to antigen immobilized in polyacrylamide gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the EBV-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA). Total homogenates of EBV-DNA and EBNA positive or negative cells were polymerized in polyacrylamide gel and compared for their ability to bind 125I-IgG prepared from anti-EBNA positive and anti-EBNA negative sera. EBNA specific binding was demonstrated and confirmed by serological and cellular specificity controls. The assay allows the quantitation of antigen or antibody even in the presence of detergents and is suitable for biochemical characterization of the antigen. Reciprocal blocking studies with extracts from different cell lines showed quantitative and qualitative differences. One part of the EBNA specificiti(es) present in the human Burkitt lymphoma derived lines RAJI, DAUDI and AW-RAMOS was lacking in B96-8, a marmoset line carrying EBV derived from a human infectious mononucleosis line. This result may reflect differences in the viral genomes derived from Burkitt lymphoma and infectious mononucleosis lines or differences in the host cells. (author)

  10. Beyond antigens and adjuvants: formulating future vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Tyson J; Zmolek, Andrew C; Irvine, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    The need to optimize vaccine potency while minimizing toxicity in healthy recipients has motivated studies of the formulation of vaccines to control how, when, and where antigens and adjuvants encounter immune cells and other cells/tissues following administration. An effective subunit vaccine must traffic to lymph nodes (LNs), activate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, and persist for a sufficient time to promote a mature immune response. Here, we review approaches to tailor these three aspects of vaccine function through optimized formulations. Traditional vaccine adjuvants activate innate immune cells, promote cell-mediated transport of antigen to lymphoid tissues, and promote antigen retention in LNs. Recent studies using nanoparticles and other lymphatic-targeting strategies suggest that direct targeting of antigens and adjuvant compounds to LNs can also enhance vaccine potency without sacrificing safety. The use of formulations to regulate biodistribution and promote antigen and inflammatory cue co-uptake in immune cells may be important for next-generation molecular adjuvants. Finally, strategies to program vaccine kinetics through novel formulation and delivery strategies provide another means to enhance immune responses independent of the choice of adjuvant. These technologies offer the prospect of enhanced efficacy while maintaining high safety profiles necessary for successful vaccines. PMID:26928033

  11. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  12. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-10-01

    The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  13. Comparison of invasive methods and two different stool antigen tests for diagnosis of H pylori infection in patients with gastric bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebru Demiray; (O)zlem Yilmaz; Cihat (S)arki(s); Müjde Soytürk; (I)lkay (S)im(s)ek

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare two different H pylori stool antigen tests as noninvasive diagnostic methods.METHODS: The study population consisted of 22 upper gastrointestinal system bleeding patients. Urea breath test (UBT), rapid urease test (RUT) and histopathological examination were applied to all patients. Stool specimens from these patients were examined by rapid STRIP!HpSA and one step simple H pylori antigen cassette test for the detection of H pylori antigens.RESULTS: For these 22 patients, 15 (68.2%) were diagnosed as positive and seven (31.8%) were diagnosed negative for H pylori infection by the gold standard methods. Whereas 10 (45.5%) were positive and 12 (54.5%) were diagnosed negative by the rapid STRIP!HpSA test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 60%, 86%, 90% and 50%, respectively. When compared to the gold standard methods, these differences were not significant.However, six patients (27.3%) were positive, and 16(72.7%) were negative by the simple H pylori stool antigen cassette test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 33%, 86%, 83% and 38%, respectively. Compared to the gold standard methods, the simple H pylori stool antigen cassette test results were significantly different (P = 0.012).CONCLUSION: Rapid STRIP!HpSA test could be used as a routine diagnostic tool in the microbiology laboratory for assessing clinical significance and eradication control of H pylori in upper gastrointestinal system bleeding patients.

  14. Negative results: negative perceptions limit their potential for increasing reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Negative results are an important building block in the development of scientific thought, primarily because most likely the vast majority of data is negative, i.e., there is not a favorable outcome. Only very limited data is positive, and that is what tends to get published, albeit alongside a sub-set of negative results to emphasize the positive nature of the positive results. Yet, not all negative results get published. Part of the problem lies with a traditional mind-set and rigid publishing frame-work that tends to view negative results in a negative light, or that only tends to reward scientists primarily for presenting positive findings. This opinion piece indicates that in addition to a deficient mind-set, there are also severe limitations in the availability of publishing channels where negative results could get published. PMID:26149259

  15. Antigen sampling in the fish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkka, Guro; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2016-11-01

    Antigen uptake in the gastrointestinal tract may induce tolerance, lead to an immune response and also to infection. In mammals, most pathogens gain access to the host though the gastrointestinal tract, and in fish as well, this route seems to be of significant importance. The epithelial surface faces a considerable challenge, functioning both as a barrier towards the external milieu but simultaneously being the site of absorption of nutrients and fluids. The mechanisms allowing antigen uptake over the epithelial barrier play a central role for maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and regulate appropriate immune responses. Such uptake has been widely studied in mammals, but also in fish, a number of experiments have been reported, seeking to reveal cells and mechanisms involved in antigen sampling. In this paper, we review these studies in addition to addressing our current knowledge of the intestinal barrier in fish and its anatomical construction. PMID:26872546

  16. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  18. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerbase-DeLima

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

  19. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  20. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  1. Human Schistosoma haematobium antifecundity immunity is dependent on transmission intensity and associated with immunoglobulin G1 to worm-derived antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; van Dam, Govert J.;

    2014-01-01

    -worm-derived antigen. METHODS: For a Malian cohort (age, 5-29 years) residing in high-transmission fishing villages or a moderate-transmission village, worm fecundity was assessed using the ratio of urinary egg excretion to levels of circulating anodic antigen, a Schistosoma-specific antigen that is steadily secreted...... children, host age and transmission were negatively associated with worm fecundity. A significant interaction term between host age and transmission indicates that antifecundity immunity develops earlier in high-transmission areas. SWA immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) levels explained the effect of transmission on...

  2. Use of novel recombinant antigens in the interferon gamma assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, C.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    of the study were to evaluate immunogenicity and specificity of 14 novel recombinant antigens for use in the IFN-¿ assay and to assess the consistency of IFN-¿ responses with repeated samplings. The antigens used were 4 ESAT-6 family members, 4 latency proteins, 4 secreted proteins including Ag85B, 3...... were positive to PPDj were non-cases and one case was negative to PPDj but positive to all other tested antigens. Furthermore, PPDj produced elevated IFN-¿ responses in both the infected and non-infected herds and showed low consistency. Immunogenicity was highest for the group of latency proteins (0...

  3. Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Perdikaris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe or antigens (HBsAg in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg. The observed response was rapid (45 sec and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed.

  4. Expression of gastric cancer-associated MG7 antigen in gastric cancer, precancerous lesions and H. pylori-associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Li Guo; Ming Dong; Lan Wang; Li-Ping Sun; Yuan Yuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the antigen MG7 antigen expression and gastric cancer as well as precancerous condition; to study the relationship between the MG7 antigen expression and H. pyloriinfection in benign gastric lesions in order to find out the effect of H. pylori infection on the process of gastric cancer development.METHODS: The level of MG7 antigen expression was determined by immunohistochemical method in 383 gastric biopsied materials. The intestinal metaplasia was determined by histochemistry method. The H. pyloriinfection was determined by HE stain, PCR and ELISA in 291 specimens, among which only 34 cases of H. pylori-associated gastric lesions were followed up.RESULTS: The positive rate of MG7 expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric cancer increased gradually in ascending order (P<0.01). The positive rate of MG7 antigen expression in type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was higher than that of type Ⅰand Ⅱ intestinal metaplasia, being highly significant (P<0.05).The positive rate of MG7 antigen expression in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer increased gradually (11.9 %, 64.8 %, 91.2 %, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between H.pylori-negative and H. pyloripositive intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and dysplasia of gastric epithelium in the positive rate of MG7 antigen expression. There was no expression of MG7 antigen in H. pylori-negative superficial gastritis. The positive rate of MG7 expression in H. pylori-positive superficial gastritis was 20.5 %, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.05). During following up, one of the three H. pylori negative cases turned positive again, and its MG7 antigen expression turned to be stronger correspondingly. 3 of 31 H. pyloripositive cases were detected as early gastric cancer, among which one with "+++" MG7 antigen expression was diminished after H. pylori

  5. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...

  6. Cytostructural Localization of a Tumor-Associated Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Donald R.; Batsakis, John G.

    1980-10-01

    Tumor cell membrane glycoproteins may be involved in the induction of tumor immunity or in the escape of tumors from immunologic defense mechanisms. Forty-four benign and malignant breast lesions were examined for the presence of a carbohydrate precursor antigen (T antigen) of the human blood group system MN. T antigen was demonstrated by means of an immunohistochemical technique to detect tissue binding of peanut agglutinin, a plant lectin, with affinity for T antigen. Malignant breast lesions showed a pattern of T antigen expression different from that of benign breast tissues. A possible role for T antigen in the modulation of the immune response to breast carcinoma is suggested.

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Monitoring Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses Using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Devin B.; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry-, ELISA-, and ELISpot-based in vitro assays have played important roles in assessing the frequencies and functional competence of antigen-specific T cells in the setting of infectious disease and cancer. Such methods have helped in the development of antigen-specific vaccines for human disease prevention/treatment and have also served as a foundation for the monitoring of patients’ immune responsiveness based on antigen-induced T cell expression of effector molecules (such as cytokines, chemokines, or proteins associated with cytolysis) as a consequence of therapeutic intervention. The following method outlines a protocol employing quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with SYBR® green technology to examine antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses based on their rapid up-regulation of IFN-γ mRNA transcription following in vitro stimulation with peptide (antigen)-loaded, autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The advantages of the current qRT-PCR approach over protein-based detection methods include the sensitivity to distinguish resident CD8+ T cell responses against multiple antigens without the need to artificially pre-expand T cell numbers ex vivo, as is commonly required for the latter in vitro assay systems. Following qRT-PCR setup and run, the level of human IFN-γ transcript is normalized to CD8 transcript expression level, with data reported as the relative fold change in this index versus a patient-matched PBMC sample stimulated with a negative control peptide (e.g., HIV NEF). PMID:25149303

  9. Immunocapture and Identification of Cell Membrane Protein Antigenic Targets of Serum Autoantibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Edward; Dreger, Mathias; Palace, Jackie; Vincent, Angela

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of antibodies targeting specific membrane proteins in neurological and other diseases. The target(s) of these pathogenic antibodies is known in a few diseases, usually when candidate cell surface proteins have been tested. Approaches for identifying new antigens have mainly resulted in the identification of antibodies to intracellular proteins, which are often very useful as diagnostic markers for disease but unlikely to be directly involved in disease pathogenesis because they are not accessible to circulating antibodies. To identify cell surface antigens, we developed a “conformational membrane antigen isolation and identification” strategy. First, a cell line is identified that reacts with patient sera but not with control sera. Second, intact cells are exposed to sera to allow the binding of presumptive autoantibodies to their cell surface targets. After washing off non-bound serum components, the cells are lysed, and immune complexes are precipitated. Third, the bound surface antigen is identified by mass spectrometry. As a model system we used a muscle cell line, TE671, that endogenously expresses muscle-specific tyrosine receptor kinase (MuSK) and sera or plasmas from patients with a subtype of the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis in which patients have autoantibodies against MuSK. MuSK was robustly detected as the only membrane protein in immunoprecipitates from all three patient samples tested and not from the three MuSK antibody-negative control samples processed in parallel. Of note, however, there were many intracellular proteins found in the immunoprecipitates from both patients and controls, suggesting that these were nonspecifically immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. The conformational membrane antigen isolation and identification technique should be of value for the detection of highly relevant antigenic targets in the growing number of suspected antibody-mediated autoimmune disorders. The

  10. Vaccine potential of recombinant antigens of Theileria annulata and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum against vector and parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyabal, L; Kumar, Binod; Ray, Debdatta; Azahahianambi, Palavesam; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2012-09-10

    In an attempt to develop vaccine against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Theileria annulata, three antigens were expressed in prokaryotic expression system and protective potentiality of the antigens was evaluated in cross bred calves. Two groups (grs. 1 and 4) of male cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) calves were immunized with rHaa86, a Bm86 ortholog of H. a. anatolicum, while one group of calves (gr. 2) were immunized with cocktails of two antigens viz., surface antigens of T. annulata (rSPAG1, rTaSP). One group each was kept as negative controls (grs. 3 and 5). The animals of groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged with T. annulata infected H. a. anatolicum adults while the animals of groups 1, 3, 4 and 5 were challenged with uninfected adult ticks. A significantly high (p<0.05) antibody responses to all the three antigens were detected in immunized calves, but the immune response was comparatively higher with rHaa86 followed by rTaSP and rSPAG1. Upon challenge with T. annulata infected ticks, animals of all groups showed symptoms of the disease but there was 50% survival of calves of group 1 while all non immunized control calves (group 3) and rSPAG1+rTaSP immunized calves died. The rHaa86 antigen was found efficacious to protect calves against more than 71.4-75.5% of the challenge infestation. The experiment has given a significant clue towards the development of rHaa86 based vaccine against both H. a. anatolicum and T. annulata. PMID:22546546

  11. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and truncated V antigens protects animals against lethal plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, B; Berlier, W; Osorio, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis.. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  12. A Recombinant Raccoon Poxvirus Vaccine Expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and Truncated V Antigens Protects Animals against Lethal Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Berlier, Willy; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas. PMID:26344891

  13. A Recombinant Raccoon Poxvirus Vaccine Expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and Truncated V Antigens Protects Animals against Lethal Plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonie E. Rocke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307—a truncated version of the V protein provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  14. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus and a double negative structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhisham; Sun, Chin-teh

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic negative bulk modulus metamaterial based on the concept of expansion chambers is proposed. It is shown that addition of a neck region to an ordinary expansion chamber improves its transmission loss characteristics at low frequencies and the resulting structure displays a negative bulk modulus behavior. Additionally, membrane based metamaterials are analyzed. Using FEM, the negative density behavior of a membrane carrying a center mass and of a tensioned membrane array is analyzed ...

  15. Antigen-sensitized CD4+CD62Llow memory/effector T helper 2 cells can induce airway hyperresponsiveness in an antigen free setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatani Katsuya

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR is one of the most prominent features of asthma, however, precise mechanisms for its induction have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that systemic antigen sensitization alone directly induces AHR before development of eosinophilic airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, which suggests a critical role of antigen-specific systemic immune response itself in the induction of AHR. In the present study, we examined this possibility by cell transfer experiment, and then analyzed which cell source was essential for this process. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA twice. Spleen cells were obtained from the mice and were transferred in naive mice. Four days later, AHR was assessed. We carried out bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL to analyze inflammation and cytokine production in the lung. Fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies were performed to identify T cells recruiting and proliferating in the lung or in the gut of the recipient. To determine the essential phenotype, spleen cells were column purified by antibody-coated microbeads with negative or positive selection, and transferred. Then, AHR was assessed. Results Transfer of spleen cells obtained from OVA-sensitized mice induced a moderate, but significant, AHR without airway antigen challenge in naive mice without airway eosinophilia. Immunization with T helper (Th 1 elicited antigen (OVA with complete Freund's adjuvant did not induce the AHR. Transferred cells distributed among organs, and the cells proliferated in an antigen free setting for at least three days in the lung. This transfer-induced AHR persisted for one week. Interleukin-4 and 5 in the BAL fluid increased in the transferred mice. Immunoglobulin E was not involved in this transfer-induced AHR. Transfer of in vitro polarized CD4+ Th2 cells, but not Th1 cells, induced AHR. We finally clarified that CD4+CD62Llow memory

  16. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus and a double negative structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Bhisham

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic negative bulk modulus metamaterial based on the concept of expansion chambers is proposed. It is shown that addition of a neck region to an ordinary expansion chamber improves its transmission loss characteristics at low frequencies and the resulting structure displays a negative bulk modulus behavior. Additionally, membrane based metamaterials are analyzed. Using FEM, the negative density behavior of a membrane carrying a center mass and of a tensioned membrane array is analyzed and the inherent similarity of the two designs is discussed. Further, the modified expansion chamber is combined with an array of stretched membranes and the resulting structure is analyzed for double negative behavior.

  18. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  19. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  20. Antigen expression on recurrent meningioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningiomas are intracranial brain tumours that frequently recur. Recurrence rates up to 20% in 20 years for benign meningiomas, up to 80% for atypical meningiomas and up to 100% for malignant meningiomas, have been reported. The most important prognostic factors for meningioma recurrence are meningioma grade, meningioma invasiveness and radicality of neurosurgical resection. The aim of our study was to evaluate the differences in antigenic expression on the surface of meningioma cells between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas. 19 recurrent meningiomas and 35 non-recurrent meningiomas were compared regarding the expression of MIB-1 antigen, progesterone receptors, cathepsin B and cathepsin L, using immunohistochemistry. MIB-1 antigen expression was higher in the recurrent meningioma group (p=0.001). No difference in progesterone receptor status between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas was confirmed. Immunohistochemical intensity scores for cathepsin B (p= 0.007) and cathepsin L (p<0.001) were both higher in the recurrent than in the non-recurrent meningioma group. MIB-1 antigen expression is higher in recurrent compared to non-recurrent meningiomas. There is no difference in expression of progesterone receptors between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas. Cathepsins B and L are expressed more in recurrent meningiomas

  1. Wegener's granulomatosis and autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, D R; Maxwell, A. P.; Watt, L

    1988-01-01

    We report five cases of Wegener's granulomatosis all of whom had clinical and histological evidence of disease activity at presentation and in whom autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens were detected. This test may prove useful for the diagnosis of this serious condition and help to monitor disease activity during treatment.

  2. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  3. Identification of Mycoplasma suis antigens and development of a multiplex microbead immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Santos, Andrea P; Timenetsky, Jorge; Bower, Leslie P; Strait, Erin; Messick, Joanne B

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to identify Mycoplasma suis antigens and develop a multiplex microbead immunoassay (MIA). A M. suis-expression library was screened for immunogens using sera from infected pigs. Based on bioinformatics, putative antigens were identified within positive inserts; gene fragments were expressed and purified as polyhistidine fusion proteins, and immunoreactivity was confirmed by Western blot. Selected antigens were used to develop a MIA. Sera from noninfected and infected pigs were used to set the median fluorescent intensity (MFI) cutoffs and as positive controls, respectively. Assay specificity was tested using sera from pigs seropositive for other pathogens (2 different pigs seropositive for each pathogen). Samples from 51 field pigs and 2 pigs during the course of acute (pig 1) and chronic (pig 2) infections were tested using MIA, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Sixteen reactive plaques (52 genes) were detected. A heat-shock protein (GrpE), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), and 4 proteins from paralogous gene families (PGFs) were identified as antigens by Western blot. While GrpE, GAPN, and 1 PGF protein were strong antigens, the others were not suitable as MIA targets. A MIA using GrpE, GAPN, and the strongly reactive PGF protein was developed. Cross-reactivity with sera from pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Porcine circovirus-2, Porcine parvovirus, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine respiratory coronavirus with this MIA was not observed. Pig 2 was consistently positive by MIA and qPCR, whereas pig 1, initially negative, seroconverted before becoming qPCR positive. Only 2 samples (from pig 1) were IHA positive. Five (9.8%) field samples were qPCR positive and 40 (78.43%) were positive for all 3 MIA antigens; however, all were IHA negative. In summary, the MIA is specific

  4. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis: specific detection of free and complex-dissociated antibodies anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Susana Imaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic test characteristics of detecting free and complex-dissociated IgG to three recombinant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B, singly and in combination, were evaluated in sera from 161 tuberculous patients [smear-positive pulmonary TB (50, smear-negative pulmonary TB (pTBsm- (60 and extrapulmonary TB (51 and 214 control patients (mycobacteriosis (14, mycoses(14, leprosy(4, other underlying diseases (82 and healthy people (100]. The individual antigens ranged from 25% to 42% in sensitivity and from 93% to 96% in specificity, while considering free IgG response. Addition of complex-dissociated antibodies against each individual antigen improved the sensitivity up to 55%. The number and levels of specific antibodies varied greatly from individual to individual. Combination of individual results for free and complex-dissociated IgG to 38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B offered 76% sensitivity and 83% specificity. When the three antigens were placed in the same well, the sensitivity was lower than that expected on the basis of single antigen (63% but with a good specificity (95%, even in the group of mycobacteriosis or mycoses. The highest contribution of complex-dissociated IgG results to free IgG results was seen for the diagnosis of pTBsm- patients. In conclusion, although neither single recombinant antigen was reactive with most sera from TB patients even after the measurement of both free and complex-dissociated antibodies, the use of multi-antigen cocktails improved the diagnostic utility of the ELISA assay, allowing the identification of almost 70% of pTBsm-, with a high level of specificity; the use of additional, well selected antigens should lead to the detection of almost all patients with TB.

  5. Cysteine proteases as potential antigens in antiparasitic DNA vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner.......En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner....

  6. Hepatosplenomegaly is associated with low regulatory and Th2 responses to schistosome antigens in childhood schistosomiasis and malaria coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Francis M.; Mwatha, Joseph K.;

    2008-01-01

    to immunological inflammation. For a cohort of school-age children, whole-blood cultures were stimulated with S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) or soluble worm antigen (SWA). Responses to SWA were found to be predominantly Th2 cytokines; however, they were not significantly associated with either...... in response to stimulation with SEA were high, and a negative association between presentation with hepatomegaly and the levels of the regulatory cytokines interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor beta(1) suggests that a possible mechanism for childhood hepatomegaly in areas where both malaria...

  7. Cell density related gene expression: SV40 large T antigen levels in immortalized astrocyte lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobberger James W

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is affected by population density. Cell density is a potent negative regulator of cell cycle time during exponential growth. Here, we asked whether SV40 large T antigen (Tag levels, driven by two different promoters, changed in a predictable and regular manner during exponential growth in clonal astrocyte cell lines, immortalized and dependent on Tag. Results Expression and cell cycle phase fractions were measured and correlated using flow cytometry. T antigen levels did not change or increased during exponential growth as a function of the G1 fraction and increasing cell density when Tag was transcribed from the Moloney Murine Leukemia virus (MoMuLV long terminal repeat (LTR. When an Rb-binding mutant T antigen transcribed from the LTR was tested, levels decreased. When transcribed from the herpes thymidine kinase promoter, Tag levels decreased. The directions of change and the rates of change in Tag expression were unrelated to the average T antigen levels (i.e., the expression potential. Conclusions These data show that Tag expression potential in these lines varies depending on the vector and clonal variation, but that the observed level depends on cell density and cell cycle transit time. The hypothetical terms, expression at zero cell density and expression at minimum G1 phase fraction, were introduced to simplify measures of expression potential.

  8. Self-Adjuvanting Bacterial Vectors Expressing Pre-Erythrocytic Antigens Induce Sterile Protection against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eBergmann-Leitner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically inactivated, Gram-negative bacteria that express malaria vaccine candidates represent a promising novel self-adjuvanting vaccine approach. Antigens expressed on particulate bacterial carriers not only target directly to antigen-presenting cells but also provide a strong danger signal thus circumventing the requirement for potent extraneous adjuvants. E. coli expressing malarial antigens resulted in the induction of either Th1 or Th2 biased responses that were dependent on both antigen and sub-cellular localization. Some of these constructs induced higher quality humoral responses compared to recombinant protein and most importantly they were able to induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in a murine model of malaria. In light of these encouraging results, two major Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine targets, the Cell-Traversal protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS fused to the Maltose-binding protein in the periplasmic space and the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP fused to the Outer membrane protein A in the outer membrane were expressed in a clinically relevant, attenuated Shigella strain (Shigella flexneri 2a. This type of live attenuated vector has previously undergone clinical investigations as a vaccine against shigellosis. Using this novel delivery platform for malaria, we find that vaccination with the whole organism represents an effective vaccination alternative that induces protective efficacy against sporozoite challenge. Shigella GeMI-Vax expressing malaria targets warrant further evaluation to determine their full potential as a dual disease, multivalent, self-adjuvanting vaccine system, against both shigellosis and malaria.

  9. A PRIMARY STUDY OF THE CORRELASTIONS BETWEEN HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN (HLA)AND OSTEOSARCOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weibin; Luo Jiong; Shen Caiwei; Cai Tidong; Yang Yuqin; Yao Fangjuan; Fan LiAn

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and osteosarcoma in Chinese Han nationality. Methods: The frequencies of HLA-A, B,DR, DQ locus antigens were tested in a group of 25osteosarcoma patients in comparison with 250 healthy controls by using complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxity technique. Both of them are Chinese Han nationality. The results were compared statistically.Results: The frequency of HLA-B35 was 0.400 in patient group, and comparing with 0.048 in controls. The relative risk of suffering from osteosarcoma in persons carrying HLA-B35 was 13.220 times as high as that in those without this antigen (P<0.01). Patients with HLA-B13 had increased in the relative risk of poor prognosis with 12.048 fold comparing with those without this antigen (P<0.05). A tendency of the worst prognosis was presented in the patients who carry both HLA-B13 and HLA-B35.For those patients with HLA-B40, the relative safety was 7.057 times higher than the negative persons (P<0.05).Conclusion: HLA-B35 is in close linkage to osteosarcoma susceptibility genes in Chinese Han nationality. HLA-B13and HLA-B40 may be associated to the malignant and resistant genes of osteosarcoma respectively.

  10. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed

  11. Multiple antigen glycopeptides (MAGs) with Tn tumour antigens and incorporated adjuvant: synthesis and immunobiological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; Kelkar, Shripad; Vepřek, Pavel; Hajdůch, M.; Sejbal, J.; Trnka, T.

    Napoli : Edizioni Ziino, 2002 - (Benedetti, E.; Pedone, C.), s. 524-525 ISBN 88-900948-1-8. [Peptides 2002. European Peptide Symposium /27./. Sorrento (IT), 31.08.2002-06.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0690 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Tn antigen * multiple antigen glycopeptide * synthetic vaccine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  12. [Identification of serological antigens in excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuegui; He, Lifang; Yuan, Shishan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Objective To isolate and identify serological antigens in the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by the combination of co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric technology. Methods The serum IgG of New Zealand rabbits infected with Trichinella spiralis was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Muscle larvaes were isolated from the infected muscle, and then purified and cultured to collect excretory-secretory antigens. Serological antigens in excretory-secretory antigens were isolated by co-immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE, and analyzed by Western blotting. Moreover, the protein bands in New Zealand rabbit sera infected with Trichinella spiralis were identified by mass spectrometric technology. Results Indirect ELISA showed that the titer of serum antibody of New Zealand rabbits infected with Trichinella spiralis was 1:6400. The rabbit serum IgG was effectively isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A total of four clear protein bands of the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis were obtained by electrophoresis. Among them, three clear protein bands with relative molecular mass (Mr) being 40 kDa, 50 kDa and 83 kDa were recognized by the rabbit sera infected with Trichinella spiralis but not recognized by the normal rabbit sera. The obtained four protein molecules were confirmed as serine protease, specific serine protease of muscle larvae, 43 kDa secreted glycoprotein and 53 kDa excretory-secretory antigen. Conclusion Four proteins were obtained from the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by combination of co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric technique analysis, which provided new sources and insights for the diagnosis and vaccine candidates of Trichinellosis. PMID:27126943

  13. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, W.; Fung, B.; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H

    1981-01-01

    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the reg...

  14. A prospective study of serum tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigens 50 and 242, tissue polypeptide antigen and tissue polypeptide specific antigen in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer with special reference to multivariate diagnostic score.

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, P. A.; Eskelinen, M.; Partanen, K.; Pikkarainen, P; Penttilä, I.; Alhava, E

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess by a stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis the value of four current serum tumour markers - carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA) 50 and CA 242 and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) - and a new serum tumour marker, tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The serum values were measured in a prospective series of patients with jaundice, with unjaundiced cholestasis and with a suspicion of chro...

  15. Single-Antigen Serological Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lawrence R.; Jones, Cynthia C.; Sherwood, Anne L.; Garkavi, Inna V.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray; Rathe, Chris V.

    2009-01-01

    Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for such responses often use multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the use of multiple antigens increases costs and the risk of false-positive results. As an alternative, the SeraLyte-Mbv system detects responses to a single M. bovis antigen, MPB83, by using a chemiluminescent testin...

  16. Pneumocystis carinii from pigs and humans are antigenically distinct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Settnes, Osvald Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Henriksen, S A; Lundgren, B

    1996-01-01

    The antigens of Pneumocystis carinii cysts isolated from pigs and humans were compared by the Western immunoblotting technique. Convalescent pig serum reacted with two antigens (approximately 78 kDa and 32.5 kDa) of porcine P. carinii cysts, whereas convalescent serum from humans did not react with...... porcine P. carinii cyst antigens. The results indicate that porcine and human P. carinii cysts are antigenically distinct....

  17. Characterization of antigens of the dog major histocompatibility complex

    OpenAIRE

    Feltz, Machteld

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, an immunochemical analysis of dog Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) antigens, also called DLA antigens, is described. MHC antigens play a prominent role in the immune system, particularly in the recognition of foreign material. They can be divided into four classes. As only DLA class I antigens have been defined by well characterized reagents (antisera), they were chosen as the object of the investigation

  18. Detection of antigens in urine during acute toxoplasmosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huskinson, J; Stepick-Biek, P; Remington, J S

    1989-01-01

    Toxoplasma antigens were detected in sera and urine of mice acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The concentrations of antigens in the urine samples measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were similar to those detected in the sera of the corresponding mice. The major antigens were not dialyzable and were largely destroyed by treatment with trichloroacetic acid and heat (100 degrees C for 1 h). Toxoplasma antigens were demonstrable on Western blots (immunoblots) of the urine samples.

  19. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with...

  20. An electromagnetic trinity from "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability"

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, A

    2001-01-01

    An electromagnetic trinity comprising vacuum, anti--vacuum, and nihility is postulated -- after making use of materials with "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability" -- to illuminate the structure of electromagnetic theory, at least insofar as the relationship of phase velocity with Poynting vector is concerned.

  1. Carbohydrate-functionalized nanovaccines preserve HIV-1 antigen stability and activate antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Ramirez, J E; Roychoudhury, R; Habte, H H; Cho, M W; Pohl, N L B; Narasimhan, B

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with ligands that target specific receptors on immune cells offers the opportunity to tailor adjuvant properties by conferring pathogen mimicking attributes to the particles. Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine adjuvants with desirable characteristics such as immunomodulation, sustained antigen release, activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stabilization of protein antigens. These capabilities can be exploited to design nanovaccines against viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, due to the important role of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in viral spread. In this work, an optimized process was developed for carbohydrate functionalization of HIV-1 antigen-loaded polyanhydride nanoparticles. The carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles preserved antigenic properties upon release and also enabled sustained antigen release kinetics. Particle internalization was observed to be chemistry-dependent with positively charged nanoparticles being taken up more efficiently by DCs. Up-regulation of the activation makers CD40 and CD206 was demonstrated with carboxymethyl-α-d-mannopyranosyl-(1,2)-d-mannopyranoside functionalized nanoparticles. The secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was shown to be chemistry-dependent upon stimulation with carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles. These results offer important new insights upon the interactions between carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles and APCs and provide foundational information for the rational design of targeted nanovaccines against HIV-1. PMID:25068589

  2. Photoaffinity labeling demonstrates binding between Ia and antigen on antigen-presenting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bind and present antigens to immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the context of Ia molecules: however, the molecular nature of the immunogenic complexes on the surface of these cells is unknown. They have used radioiodinated photoreactive Beef insulin (BI) derivatized in the B29 position with (n-[4-(4'-azido-3'-[125]iodophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropyl-n-oxy-succinimide) (B29-AZAP) as antigen to examine the nature of these molecular complexes. The probe was reacted with either of two B hybridoma APCs, TA3 (Ia/sup k/d/) and LB(Ia/sup d/b/) which present insulin on I-A/sup d/ and I-A/sub b/ respectively, to appropriately restricted, BI specific T helper lymphocytes (T/sub H/). Samples were photolyzed, solubilized and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Two protein bands of 36-kDa and 27-kDa were specifically labeled on TA3 and LB cells. Treatment of these bands with dithiothreitol or endo-N-β-glycosidase F demonstrates that each is composed of a single glycoprotein. These bands are immunoprecipitable with haplotype specific but not control anti-Ia antibodies. This identifies the labeled bands as the α- and β- subunits of class II MHC antigens. They conclude that a molecular complex may form between Ia and antigen on APCs and that formation of this complex does not require the presence of an antigen specific T/sub H/ cell receptor

  3. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  4. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  5. 21 CFR 866.3402 - Plasmodium species antigen detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. 866... Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. (a) Identification. A Plasmodium species antigen detection assay... malaria caused by the four malaria species capable of infecting humans: Plasmodium falciparum,...

  6. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408... Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall be prepared...

  7. Mapping epitopes and antigenicity by site-directed masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, Didrik; Winter, Greg

    2006-06-01

    Here we describe a method for mapping the binding of antibodies to the surface of a folded antigen. We first created a panel of mutant antigens (-lactamase) in which single surface-exposed residues were mutated to cysteine. We then chemically tethered the cysteine residues to a solid phase, thereby masking a surface patch centered on each cysteine residue and blocking the binding of antibodies to this region of the surface. By these means we mapped the epitopes of several mAbs directed to -lactamase. Furthermore, by depleting samples of polyclonal antisera to the masked antigens and measuring the binding of each depleted sample of antisera to unmasked antigen, we mapped the antigenicity of 23 different epitopes. After immunization of mice and rabbits with -lactamase in Freund's adjuvant, we found that the antisera reacted with both native and denatured antigen and that the antibody response was mainly directed to an exposed and flexible loop region of the native antigen. By contrast, after immunization in PBS, we found that the antisera reacted only weakly with denatured antigen and that the antibody response was more evenly distributed over the antigenic surface. We suggest that denatured antigen (created during emulsification in Freund's adjuvant) elicits antibodies that bind mainly to the flexible regions of the native protein and that this explains the correlation between antigenicity and backbone flexibility. Denaturation of antigen during vaccination or natural infections would therefore be expected to focus the antibody response to the flexible loops. backbone flexibility | Freund's adjuvant | conformational epitope | antisera

  8. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section 660.40...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this...

  9. Detection of Mycobacterial Antigens in Leprosy Serum Immune Complex

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The antigens from immune complexes of sera from patients with mycobacterial diseases were released by sodium dodecyl sulfate. The antigenic activity of the released proteins was tested by agar gel diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. This simple method provided direct evidence for the presence of mycobacterial antigens in the immune complexes of sera from patients with leprosy and tuberculosis.

  10. Use of magnetic nanobeads to study intracellular antigen processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanobeads were covalently linked to antigens and used as a tool to simultaneously follow their intracellular transport into the cells and specifically purify the intracellular compartments implicated in antigen processing. The protein content of these vesicles was analysed by 2D-electrophoresis. Furthermore, nanobeads allowed intracellular localisation of the antigen in electron and fluorescence microscopy

  11. Use of magnetic nanobeads to study intracellular antigen processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin-Cocon, Laure A.; Chesne, Serge; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Marche, Patrice N.; Villiers, Christian L. E-mail: christian.villiers@cea.fr

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic nanobeads were covalently linked to antigens and used as a tool to simultaneously follow their intracellular transport into the cells and specifically purify the intracellular compartments implicated in antigen processing. The protein content of these vesicles was analysed by 2D-electrophoresis. Furthermore, nanobeads allowed intracellular localisation of the antigen in electron and fluorescence microscopy.

  12. Development of a immunochromatographic test with avidin-biotin for the detection of antibodies against antigen e of hepatitis B in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disappearance of antigen e of hepatitis B in the presence of the plasmatic antibodies against antigen e may indicate a satisfactory therapeutic response in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The immuno-chromatographic test carried out in the diagnosis of diseases use different antibody combinations and may employ the avidin or streptavidin-biotin technology to develop a rapid immuno-chromatographic test for the detection of antibodies anti-antigen e in the plasma. They were detected in the laboratory by means of two fast immuno-chromatographic tests when using in one of them the avidin-biotin technology. These tests are carried out with a one-step competitive inhibition format and amplified or not with avidin-biotin. Monoclonal antibodies against antigen e obtained by cellular hybridization were used. Forty-six plasmatic samples classified as positive and negative to the anti-antigen antibodies were evaluated with a reference immunochromatographic test Advanced QualityTM. The possible expiry time of the biological reagents forming part of these tests were studied with accelerated thermal-stability experiments. The possible interference in the plasma of some of the biochemical compounds used in these trials was analyzed. Four murine monoclonal antibodies anti-antigen e were obtained and only one of them was used in these immunochromatographic tests with an anti-antigen polyclonal antibody conjugated with gold. Both tests and their stable biological reagents discriminated the positive and negative samples to the antibodies anti-antigen e, as well as the commercial test. There was no interference in the biochemical compounds studied in these tests. Both immuno-chromatographic tests made in the laboratory are useful to detect antibodies anti-antigen e in the plasma. The avidin-biotin increased the analytical sensitivity of this type of fast immuno-chromatographic test without altering its performance features. (Author)

  13. Association of HLA antigens and BCR-ABL transcripts in leukemia patients with the Philadelphia chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Landenberger de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the association between human leukocyte antigens and the bcr-abl fusion protein resulting from t(9;22(q34;q11 in chronic leukemia myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. METHODS: Forty-seven bcr-abl positive individuals were evaluated. Typing was performed bymicrolymphocytotoxicity and molecular biological methods (human leukocyte antigens Class I and Class II. A control group was obtained from the data of potential bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (REDOME. RESULTS: Positive associations with HLA-A25 and HLA-B18 were found for the b2a2 transcript, as well as a tendency towards a positive association with HLA-B40 and a negative association with HLA-A68. The b3a2 transcript showed positive associations with HLA-B40 and HLA-DRB1*3. CONCLUSION: The negative association between human leukocyte antigens and the BCR-ABL transcript suggests that binding and presentation of peptides derived from the chimeric protein are effective to increase a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response appropriate for the destruction of leukemic cells.

  14. Monoclonal antibody against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies (OV-TL 3) were raised against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens for diagnostic purposes. A cloned hybridoma cell line was obtained by fusion of murine myeloma cells with spleen lymphocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with a tumor cell suspension prepared from an ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. The antibodies were initially screened for their ability to bind on frozen sections of human ovarian carcinoma tissue and a negative reaction on gastric carcinoma tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. The reactivity of the selected OV-TL 3 clone (IgG1 subclass) was studied on normal and neoplastic tissues as well as on a cell line derived from the original tumor cell suspension used for immunization. OV-TL 3 antibodies stained frozen sections of human ovarian carcinomas of the following histological types: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell. No reaction was found with breast cancers or other nongynecological tumors. No differences in staining pattern were observed between primary and metastatic ovarian carcinomas. OV-TL 3 antibodies brightly stained ovarian carcinoma cell clusters in ascitic fluids and left unstained mesothelial cells and peripheral blood cells. The OV-TL 3-defined antigen also remained strongly expressed on a cell line derived from the endometrioid ovarian carcinoma originally used for generation of OV-TL 3 clone. Reactivity was weak and irregular in a few ovarian cysts, while traces of fluorescence were sometimes detected in epithelial cells lining the female genital tract. In only 3 specimens of 15 endometrium carcinomas was weak focal reactivity with OV-TL 3 antibodies observed. The results of the immunofluorescence study were confirmed by the more sensitive avidin-biotin method and by 125I-labeled OV-TL 3 antibodies

  15. Biochemical characterization of antigens of the blood group rhesus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human red cells of various rhesus (rh) phenotypes were surface-labelled with 125I and rh-specific labelled polypeptides were isolated by preparative SDS-PAGE. The purified rh proteins when analysed by SDS-PAGE comigrated with immunoprecipitated rh proteins and showed the characteristic properties due to their hydrophobicity. Two-dimensional iso-electric focusing/SDS-PAGE of rh proteins resulted in the pI=6,8-7,0 for all investigated rh types and did not show any separation of presumably different rh-specific polypeptide chains. The purified 125I-labelled rh proteins were subjected to limited proteolysis and the resulting fragments were analysed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Chymotryptic peptide maps of proteins obtained from rh(D)-positive and -negative types appeared to be identical, indicating a high degree of structural homology between these proteins. In contrast, the tryptic peptide maps revealed a characteristic difference: a fragment of Mr 17500 was associated with the rh(D) antigen and one of Mr 19000 with the rh(C/c, E/e) antigens. This result supports other evidence that the rh(D) protein is not identical with the rh(C/c, E/e) protein(s). Treatment of rh polypeptides with carboxypeptidase Y prior to tryptic digestion resulted in a shift of nearly all tryptic fragment, including a small fragment of Mr 8000, indicating that the surface label was incorporated into the C-terminal part of the molecules. Moreover, by chemical cleavage a cysteine-residue was identified within the C-terminal region. This region which contains both the surface label and the cysteine-residue is well suited for the location of the rh-specific epitopes. 40 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  16. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  17. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin;

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...

  18. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  19. Disease progression and search for monogenic diabetes among children with new onset type 1 diabetes negative for ICA, GAD- and IA-2 Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pörksen, Sven; Laborie, Lene; Nielsen, Lotte;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:To investigate disease progression the first 12 months after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes negative (AAB negative) for pancreatic autoantibodies [islet cell autoantibodies(ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 antibodies (I...

  20. Overlapping antigenic repertoires of variant antigens expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Staalsoe, T; Dodoo, D; Elhassan, I M; Roper, C; Satti, G M; Arnot, D E; Hviid, L; Theander, T G

    antibodies to some combinations of variant antigens but not to others. These results indicate that (1) a single infection will induce the production of antibodies recognizing several variants of surface-expressed antigens, (2) the repertoire of variable antigens expressed by different parasites is...

  1. FALSE-NEGATIVE DENGUE CASES IN RORAIMA, BRAZIL: AN APPROACH REGARDING THE HIGH NUMBER OF NEGATIVE RESULTS BY NS1 AG KITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo O. A. Acosta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 150 NS1-negative (Platelia ELISA patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the TaqMan probed real-time reverse transcription PCR (TaqMan qRT-PCR method. The qRT-PCR positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested RT-PCR and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for IgG and IgM. Molecular detection methods showed 33 (22% positive samples out of 150 NS1-antigen negative samples. Of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of symptoms, when diagnostic sensitivity of NS1-antigen test assays is significantly enhanced. Most of the cases were not characterized as secondary infection. Twenty-eight samples were successfully serotyped, 75% of which for DENV-4, 14% for DENV-2, 7% for DENV-3 and 4% for DENV-1. These findings reaffirm the hyperendemic situation of the state of Roraima and suggest a lower sensitivity of the NS1 test, mainly when DENV-4 is the predominant serotype. Health care providers should therefore be aware of samples tested negative by NS1 antigen assays, especially when clinical symptoms and other laboratory data results show evidence of dengue infection.

  2. Analysis of Negative Correlation Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zou Xiu-fen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes negative correlation learning for designing neural network ensembles. Negative correlation learning has been firstly analysed in terms of minimising mutual information on a regression task. By ninimising the mutual information between variables extracted by two neural networks, they are forced to convey different information about some features of their input. Based on the decision boundaries and correct response sets, negative correlation learning has been further studied on two pattern classification problems. The purpose of examining the decision boundaries and the correct response sets is not only to illustrate the learning behavior of negative correlation learning, but also to cast light on how to design more effective neural network ensembles. The experimental results showed the decision boundary of the trained neural network ensemble by negative correlation learning is almost as good as the optimum decision boundary.

  3. Expression and refolding of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis: A model for high-throughput screening of antigenic recombinant protein refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban Enrique; Cairó, Fabián Martín; Pettinari, María Julia

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) is a well known and relevant immunogenic protein that is the basis for both anthrax vaccines and diagnostic methods. Properly folded antigenic PA is necessary for these applications. In this study a high level of PA was obtained in recombinant Escherichia coli. The protein was initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, which facilitated its efficient purification by simple washing steps; however, it could not be recognized by specific antibodies. Refolding conditions were subsequently analyzed in a high-throughput manner that enabled nearly a hundred different conditions to be tested simultaneously. The recovery of the ability of PA to be recognized by antibodies was screened by dot blot using a coefficient that provided a measure of properly refolded protein levels with a high degree of discrimination. The best refolding conditions resulted in a tenfold increase in the intensity of the dot blot compared to the control. The only refolding additive that consistently yielded good results was L-arginine. The statistical analysis identified both cooperative and negative interactions between the different refolding additives. The high-throughput approach described in this study that enabled overproduction, purification and refolding of PA in a simple and straightforward manner, can be potentially useful for the rapid screening of adequate refolding conditions for other overexpressed antigenic proteins. PMID:26777581

  4. Soluble recombinant merozoite surface antigen-142kDa of Plasmodium vivax: An improved diagnostic antigen for vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirahmadi, Hadi; Fallahi, Shirzad; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), as a serological test, can be a beneficial tool for epidemiological studies by screening blood donors and diagnosis of specific antibodies from Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infected cases. Since P. vivax cannot easily be acquired in vitro, ELISA assays using total or semi-purified antigens are seldom used. On the basis of this restriction, we examined whether recombinant protein 42 kDa related to C-terminal region of the merozoite surface antigen-1 of P. vivax (MSA-1(42)) could be suitable for serological detection of vivax malaria infection. Purified recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) (GST-MSA-1(42)) was examined for its ability to bind to IgG antibodies of individuals with patent P. vivax infection. The method was tested with 262 serum samples collected from individuals living in the south and southeastern regions of Iran where malaria is endemic. Samples exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) infection and patients with other infectious disease (toxoplasmosis, Leishmania infantum infection, echinococcosis and FUO (fever with unknown origin)) except for P. falciparum were residing in non- malaria endemic areas in Iran. Generally, the sensitivity of ELISA evaluated with sera from naturally infected individuals was 86.9%. The specificity value of the ELISA determined with sera from healthy individuals and from individuals with other infectious diseases was 94.05%. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) provided, and the diagnostic efficiency of anti-rPvMSA-1(42) antibody using indirect ELISA were determined 93.58, 87.77 and 91.06% respectively. Our study demonstrated that, because MSA-1(42) kDa contains both the 33 and 19 kDa fragments in its structure, it can serve as the basis for the development of a sensitive serological test which can be used for epidemiological studies, screening blood donors and diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. PMID:26851675

  5. Negative refraction by photonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi

    Artificially engineered optical materials composed of nano-structures have unique optical properties which are not available with naturally occurring materials. Thanks to the rapid development in nano-fabrication and numerical modeling technologies, photonic nano-structures such as metamaterials and photonic crystals and various optical devices made by these optical materials create many novel applications and offer new prospects for manipulating light. For instance, both metamaterials and photonic crystals can exhibit negative refraction and negative refractive indexes. As a result, superlens with the capability of achieving imaging with sub-wavelength resolution can be realized. In this dissertation, a new negative index metamaterial architecture based on metallic nanoclusters, negative refraction phenomena in photonic crystals and optical devices implemented with negative index photonic crystals for imaging applications are presented. The nanocluster based metamaterials, which utilizes the magnetic Mie resonances of clusters of metallic inclusions, allow us to achieve negative index materials at optical frequency region. Meanwhile, bottom-up fabrication techniques such as self-assembly can be used, which is suitable for large-scale manufacturing and applicable to 3D structures. On the other hand, negative refraction and sub-wavelength imaging by a mechanically tunable photonic crystal structure were investigated. Using a honeycomb lattice photonic crystal composed of a silicon-polyimide membrane, a mechanically tunable superlens with a tunable frequency bandwidth was numerically demonstrated. Additionally, a graded negative index lens made of photonic crystals, which is capable of focusing plane waves, exhibits superior focusing properties such as low chromatic aberrations and broadband operation. Prisms structures made of negative index photonic crystals can offer useful imaging properties such as image inversion and magnification. These devices have the

  6. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Histo-blood group ABH (O) antigens are major alloantigens in humans. These antigens are widely distributed in human tissues and undergo changes in expression during cellular differentiation and malignant development. The ABH antigens have been characterized as terminal disaccharide determinants...... healing show similarly decreased expression of A/B antigens on migrating epithelial cells. Some studies suggest that the relationship between expression of blood group antigens and cell motility can be explained by different degrees of glycosylation of integrins. Changes in ABO expression in tumours have...

  7. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  8. Classification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Claesson, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new antigenic peptides, derived from infectious agents or cancer cells, which bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules, is of importance for the development of new effective vaccines capable of activating the cellular arm of the immune response. However, the...... barrier to the development of peptide-based vaccines with maximum population coverage is that the restricting HLA genes are extremely polymorphic resulting in a vast diversity of peptide-binding HLA specificities and a low population coverage for any given peptide-HLA specificity. One way to reduce this...... complexity is to group thousands of different HLA molecules into several so-called HLA supertypes: a classification that refers to a group of HLA alleles with largely overlapping peptide binding specificities. In this chapter, we focus on the state-of-the-art classification of HLA supertypes including HLA...

  9. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  10. "Comparison of Adult Somatic and Cysteine Proteinas Antigens of Fasciola gigantica in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and F.gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in Iran. Considering that stool examination for Fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and only 25% of infected patients pass the eggs in the faeces , and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (S and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F.gigantica in IgG-ELISA to diagnose human fasciolosis. This has been the first report on this case so far in Iran. Serum samples obtained from 178 individuals collected during the fasciolosis outbreak in 1999 in the Gilan province, northern Iran, that were coprologically positive for fasciolosis, were analyzed by IgG-ELISA for total antibody responses against (S and CP antigens from Fasciola gigantica. The cut-off points for (S and CP were 0.38 and 0.33, respectively. All cases that showed clinical manifestations of fasciolosis, were also seropositive using both (S and CP antigens whereas all 25 non-infected controls were seronegative. Therefore, the sensitivity of the test was 100% for both antigens. On the other hand the specificity of (S and CP antigens were calculated as 96.4% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the test regarding (S antigen were 97.8% and 100%, whereas these values as for CP antigen were 98.9% and 100% correspondingly. Two individuals with hydatidosis and two with toxocariasis had antibodies against (S antigen whereas concerning CP antigen, one individual with hydatidosis and another with toxocariasis showed cross reactivity against it. We have demonstrated that altogether CP antigen provide a more conclusive diagnosis as possessing lower cut-off and enabling better to discriminate between seronegative and seropositive subpopulations.This study may be useful to implement a reliable test to diagnose human fasciolosis and for seroepidmiological objectives.

  11. DETECTION OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS(CMV) IMMEDIATE EARLY ANTIGEN IN KIDNEY BIOPSIES AND TRANSPLANT NEPHRECTOMIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕航; 薛武军; 田普训; 郭奇; 何晓丽

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between CMV infection and renal allograft rejection. Methods 39 kidney biopsies and transplant nephrectomies were collected and investigated for CMV immediate early antigen by immunohistochemistry. Results In 14 out of 39 tissue specimens CMV immediate early antigen were found. 8 biopsies from normal donor kidneys were negative; only 1 (10%) in 10 tissue specimens with early stage acute rejection was positive; 5(55.6%) in 9 biopsies with late stage acute rejection and 8 (66.7%) in 12 tissue blocks with chronic rejection were positive. Compared with normal kidney tissues, the infections in tissues with early stage acute rejection didn't increase obviously, but increased obviously in kidney tissue specimens with late stage rejection and with chronic rejection (P<0.05). Conclusion CMV infection appears to contribute to late stage acute rejection and chronic rejection after renal transplantation.

  12. Autoantibodies, histocompatibility antigens and testosterone in males with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo; Bahnsen, M; Dietrichson, O; Svejgaard, A

    1981-01-01

    Titres and immunoglobulin classes of autoantibodies were examined in 69 male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the findings were related to particular human leucocyte antigens and serum concentration of testosterone. Both anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA......) were significantly more prevalent in patients with cirrhosis than in sex- and age-matched controls. Antimitochondrial antibodies and liver cell membrane antibody were found in 4% of the patients, and in none of the controls, but this difference was not significant. Patients with HLA-B8 and/or HLA-B12...... had higher titres of ANA (n.s.) and SMA (P less than 0.05) than patients without these HLA antigens. Serum concentrations of testosterone were significantly lower in ANA-positive patients than in those negative (P less than 0.05), and a similar tendency was found in SMA-positive patients. With...

  13. Further Exploration of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm: Antigen Multiplier and Time Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    As an immune-inspired algorithm, the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA), produces promising performances in the field of anomaly detection. This paper presents the application of the DCA to a standard data set, the KDD 99 data set. The results of different implementation versions of the DXA, including the antigen multiplier and moving time windows are reported. The real-valued Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA) using constant-sized detectors and the C4.5 decision tree algorithm are used, to conduct a baseline comparison. The results suggest that the DCA is applicable to KDD 99 data set, and the antigen multiplier and moving time windows have the same effect on the DCA for this particular data set. The real-valued NSA with constant-sized detectors is not applicable to the data set, and the C4.5 decision tree algorithm provides a benchmark of the classification performance for this data set.

  14. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Ngoepe; Christine Fehlner-Gardiner; Alex Wandeler; Claude Sabeta

    2014-01-01

    There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus anti...

  15. Antigenicity of low molecular weight surfactant species.

    OpenAIRE

    Strayer, D. S.; Merritt, T A; Makunike, C.; Hallman, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors tested the antigenicity of human lung surfactant isolated from amniotic fluid. Mice and rabbits were immunized. Rabbit polyclonal antisera to these surfactant preparations were absorbed with normal human plasma proteins. Polyclonal antisera reacted with both high molecular weight (35 kd) surfactant apoprotein and to lower molecular weight species, both 18 kd and 9 kd. Mice were used to generate monoclonal antibodies to surfactant. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay was used to iden...

  16. Class II HLA antigens in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D H; Hornabrook, R W; Dagger, J; Fong, R

    1989-01-01

    HLA typing in Wellington revealed a stronger association of multiple sclerosis with DR2 than with DQw1. The association with DQw1 appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium of this antigen with DR2. These results, when considered in conjunction with other studies, are most easily explained by the hypothesis that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is influenced by multiple risk factors, with DR2 being an important risk factor in Caucasoid populations. PMID:2732726

  17. Yeast retrotransposon particles as antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsman, A J; Burns, N R; Layton, G T; Adams, S E

    1995-05-31

    The development of technologies to produce recombinant proteins for use in the pharmaceutical industry has made substantial advances, in particular in the area of generating antigens containing multiple copies of important immunological regions. One such antigen-carrier system is based on the ability of a protein encoded by the yeast retrotransposon, Ty, to self-assemble into virus-like particles. Ty-fusion proteins retain this ability to form particles, and a range of hybrid VLPs carrying a variety of heterologous antigens have been produced and shown to induce potent immune responses. In particular, hybrid VLPs carrying the core protein p24 of HIV (p24-VLPs) have been shown to induce antibody and T-cell proliferative responses in both experimental animals and human volunteers, and immunization of rabbits with VLPs carrying the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV (V3-VLPs) resulted in the induction of neutralizing antibody responses and T-cell proliferation. Further studies with V3-VLPs have shown that this particulate antigen stimulates enhanced V3-specific lymphoproliferative responses as compared to whole recombinant gp120 or to V3 peptide conjugated to albumin. The V3-VLPs also induce potent CTL responses following immunization of mice in the absence of adjuvant. These responses are MHC class I restricted and are mediated by CD8-positive cells. These observations therefore demonstrate that hybrid Ty-VLPs induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against HIV and suggest that these immunogens may be important in combatting AIDS and other infections. PMID:7625653

  18. Rationalisation of Legionella Urinary Antigen Testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Breda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legionnaires’ is a severe pneumonia, the diagnosis of which can be confirmed by a positive Legionella Urinary Antigen (LUA) test. The British Thoracic Society has specific guidelines for its use. Incorrect LUA test requests can result in false-positive results while accumulating costs. Aims and Objectives: The aim is the rationalisation of LUA testing. The first objective is to educate clinicians on indications for testing reducing unnecessary orders. The second is to develop...

  19. The role of antigen in the development of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogeboom, R.

    2013-01-01

    These studies strongly suggest that MALT-lymphomas and M-CLL in majority are highly selected for single extrinsic antigens and that these antigens can be both self-antigens and exo-antigens. Our finding that primary CLL cells are responsive to stimulation with their cognate antigen suggests that antigen-dependent BCR signaling may drive CLL expansion in vivo.

  20. Field evaluation of latex agglutination test for detecting urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safi, S H; Abdel-Haleem, A; Hammad, A; El-Basha, I; Omer, A; Kareem, H G; Boelaert, M; Chance, M; Hommel, M

    2003-07-01

    A latex agglutination test to detect urinary antigens for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was studied. In 204 patients with suspected VL, KAtex had a sensitivity of 95.2% with good agreement with microscopy smears but poor agreement with 4 different serology tests. It was also positive in 2 confirmed VL cases co-infected with HIV. In all K4tex-positive confirmed cases actively followed up after treatment, the test became negative 1 month after completion of treatment. While IC4tex had a specificity of 100% in healthy endemic and non-endemic controls, the direct agglutination test (DAT) was positive in 14% of the KAtex-negative healthy endemic controls. KAtex is a simple addition to the diagnostics of VL particularly at field level and as a complementary test for the diagnosis of VL in smear-negative cases with positive DAT results. PMID:15748081

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY CL58 AGAINST CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN (CEA) AND STUDY OF ITS BIODISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振甫; 杨志; 张宏; 顾晋

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibody (McAb) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Methods: CEA antigen was extracted from metastasized liver of patients with colorectal cancer and used for the preparation of McAb against CEA by hybridoma technique. Immunoreactivity of McAb to CEA antigen was evaluated using ELISA. Mouse ascites was purified by two steps, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using protein A and high performance hydroxylapatite (HPHT). Normal adult tissues and tumor specimen were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of the McAb. Isotope 99mTc labeled CEA McAb was used for biodistribution in tumor-bearing mouse. Results: Purified CEA antigen was a glycoprotein of 180 kD. Anti-CEA McAb affinity constant was 7.4x109/M. The McAb showed positive staining in 54-88% of colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and lung cancer, while negative for normal tissues. 24 hours after injection of 99mTc labeled McAb, tumor ID%/g was higher than 15% and tumor/blood, tumor/kidney and tumor/liver were 1.82, 1.51 and 2.92 respectively. T/NT ratios of other viscera were over 3.0. Conclusion: Purified CEA antigen had very good immunogenicity. The anti-CEA McAb was highly specific. 99mTc labeled McAb was stabled both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo distribution result was satisfactory. McAb CL58 may be useful for RII and RIGS.

  2. Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Bryan E; Asrican, Rose; Lim, So-Yon; Sixsmith, Jaimie D; Lukose, Regy; Souther, Sommer J R; Rayasam, Swati D G; Saelens, Joseph W; Chen, Ching-Ju; Seay, Sarah A; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Magtanong, Leslie; Vermeul, Kim; Pajanirassa, Priyadharshini; Jimenez, Amanda E; Ng, Tony W; Tobin, David M; Porcelli, Steven A; Larsen, Michelle H; Schmitz, Joern E; Haynes, Barton F; Jacobs, William R; Lee, Sunhee; Frothingham, Richard

    2015-07-01

    The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful generation of recombinant BCG strains possessing consistent insert expression has encountered challenges in stability. Here, we describe a method for the development of large recombinant BCG accession lots which stably express the lentiviral antigens, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag, using selectable leucine auxotrophic complementation. Successful establishment of vaccine stability stems from stringent quality control criteria which not only screen for highly stable complemented BCG ΔleuCD transformants but also thoroughly characterize postproduction quality. These parameters include consistent production of correctly sized antigen, retention of sequence-pure plasmid DNA, freeze-thaw recovery, enumeration of CFU, and assessment of cellular aggregates. Importantly, these quality assurance procedures were indicative of overall vaccine stability, were predictive for successful antigen expression in subsequent passaging both in vitro and in vivo, and correlated with induction of immune responses in murine models. This study has yielded a quality-controlled BCG ΔleuCD vaccine expressing HIV gp120 that retained stable full-length expression after 10(24)-fold amplification in vitro and following 60 days of growth in mice. A second vaccine lot expressed full-length SIV Gag for >10(68)-fold amplification in vitro and induced potent antigen-specific T cell populations in vaccinated mice. Production of large, well-defined recombinant BCG ΔleuCD lots can allow confidence that vaccine materials for immunogenicity and protection studies are not negatively affected by instability or differences between freshly grown production batches. PMID:25924766

  3. Three chamber negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential

  4. Neutrophil elastase enhances antigen presentation by upregulating human leukocyte antigen class I expression on tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Akhil; Alatrash, Gheath; Philips, Anne V; Qiao, Na; Sukhumalchandra, Pariya; Kerros, Celine; Diaconu, Iulia; Gall, Victor; Neal, Samantha; Peters, Haley L; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) is an innate immune cell-derived inflammatory mediator that we have shown increases the presentation of tumor-associated peptide antigens in breast cancer. In this study, we extend these observations to show that NE uptake has a broad effect on enhancing antigen presentation by breast cancer cells. We show that NE increases human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression on the surface of breast cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. HLA class I upregulation requires internalization of enzymatically active NE. Western blots of NE-treated breast cancer cells confirm that the expression of total HLA class I as well as the antigen-processing machinery proteins TAP1, LMP2, and calnexin does not change following NE treatment. This suggests that NE does not increase the efficiency of antigen processing; rather, it mediates the upregulation of HLA class I by stabilizing and reducing membrane recycling of HLA class I molecules. Furthermore, the effects of NE extend beyond breast cancer since the uptake of NE by EBV-LCL increases the presentation of HLA class I-restricted viral peptides, as shown by their increased sensitivity to lysis by EBV-specific CD8+ T cells. Together, our results show that NE uptake increases the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to adaptive immunity by broad upregulation of membrane HLA class I and support the conclusion that the innate inflammatory mediator NE enhances tumor cell recognition and increases tumor sensitivity to the host adaptive immune response. PMID:27129972

  5. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically, the...... impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  6. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z; Willatzen, M; Li, J; Christensen, J

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called "metamaterials" allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap material supporting negative modulus and collectively producing negative dispersion. By analytical techniques and full-wave simulations we attribute the observed behavior to the mass density and bulk modulus being simultaneously negative. PMID:23152948

  7. Acoustic metamaterial with negative density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated a one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with negative effective density using an array of very thin elastic membranes. We observed acoustic equivalence of the plasma oscillation at ωc=735 Hz. The metamaterial was opaque in the frequency range from 0 to 735 Hz, and was transparent above 735 Hz. We report direct observation of negative acceleration in this acoustic medium below 735 Hz. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial have the same form as that of metals with negative permittivity. We also provide a simple theory to explain the experimental results.

  8. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age.......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...

  9. Role of HLA antigens in Rh (D) alloimmunized pregnant women from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, U Shankar; Ghosh, K; Gupte, S S; Gupte, S C; Mohanty, D

    2002-03-01

    Immunogenetic studies in various diseases provide potential genetic markers. We have studied the incidence of HLA A, B, C, DR and DQ loci antigen in Rh (D) antigen isoimmunized mothers compared to those nonimmunized isoimmunized Rh negative mothers. Seventy six mothers who were immunized to Rh (D) antigen due to pregnancy (responders) and fifty four mothers who did not develop Rh (D) isoimmunization despite positive pregnancies (nonresponders) were selected for the study. Standard methods of serological HLA typing, ABO and Rh (D) groups, and screening for Rh D antibodies were used. 392 unrelated individuals from the population were compared as controls. In addition 45 unrelated individuals from the same population were typed for HLA DRB and DQB gene using PCR-SSP kits. The genotype frequencies of HLA A2, A3, A28, B13, B17, B35, B52, B60, Cw2, Cw6, DR4, and DQ3 were significantly increased, while the frequencies of the HLA A11, A29, A31, B7, B37, B51, Cw1 and DR9 were decreased in the responder women when compared to the non-responder women. HLA A30 (19) split antigen was not identified in immunized women while HLA A23 (9) split antigen was not identified in non immunized women. HLA A3, B17, Cw2 and DR4 showed a significant relative risk among the immunized responder women. When compared with Rh immunized women (responders) reported from USA, England and Hungary the phenotype frequencies of HLA A11, A24, A28, B5, B17, B40, DR2 and DR5 were increased while HLA A23, B8, B18, and DR6 were decreased in the Indian Rh immunized women. Two locus haplotype frequency analysis observed among the responders women revealed that among the significant haplotypes expressed A2-B5, B7-Cw1, DR2-DQ1 were highly significant haplotypes in positive linkage, while A1-B5, and A1-B7 were in significant negative linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype frequencies were HLA A3, B17, Cw2 and DR4 increases the relative risk factor by 2.6 times among Indian Rh isoimmunized women. Further, it is

  10. Role of HLA antigens in Rh (D) alloimmunized pregnant women from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Shankar Kumar; K Ghosh; S S Gupte; S C Gupte; D Mohanty

    2002-03-01

    Immunogenetic studies in various diseases provide potential genetic markers. We have studied the incidence of HLA A, B, C, DR and DQ loci antigen in Rh (D) antigen isoimmunized mothers compared to those nonimmunized isoimmunized Rh negative mothers. Seventy six mothers who were immunized to Rh (D) antigen due to pregnancy (responders) and fifty four mothers who did not develop Rh (D) isoimmunization despite positive pregnancies (nonresponders) were selected for the study. Standard methods of serological HLA typing, ABO and Rh (D) groups, and screening for Rh D antibodies were used. 392 unrelated individuals from the population were compared as controls. In addition 45 unrelated individuals from the same population were typed for HLA DRB and DQB gene using PCR-SSP kits. The genotype frequencies of HLA A2, A3, A28, B13, B17, B35, B52, B60, Cw2, Cw6, DR4, and DQ3 were significantly increased, while the frequencies of the HLA A11, A29, A31, B7, B37, B51, Cw1 and DR9 were decreased in the responder women when compared to the non-responder women. HLA A30 (19) split antigen was not identified in immunized women while HLA A23 (9) split antigen was not identified in non immunized women. HLA A3, B17, Cw2 and DR4 showed a significant relative risk among the immunized responder women. When compared with Rh immunized women (responders) reported from USA, England and Hungary the phenotype frequencies of HLA A11, A24, A28, B5, B17, B40, DR2 and DR5 were increased while HLA A23, B8, B18, and DR6 were decreased in the Indian Rh immunized women. Two locus haplotype frequency analysis observed among the responders women revealed that among the significant haplotypes expressed A2–B5, B7–Cw1, DR2–DQ1 were highly significant haplotypes in positive linkage, while A1–B5, and A1–B7 were in significant negative linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype frequencies were ≤ one when these common hapoltypes were compared with control population. Thus in the present study it is evident

  11. The Role and Mechanisms of Double Negative Regulatory T Cells in the Suppression of Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhao Chen; Megan S. Ford; Kevin J. Young; Li Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance and in down-regulating various immune responses. Thus, there has recently been an increasing interest in studying the biology of Treg cells as well as their potential application in treating immune diseases. Many types of Treg cell subsets have been reported in a variety of disease models.Among these subsets, αβ-TCR+CD3+CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) Treg cells are defined by their capability of inhibiting immune responses via directly killing effector T cells in an antigen specific fashion. Furthermore,DN Treg cells have been shown to develop regulatory activity after encountering specific antigens, partially mediated by the acquisition of MHC-peptide complexes from antigen presenting cells (APCs). The presentation of acquired alloantigens on DN T cells allows for the specific interaction between DN Treg cells and alloantigen reactive effector T cells. Once the DN Treg and target cells have come into contact, killing is then mediated by Fas/Fas-ligand interactions, and perhaps through other unidentified pathways. Further characterization of the functions, molecular expression and mechanisms of activation of DN Treg cells will help in the development of novel therapies to induce antigen specific tolerance to self and foreign antigens. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(5):328-335.

  12. The Role and Mechanisms of Double Negative Regulatory T Cells in the Suppression of Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenhaoChen; MeganS.Ford; KevinJ.Young; LiZhang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance and in down-regulating various immune responses. Thus, there has recently been an increasing interest in studying the biology of Treg cells as well as their potential application in treating immune diseases. Many types of Treg cell subsets have been reported in a variety of disease models.Among these subsets, αβ-TCR+CD3+CD4*CD8* double negative (DN) Treg cells are defined by their capability of inhibiting immune responses via directly killing effector T cells in an antigen specific fashion. Furthermore,DN Treg cells have been shown to develop regulatory activity after encountering specific antigens, partially mediated by the acquisition of MHC-peptide complexes from antigen presenting cells (APCs). The presentation of acquired alloantigens on DN T cells allows for the specific interaction between DN Treg cells and alloantigen reactive effector T cells. Once the DN Treg and target cells have come into contact, killing is then mediated by Fas/Fas-ligand interactions, and perhaps through other unidentified pathways. Further characterization of the functions, molecular expression and mechanisms of activation of DN Treg cells will help in the development of novel therapies to induce antigen specific tolerance to self and foreign antigens. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(5):328-335.

  13. Prostatic biopsy in the prostate specific antigen gray zone; La biopsia prostatica multipla nalla zona grigia dei valori dell'antigene prostatico specifico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drudi, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Iannicelli, E.; Di Nardo, R.; Novelli, L.; Laghi, A.; Passariello, R. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia II Cattedra; Perugia, G. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Urologia U. Bracci

    2000-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify cases of undetected prostatic cancer in patients with normal findings at digital examination and transrectal US, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) values ranging 4-10 ng/mL. 290 patients were submitted to transrectal US and random bilateral prostatic biopsy; 3 samples were collected from each side of the gland using 16-Gauge thru-cut needles. Of the 290 patients who gave full informed consent, 34 people were selected whose age range was between 56 to 76 years (mean: 64). Inclusion criteria were PSA 4-10 ng/mL, PSAD cut-off 0.15, free/total PSA ratio 15-25%, and normal findings at digital examination and transrectal US. PSA velocity was calculated collecting 3 blood samples every 30 days for 2 months. 5 of the 34 selected patients (15%) had prostatic cancer, and 2 (6%) Pin (1 Pin 1 and 1 Pin 2). As for the other 27 patients, biopsy demonstrated 4 (12%) cases of prostatitis and 23 (62%) cases of BPH. PSA values increased in all patients with positive histology, versus only 6 (22%) of those with negative histology. Our findings confirm that prostatic biopsy can detect tumors also in areas which appear normal at transrectal US and digital examination, and that PSA rate increases in patients with positive histology. Finally, the actual clinical role of prostatic biopsy relative to all other diagnostic imaging techniques remains to be defined. [Italian] Si intende qui dimostrare la percentuale di neoplasie prostatiche sfuggite all'esplorazione rettale e all'ecografia transrettale nei pazienti convalori di antigene prostatico specifico tra 4 e 10 ng/ml. 290 pazienti sono stati sottoposti a ecografia transrettale e biopsia multipla (6 prelievi, ago da 16 Gauge) dopo consenso informato. Di questi sono stati selezionati 34: eta' tra 56 e 76 anni, eta' media 64 anni. Parametri di selezione: antigene prostatico specifico con valori tra 4 e 10ng/ml; densita' dell'antigene prostatico specifico con

  14. Pretreatment of serum samples to reduce interference of colostrum-derived specific antibodies with detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by ELISA in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Reichel, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected (BVDV PI) cattle; however, colostrum-derived antibodies may interfere with antigen detection in serum from young PI calves. Our study aimed to assess serum pretreatment methods for reducing such interference. Dilution of PI serum with serum containing specific antibody showed that antibody levels equivalent to those observed in colostrum-fed calves were able to eliminate all antigen signals in a serum sample. Serum was treated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid at pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5, then boiled, centrifuged, and the supernatant-recovered. BVDV antibody was undetectable by ELISA in supernatants from treated samples, and the antigen ELISA signal was improved. Maximum antigen signal recovery of >90% was achieved at pH 5 ± 0.5. When this optimal treatment method was applied to field samples from 3 PI calves (which were negative in the antigen-capture ELISA without treatment), the antigen signal improved and gave a positive result in each case. Pretreatment may provide an improvement in the detection of young PI calves. PMID:27016723

  15. Loss of T Cell Antigen Recognition Arising from Changes in Peptide and Major Histocompatibility Complex Protein Flexibility: Implications for Vaccine Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Insaidoo, Francis K.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Hossain, Moushumi; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Baxter, Tiffany K.; Baker, Brian M. (Notre)

    2012-05-08

    Modification of the primary anchor positions of antigenic peptides to improve binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is a commonly used strategy for engineering peptide-based vaccine candidates. However, such peptide modifications do not always improve antigenicity, complicating efforts to design effective vaccines for cancer and infectious disease. Here we investigated the MART-1{sub 27-35} tumor antigen, for which anchor modification (replacement of the position two alanine with leucine) dramatically reduces or ablates antigenicity with a wide range of T cell clones despite significantly improving peptide binding to MHC. We found that anchor modification in the MART-1{sub 27-35} antigen enhances the flexibility of both the peptide and the HLA-A*0201 molecule. Although the resulting entropic effects contribute to the improved binding of the peptide to MHC, they also negatively impact T cell receptor binding to the peptide {center_dot} MHC complex. These results help explain how the 'anchor-fixing' strategy fails to improve antigenicity in this case, and more generally, may be relevant for understanding the high specificity characteristic of the T cell repertoire. In addition to impacting vaccine design, modulation of peptide and MHC flexibility through changes to antigenic peptides may present an evolutionary strategy for the escape of pathogens from immune destruction.

  16. Assessment by electron-microscopy of recombinant Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella vaccine strains expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-specific surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziethlow, V; Favre, D; Viret, J-F; Frey, J; Stoffel, M H

    2008-03-01

    Diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) requires adhesion of microorganisms to enterocytes. Hence, a promising approach to immunoprophylaxis is to elicit antibodies against colonisation factor antigens (CFAs). Genes encoding the most prevalent ETEC-specific surface antigens were cloned into Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella vaccine strains. Expression of surface antigens was assessed by electron-microscopy. Whereas negative staining was effective in revealing CFA/I and CS3, but not CS6, immunolabelling allowed identification of all surface antigens examined. The V. cholerae vaccine strain CVD103 did not express ETEC-specific colonisation factors, whereas CVD103-HgR expressed CS3 only. However, expression of both CFA/I and CS3 was demonstrated in Salmonella Ty21a. PMID:18093230

  17. Surface antigen expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: clustering analysis, interrelationships and effects of chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkkonen, J; Vilpo, L; Hurme, M; Vilpo, J

    2002-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a phenotypically distinguishable form of B-lymphoid leukemias. The regularity of surface membrane antigen expression patterns, their interrelationships as well as the effects of the three frequent chromosomal aberrations, ie 11q deletion, 13q deletion and trisomy 12, were investigated in 35 classic CLL cases by flow cytometry. The two-way cluster analysis of 31 individual antigens revealed three expression patterns: (1) most cells in most cases positive (CD5, CD19, CD20, CD23, CD27, CD40, CD45, CD45RA); (2) most cells in most cases negative (CD10, CD14, CD34, CD122, CD154, mIgG); and (3) a mixed pattern with a variable number of positive cases and a variable percentage of positive cells in individual cases (CD11c, CD21, CD22, CD25, CD38, CD45RO, CD79b, CD80, CD95, CD124, CD126, CD130, FMC7, mIgD, mIgkappa, mIglambda, mIgM). The expressions of several antigens were strongly interdependent, even when antigens belonged to entirely different gene families. Such antigen pairs were: CD11c/CD21; CD19/CD45; CD19/CD79b; CD22/CD45RA; CD23/Igkappa; CD25/mIgM; CD27/CD45; CD45/CD79b; CD45RA/Igkappa. In contrast, the expression of some antigens was mutually exclusive, the best examples being CD45RA/CD45RO, CD38/CD80 and CD45RA/CD80. Deletion of chromosome arm 11q attenuated expression of splicing variant CD45RA, but enhanced CD45RO expression. In contrast, cases of trisomy 12 were associated with enhanced CD45RA and attenuated CD45RO expression. Similarly, trisomy 12 was associated with enhanced CD27 and mIgkappa expression. The variable levels of signaling surface membrane antigens, their interactions and interference by genetic aberrations are likely to affect the clinical progression and drug response of CLL. PMID:11840283

  18. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  19. Negative Database for Data Security

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Anup; Eirinaki, Magdalini

    2011-01-01

    Data Security is a major issue in any web-based application. There have been approaches to handle intruders in any system, however, these approaches are not fully trustable; evidently data is not totally protected. Real world databases have information that needs to be securely stored. The approach of generating negative database could help solve such problem. A Negative Database can be defined as a database that contains huge amount of data consisting of counterfeit data along with the real data. Intruders may be able to get access to such databases, but, as they try to extract information, they will retrieve data sets that would include both the actual and the negative data. In this paper we present our approach towards implementing the concept of negative database to help prevent data theft from malicious users and provide efficient data retrieval for all valid users.

  20. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  1. Molecular Pathways: Breaking the Epithelial Cancer Barrier for Chimeric Antigen Receptor and T-cell Receptor Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Christian S

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) can mediate cancer regression in some patients. CARs are synthetic single-chain proteins that use antibody domains to target cell surface antigens. TCRs are natural heterodimeric proteins that can target intracellular antigens through recognition of peptides bound to human leukocyte antigens. CARs have shown promise in B-cell malignancies and TCRs in melanoma, but neither approach has achieved clear success in an epithelial cancer. Treatment of epithelial cancers may be particularly challenging because of a paucity of target antigens expressed by carcinomas and not by important healthy tissues. In addition, epithelial cancers may be protected by inhibitory ligands and soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment. One strategy to overcome these negative regulators is to modulate expression of T-cell genes to enhance intrinsic T-cell function. Programmable nucleases, which can suppress inhibitory genes, and inducible gene expression systems, which can enhance stimulatory genes, are entering clinical testing. Other work is delineating whether control of genes for immune checkpoint receptors (e.g.,PDCD1, CTLA4) and cytokine and TCR signaling regulators (e.g.,CBLB, CISH, IL12, IL15) can increase the antitumor activity of therapeutic T cells.Clin Cancer Res; 22(7); 1559-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27037253

  2. Evaluation of Dot-ELISA Method Using Excretory-Secretary Antigens of Fasciola hepatica in Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Fasciolosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Massoud

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis diagnosis, due to low sensitivity of coprological diagnostic method has been challenging for a long period. In this study, Dot-ELISA, one of the simplest and the most sensitive tests in this regard, was evaluated using excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica to diagnose human fasciolosis Three groups consisting of patients infected with fasciolosis (n= 95, patients with other parasitic diseases (n= 37 and healthy individuals (n= 40, were implicated in the test. All collected sera were tested by Dot-ELISA using excretory-secretory antigens. Optimal criteria were detected as 1.5 µg of antigen per dot, serum dilution of 1:320, and anti human IgG conjugate dilution of 1:500. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 96.8%, 96.1%, 96.8% and 96.1%, respectively. In conclusion, Dot-ELISA using excretory-secretory antigens could be regarded as a cheap, rapid, antigen and serum conservative diagnostic method in diagnosing fasciolosis.

  3. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. PMID:26342828

  4. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Patrick; La Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incen...

  5. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say t...

  6. Exosome targeting of tumor antigens expressed by cancer vaccines can improve antigen immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Ryan B; Mandl, Stefanie J; Nachtwey, James M; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Brinkmann, Kay; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain

    2011-08-01

    MVA-BN-PRO (BN ImmunoTherapeutics) is a candidate immunotherapy product for the treatment of prostate cancer. It encodes 2 tumor-associated antigens, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and is derived from the highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus stock known as MVA-BN. Past work has shown that the immunogenicity of antigens can be improved by targeting their localization to exosomes, which are small, 50- to 100-nm diameter vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosome targeting is achieved by fusing the antigen to the C1C2 domain of the lactadherin protein. To test whether exosome targeting would improve the immunogenicity of PSA and PAP, 2 additional versions of MVA-BN-PRO were produced, targeting either PSA (MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2) or PAP (MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2) to exosomes, while leaving the second transgene untargeted. Treatment of mice with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 led to a striking increase in the immune response against PAP. Anti-PAP antibody titers developed more rapidly and reached levels that were 10- to 100-fold higher than those for mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. Furthermore, treatment with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 increased the frequency of PAP-specific T cells 5-fold compared with mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. These improvements translated into a greater frequency of tumor rejection in a PAP-expressing solid tumor model. Likewise, treatment with MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2 increased the antigenicity of PSA compared with treatment with MVA-BN-PRO and resulted in a trend of improved antitumor efficacy in a PSA-expressing tumor model. These experiments confirm that targeting antigen localization to exosomes is a viable approach for improving the therapeutic potential of MVA-BN-PRO in humans. PMID:21670078

  7. Genetic diversity and antigenicity variation of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Takemae, Hitoshi; Simking, Pacharathon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, causes severe clinical disease in cattle worldwide. The genetic diversity of parasite antigens often results in different immune profiles in infected animals, hindering efforts to develop immune control methodologies against the B. bovis infection. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the merozoite surface antigen-1 (msa-1) gene using 162 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from cattle populations reared in different geographical regions of Thailand. The identity scores shared among 93 msa-1 gene sequences isolated by PCR amplification were 43.5-100%, and the similarity values among the translated amino acid sequences were 42.8-100%. Of 23 total clades detected in our phylogenetic analysis, Thai msa-1 gene sequences occurred in 18 clades; seven among them were composed of sequences exclusively from Thailand. To investigate differential antigenicity of isolated MSA-1 proteins, we expressed and purified eight recombinant MSA-1 (rMSA-1) proteins, including an rMSA-1 from B. bovis Texas (T2Bo) strain and seven rMSA-1 proteins based on the Thai msa-1 sequences. When these antigens were analyzed in a western blot assay, anti-T2Bo cattle serum strongly reacted with the rMSA-1 from T2Bo, as well as with three other rMSA-1 proteins that shared 54.9-68.4% sequence similarity with T2Bo MSA-1. In contrast, no or weak reactivity was observed for the remaining rMSA-1 proteins, which shared low sequence similarity (35.0-39.7%) with T2Bo MSA-1. While demonstrating the high genetic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Thailand, the present findings suggest that the genetic diversity results in antigenicity variations among the MSA-1 antigens of B. bovis in Thailand. PMID:27101782

  8. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  9. Photoaffinity labeling demonstrates binding between Ia molecules and nominal antigen on antigen-presenting cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, M L; Yip, C C; Shevach, E M; Delovitch, T L

    1986-01-01

    We have used radioiodinated photoreactive bovine insulin as antigen to examine the molecular nature of immunogenic complexes that form on antigen-presenting cells. The probe was allowed to bind to either insulin-presenting B-hybridoma cells, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated blasts, or bovine insulin-specific helper-T-hybridoma cells in the dark. Samples were then exposed to light to induce crosslinkage, solubilized, and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Two protein bands at about 36 kDa and 27 kD...

  10. Seroreactivity of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen in comparison with lipopolysaccharide antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bell, M.M.; Thorns, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The IgG seroreaction of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen (SEF14) was compared with that against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sera from 23 dairy herds (n = 205) from an island with no occurrence of salmonellosis, four herds (n = 303) with recent outbreaks of S....... dublin and four herds (n = 168) with recent outbreaks of S. typhimurium, were tested in a SEF14-ELISA, S. dublin LPS (0:1, 9, 12) ELISA and S. typhimurium LPS (0:1, 4, 5; 12) ELISA. At a cut-off OD of 0.5, only one of the animals tested from the salmonellosis-free island showed significant seroreaction...

  11. Serodiagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections in an endemic area of Burkina Faso: performance of several immunological tests with different parasite antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens. PMID:15652331

  12. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of gastric infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the accuracy of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test (HpSA), compared with endoscopic histopathology for the diagnosis of gastric Helicobecter pylori infection. A total of 50 patients underwent endoscopy for gastric antral mucosal tissue biopsy for histopathology of H.pylori and advised for HpSA. Patient's information including age, gender, past history, presenting signs and symptoms, results of HpSA and histopathology were recorded. Sensitivity analysis was performed to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of HpSA. Among 50 patients, 48% males and 52% females (M: F 1: 1.08), a total of 27 (54%) were true positive while 20 (40%) were true negative. Two patients were false negative and only one was false positive. Sensitivity of HpSA was, therefore, 93.1%, specificity 95% and positive and negative predictive values were 96.42% and 90.9% respectively. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen was an accurate and reliable test for the diagnosis of gastric H. pylori infection. (author)

  13. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamima Al-Dughaishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results: Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions: The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history.

  14. Human leukocyte antigen-DO regulates surface presentation of human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted antigens on B cell malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.N.; Meijden, E.D. van der; Honders, M.W.; Pont, M.J.; Goeman, J.J.; Falkenburg, J.H.F.; Griffioen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hematological malignancies often express surface HLA class II, making them attractive targets for CD4+ T cell therapy. We previously demonstrated that HLA class II ligands can be divided into DM-resistant and DM-sensitive antigens. In contrast to presentation of DM-resistant antigens, presentation o

  15. Evaluation of cysticercus fasciolaris antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain N

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercus cellulosae antigen has been frequently used to detect antibodies for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. We have, for the first time, used membrane extract of cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis, in ELISA, with successful results. IgM and IgG antibodies against cysticercus were measured in serum from cases of neurocysticercosis (217, normal and diseased controls (89. 203 sera from cases of neurocysticercosis were positive for either or both IgG and IgM antibodies while 157/217 cases showed IgM and 158/217 showed IgG antibodies. Ten controls showed false postivity in IgG ELISA. Eight of these cases also had IgM antibodies. The test had an overall sensitivity of 93.54% and a specificity of 84.2% with a positive predictive value of 93.54% and a negative predictive value of 84.2%. Cysticercus fasciolaris can be conveniently produced in the experimental laboratory host, Rattus rattus, and would be of practical value in the immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in humans.

  16. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  17. Cancer-testis antigen expression and immunogenicity in AL amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a plasma cell dyscrasia closely related to multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) CT7 (MAGE-C1), CT10 (MAGE-C2) and MAGE-A CTAs are expressed in up to 80% of cases. In this study, we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of several CTAs in patients with AL amyloidosis in a total of 38 bone marrow specimens by employing standard immunohistochemistry techniques on paraffin-embedded archival tissues. Plasma samples from 35 patients (27 with matched bone marrow samples) were also analyzed by ELISA for sero reactivity to a group of full-length CTA proteins. CT7 was present in 25/38 (66%) while CT10 was demonstrated in 3/38 and GAGE in 1/38 AL amyloid cases. The expression pattern was mostly focal. There were no significant differences with regard to organ involvement, response to treatment, or prognosis in CTA positive compared to negative cases. None of the specimens showed spontaneous humoral immunity to CT7, but sero reactivity was observed in individual patients to other CTAs. This study identifies CT7 as the prevalent CTA in plasma cells of patients with AL amyloidosis. Further analyses determining the biology of CTAs in AL amyloidosis and their value as potential targets for immunotherapy are warranted

  18. Antigen-induced and non-antigen-induced histamine release from rat mast cells sensitized with mouse antiserum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurose,Masao

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Marked IgE-mediated histamine release from rat mast cells sensitized in vitro with mouse antiserum occurs in the presence of added Ca++ and phosphatidylserine (PS, although a considerable degree of antigen-induced histamine release which may utilize intracellular or cell-bound calcium is also observed. The decay in the responsiveness to Ca++ of the sensitized cells stimulated by antigen in Ca++-free medium in the presence of PS is relatively slow, and maximum release is produced by Ca++ added 1 min after antigen. Histamine release also occurs when Ca++ is added after PS in the absence of antigen to the sensitized cells suspended in Ca++-free medium. Unlike the antigen-induced release, the intensity of this non-antigen-induced release varies depending on both mast-cell and antiserum pools. A heat-labile factor(s, which is different from antigen-specific IgE antibody and is also contained in normal mouse serum, is involved in this reaction. In the antigen-nondependent (PS + Ca++-induced release, no decay in the responsiveness to Ca++ is observed after PS addition. Both the antigen-induced and non-antigen-induced release are completed fairly rapidly and are dependent of temperature, pH and energy.

  19. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Crispe, I Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nanoscale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The conjugation of fluoresceinated ovalbumin (FLUO-OVA) and lactobionic acid with LDL resulted in a substantially increased uptake of FLUO-OVA by murine macrophage-like ANA1 cells in preference to NIH3T3 cells, and by primary peritoneal macrophages in preference to primary hepatic stellate cells. Such preferential uptake led to enhanced proliferation of OVA specific T cells, showing that the galactosylated LDL nanoscale platform is a successful antigen carrier, targeting antigen to macrophages but not to all categories of antigen presenting cells. This system will allow targeted delivery of antigen to macrophages in the liver and elsewhere, addressing the question of the role of Kupffer cells in liver immunology. It may also be an effective way of delivering drugs or vaccines directly at macrophages. PMID:19637876

  20. How to Make a Non-Antigenic Protein (Auto) Antigenic: Molecular Complementarity Alters Antigen Processing and Activates Adaptive-Innate Immunity Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed that complementary proteins and peptides form complexes with increased antigenicity and/or autoimmunogenicity. Five case studies are highlighted: 1) diphtheria toxin-antitoxin (antibody), which induces immunity to the normally non-antigenic toxin, and autoimmune neuritis; 2) tryptophan peptide of myelin basic protein and muramyl dipeptide ("adjuvant peptide"), which form a complex that induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; 3) an insulin and glucagon complex that is far more antigenic than either component individually; 4) various causes of experimental autoimmune myocarditis such as C protein in combination with its antibody, or coxsackie B virus in combination with the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; 5) influenza A virus haemagglutinin with the outer membrane protein of the Haemophilus influenzae, which increases antigenicity. Several mechanisms cooperate to alter immunogenicity. Complexation alters antigen processing, protecting the components against proteolysis, altering fragmentation and presenting novel antigens to the immune system. Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). CIC stimulate innate immunity. Concurrently, complementary antigens stimulate multiple Toll-like receptors that synergize to over-produce cytokines, which further stimulate adaptive immunity. Thus innate and adaptive immunity form a positive feedback loop. If components of the complex mimic a host protein, then autoimmunity may result. Enhanced antigenicity for production of improved vaccines and/or therapeutic autoimmunity (e.g., against cancer cells) might be achieved by using information from antibody or TCR recognition sites to complement an antigen; by panning for complements in randomized peptide libraries; or using antisense peptide strategies to design complements. PMID:26179268

  1. Enhancing the recognition of tumor associated antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Irvine, Kari R.; Minev, Boris R.; Taggarse, Akash S.; McFariand, Barbra J.; Wang, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Activated CD8+ T cells (TCD8+) can directly recognize malignant cells because processed fragments of tumor associated antigens (TAA), 8-10 amino acids in length and complexed with MHC class I molecules, are displayed on tumor cell surfaces. Tumor cells have been genetically modified in a variety of ways in efforts to enhance the immune recognition of TAA. An alternative strategy is the expression of TAA in recombinant or synthetic form. This has been made possible by the recent cloning of TAA...

  2. Detection of HBs antigen in routine paraffin embedded liver tissue by enzyme-labelled antibody technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji,Takao

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available HB surface antigen (HBs Ag was detected using the enzyme-labelled antibody technique on routinely processed liver biopsy material fixed in Bouin's fixative and embedded in paraffin. Of 85 examined specimens, 45 cases were HBs Ag positive by both the immunofluorescent test and the enzyme labelled antibody technique. The remaining 40 cases were negative by both techniques. The specificity of HBs Ag detected by the enzyme-labelled antibody technique was confirmed by the blocking test using guinea pig specific HBs antibody. The results indicate that the enzyme-labelled antibody technique may be useful for detecting HBs Ag on routine paraffin sections.

  3. Immunoblotting profiles in 55 systemic lupus erythematosus sera lacking precipitating antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, O.; Bourgeois, P; Aeschlimann, A.; Haim, T; Mery, J P; Kahn, M F

    1989-01-01

    Serum samples from 55 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were selected for the absence of anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies after routine immunodiffusion tests. These sera were immunoblotted for anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies on a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Ten (18%) were negative and 45 (82%) produced complex patterns: 10 (18%) suggestive of anti-Sm, three (5%) anti-RNP, and 32 (58%) a combination of anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies. These data were very similar to th...

  4. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...... carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue...

  5. Aetiology and pathogenesis of reactive arthritis: role of non-antigen-presenting effects of HLA-B27

    OpenAIRE

    Vähämiko, Sanna; Penttinen, Markus A.; Granfors, Kaisa

    2005-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathies are inflammatory diseases closely associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 by unknown mechanisms. One of these diseases is reactive arthritis (ReA), which is typically triggered by Gram-negative bacteria, which have lipopolysaccharide as an integral component of their outer membrane. Several findings in vivo and in vitro obtained from patients with ReA and from different model systems suggest that HLA-B27 modulates the interaction between ReA-triggering bacteria...

  6. Changes in seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and epidemiologic characteristics in the Republic of Korea, 1998-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyerin; Lee, Hyungmin; Cho, Yumi; Oh, Kyungwon; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in hepatitis B seroprevalence from 1998 to 2013, and to identify differences in epidemiologic characteristics between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative people. METHODS: HBsAg seropositive rates were compared by year, sex, and age using the blood test data from the periods I to VI (1998-2013) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Interviews and self-administered surveys were conducted to collect ...

  7. A meta-analysis of serum cancer antigen 125 array for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Yan Liao; Guo-Jun Huang; Chao Gao; Guang-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To further evaluation the diagnosis accuracy of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer in Chinese patients. Materials and Methods: The PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI databases were electric searched and relevant diagnosis trials were reviewed and finally included in this meta-analysis. The diagnosis sensitivity, specificity, positive likely hood ratio (+LR), negative likely hood ratio (−LR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and receiver operating characteristi...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative determination of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) with monoclonal antibodies: expression of ECA by two Actinobacillus species.

    OpenAIRE

    Böttger, E C; Jürs, M; Barrett, T; Wachsmuth, K; Metzger, S.; Bitter-Suermann, D

    1987-01-01

    The presence and quantity of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) in several species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae as well as to other gram-negative families were determined by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system and Western blotting by using mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for ECA. Except for Erwinia chrysanthemi, previously known to be an exception, all species known or presumed to belong to Enterobacteriaceae produced ECA (89 of 90 species). Most sp...

  9. Antibodies to the enterobacterial common antigen: standardization of the passive hemagglutination test and levels in normal human sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Malkamäki, M

    1981-01-01

    The passive hemagglutination test for antibodies against the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) of Kunin was standardized for diagnostic purposes. Human erythrocytes were coated with a soluble ECA+ preparation from Salmonella typhimurium or, as specificity controls, with a similar ECA- preparation from congenic ECA-negative bacteria with saline, and the hemagglutination assay was performed on microtiter plates. The specificity of the test was ascertained further by inhibition assays with pu...

  10. Application of Western Blotting for the Immunodiagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in Cattle Using Excretory/Secretory Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    SARIMEHMETOĞLU, H. Oğuz

    2002-01-01

    In this study, protein bands of excretory/secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica were determined using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Blood and faecal samples were obtained from cattle brought to Kazan slaughterhouse. After examining the organs and faecal samples of these cattle for Fasciola hepatica and other helminths, serum samples were divided into two groups as positive (10 cattle) and negative (5 cattle) for F. hepatica. The sera of these two groups were tested using Western blotting. ...

  11. Low yield of screening for cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination assay on serum and cerebrospinal fluid from Danish patients with AIDS or ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, S; Stenderup, J; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due to...

  12. Formaldehyde scavengers function as novel antigen retrieval agents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig T. Vollert; Moree, Wilna J; Steven Gregory; Bark, Steven J.; Eriksen, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen retrieval agents improve the detection of formaldehyde-fixed proteins, but how they work is not well understood. We demonstrate that formaldehyde scavenging represents a key characteristic associated with effective antigen retrieval; under controlled temperature and pH conditions, scavenging improves the typical antigen retrieval process through reversal of formaldehyde-protein adduct formation. This approach provides a rational framework for the identification and development of more...

  13. Novel selective inhibitors of aminopeptidases that generate antigenic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Saveanu, Loredana; Stratikos, Efstratios; Vourloumis, Dionisios

    2013-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases, ERAP1 and ERAP2, as well as Insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) play key roles in antigen processing, and have recently emerged as biologically important targets for manipulation of antigen presentation. Taking advantage of the available structural and substrate-selectivity data for these enzymes, we have rationally designed a new series of inhibitors that display low micromolar activity. The selectivity profile for these three highly homologous aminopeptidases provides a promising avenue for modulating intracellular antigen processing. PMID:23916253

  14. Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlendorf, Dorothea E.; Staege, Martin Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involv...

  15. T-cell recognition of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in erythrocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii: inhibition of parasitemia by this antigen(s).

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, B.; Engels, A; Camus, D; Haque, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the presence of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in the erythrocyte stage from Plasmodium yoelii (265 BY strain) and Plasmodium falciparum through recognition by T cells primed in vivo with antigens from each of these parasites. BALB/c mice are naturally resistant to P. falciparum but are susceptible to P. yoelii infection. Mice that had recovered from P. yoelii primary infection became resistant to a second infection. A higher in vitro proliferative response ...

  16. Pneumocystis carinii antigen detection in rat serum and lung lavage.

    OpenAIRE

    McNabb, S J; Graves, D C; Kosanke, S.D.; Moyer, M J; Ivey, M H

    1988-01-01

    We developed a modified double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detected relatively low concentrations of known Pneumocystis carinii antigen added to buffer or rat sera. Artificial immunization-derived polyclonal rabbit anti-P. carinii antibody was used on the solid phase to capture the antigen. Infection-derived (after P. carinii pneumonia) polyclonal rat anti-P. carinii antibody or a mixture of five murine monoclonal antibodies was used as the antigen detecto...

  17. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jessica J., E-mail: park16@fas.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Loffredo, Marian; D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  18. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  19. Atomic negative-ion resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors attempt to give a comprehensive discussion of observations of atomic negative-ion resonances throughout the periodic table. A review of experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of negative-ion resonances is given together with a consideration of the various schemes that are used for their classification. In addition to providing, where possible, tabulated data for the energies, widths, and symmetries of these states, the authors also attempt to highlight regularities in their behavior both within groups of the periodic table and along isoionic sequences

  20. Sigma models with negative curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2016-05-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold Hn, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O (n , 1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  1. Sigma Models with Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V

    2016-01-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold H^n, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O(n,1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  2. Cancer-germline antigen vaccines and epigenetic enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Burns, Jorge; Ditzel, Henrik Jorn

    2010-01-01

    can be achieved using epigenetic modifiers. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: We provide an overview of the potential of CG antigens as targets for cancer immunotherapy, including advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss the current state of development of CG antigen vaccines, and the potential...... synergistic effect of combining CG antigen immunotherapeutic strategies with epigenetic modifiers. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: The reader will gain an overview of the past, present and future role of CG antigens in cancer immunotherapy. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Chemoimmunotherapy using epigenetic drugs and CG...

  3. ANTIGENICITY OF COW'S MILK PROTEINS IN TWO ANIMAL MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Neyestani; M. Djalali M. I'ezeshki

    2000-01-01

    Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenicity of cow'...

  4. Antigenic composition of single nano-sized extracellular blood vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, Anush; Ivanova, Oxana; Vasilieva, Elena; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important in normal physiology and are altered in various pathologies. EVs produced by different cells are antigenically different. Since the majority of EVs are too small for routine flow cytometry, EV composition is studied predominantly in bulk, thus not addressing their antigenic heterogeneity. Here, we describe a nanoparticle-based technique for analyzing antigens on single nano-sized EVs. The technique consists of immuno-capturing of EVs with 15-nm magnetic nanoparticles, staining captured EVs with antibodies against their antigens, and separating them from unbound EVs and free antibodies in a magnetic field, followed by flow analysis. This technique allows us to characterize EVs populations according to their antigenic distribution, including minor EV fractions. We demonstrated that the individual blood EVs carry different sets of antigens, none being ubiquitous, and quantified their distribution. The physiological significance of antigenically different EVs and their correlation with different pathologies can now be directly addressed. From the clinical editor: This study reports a nanoparticle-based technique for analyzing antigens on single nano-sized extracellular vehicles (EV). The technique consists of immuno-capturing of EVs with 15-nm magnetic nanoparticles, followed by staining the captured EVs with antibodies and separating them via a magnetic field, followed by flow analysis. This technique enables studies of antigenic properties of individual EVs that conventionally can only be studied in bulk. PMID:25481806

  5. Antigen-Specific versus Non-Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorption in ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Thölking

    Full Text Available ABO-incompatible (ABOi renal transplantation (RTx from living donors is an established procedure to expand the donor pool for patients with end stage renal disease. Immunoadsorption (IA is a standard procedure for the removal of preformed antibodies against the allograft. In this study, antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific IA in ABOi RTx were compared.10 patients underwent antigen-specific IA (Glycosorb group and 13 patients non-antigen-specific IA (Immunosorba group. The effects of both procedures regarding antibody reduction, number of treatments, complications, costs, as well as the allograft function and patient survival were compared between both groups.Although the IgG levels were reduced equally by both procedures (p=0.82, the reduction of the IgM level was more effective in the Glycosorb group (p=0.0172. Patients in both groups required a median number of 6 IA before ABOi RTx. Allograft function at one year after AB0i RTx was similar in both groups (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 66 vs. 64 ml/min/1.73m² respectively, with a death-censored graft survival of 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. Complication rates did not differ between procedures. Due to the reuse of non-antigen-specific Immunosorba columns, costs were considerably lower in this group; however, the use of the Immunosorba-based IA was less time-efficient.Considering upcoming alternatives as simultaneous performance of dialysis and IA or a possible reuse of Glycosorb columns, this might become less relevant in the future.

  6. Plasmodium berghei: immunosuppression of the cell-mediated immune response induced by nonviable antigenic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, plasmodial antigens were examined for their ability to suppress the cellular immune response during lethal Plasmodium berghei infection. Splenic enlargement and the number and function of white spleen cells were assessed after injection of normal mice with irradiated parasitized erythrocytes (IPE) or with parasitized erythrocytes (PE) membranes. Both IPE and PE membranes caused splenomegaly and an increase in the number of splenic white cells with concurrent alteration of the relative proportions of T cells and macrophages. The percentage of T lymphocytes was fractionally diminished, but there was a marked increase in Lyt 2.2 positive (suppressor and cytotoxic) T subsets and in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. The pathological enlargement of the spleen was induced by various plasma membrane-derived antigens containing both proteins and carbohydrates. Splenocytes of mice injected with liposomes containing deoxycholate-treated PE or PE fractions showed both diminished interleukin 2 production and a decreased response to mitogen. It appears that some of the changes in the cellular immune response during P. berghei infection are a consequence of the massive provision of a wide spectrum of antigens, capable of suppressing the immune response. Thus, it may be appropriate to evaluate the possible negative effect of parasite epitopes that are candidates for vaccine

  7. Plasmodium berghei: immunosuppression of the cell-mediated immune response induced by nonviable antigenic preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, A.; Frankenburg, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, plasmodial antigens were examined for their ability to suppress the cellular immune response during lethal Plasmodium berghei infection. Splenic enlargement and the number and function of white spleen cells were assessed after injection of normal mice with irradiated parasitized erythrocytes (IPE) or with parasitized erythrocytes (PE) membranes. Both IPE and PE membranes caused splenomegaly and an increase in the number of splenic white cells with concurrent alteration of the relative proportions of T cells and macrophages. The percentage of T lymphocytes was fractionally diminished, but there was a marked increase in Lyt 2.2 positive (suppressor and cytotoxic) T subsets and in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. The pathological enlargement of the spleen was induced by various plasma membrane-derived antigens containing both proteins and carbohydrates. Splenocytes of mice injected with liposomes containing deoxycholate-treated PE or PE fractions showed both diminished interleukin 2 production and a decreased response to mitogen. It appears that some of the changes in the cellular immune response during P. berghei infection are a consequence of the massive provision of a wide spectrum of antigens, capable of suppressing the immune response. Thus, it may be appropriate to evaluate the possible negative effect of parasite epitopes that are candidates for vaccine.

  8. Correlation of hepatospleno-scintigraphic findings with HBe antigenicity in chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay plays an important role in diagnosing the hepatitis B and in clinical assessment of the course of the disease as well. Among a number of antigens, antibodies and enzymes related with hepatitis, HBe Ag, DNA polymerase, IgM-HBc-antibody, δ Ag have been known as useful indicators of ongoing infectivity of hepatitis B. The present study has been undertaken to correlate the HBe antigenicity with hepatospleno-scintigraphic findings in hepatitis. The study covered a 10 month period from September 1982 through to July 1983. We reviewed and analyzed the hepatospeno-scintgraphic findings and the results of radioimmuassays in 32 patients of chronic hepatitis seen at St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Hepatitis B was diagnosed either when HBs Ag was positive or Anti-HBc wa positive even if HBs Ag was negative. We classified the HBe antigenicity into two groups of HBe Ag(+) and HBe(-) and analyzed the scintgraphic findings in terms of liver size, motting, splenomegaly and splenic shift. From the present study, it is concluded that the activity of hepatitis B can not be assessed by the findings of hepatospleno-scintigram so far as the activity is determined on the basis of the positive HBe Ag, which has been believed to indicated continuing viral replication

  9. Production and characterization of a Brazilian candidate antigen for Hepatitis E Virus genotype 3 diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Ramos, Denise; Miani, Michela; Pandolfi, Rafael; Tondo, Luis; Colli, Maikel L; Rosado Spilki, Fernando; Rovaris Gardinali, Noemi; Alves Pinto, Marcelo; Kreutz, Luiz C; Frandoloso, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis E, caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a viral infectious pathology of great importance in the public health. Hepatitis E outbreaks were registered in developing countries with poor or no sanitation, where drinking water was contaminated with fecal material, but also in many industrialized countries probably due to consumption of HEV-positive swine meat. In this study, we present the development and characterization of a recombinant antigen from ORF2 HEV genotype 3. Viral RNA was extracted from swine feces infected with the native virus. A total of 267 residues from the C-terminal ORF2((394-661)) coding sequence were cloned into the pET20a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli ER2566. Recombinant protein was purified by liquid chromatography and the fragment obtained a 98% homology against other human or swine HEV genotype 3 ORF2 sequences. Wistar rats were inoculated with ORF2p, developing antibodies able to recognize both the homologous antigen and the native HEV genotype 3 ORF2 present in infected stool. In parallel, HEV-negative swine were experimentally challenged with HEV genotype 3. ORF2 was detected by PCR 14 days post-inoculation in three-fourth piglets' feces and one week later by dot blot. In conclusion, this study proved the immunogenic and antigenic properties of the recombinant protein ORF2p. PMID:26832642

  10. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens in porcine leptospiral nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, E; Del Piero, F; Aresu, L; Sciarrone, F; Vicari, N; Mattiello, S; Tagliabue, S; Fabbi, M; Scanziani, E

    2009-09-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) is required for the presentation of antigens to CD4 helper T cells. During nephritis, not only primary antigen presenting cells such as histiocytes and lymphocytes, but also cytokine-stimulated tubular epithelial cells express MHCII. Leptospirosis in fattening pigs is characterized by several degrees of nephritis, from absence of lesions to severe multifocal tubulo-interstitial inflammation. Renal tissue from 20 8-month-old pigs with spontaneous nephritis and 6 control pigs without renal lesions were investigated for leptospirosis by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IHC for MHCII also was performed on renal samples. Serum samples were tested for different serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Control pigs were free of interstitial nephritis and negative for leptospirosis by all tests. In pigs with nephritis, serology was positive for serovar Pomona in 19/20 pigs. In 16 of these 19 pigs, leptospiral renal infection was confirmed by PCR and/or indirect IHC. Nephritic lesions were classified histologically into perivascular lymphocytic (4 pigs), lymphofollicular (6 pigs), lymphohistiocytic (8 pigs), and neutrophilic (2 pigs) pattern. MHCII expression by histiocytes and lymphocytes was observed in all lesions. Prominent MHCII expression in regenerating tubular epithelium was observed in lymphofollicular and lymphohistiocytic nephritis. No tubular colocalization between leptospiral and MHCII antigen was observed. Results suggest that during leptospiral nephritis, MHCII contributes to the intensity of the inflammatory response. Furthermore de novo MHCII expression in regenerating tubules may play a role in the defence mechanism against leptospiral tubular colonization. PMID:19179617

  11. Molecular characterization of antigen-peptide pulsed dendritic cells: immature dendritic cells develop a distinct molecular profile when pulsed with antigen peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy X Yang

    Full Text Available As dendritic cells (DCs are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, they are being tested as cancer vaccines for immunotherapy of established cancers. Although numerous studies have characterized DCs by their phenotype and function, few have identified potential molecular markers of antigen presentation prior to vaccination of host. In this study we generated pre-immature DC (piDC, immature DC (iDC, and mature DC (mDC from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC obtained from HLA-A2 healthy donors, and pulsed them with human papillomavirus E7 peptide (p11-20, a class I HLA-A2 binding antigen. We then characterized DCs for cell surface phenotype and gene expression profile by microarray technology. We identified a set of 59 genes that distinguished three differentiation stages of DCs (piDC, iDC and mDC. When piDC, iDC and mDC were pulsed with E7 peptide for 2 hrs, the surface phenotype did not change, however, iDCs rather than mDCs showed transcriptional response by up-regulation of a set of genes. A total of 52 genes were modulated in iDC upon antigen pulsing. Elongation of pulse time for iDCs to 10 and 24 hrs did not significantly bring further changes in gene expression. The E7 peptide up-modulated immune response (KPNA7, IGSF6, NCR3, TREM2, TUBAL3, IL8, NFKBIA, pro-apoptosis (BTG1, SEMA6A, IGFBP3 and SRGN, anti-apoptosis (NFKBIA, DNA repair (MRPS11, RAD21, TXNRD1, and cell adhesion and cell migration genes (EPHA1, PGF, IL8 and CYR61 in iDCs. We confirmed our results by Q-PCR analysis. The E7 peptide but not control peptide (PADRE induced up-regulation of NFKB1A gene only in HLA-A2 positive iDCs and not in HLA-A2 negative iDCs. These results suggest that E7 up-regulation of genes is specific and HLA restricted and that these genes may represent markers of antigen presentation and help rapidly assess the quality of dendritic cells prior to administration to the host.

  12. Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Recognize Epitopes of Protective Antigen following Vaccination with an Anthrax Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Laughlin, Elsa M.; Miller, Joseph D.; James, Eddie; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Mittler, Robert S.; Akondy, Rama; Kwok, William; Ahmed, Rafi; Nepom, Gerald,

    2007-01-01

    Detection of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is facilitated by the use of fluorescently labeled soluble peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimers which mirror the antigen specificity of T-cell receptor recognition. We have used soluble peptide-MHC class II tetramers containing peptides from the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis to detect circulating T cells in peripheral blood of subjects vaccinated with an anthrax vaccine. PA-specific HLA class II-restricted T lympho...

  13. Antineutrophil antibodies associated with ulcerative colitis interact with the antigen(s) during the process of apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mallolas, J; Esteve, M; Rius, E; Cabre, E; Gassull, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Cell death by apoptosis seems to be an important mechanism for translocation to the cell surface of a variety of intracellular components capable of inducing autoantibody production.
AIMS—To identify the cellular location of antigen (Ag)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in non-apoptotic human neutrophils, and to assess if ANCA associated with ulcerative colitis reacts with neutrophil antigen(s) during neutrophil apoptosis. The cellular distribution of Ag-ANCA in apoptot...

  14. Immunochemical properties of antigen-specific monkey T-cell suppressor factor induced with a Streptococcus mutans antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, J R; Zanders, E D; Kontiainen, S; Lehner, T.

    1980-01-01

    Antigen-specific suppressor factor could be released from monkey suppressor T cells induced in vitro with a protein antigen isolated from the carcinogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The suppressor activity was due to the factor itself and not to carryover of free antigen. Characterization of the monkey factor revealed it to have a molecular weight of ca. 70,000, and to contain a constant region and determinants encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. The presence of immunoglobul...

  15. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mayu Suzuki; Mutsuko Hara; Saori Ichikawa; Seiji Kamijo; Takuya Nakazawa; Hideki Hatanaka; Kazuo Akiyama; Hideoki Ogawa; Ko Okumura; Toshiro Takai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy or Ascariasis produce serum IgE specific to the antigens of HDM or nematode Ascaris, respectively. Although human IgE cross-reactivity has been reported between HDM and Ascaris antigens, it remains unclear whether it contributes to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. We herein investigated the induction of cross-reactive antibodies and T cells in mice and effects of airway exposure to HDM antigens after preimmunization with Ascaris an...

  16. Cryptococcal granulomas in an immunocompromised HIV-negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja Juhi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals with defective cell-mediated immunity, most commonly seen with HIV infection. We present a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an HIV-negative male patient who presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium of short duration and multiple cutaneous lesions. An emergency CT scan of the head showed multiple intracranial and intraventricular granulomas. Routine laboratory investigations were within the normal range. A CSF examination revealed capsulated yeasts on India ink and a culture yielded cryptococcus neoformans. A cryptococcal antigen test by latex agglutination kit was positive. A biopsy revealed multiple capsulated yeasts cells in the cutaneous lesions, which were consistent with cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was successfully treated with Amphotericin B and Fluconazole with regression of cranial and cutaneous lesions.

  17. Salt bridge residues between I-Ak dimer of dimers alpha-chains modulate antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadati, S; Nydam, T; Demian, D; Wade, T K; Gabriel, J L; Barisas, B G; Wade, W F

    1999-03-15

    Class II dimers of dimers are predicted to have functional significance in antigen presentation. The putative contact amino acids of the I-Ak class II dimer of dimers have been identified by molecular modeling based on the DR1 crystal structure (Nydam et al., Int. Immunol. 10, 1237,1998). We have previously reported the role in antigen presentation of dimer of dimers contact amino acids located in the C-terminal domains of the alpha- and beta-chains of class II. Our calculations show that residues Ealpha89 and Ralpha145 in the alpha2-domain form an inter alpha-chain salt bridge between pairs of alphabeta-heterodimers. Other residues, Qalpha92 and Nalpha115, may be involved in close association in that part of the alpha-chain. We investigated the role of these amino acids on class II expression and antigen presentation. Class II composed of an Ealpha89K substituted alpha-chain paired with a wt beta-chain exhibited inhibited antigen presentation and expression of alpha-chain serologic epitopes. In contrast, mutation of Ralpha145E had less affect on antigen presentation and did not affect I-Ak serologic epitopes. Interchanging charges of the salt bridge residues by expressing both Ralpha145E and Ealpha89K on the same chain obviated the large negative effect of the Ealpha89K mutation on antigen presentation but not on the serologic epitopes. Our results are similar for those reported for mutation of DR3's inter-chain salt bridge with the exception that double mutants did not moderate the DR3 defect. Interestingly, the amino acids differences between I-A and DR change the location of the inter-chain salt bridges. In DR1 these residues are located at positions Ealpha88 and Kalpha111; in I-Ak these residues are located at position Ealpha89 and Ralpha145. Inter alpha-chain salt bridges are thus maintained in various class II molecules by amino acids located in different parts of the alpha2-domain. This conservation of structure suggests that considerable functional

  18. Antigenic heterogeneity of IgA anti-GBM disease: new renal targets of IgA autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Julie; Gibson, Ian W; Zacharias, James; Fervenza, Fernando; Colon, Selene; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-10-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is an aggressive form of glomerulonephritis, usually mediated by immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies to the noncollagenous (NC1) domain of alpha 3(IV) collagen. Less is known about the target antigen(s) in patients with atypical anti-GBM disease involving IgA autoantibodies. We report a new case of IgA anti-GBM disease in a patient with a history of proliferative lupus nephritis who presented with increasing creatinine levels, proteinuria, and hematuria, but no clinical or serological evidence of lupus recurrence. Renal biopsy showed focal and segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis with strong linear capillary loop IgA staining by means of immunofluorescence. Serological test results were negative for IgG or IgA autoantibodies against the alpha 3NC1 domain. By means of immunoblotting, IgA from patient serum bound to 38- to 48-kd antigens collagenase-solubilized from human GBM, but not to purified NC1 domains of GBM collagen IV. The target of patient's IgA autoantibodies thus was identified as a novel GBM antigen, distinct from the alpha 3NC1 domain or other known targets of anti-GBM IgA autoantibodies. Clinical resolution was attained by means of conventional treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide. The diversity of antigens recognized by anti-GBM IgA autoantibodies highlights the importance of renal biopsy for the reliable diagnosis of this rare condition because conventional serological immunoassays likely would yield false-negative results. PMID:18752876

  19. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  20. Controlled and targeted release of antigens by intelligent shell for improving applicability of oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhanzhuang; Hu, Chaohua; Bellis, Susan L; Yang, Wendi; Su, Yintao; Zhang, Xinyan; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral vaccines with simple architecture face barriers with regard to stimulating effective immunity. Here we describe oral vaccines with an intelligent phase-transitional shielding layer, poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(methyl acrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)]-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PMMMA-PLGA), which can protect antigens in the gastro-intestinal tract and achieve targeted vaccination in the large intestine. With the surface immunogenic protein (SIP) from group B Streptococcus (GBS) entrapped as the antigen, oral administration with PMMMA-PLGA (PTRBL)/Trx-SIP nanoparticles stimulated robust immunity in tilapia, an animal with a relatively simple immune system. The vaccine succeeded in protecting against Streptococcus agalactiae, a pathogen of worldwide importance that threatens human health and is transmitted in water with infected fish. After oral vaccination with PTRBL/Trx-SIP, tilapia produced enhanced levels of SIP specific antibodies and displayed durability of immune protection. 100% of the vaccinated tilapia were protected from GBS infection, whereas the control groups without vaccines or vaccinated with Trx-SIP only exhibited respective infection rates of 100% or >60% within the initial 5 months after primary vaccination. Experiments in vivo demonstrated that the recombinant antigen Trx-SIP labeled with FITC was localized in colon, spleen and kidney, which are critical sites for mounting an immune response. Our results revealed that, rather than the size of the nanoparticles, it is more likely that the negative charge repulsion produced by ionization of the carboxyl groups in PMMMA shielded the nanoparticles from uptake by small intestinal epithelial cells. This system resolves challenges arising from gastrointestinal damage to antigens, and more importantly, offers a new approach applicable for oral vaccination. PMID:26624805

  1. Engineering the chloroplast targeted malarial vaccine antigens in Chlamydomonas starch granules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dauvillée

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria, an Anopheles-borne parasitic disease, remains a major global health problem causing illness and death that disproportionately affects developing countries. Despite the incidence of malaria, which remains one of the most severe infections of human populations, there is no licensed vaccine against this life-threatening disease. In this context, we decided to explore the expression of Plasmodium vaccine antigens fused to the granule bound starch synthase (GBSS, the major protein associated to the starch matrix in all starch-accumulating plants and algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We describe the development of genetically engineered starch granules containing plasmodial vaccine candidate antigens produced in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that the C-terminal domains of proteins from the rodent Plasmodium species, Plasmodium berghei Apical Major Antigen AMA1, or Major Surface Protein MSP1 fused to the algal granule bound starch synthase (GBSS are efficiently expressed and bound to the polysaccharide matrix. Mice were either immunized intraperitoneally with the engineered starch particles and Freund adjuvant, or fed with the engineered particles co-delivered with the mucosal adjuvant, and challenged intraperitoneally with a lethal inoculum of P. Berghei. Both experimental strategies led to a significantly reduced parasitemia with an extension of life span including complete cure for intraperitoneal delivery as assessed by negative blood thin smears. In the case of the starch bound P. falciparum GBSS-MSP1 fusion protein, the immune sera or purified immunoglobulin G of mice immunized with the corresponding starch strongly inhibited in vitro the intra-erythrocytic asexual development of the most human deadly plasmodial species. CONCLUSION: This novel system paves the way for the production of clinically relevant plasmodial antigens as algal starch-based particles

  2. Cellular immune responses in patients with hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance induced by antiviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiaolin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which chronic hepatitis B is completely resolved through antiviral therapy are unknown, and the contribution of acquired T cell immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seroclearance has not been investigated. Therefore, we measured the T-cell responses to core and envelope antigens in patients with HBsAg seroclearance. Methods Fourteen subjects with HBsAg seroclearance following antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B, 7 HBeAg-positive immunotolerant HBV carriers and 9 HBeAg-negative inactive HBsAg carriers were recruited. HBV-specific T-cell responses to recombinant HBV core (rHBcAg and envelope (rHBsAg proteins and pools of core and envelope peptides were measured using an ELISPOT assay detecting interferon-gamma and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS assays detecting interferon-gamma or interleukin 2. Results Interferon-gamma ELISPOT assays showed a low frequency of weak responses to the rHBsAg and S peptide pool in the HBsAg seroclearance group, and the response frequency to the rHBcAg and the C peptide pool was higher than to the rHBsAg (P P = 0.001 respectively. A higher response frequency to C than S peptide pools was confirmed in the interferon-gamma ICS assays for both CD4+ (P = 0.033 and CD8+ (P = 0.040 T cells in the HBsAg seroclearance group. The responses to C and S antigens in the inactive carriers were similar. Conclusions There was a low frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune responses to envelope antigens in Chinese subjects with HBsAg seroclearance following antiviral therapy. It is unlikely that these immune responses are responsible for HBsAg seroclearance in these subjects.

  3. Microarray-based identification of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a bioinformatics quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Esteban

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of viral quasispecies can influence viral pathogenesis and the response to antiviral treatments. Mutant clouds in infected organisms represent the first stage in the genetic and antigenic diversification of RNA viruses, such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, an important animal pathogen. Antigenic variants of FMDV have been classically diagnosed by immunological or RT-PCR-based methods. DNA microarrays are becoming increasingly useful for the analysis of gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Recently, a FMDV microarray was described to detect simultaneously the seven FMDV serotypes. These results encourage the development of new oligonucleotide microarrays to probe the fine genetic and antigenic composition of FMDV for diagnosis, vaccine design, and to gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of this pathogen. Results A FMDV microarray was designed and optimized to detect SNPs at a major antigenic site of the virus. A screening of point mutants of the genomic region encoding antigenic site A of FMDV C-S8c1 was achieved. The hybridization pattern of a mutant includes specific positive and negative signals as well as crosshybridization signals, which are of different intensity depending on the thermodynamic stability of each probe-target pair. Moreover, an array bioinformatic classification method was developed to evaluate the hybridization signals. This statistical analysis shows that the procedure allows a very accurate classification per variant genome. Conclusion A specific approach based on a microarray platform aimed at distinguishing point mutants within an important determinant of antigenicity and host cell tropism, namely the G-H loop of capsid protein VP1, was developed. The procedure is of general applicability as a test for specificity and discriminatory power of microarray-based diagnostic procedures using multiple oligonucleotide probes.

  4. Identification of immunogenic Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antigens expressed in chronic biliary carriers of S. Typhi in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle C Charles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi can colonize and persist in the biliary tract of infected individuals, resulting in a state of asymptomatic chronic carriage. Chronic carriers may act as persistent reservoirs of infection within a community and may introduce infection to susceptible individuals and new communities. Little is known about the interaction between the host and pathogen in the biliary tract of chronic carriers, and there is currently no reliable diagnostic assay to identify asymptomatic S. Typhi carriage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study host-pathogen interactions in the biliary tract during S. Typhi carriage, we applied an immunoscreening technique called in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT, to identify potential biomarkers unique to carriers. IVIAT identifies humorally immunogenic bacterial antigens expressed uniquely in the in vivo environment, and we hypothesized that S. Typhi surviving in the biliary tract of humans may express a distinct antigenic profile. Thirteen S. Typhi antigens that were immunoreactive in carriers, but not in healthy individuals from a typhoid endemic area, were identified. The identified antigens included a number of putative membrane proteins, lipoproteins, and hemolysin-related proteins. YncE (STY1479, an uncharacterized protein with an ATP-binding motif, gave prominent responses in our screen. The response to YncE in patients whose biliary tract contained S. Typhi was compared to responses in patients whose biliary tract did not contain S. Typhi, patients with acute typhoid fever, and healthy controls residing in a typhoid endemic area. Seven of 10 (70% chronic carriers, 0 of 8 bile culture-negative controls (0%, 0 of 8 healthy Bangladeshis (0%, and 1 of 8 (12.5% Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever had detectable anti-YncE IgG in blood. IgA responses were also present. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Further evaluation of YncE and other antigens identified by IVIAT could lead to

  5. Pre-clinical evaluation of CD38 chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drent, Esther; Groen, Richard W J; Noort, Willy A; Themeli, Maria; Lammerts van Bueren, Jeroen J; Parren, Paul W H I; Kuball, Jürgen; Sebestyen, Zsolt; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost; van de Donk, Niels W C J; Martens, Anton C M; Lokhorst, Henk M; Mutis, Tuna

    2016-05-01

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. The CD38 molecule, with its high expression on multiple myeloma cells, appears a suitable target for antibody therapy. Prompted by this, we used three different CD38 antibody sequences to generate second-generation retroviral CD38-chimeric antigen receptor constructs with which we transduced T cells from healthy donors and multiple myeloma patients. We then evaluated the preclinical efficacy and safety of the transduced T cells. Irrespective of the donor and antibody sequence, CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells proliferated, produced inflammatory cytokines and effectively lysed malignant cell lines and primary malignant cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and multi-drug resistant multiple myeloma in a cell-dose, and CD38-dependent manner, despite becoming CD38-negative during culture. CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells also displayed significant anti-tumor effects in a xenotransplant model, in which multiple myeloma tumors were grown in a human bone marrow-like microenvironment. CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells also appeared to lyse the CD38(+) fractions of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and to a lesser extent T and B cells but did not inhibit the outgrowth of progenitor cells into various myeloid lineages and, furthermore, were effectively controllable with a caspase-9-based suicide gene. These results signify the potential importance of CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells as therapeutic tools for CD38(+) malignancies and warrant further efforts to diminish the undesired effects of this immunotherapy using appropriate strategies. PMID:26858358

  6. A rhamnose-rich O-antigen mediates adhesion, virulence, and host colonization for the xylem-limited phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Roper, M Caroline

    2013-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a lethal disease of grapevine called Pierce's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composes approximately 75% of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and, because it is largely displayed on the cell surface, it mediates interactions between the bacterial cell and its surrounding environment. LPS is composed of a conserved lipid A-core oligosaccharide component and a variable O-antigen portion. By targeting a key O-antigen biosynthetic gene, we demonstrate the contribution of the rhamnose-rich O-antigen to surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, and biofilm maturation: critical steps for successful infection of the host xylem tissue. Moreover, we have demonstrated that a fully formed O-antigen moiety is an important virulence factor for Pierce's disease development in grape and that depletion of the O-antigen compromises its ability to colonize the host. It has long been speculated that cell-surface polysaccharides play a role in X. fastidiosa virulence and this study confirms that LPS is a major virulence factor for this important agricultural pathogen. PMID:23441576

  7. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, 32P/sub i/-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T antigen, which was only weakly phosphorylated, and a truncated form of large T antigen of 34,000 molecular weight which was heavily phosphorylated. Both showed phosphorylation patterns similar to that of large T antigen from infected cells. Peptide analyses of large T antigens encoded by the deletion mutants dl8 and dl23 or of specific fragments of wild-type large T antigen indicated that the phosphorylation sites are located in an amino-terminal region upstream of residue 194. The amino acid composition of the phosphopeptides as revealed by differential labeling with various amino acids indicated that several phosphopeptides contain overlapping sequences and that all phosphorylation sites are located in four tryptic peptides derived from a region between Met71 and Arg191. Two of the potential phosphorylation sites were identified as Ser81 and Thr187. The possible role of this modification of large T antigen is discussed

  8. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassauer, M.; Scheidtmann, K.H.; Walter, G.

    1986-06-01

    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T antigen, which was only weakly phosphorylated, and a truncated form of large T antigen of 34,000 molecular weight which was heavily phosphorylated. Both showed phosphorylation patterns similar to that of large T antigen from infected cells. Peptide analyses of large T antigens encoded by the deletion mutants dl8 and dl23 or of specific fragments of wild-type large T antigen indicated that the phosphorylation sites are located in an amino-terminal region upstream of residue 194. The amino acid composition of the phosphopeptides as revealed by differential labeling with various amino acids indicated that several phosphopeptides contain overlapping sequences and that all phosphorylation sites are located in four tryptic peptides derived from a region between Met71 and Arg191. Two of the potential phosphorylation sites were identified as Ser81 and Thr187. The possible role of this modification of large T antigen is discussed.

  9. Single-Antigen Serological Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for serological responses often use panels of multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the...

  10. Protein antigen adsorption to the DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamborg, Mette; Jorgensen, Lene; Bojsen, Anders Riber; Christensen, Dennis; Foged, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the nature of adjuvant-antigen interactions is important for the future design of efficient and safe subunit vaccines, but remains an analytical challenge. We studied the interactions between three model protein antigens and the clinically tested cationic liposomal adjuvant composed...

  11. Expression of Treponema pallidum Antigens in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfield, Alan M.; Hanff, Philip A.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1982-04-01

    Treponema pallidum DNA was cloned in a bacteriophage. Clones were screened for expression of Treponema pallidum antigens by an in situ radio-immunoassay on nitrocellulose, with the use of subsequent reactions with syphilitic serum and radioiodinated Staphylococcus aureus protein A. One clone, which gave a strong signal, codes for at least seven antigens that react specifically with human antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

  12. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  13. Antigen handling in antigen-induced arthritis in mice: an autoradiographic and immunofluorescence study using whole joint sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antigen localization after intraarticular antigen injection was studied in immune and nonimmune mice using autoradiographic and immunofluorescence techniques on whole joint sections. After intraarticular injection of radiolabeled methylated bovine serum albumin (125I-mBSA) in immune mice, labeling in the synovium and synovial exudate diminished rapidly, apart from some deposits in fibrinlike material present in the joint cavity. Long-term antigen retention was found in avascular and hypovascular structures lining the joint cavity, albeit not along the whole surface; eg, labeling remained present at the edges of the femoral condyle hyaline cartilage but not at the central weight-bearing region; long-term retention at ligaments was only found at the insertion sites. Immunofluorescence data in immune animals showed antigen retention together with the presence of immunoglobulins and complement, indicating that antigen is retained at least in part in the form of immune complexes. Nonimmune mice showed even higher long-term antigen retention than immune animals, probably related to physico-chemical properties of the antigen enabling nonimmune binding to articular structures, but also indicating that the presence of joint inflammation in the immune animals enhances antigen clearance. Histologic examination of the ligaments and patellar cartilage of immune mice did reveal that long-term antigen retention was not anatomically related to nearby inflammation or to local tissue damage. The importance of long-term antigen retention for the chronicity of arthritis may lie in the leakage of small amounts of this antigen to joint compartments where it does behave as an inflammatory stimulus; it may further be that it renders the joint a specifically hypersensitive area

  14. Expression and immunoactivity of chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jie Yang; Ning-Shao Xia; Min Chen; Tong Cheng; Shui-Zhen He; Shao-Wei Li; Bao-Quan Guan; Zi-Heng Zhu; Ying Gu; Jun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To improve the immunogenicity of receptor binding site of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on preS1 antigen using HBV core antigen as an immuno-carrier.METHODS: One to 6 tandem copies of HBV preS1 (21-47)fragment were inserted into HBcAg at the sites of aa 78 and 82, and expressed in E. coli. ELISA, Western blot and animal immunization were used to analyze the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of purified particulate antigens. The ability to capture HBV by antibodies elicited by chimeric partides was detected with immuno-capture PCR.RESULTS: Recombinant antigens CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ carrying 1-3 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) individually could form viruslike particles (VLPs), similar to HBcAg in morphology. But recombinant antigens carrying 4-6 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) were poorly expressed in E.coli. Chimeric antigens were lacking of immunoreactivity with anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), but still reserved good immunoreactivity with anti-HBe McAbs. CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ could strongly react with anti-preS1 McAb, suggesting that preS1 (21-47) fragment was well exposed on the surface of chimeric VLPs. Three chimeric VLP antigens (CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ) could stimulate mice to produce high-level antibody responses, and their immunogenicity was stronger than non-particulate antigen 21-47*6, containing 6 copies of preS1 (21-47). Mouse antibodies to CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ were able to capture HBV virions in immuno-capture PCR assay in vitro.CONCLUSION: Chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of HBV can elicit strong antibody responses to preS1. They have a potential to be developed into prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection.

  15. Polyomavirus large T antigen is prevalent in urothelial carcinoma post-kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling; Salama, Mohamed E; Lanciault, Christian; Matsumura, Linh; Troxell, Megan L

    2016-02-01

    Viral pathogens have been associated with both infectious disease and neoplasia in transplant recipients. Polyomavirus is emerging as a potential causative agent for genitourinary tract cancer in post-kidney transplant patients. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a proven role in squamous cancers, but has not been studied in genitourinary malignancies in transplantation. Of 2345 kidney transplants performed at our center over the past 20 years, we identified 16 patients with 20 genitourinary cancers (0.7%), including 13 bladder/ureter carcinomas, 5 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and 2 prostate carcinomas. We performed immunohistochemical staining for polyomavirus large T antigen and p16, followed by in situ hybridization for HPV in p16+ cases. Four cases of high-grade invasive urothelial bladder carcinomas were positive for large T. Large T+ urothelial carcinomas developed at least 8 years posttransplant in young men, 3 with history of BK polyoma viremia, 2 of whom had native kidney failure due to reflux/obstruction. In situ hybridization for high-risk HPV was negative in all tested cases. Overall, 3 patients died of carcinoma. All 5 RCCs were negative for both large T and p16; 2 prostate cancers were p16 negative and p16+/HPV negative, respectively. Thus, our study shows a relatively high prevalence of large T antigen in urothelial carcinoma in kidney transplant patients (31%), but not in RCC. Although sample size is small, young patients with obstructive disease may be at particular risk for developing large T-positive urothelial carcinoma. Overall, our data further support the necessities of long-term cancer surveillance for renal transplant patients. PMID:26615524

  16. Impact of human leukocyte antigen matching and recipients' panel reactive antibodies on two-year outcome in presensitized renal allograft recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hui-lin; JIN Xun-bo; LI Xiang-tie; WANG Hong-wei; L(U) Jia-ju

    2009-01-01

    group (P=0.001 and P=0.001), target antigen negative group (P=0.003 and P=0.001), and peak target antigen positive with negative at-transplant target antigen group (P=0.024 and P=0.002). Two-year graft survival rates of the target antigen positive group and HLA-Ⅰ target antigen positive group were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.012 and P=0.001). The two-year outcome of target antigen unknown group was similar to that of the target antigen positive group. Presensitizedrecipients with pre-transplant plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption (PRA prepared group) had a better but non-significant two-year outcome than the control group. However, the PRA unprepared presensitized recipients were different to the control group (P=0.004 for rejection rate and P=0.005 for survival rate). Hyperacute rejection (HR) occurred in three recipients with positive HLA-I target antigen and without mismatch according to Res M and in one case with positive PRA-Ⅱ (for an unknown target antigen). No HR occurred in eight cases with positive HLA-Ⅱ target antigens.Conclusions Pre-transplant PRA preparations might improve the access of presensitized patients to renal donors. Avoiding antigen-positive donors remains a fundamental measure in preventing HR and early rejections.

  17. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  18. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  19. Dynamically variable negative stiffness structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher B.; Shahan, David W.; Smith, Sloan P.; Keefe, Andrew C.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Variable stiffness structures that enable a wide range of efficient load-bearing and dexterous activity are ubiquitous in mammalian musculoskeletal systems but are rare in engineered systems because of their complexity, power, and cost. We present a new negative stiffness–based load-bearing structure with dynamically tunable stiffness. Negative stiffness, traditionally used to achieve novel response from passive structures, is a powerful tool to achieve dynamic stiffness changes when configured with an active component. Using relatively simple hardware and low-power, low-frequency actuation, we show an assembly capable of fast (100×) dynamic stiffness control. This approach mitigates limitations of conventional tunable stiffness structures that exhibit either small (humanoid robotic limbs and lightweight adaptive vibration isolators. PMID:26989771

  20. Closed incision negative pressure therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willy, Christian; Agarwal, Animesh; Andersen, Charles A;

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site occurrences (SSOs) affect up to or over 25% of patients undergoing operative procedures, with the subset of surgical site infections (SSIs) being the most common. Commercially available closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) may offer surgeons an additional option to manage...... of Controlled Trials using key words 'prevention', 'negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT)', 'active incisional management', 'incisional vacuum therapy', 'incisional NPWT', 'incisional wound VAC', 'closed incisional NPWT', 'wound infection', and 'SSIs' identified peer-reviewed studies published from 2000....... A majority presented data supporting ciNPT use. Numerous publications reported SSI risk factors, with the most common including obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ); diabetes mellitus; tobacco use; or prolonged surgical time. We recommend that the surgeon assess the individual patient's risk factors...

  1. Photosynthesis and negative entropy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert C; Engelmann, Enrico; Garlaschi, Flavio; Casazza, Anna Paola; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2005-09-30

    The widely held view that the maximum efficiency of a photosynthetic pigment system is given by the Carnot cycle expression (1-T/Tr) for energy transfer from a hot bath (radiation at temperature Tr) to a cold bath (pigment system at temperature T) is critically examined and demonstrated to be inaccurate when the entropy changes associated with the microscopic process of photon absorption and photochemistry at the level of single photosystems are considered. This is because entropy losses due to excited state generation and relaxation are extremely small (DeltaS 0.98 and xi > 0.92 respectively, and which, in principle, function with negative entropy production. It is demonstrated that for the case of xi > (1-T/Tr) entropy production is always negative and only becomes positive when xi < (1-T/Tr). PMID:16139784

  2. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  3. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  4. Determination of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen by radioimmunoassay in chronic liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno,Motowo

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc was measured by radioimmunoassay using CORAB (Abbott Laboratories in 10 cases of chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH, 46 cases of chronic aggressive hepatitis (CAH, 33 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC and 53 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in relation to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and its antibody (anti-HBs. Ninety-eight point four percent of patients with HBsAg and 93.8% of patients with anti-HBs were positive for anti-HBc and the titers of anti-HBc in patients with HBsAg were significantly higher than those with anti-HBs. Thirty-five point five percent of patients negative for either HBsAg or anti-HBs were positive for anti-HBc. The titers of anti-HBc in patients with CPH, CAH and LC were relatively low, whereas 7 (46.8% of the HCC patients negative for either HBsAg or anti-HBc had high titers of anti-HBc. The significance of the presence of anti-HBc alone is discussed.

  5. Detection of heat stable mycobacterial antigen in cerebrospinal fluid by Dot-Immunobinding assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathai A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimen in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM is infrequent and carries low sensitivity. Thus development of an alternative laboratory diagnostic test is essential for the early diagnosis and treatment of TBM. Objective: A simple, rapid Dot immunobinding assay (Dot-Iba, for the laboratory diagnosis of TBM is devised. This method minimizes the risk of handling infectious material in the laboratory. Method: The Dot-Iba was standardized with heat-inactivated M tuberculosis antigen (PPD. The heat-inactivated CSF from TBM and non-TBM patients was similarly assayed and it can detect antigen upto 1ng/ml in CSF. Result: A positive result was obtained in all the five culture positive patients with TBM and in 20/25 probable TBM. A negative result was obtained in 38/40 CSF from disease control group. The overall sensitivity and specificity of Dot-Iba was 83.3% and 95% respectively. Conclusion: Dot-Iba can be used as an adjunct for the laboratory diagnosis of TBM, particularly in culture negative TBM patients and also in those clinical situations where no laboratory tests are available to distinguish between TBM and partially treated pyogenic meningitis.

  6. Can wormholes have negative temperatures?

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Soon-Tae; Kim, Sung-Won

    2003-01-01

    We study (3+1) Morris-Thorne wormhole to investigate its higher dimensional embedding structures and thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the wormhole is embedded in (5+2) global embedding Minkowski space. This embedding enables us to construct the wormhole entropy and Hawking temperature by exploiting Unruh effects. We also propose a possibility of negative temperature originated from exotic matter distribution of the wormhole.

  7. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    OpenAIRE

    JuanitaTodd

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with it...

  8. Negative muon spin rotation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the experimental project using negative muon spin rotation at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reported. The following were discussed briefly: the bound muon g factors from the viewpoints of the relativistic and nuclear polarization effects, strange depolarization phenomena in terms of the difference between the muonic-atom probe and its equivalent nuclear probe, application of the μ- 0 probe to studies of magnetic oxides, and total muon capture rates in the actinide region. (U.S.)

  9. Quantum Complexity and Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Zhao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k-local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system: classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.

  10. Quantum information can be negative

    OpenAIRE

    Horodecki, Michal; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Winter, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Given an unknown quantum state distributed over two systems, we determine how much quantum communication is needed to transfer the full state to one system. This communication measures the "partial information" one system needs conditioned on it's prior information. It turns out to be given by an extremely simple formula, the conditional entropy. In the classical case, partial information must always be positive, but we find that in the quantum world this physical quantity can be negative. If...

  11. In defense of negative temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, J.

    2016-03-01

    This pedagogical comment highlights three misconceptions concerning the usefulness of the concept of negative temperature, being derived from the usual, often termed Boltzmann, definition of entropy. First, both the Boltzmann and Gibbs entropies must obey the same thermodynamic consistency relation. Second, the Boltzmann entropy does obey the second law of thermodynamics. Third, there exists an integrating factor of the heat differential with both definitions of entropy.

  12. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355. ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  13. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky;

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic...... potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  14. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J; Christensen, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well-defined monoc......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... were predominantly observed in the cell cytoplasm, most often in the supranuclear area, suggesting localization to the Golgi region, whereas ductal contents were unstained. Mucous acinar cells expressed Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and H and A antigens, regardless of glandular location. Serous acinar cells, on the...

  15. [HLA and keloids: antigenic frequency and therapeutic response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Bozzi, M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty keloid subjects were typed for class 1 (HLA-A, B and C) and class 2 (HLA-DR and DQ) histocompatibility antigens. Their frequencies were compared to those found in control populations. Of all the antigens belonging to class 1, B 21 was more prevalent in patients. The findings regarding class 2 antigens were noteworthy: in keloid patients there was a significant prevalence of DR 5 (RR = 3.54 and 7.93 respectively for the two control groups) and DQw 3 (RR = 16.8). The patients typed for HLA-antigens were treated with corticosteroid infiltrations. The responses to the treatments were no related to the histocompatibility antigens. PMID:2628278

  16. Methods for examination of antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To choose and establish the methods for examination of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin in order to offer the reference for evaluating the antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin against human. Methods: Antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin was examined for hypersensitivity, cell-mediated immunity reaction, humoral immunity reaction and cross-reaction of antigen. Results: The rabbit and guinea pig did not give rise to hypersensitivity. In immunized rabbits, the level of serum total IgG was normal, but the level of serum specific IgG was high. The examination of B lymphocytes showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with control. Cross-reaction of antigen proved that bovine hemoglobin had cross-reaction with human hemoglobin. Suggesting that they may be homologous, the level of the serum specific antibody is high in the immunized animal. According to the immunology theories, the polymerized hemoglobin has antigenicity. (authors)

  17. A Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Secreting Adenocarcinoma Arising in Tailgut Cyst : Clinical Implications of Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lim, Beom Jin; Kang, Sang Ook; Sohn, Ju Hyuk; Roh, Jae Kyung; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Sung Ai; Park, Se Eun

    2005-01-01

    Tailgut cysts (TGCs) are rare congenital cysts that occur in the retrorectal or presacral spaces. Although most tailgut cysts have been reported as benign, there have been at least 9 cases associated with malignant change. We report herein on an unusual case of a 40-year-old woman with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing adenocarcinoma arising within a TGC who underwent surgical resection and local radiation therapy. Despite the complete resection, metastatic adenocarcinoma developed f...

  18. Molecular identification and antigenic characterization of a merozoite surface antigen and a secreted antigen of Babesia canis (BcMSA1 and BcSA1)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Luo, Yuzi; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; IGUCHI, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Löwenstein, Mario; Kern, Angela; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Babesia canis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan responsible for causing canine babesiosis in Europe and west Asia. Despite its importance, there is no known rapid diagnostic kit detection of B. canis infection in dogs. The present study identified two novel antigens of B. canis and used the recombinant antigens to establish a rapid, specific and sensitive serodiagnostic technique for detection of B. canis infection. Methods A complementary DNA (cDNA) expression libr...

  19. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Smith, Derek J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Paris, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation), in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera. Conclusions/Significance Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes. PMID:27248711

  20. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  1. Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations*

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of 139 monoclonal antibodies detecting human leukocyte differentiation antigens during the First International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens in 1982 permitted the designation of a nomenclature for the Clusters of Differentiation of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations.

  2. The chicken erythrocyte-specific MHC antigen. Characterization and purification of the B-G antigen by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K; Crone, M;

    1987-01-01

    ), when labeled erythrocytes were the antigen source, or trimers (130 kd), when B-G was purified and precipitated from CEM. The B-G antigen was unglycosylated as studied by in vitro synthesis in the presence or absence of tunicamycin, binding experiments with lectin from Phaseolus limensis, and treatment...

  3. Characterization of a transcriptional promoter of human papillomavirus 18 and modulation of its expression by simian virus 40 and adenovirus early antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA present in cells derived from cervical carcinoma that contained human papillomavirus 18 genomes was initiated in the 1.053-kilobase BamHI fragment that covered the complete noncoding region of this virus. When cloned upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, this viral fragment directed the expression of the bacterial enzyme only in the sense orientation. Initiation sites were mapped around the ATG of open reading frame E6. This promoter was active in some human and simian cell lines, and its expression was modulated positively by simian virus 40 large T antigen and negatively by adenovirus type 5 E1a antigen

  4. Dendritic cells engineered to express defined allo-HLA peptide complexes induce antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells efficiently killing tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronen, E; Abrahamsen, I W; Gaudernack, G; Wälchli, S; Munthe, E; Buus, S; Johansen, F-E; Lund-Johansen, F; Olweus, J

    2009-01-01

    , efficiently present externally loaded peptides from the antigen, Melan-A/MART-1 to T cells from HLA-A*0201-negative donors. CD8(+) T cells binding HLA-A*0201/MART-1 pentamers were detected already after 12 days of co-culture in 11/11 donors. The majority of cells from pentamer(+) cell lines were CTL and...... efficiently killed HLA-A*0201(+) melanoma cells, whilst sparing HLA-A*0201(+) B-cells. Allo-restricted CTL specific for peptides from the leukaemia-associated antigens CD33 and CD19 were obtained with comparable efficiency. Collectively, the results show that dendritic cells engineered to express defined allo...

  5. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  6. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C;

    1995-01-01

    Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16....... To elucidate the structural relationship between BoLA-A16 and blood group antigen M', immunoprecipitation experiments on red and white cell lysates isolated from M'-A16 positive and negative cattle were carried out. These results showed that M(r) 44,000 and M(r) 12000 polypeptides can be precipitated from both...... difference in the pI of the immunoprecipitable components of red and white cells was observed. All together, this indicates that either the blood group antigen M' is the BoLA-A16 class I antigen or M' and BoLA-A16 are two different class I polypeptides with the same relative mass, sharing identical epitopes...

  7. Expression of an antigen homologous to the human CO17-1A/GA733 colon cancer antigen in animal tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloudik, J; Basak, S.; Nesbit, M.; Speicher, D W; Wunner, W H; Miller, E.; Ernst-Grotkowski, C.; Kennedy, R; Bergsagel, L. P.; Koido, T.; Herlyn, D

    1997-01-01

    The CO17-1A/GA733 antigen is associated with human carcinomas and some normal epithelial tissues. This antigen has shown promise as a target in approaches to passive and active immunotherapy of colorectal cancer. The relevance of animal models for studies of immunotherapy targeting this antigen in patients is dependent on the expression of the antigen on normal animal tissues. Immunohistoperoxidase staining with polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the human antigen revealed the human homologue on...

  8. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G; Abal, A T; Ravn, P; Oftung, F; Andersen, P

    1998-01-01

    GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well......-induced proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion showed that the most frequently recognized antigen was ESAT-6, followed by MPT59, GroES, MPB70, MPT64, DnaK, GroEL and PstS. The frequency of ESAT-6 responders, as measured both by proliferation (18/19) and secretion of IFN-gamma (16/19) was comparable to the results...

  9. Mucin associated Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen expression in colorectal polyps.

    OpenAIRE

    Itzkowitz, S. H.; Bloom, E J; Lau, T. S.; Kim, Y. S.

    1992-01-01

    Sialosyl-Tn antigen and its immediate precursor, Tn antigen, are carbohydrate structures associated with the earliest steps of mucin O-linked glycosylation. Both antigens have been shown previously to be highly sensitive and specific markers of colorectal cancer. One hundred and three colorectal polyps (79 adenomatous; 24 hyperplastic) were examined for expression of Tn antigen using vicia villosa isolectin B4, and for sialosyl-Tn antigen by monoclonal antibody TKH2. Tn antigen was expressed ...

  10. Recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen as a reporter gene for molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenanova, Vania; Barat, Bhaswati; Olafsen, Tove; Chatziioannou, Arion; Herschman, Harvey R.; Wu, Anna M. [David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Braun, Jonathan [David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Reporter genes can provide a way of noninvasively assessing gene activity in vivo. However, current reporter gene strategies may be limited by the immunogenicity of foreign reporter proteins, endogenous expression, or unwanted biological activity. We have developed a reporter gene based on carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a human protein with limited normal tissue expression. To construct a CEA reporter gene for PET, a CEA minigene (N-A3) was fused to the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the human Fc{gamma}RIIb receptor. The NA3-Fc{gamma}RIIb recombinant gene, driven by a CMV promoter, was transfected in Jurkat (human T cell leukemia) cells. Expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and microPET imaging. Flow cytometry identified Jurkat clones stably expressing NA3-Fc{gamma}RIIb at low, medium, and high levels. High and medium NA3-Fc{gamma}RIIb expression could also be detected by Western blot. Reporter gene positive and negative Jurkat cells were used to establish xenografts in athymic mice. IHC showed staining of the tumor with high reporter gene expression; medium and low N-A3 expression was not detected. MicroPET imaging, using an anti-CEA {sup 124}I-labeled single-chain Fv-Fc antibody fragment, demonstrated that only high N-A3 expression could be detected. Specific accumulation of activity was visualized at the N-A3 positive tumor as early as 4 h. MicroPET image quantitation showed tumor activity of 1.8 {+-} 0.2, 15.2 {+-} 1.3, and 4.6 {+-} 1.2 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 4, 20, and 48 h, respectively. Biodistribution at 48 h demonstrated tumor uptake of 4.8 {+-} 0.8%ID/g. The CEA N-A3 minigene has the potential to be used as a reporter gene for imaging cells in vivo. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of the antibody responses to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum antigens in residents of Mandalay, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yeon-Joo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of antibodies against several antigens of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Mandalay, Myanmar. Methods Malaria parasites were identified by microscopic examination. To test the antibodies against P. vivax and P. falciparum in sera, an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT was performed using asexual blood parasite antigens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed with circumsporozoite protein (CSP, Pvs25 and Pvs28 recombinant proteins of transmission-blocking vaccine candidates for P. vivax, and liver stage specific antigen-1 and -3 (PfLSA-1, PfLSA-3 for P. falciparum. Results Fourteen patients among 112 were found to be infected with P. vivax and 26 with P. falciparum by thick smear examination. Twenty-three patients were found to be infected with P. vivax, 19 with P. falciparum and five with both by thin smear examination. Blood samples were divided into two groups: Group I consisted of patients who were positive for infection by microscopic examination, and Group II consisted of those who showed symptoms, but were negative in microscopic examination. In P. falciparum, IgG against the blood stage antigen in Group I (80.8% was higher than in Group II (70.0%. In P. vivax, IgG against the blood stage antigen in Group I (53.8% was higher than in Group II (41.7%. However, the positivity rate of the PvCSP VK210 subtype in Group II (40.0% was higher than in Group I (23.1%. Similarly for the PvCSP VK247 subtype, Group II (21.7% was higher than that for Group I (9.6%. A similar pattern was observed in the ELISA using Pvs25 and Pvs28: positive rates of Group II were higher than those for Group I. However, those differences were not shown significant in statistics. Conclusions The positive rates for blood stage antigens of P. falciparum were higher in Group I than in Group II, but the positive rates for antigens of other stages (PfLSA-1 and -3

  12. Frequencies of red blood cell major blood group antigens and phenotypes in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Ma, C; Sun, X; Guan, X; Zhang, X; Saldanha, J; Chen, L; Wang, D

    2016-08-01

    be helpful in creating a donor database for preparation of indigenous cell panels and providing antigen-negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies. PMID:27320061

  13. Evaluation of antigen and antibody ELISA's for epidemiological surveys of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity and specificity of the FAO/IAEA antigen-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis were investigated using sera from experimental cattle infected by tsetse challenge with cloned populations of Trypanosoma congolense (3 populations) or T. vivax (1 population). The kits are based on monoclonal antibodies that recognise internal antigens of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes. Ten cattle were infected with each trypanosome population for at least 60 days, and in combination with uninfected cohorts (n=16) were used in a double-blind study design. Sensitivity and specificity of the tests depended on the choice of positive-negative thresholds expressed as percent positivity with respect to the median OD of 4 replicates of the strong positive reference serum provided with the kit. In general, while overall specificities were high, sensitivities of the antigen-ELISA's were poor. For example, at a cut-off of 5% positivity, the sensitivities of the antigen-ELISA's were 11% for samples (n=1162) from T. congolense infected cattle (n=30), and 24% for samples (n=283) from T. vivax infected cattle (n=10). The corresponding specificity values were 95% and 79%, respectively. There were no values of the positive-negative threshold at which both sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory. Trypanosome species-specificities of the antigen-ELISA's were also poor. Sensitivity and species-specificity of the antigen-ELISA for T. brucei infections were not investigated. The indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum was adapted for use with dried blood spots on filter paper, and standardised using a strong positive reference serum and the percent positivity system of data expression. The antibody-ELISA was evaluated in Zambia for use in epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of tsetse-transmitted bovine trypanosomosis. Known negative samples (sera, n=209; blood spots, n=466) were

  14. Microglial MHC antigen expression after ischemic and kainic acid lesions of the adult rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, B.R.; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Diemer, Nils Henrik;

    1993-01-01

    Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology......Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology...

  15. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...

  16. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation.

  17. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  18. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie;

    incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...... seroma formation (52%) compared to standard care. The reduction in wound dehiscence was not statistically significant. The numbers needed to treat were 3 (seroma), 17 (dehiscence), and 25 (infection). Methodical heterogeneity across studies led to downgrading quality of evidence to moderate for infection...

  19. Migration between Positive and Negative

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Diane Paula Corina

    2012-01-01

    The migration phenomenon represents one of the most important issues equally for the recipient and source countries. This paper presents the effects of migration in Romania, as source country, from the point of view of market labour, education and consumption. Analysing the effects of migration we can conclude that is difficult for a country like Romania to draw a general conclusion. On the one hand, we can say that there are a lot of positive effects but on the other hand we remark negative ...

  20. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental and theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits a negative effective modulus in a frequency range from 0 to 450 Hz. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of side holes on a tube was fabricated. We observed that acoustic waves above 450 Hz propagated well in this structure, but no sound below 450 Hz passed through. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the experimental results.

  1. Antigenic variation with a twist--the Borrelia story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Steven J

    2006-06-01

    A common mechanism of immune evasion in pathogenic bacteria and protozoa is antigenic variation, in which genetic or epigenetic changes result in rapid, sequential shifts in a surface-exposed antigen. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Dai et al. provide the most complete description to date of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing fever spirochaete, Borrelia hermsii. This elaborate, plasmid-encoded system involves an expression site that can acquire either variable large protein (vlp) or variable small protein (vsp) surface lipoprotein genes from 59 different archival copies. The archival vlp and vsp genes are arranged in clusters on at least five different plasmids. Gene conversion occurs through recombination events at upstream homology sequences (UHS) found in each gene copy, and at downstream homology sequences (DHS) found periodically among the vlp/vsp archival genes. Previous studies have shown that antigenic variation in relapsing fever Borrelia not only permits the evasion of host antibody responses, but can also result in changes in neurotropism and other pathogenic properties. The vlsE antigenic variation locus of Lyme disease spirochaetes, although similar in sequence to the relapsing fever vlp genes, has evolved a completely different antigenic variation mechanism involving segmental recombination from a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes. These two systems thus appear to represent divergence from a common precursor followed by functional convergence to create two distinct antigenic variation processes. PMID:16796669

  2. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  3. A 2-Step Laemmli and Antigen Retrieval Method Improves Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Carla R; Gendusa, Rossella; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Detection by immunohistochemistry of antigens relies on reproducibly optimal preanalytical and analytical variables such as fixation conditions, antigen retrieval (AR), and the resolutive power of the detection system. There is a need to improve immunodetection on routinely fixed and embedded material, particularly for scarcely represented but relevant antigens. We devised a 2-step method and applied it to a panel of antigens of common use for diagnosis, prognosis, individualized therapy use, or research. The first step consists of a 10 minutes. Incubation at 95°C with a modified Laemmli extraction buffer. This was followed by a traditional AR method. Detection of the vast majority of antigens was improved over a simple AR with preservation of tissue integrity, as shown by quantitative image analysis. The mechanism underlying the improved detection may be controlled denaturation followed by heat-mediated retrieval, a method we dubbed "antigen relaxing" and which will improve routine detection of scarce antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. PMID:26067142

  4. Microbial antigenic variation mediated by homologous DNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Cornelis; Rudenko, Gloria; Seifert, H Steven

    2012-09-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms employ numerous molecular strategies in order to delay or circumvent recognition by the immune system of their host. One of the most widely used strategies of immune evasion is antigenic variation, in which immunogenic molecules expressed on the surface of a microorganism are continuously modified. As a consequence, the host is forced to constantly adapt its humoral immune response against this pathogen. An antigenic change thus provides the microorganism with an opportunity to persist and/or replicate within the host (population) for an extended period of time or to effectively infect a previously infected host. In most cases, antigenic variation is caused by genetic processes that lead to the modification of the amino acid sequence of a particular antigen or to alterations in the expression of biosynthesis genes that induce changes in the expression of a variant antigen. Here, we will review antigenic variation systems that rely on homologous DNA recombination and that are found in a wide range of cellular, human pathogens, including bacteria (such as Neisseria spp., Borrelia spp., Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma spp.), fungi (such as Pneumocystis carinii) and parasites (such as the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei). Specifically, the various DNA recombination-based antigenic variation systems will be discussed with a focus on the employed mechanisms of recombination, the DNA substrates, and the enzymatic machinery involved. PMID:22212019

  5. Does antibody binding to diverse antigens predict future infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J P; Waite, J L; Holden, K Z; Clayton, D H

    2014-11-01

    We studied diverse antigen binding in hosts and the outcome of parasitism. We used captive-bred F1 descendants of feral rock pigeons (Columba livia) challenged with blood-feeding flies (Hippoboscidae) and a protozoan parasite (Haemoproteus). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunoblots were used to test (i) whether pre-infection IgY antigen binding predicts parasite fitness and (ii) whether antigen binding changes after infection. Assays used extracts from three pigeon parasites (northern fowl mite, Salmonella bacteria and avian pox virus), as well as nonparasitic molecules from cattle, chicken and keyhole limpet. Binding to hippoboscid and S. enterica extracts were predictive of hippoboscid fly fitness. Binding to extracts from hippoboscids, pox virus and nonparasitic organisms was predictive of Haemoproteus infection levels. Antigen binding to all extracts increased after parasite challenge, despite the fact that birds were only exposed to flies and Haemoproteus. Immunoblots suggested innate Ig binding to parasite-associated molecular markers and revealed that new antigens were bound in extracts after infection. These data suggest that host antibody binding to diverse antigens predicts parasite fitness even when the antigens are not related to the infecting parasite. We discuss the implications of these data for the study of host-parasite immunological interaction. PMID:25313676

  6. Myeloid antigens in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia:clinical data point to regulation of CD66c distinct from other myeloid antigens

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    Madzo Jozef

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of myeloid antigens (MyAgs on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cells is a well-documented phenomenon, although its regulating mechanisms are unclear. MyAgs in ALL are interpreted e.g. as hallmarks of early differentiation stage and/or lineage indecisiveness. Granulocytic marker CD66c – Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 is aberrantly expressed on ALL with strong correlation to genotype (negative in TEL/AML1 and MLL/AF4, positive in BCR/ABL and hyperdiploid cases. Methods In a cohort of 365 consecutively diagnosed Czech B-precursor ALL patients, we analyze distribution of MyAg+ cases and mutual relationship among CD13, CD15, CD33, CD65 and CD66c. The most frequent MyAg (CD66c is studied further regarding its stability from diagnosis to relapse, prognostic significance and regulation of surface expression. For the latter, flow cytometry, Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR on sorted cells is used. Results We show CD66c is expressed in 43% patients, which is more frequent than other MyAgs studied. In addition, CD66c expression negatively correlates with CD13 (p Conclusion In contrast to general notion we show that different MyAgs in lymphoblastic leukemia represent different biological circumstances. We chose the most frequent and tightly genotype-associated MyAg CD66c to show its stabile expression in patients from diagnosis to relapse, which differs from what is known on the other MyAgs. Surface expression of CD66c is regulated at the gene transcription level, in contrast to previous reports.

  7. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  8. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  9. ANTIGENICITY OF COWS MILK PROTEINS IN TWO ANIMAL MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Djalali, M; T.R. Neyestani; M. Iezeshki

    2000-01-01

    Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenici...

  10. Chiral Negative-Index Metamaterials in Terahertz

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Park, Yong-Shik; Li, Jensen; Lu, Xinchao; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Negative index metamaterials (NIMs) give rise to unusual and intriguing properties and phenomena, which may lead to important applications such as superlens, subwavelength cavity and slow light devices. However, the negative refractive index in metamaterials normally requires a stringent condition of simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability. A new class of negative index metamaterials - chiral NIMs, have been recently proposed. In contrast to the conventional NIMs, chira...

  11. Paracoccidioides lutzii Plp43 is an active glucanase with partial antigenic identity with P. brasiliensis gp43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael P Leitão

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. P. brasiliensis main diagnostic antigen is glycoprotein gp43, and its peptide sequence is 81% identical with a P. lutzii ortholog here called Plp43. P. lutzii ("Pb01-like" apparently predominates in Midwestern/Northern Brazil, where high percentages of false-negative reactions using P. brasiliensis antigens have recently been reported. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant Plp43 to study its antigenic identity with gp43.We expressed rPlp43 as a secreted major component in Pichia pastoris and studied its reactivity in immunoblot with PCM patients' sera from Southwestern and Midwestern Brazil.We showed that rPlp43 is not glycosylated and bears glucanase activity. The protein did not react with anti-gp43 monoclonal antibodies in immunoblot, suggesting absence of the corresponding gp43 epitopes. Nevertheless, common epitope(s might exist, considering that gp43-positive PCM sera recognized rPlp43 in immunoblot, while gp43-negative sera (33 out of 51 from patients resident in Midwestern Brazil were also rPlp43-negative. Two genotyped P. lutzii were from patients with gp43-negative sera, suggesting that non-reactive sera are from patients infected with this species.Our data suggest that gp43 and Plp43 bear one or only a few common epitopes and that gp43 cannot be used in diagnosis of PCM patients infected with P. lutzii probably because Plp43 is poorly expressed during infection.

  12. Immunofluorescence antigen mapping for hereditary epidermolysis bullosa

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    Raghavendra Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a group of inherited, mechanobullous disorders that are caused by mutations in the structural proteins in the epidermis or dermoepidermal junction. Characteristic clinical picture is the presence of blisters at trauma prone areas of the body, which develops at or soon after birth. Availability of specific monoclonal antibodies against the target proteins together with advances in the molecular genetics have led to the revision in the classification of EB. Now four major types of EB are recognized depending upon the level of blister and the location of target protein: EB simplex (epidermolytic, junctional EB (lucidolytic, dystrophic EB (dermolytic and Kindler′s syndrome (mixed cleavage plane. The laboratory tests not only help to confirm the diagnosis of EB but are also an important tool to classify (and subtype EB. These include immunofluorescence antigen mapping (IFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and mutation analysis. IFM is the most preferred method for final diagnosis of EB worldwide. It is relatively easy to perform and results can be obtained rapidly. This article describes the technicalities and significance of IFM in various types of EB.

  13. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in neutrophil fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Ohayon, Delphine

    2016-09-01

    The life span of a neutrophil is a tightly regulated process as extended survival is beneficial for pathogen elimination and cell death necessary to prevent cytotoxic content release from activated neutrophils at the inflammatory site. Therefore, the control between survival and death must be a dynamic process. We have previously described that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which is known as a nuclear protein pivotal in DNA synthesis, is a key element in controlling neutrophil survival through its association with procaspases. Contrary to the dogma which asserted that PCNA has a strictly nuclear function, in mature neutrophils, PCNA is present exclusively within the cytosol due to its nuclear export at the end of the granulocytic differentiation. More recent studies are consistent with the notion that the cytosolic scaffold of PCNA is aimed at modulating neutrophil fate rather than simply preventing death. Ultimately, targeting neutrophil survival might have important applications not just in the field of immunology and inflammation, but also in hematology and transfusion. The neutrophil emerges as a unique and powerful cellular model to unravel the basic mechanisms governing the cell cycle-independent functions of PCNA and should be considered as a leader of the pack. PMID:27558345

  14. Designing malaria vaccines to circumvent antigen variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Amed; Barry, Alyssa E; Dutta, Sheetij; Remarque, Edmond J; Beeson, James G; Plowe, Christopher V

    2015-12-22

    Prospects for malaria eradication will be greatly enhanced by an effective vaccine, but parasite genetic diversity poses a major impediment to malaria vaccine efficacy. In recent pre-clinical and field trials, vaccines based on polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum antigens have shown efficacy only against homologous strains, raising the specter of allele-specific immunity such as that which plagues vaccines against influenza and HIV. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, targets relatively conserved epitopes on the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein. After more than 40 years of development and testing, RTS,S, has shown significant but modest efficacy against clinical malaria in phase 2 and 3 trials. Ongoing phase 2 studies of an irradiated sporozoite vaccine will ascertain whether the full protection against homologous experimental malaria challenge conferred by high doses of a whole organism vaccine can provide protection against diverse strains in the field. Here we review and evaluate approaches being taken to design broadly cross-protective malaria vaccines. PMID:26475447

  15. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar αSMA + CD146 + PDGFRβ+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFRβ immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  16. Stability of Negative V'' Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative-V'' systems are more intrinsically stable than shearstabilized systems in that they are completely stable to the pure interchange instability. However, they are unstable to a ballooning mode instability which is essentially a tied interchange localized to a part of a line of force which has adverse curvature. For infinite conductivity this mode leads to a critical value βc of β, the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures, below which it is stable. This critical value is given by an approximate expression that involves: the relative variation ΔU/U of U = ∫dℓ/B, where the integration is over. the length L of the region of adverse curvature; and L. The variation is that from the axis to the boundary of the plasma at radius a. In its simplest form this formula is βc = g(U/ΔU) (π2a2/L2), where g is a constant of order one. This formula has been justified by a correct stability analysis for the negative-V'' systems of Johnson. If the.resistance of the plasma is nonzero, then the tying of the interchange by the regions of favorable curvature is relaxed and the ballooning mode becomes a resistive-ballooning mode. This mode is always unstable and for β c its growth rate is approximately oR = m2/βc τclass where m is the azimuthal mode number and τclass is the classical diffusion time. If the negative-V'' systems also have a sheared magnetic field, then oR is reduced for large m. Also, it is expected that oR is limited by finite gyration radius effects for large m. On the basis of these considerations it is speculated that the maximum effective value of m is about 10. Thus, βc becomes a figure of merit for the resistive-ballooning mode and must be comparable with one for a successful confinement system. Hence large ΔU/U or large L are unfavorable to stable confinement. (author)

  17. Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death-ligand 1 Antibodies

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    Tengfei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy strategies based on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR transduced T cells or antibodies against immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death 1 (PD-1, achieved significant successes from bench to clinic in the past 2 years. CARs are artificial engineered receptors that can specifically target tumor cell surface antigen, activate T cell and further enhance T cell function, independent of major histocompatibility complex. CAR T cells have shown promising outcomes in cancers, especially in hematologic malignancies. CTLA-4 and PD-1 are two important immune checkpoints negatively regulating T cell activation. Clinical benefits of CTLA-4/PD-1 antibodies are significant in melanoma and other solid tumors. PD-1 is predicted to have fewer side effects and greater antitumor activity than CTLA-4. In this review, we will summarize current immunotherapies based on CAR T cells and PD-1.

  18. Characterization of sporozoite surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, using monoclonal antibodies. Part of a coordinated programme on the preparation of irradiated vaccines against some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporozoites are considered as a source of potential vaccine. Characterization of their antigens is therefore important and can be achieved by monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of this project is to study the production of monoclonal antibodies against sporozoites of P. falciparum. Various infections of mosquitoes were carried out during the period 1981-1982 to obtain antigens for the production of hybridomas. Hybridomas were produced from mice immunized through the bites of infected mosquitoes and by intravenous inoculation. The anti-sporozoite activity of the hybridomas was tested by an immunofluorescent antibody test using P. falciparum sporozoites as antigens. Positive immunofluorescence was seen in hybridoma cell lines tested with P. falciparum, whereas negative results were obtained when the cell lines were cross-reacted with other human species (P. vivax) and with a rodent malaria parasite (P. berghei)

  19. The ue of polysiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol beads as solid phase in IgG anti-Toxocara canis detection using a recombinant antigen

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    Raquel de Andrade Lima Coêlho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunodetection of human IgG anti-Toxocara canis was developed based on ELISA and on the use of polysiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol (POS/PVA beads. A recombinant antigen was covalently immobilized, via glutaraldehyde, onto this hybrid inorganic-organic composite, which was prepared by the sol-gel technique. Using only 31.2 ng antigen per bead, a peroxidase conjugate dilution of 1:10,000 and a serum dilution of 1:200 were adequate for the establishment of the procedure. This procedure is comparable to that which utilizes the adsorption of the antigen to conventional PVC plates. However, the difference between positive and negative sera mean absorbances was larger for this new glass based assay. In addition to the performance of the POS/PVA bead as a matrix for immunodetection, its easy synthesis and low cost are additional advantages for commercial application.

  20. Biotin-avidin amplified magnetic immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection using GoldMag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using GoldMag (Fe3O4/Au) nanoparticles as a carrier, a biotin-avidin amplified ELISA was developed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A specific antibody was labeled with biotin and then used to detect the antigen with an antibody coated on GoldMag nanoparticles by a sandwich ELISA assay. The results showed that 5mol of biotin were surface bound per mole of antibody. The biotin-avidin amplified ELISA assay has a higher sensitivity than that of the direct ELISA assay. There is 5-fold difference between HBsAg positive and negative serum even at dilution of 1:10000, and the relative standard deviation of the parallel positive serum at dilution of 1:4000 is 5.98% (n=11)

  1. Radiolabelled parasite antigens as tools for diagnosis and identification of protective antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelling specific compartments and molecules of parasites provides a valuable tool for establishing parasite antigen-host response systems with utility and/or importance in protection, diagnosis and pathology. The combined immunological, biochemical and molecular biological expertise currently available forms a sufficient basis for a relatively logical and effective programme directed towards the ultimate eradication of tropical diseases. The organization of carefully selected and clinically well characterized sera and patients, representing the range of commonly occurring parasitic infections, would be of great practical value in the pursuance of this goal. (author)

  2. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.

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    Michaela Vlkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of dogs bitten by P. perniciosus under experimental conditions and dogs naturally exposed to sand flies in a L. infantum focus were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-P. perniciosus antibodies. Antibody levels positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. perniciosus females. In naturally exposed dogs the increase of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 was observed during sand fly season. Importantly, Leishmania-positive dogs revealed significantly lower anti-P. perniciosus IgG2 compared to Leishmania-negative ones. Major P. perniciosus antigens were identified by western blot and mass spectrometry as yellow proteins, apyrases and antigen 5-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that monitoring canine antibody response to sand fly saliva in endemic foci could estimate the risk of L. infantum transmission. It may also help to control canine leishmaniasis by evaluating the effectiveness of anti-vector campaigns. Data from the field study where dogs from the Italian focus of L. infantum were naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites indicates that the levels of anti-P. perniciosus saliva IgG2 negatively correlate with the risk of Leishmania transmission. Thus, specific IgG2 response is suggested as a risk marker of L. infantum transmission for dogs.

  3. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  4. Mondialization: The negation of territory

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    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  5. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  6. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse

  7. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... infection. However, the treatment is relatively costly compared to standard postoperative dressings and thus it was important to consider the rationale for using iNPWT before introducing the treatment in a clinical setting. This thesis assesses the current evidence of whether iNPWT reduces post......-surgical wound complications when applied to closed surgical incisions. The meta-analysis showed that iNPWT appears to reduce the risk of post-surgical wound infection and seroma formation in high-risk wounds compared with standard postoperative dressings in selected surgical procedures. The thesis comprises a...

  8. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the immunization of naïve mice with Ascaris antigens induced production of antibodies and differentiation of Th2 cells, which were cross-reactive to HDM antigens, and accelerated induction of serum HDM-specific IgE upon subsequent airway exposure to HDM antigens in mice. These results suggest that sensitization to HDM towards IgE-mediated allergic diseases is faster in individuals with a previous history of Ascaris infection than in those without presensitization to Ascaris.

  9. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  10. Development of a sandwich Dot-ELISA for detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen with E2 recombinant protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuelan ZHAO; Yuzhu ZUO; Lei ZHANG; Jinghui FAN; Hanchun YANG; Jianhua QIN

    2009-01-01

    The IgG antibodies of rabbit anti-E2 protein of the bovine viral diarrhea virus were prepared by a general method from high efficiency serum immunized by E2 recombinant protein antigen expressed in E. coli prokaryotic expression system and were labeled to make enzymelabeled antibody with the method of NaIO4. A sandwich Dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) for the detection of BVDV was developed. The optimal reaction conditions of Dot-ELISAwere determined. The results show that optimal coating antibody was 300 μg·mL-1, the working concentration of HRP-labeled antibody was 1:50. The optimal blocking reagent and time were 5% bovine serum and 45 rain. The minimum detection of the content of antigen reached 1.35μg·mL-1. Compared with the routine IDEXX ELISA test kit with the whole virus, its specificity, sensitivity and coincidence rate were 90.48%, 96.55% and 95.24%, respectively. Compared with the sandwich Dot-ELISA with the negative staining electron microscope and RT-PCR, the coincidence rates were 90.9% and 93.1%, respectively. In addition, Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen of 178 samples collected from cow farms in the Hebei Province, China, were detected by the developed Dot-ELISA and the IDEXX BVDV antigen Test Kit simultaneously, BVDV antigen positive rate was 39.89%-41.01%. The result of detecting clinical samples demonstrated that the established method showed its specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, whereas the results were easily interpreted without an ELISA reader.

  11. TH1 and TH2 responses are influenced by HLA antigens in healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is influenced by several factors, of which HLA antigens and balanced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of HLA antigens on cytokine secretion by HBsAg-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant HBsAg. PBMCs were isolated from 48 Iranian neonates vaccinated with a recombinant HBV vaccine. The cells were stimulated in vitro with rHBsAg and the concentration of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ were quantitated in culture supernatant by sandwich ELISA. HLA typing was performed by microlymphocytotoxicity method. Significant diminished secretion of both Th1 (IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines was observed in HBsAg-stimulated PBMC from vaccinees expressing the HLA-DR7 compared to DR7 negative vaccinees. Similarly, lower production of these cytokines was also observed in vaccinees with DR7-DR53-DQ2, B7-DR7-DR53-DQ2 and A2-DR7-DR53-DQ2 haplotypes (p<0.05, p <0.005. While HBsAg-stimulated PBMC of DR13+ subjects produced lower levels of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10, those of HLA-B8+ or HLA-A9+ subjects produced higher levels of Th2-type cytokines. Cytokine secretion in response to PHA mitogen was not associated with a given HLA antigen or haplotype and was similarly represented in all groups of subjects irrespective of their HLA complex. These results indicate that HLA antigens may differentially influence cytokine secretion by HBsAg-specific T-cells of healthy neonates vaccinated with recombinant HB vaccine. This phenomenon may have an important implication for control of the immune response to HBsAg vaccine.

  12. Identification of a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope in hypervariable region 1 of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Minbo; Zhou, Defang; Li, Gen; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Wang, Guihua; Zheng, Qiankun; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-03-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a hypervariable oncogenic retrovirus that causes great economic loss in poultry. Antigenic variations in the variable regions make the development of an effective vaccine a challenging task. In the present study, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope using reverse vaccinology methods. First, we predicted the B-cell epitopes in gp85 gene of ALV-J strains by DNAman and bioinformatics. Fourteen candidate epitopes were selected and linked in tandem with glycines or serines as a multi-epitope gene. The expressed protein of multi-epitope gene can induce high-titer antibody that can recognize nature ALV-J and neutralize the infectivity of ALV-J strains. Next, we identified a high effective epitope using eight overlapping fragments of gp85 gene reacting with mAb 2D5 and anti-multi-epitope sera. The identified epitope contained one of the predicted epitopes and localized in hyervariable region 1 (hr1), indicating a variant epitope. To better understand if the variants of the epitope have a good antigenicity, we synthesized four variants to react with mAb 2D5 and anti-ALV-J sera. The result showed that all variants could react with the two kinds of antibodies though they showed different antigenicity, while could not react with ALV-J negative sera. Thus, the variant antigenic neutralizing epitope was determined as 137-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-158. The result shows a potential use of this variant epitopes as a novel multi-epitope vaccine against ALV-J in poultry. PMID:26850757

  13. Characterization of plant plasma membrane antigens. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The library of monoclonal antibodies, which are directed against membrane bound antigens of protoplast plasma membrane, are being characterized by immunoprecipitation, immunoaffinity chromatography, and by Western blotting of SDS gels. Progress on these studies is reported here. (DT)

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to cell surface antigens of human melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have worked with three human melanoma antigens which have been defined by monoclonal mouse antibodies: p97, a glycoprotein that is structurally related to transferrin, a proteoglycan, and a GD3 ganglioside that is slightly different from the GD3 of normal brain. All three antigens can be detected in frozen sections of melanoma, using immunohistological techniques. Antibodies and Fab fragments, specific for either p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, have been radiolabelled with 131I and successfully used for tumor imaging, and Phase I therapeutic trails are underway, using 131I-labelled Fab fragments, specific for p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, to localize a potentially therapeutic dose of radiation into tumors. It may be feasible to use the same monoclonal antibodies, or antibody fragments, as carriers of neutron capturers, such as boron, for possible use in tumor therapy. The initial experiments on this are best carried out by using nude mice (or rats) carrying human melanoma xenografts

  15. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  16. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  17. Brain antigens: components of subfractions from human grey matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajam, P. C.; Bogoch, S.

    1966-01-01

    1. Using chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, a neutral, low ionic strength extract of human grey matter has been separated into fractions of proteins with basic and progressively acidic groups. 2. The reactions of each group with rabbit antiserum against the original extract, in double-diffusion tests, suggest the presence of a minimum total of thirteen distinct antigens between them. These results are supported by immunoelectrophoretic findings, which indicate the basic group to contain five, and the progressively acidic group seven to eight distinct antigens. These antigens do not appear to be human serum proteins. 3. Antigens belonging to the BE class (resistant to boiling and relatively soluble in ethanol) are present among the progressively acidic proteins, and possibly among the basic proteins also. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4958737

  18. DNA encoding individual mycobacterial antigens protects mice against tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Silva

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, some of our experiments in which mycobacterial antigens were presented to the immune system as if they were viral antigens have had a significant impact on our understanding of protective immunity against tuberculosis. They have also markedly enhanced the prospects for new vaccines. We now know that individual mycobacterial protein antigens can confer protection equal to that from live BCG vaccine in mice. A critical determinant of the outcome of immunization appears to be the degree to which antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells are generated by the immune response. Our most recent studies indicate that DNA vaccination is an effective way to establish long-lasting cytotoxic T cell memory and protection against tuberculosis.

  19. Dendritic cell function and antigen presentation in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Ian A; Zavala, Fidel

    2016-06-01

    Due to the diverse roles T cells play in protection against malaria as well as pathogenesis it is critical to know which cells present antigen and the nature of the antigens they present. During pre-erythrocytic stages of infection, cutting-edge imaging studies have shown how Plasmodium antigens are presented during both the priming and effector phases of the protective CD8+ T cell response. During blood stages, pathology is in part due to the loss of DC function and the action of pathogenic T cells in the brain. Recently endothelial cells presenting malaria antigen to cognate T cells have emerged as critical players in malaria pathogenesis. Manipulating these processes may inform both vaccine design and the development of therapies for cerebral malaria. PMID:26845735

  20. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit Alok; Srinivas C R; Balachandran C; Shenoi S D

    1995-01-01

    Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  1. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Alok

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  2. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in hepatitis B virus surface antigen negative patients receiving immunosuppression: A hidden threat

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To present the characteristics and the course of a series of anti-hepatitis B virus core antibody (HBc) antibody positive patients, who experienced hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after immunosuppression.

  3. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash P Patra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10 of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8 used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases.

  4. Comparative evaluation of recombinant LigB protein and heat-killed antigen-based latex agglutination test with microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingam, Mohandoss; Thirumalesh, Sushma Rahim Assadi; Kalleshamurthy, Triveni; Niharika, Nakkala; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Shome, Rajeswari; Sengupta, Pinaki Prasad; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein (LigB) (rLigB) antigen and compare its diagnostic efficacy with LAT using conventional heat-killed leptospiral antigen and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in diagnosing bovine leptospirosis. The PCR-amplified 1053-bp ligB gene sequences from Leptospira borgpetersenii Hardjo serovar were cloned in pET 32 (a) vector at EcoRI and NotI sites and expressed in BL21 E. coli cells as fusion protein with thioredoxin (-57 kDa) and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. Out of 390 serum samples [cattle (n = 214), buffaloes (n = 176)] subjected to MAT, 115 samples showed reciprocal titre≥100 up to 1600 against one or more serovars. For recombinant LigB protein/antigen-based LAT, agglutination was observed in the positive sample, while no agglutination was observed in the negative sample. Similarly, heat-killed leptospiral antigen was prepared from and used in LAT for comparison with MAT. A two-sided contingency table was used for analysis of LAT using both the antigens separately against MAT for 390 serum samples. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of recombinant LigB LAT were found to be 75.65, 91.27, 78.38 and 89.96 %, respectively, and that of heat-killed antigen-based LAT were 72.17, 89.82, 74.77 and 88.53 %, respectively, in comparison with MAT. This developed test will be an alternative/complementary to the existing battery of diagnostic assays/tests for specific detection of pathogenic Leptospira infection in bovine population. PMID:26065562

  5. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto's thyroidi......B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto...

  6. Facts on the fragmentation of antigens in presenting cells, on the association of antigen fragments with MHC molecules in cell-free systems, and speculation on the cell biology of antigen processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, O; Mouritsen, S; Petersen, B L;

    1988-01-01

    The processing of a protein antigen is a multi-step event taking place in antigen-presenting cells. Processing is a prerequisite for the recognition of most antigens by T lymphocytes. The antigen is ingested by endocytosis, transported to an acid cellular compartment and subjected to proteolytic...... fragmentation. Some of the antigen fragments bind to MHC class II molecules and are transported to the surface of the antigen-presenting cell where the actual presentation to T lymphocytes occurs. The nature of the processed antigen, how and where it is derived and subsequently becomes associated with MHC...... molecules are the questions discussed in this review. To us, the entire concept of processing has appeal not only because it explains some hitherto well-established, but poorly understood, phenomena such as the fact that T lymphocytes focus their attention entirely upon antigens on other cells. It has...

  7. Antigenic distinctiveness, heterogeneity, and relationships of Methanothrix spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E

    1987-01-01

    A detailed immunologic analysis of Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon (the type species of the genus), Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1, and Methanothrix concilii GP6 was performed. A variety of poly- and monoclonal antibody probes for a comprehensive panel of reference organisms were used to determine immunogenicity, antigenicity, and relationships. The three organisms are antigenically distinct but interrelated, forming an immunologically cohesive group, weakly related to methanosarcinae. A prom...

  8. Antigen-specific immune reactions to ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier eUrra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain proteins are detected in the CSF and blood of stroke patients and their concentration is related to the extent of brain damage. Antibodies against brain antigens develop after stroke, suggesting a humoral immune response to the brain injury. Furthermore, induced immune tolerance is beneficial in animal models of cerebral ischemia. The presence of circulating T cells sensitized against brain antigens, and antigen presenting cells (APCs carrying brain antigens in draining lymphoid tissue of stroke patients support the notion that stroke might induce antigen-specific immune responses. After stroke, brain proteins that are normally hidden from the periphery, inflammatory mediators, and danger signals can exit the brain through several efflux routes. They can reach the blood after leaking out of the damaged blood-brain barrier or following the drainage of interstitial fluid to the dural venous sinus, or reach the cervical lymph nodes through the nasal lymphatics following CSF drainage along the arachnoid sheaths of nerves across the nasal submucosa. The route and mode of access of brain antigens to lymphoid tissue could influence the type of response. Central and peripheral tolerance prevents autoimmunity, but the actual mechanisms of tolerance to brain antigens released into the periphery in the presence of inflammation, danger signals, and APCs, are not fully characterized. Stroke does not systematically trigger autoimmunity, but under certain circumstances, such as pronounced systemic inflammation or infection, autoreactive T cells could escape the tolerance controls. Further investigation is needed to elucidate whether antigen-specific immune events could underlie neurological complications impairing stroke outcome.

  9. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-3

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda R Bitencourt; Elaine C Vicentin; Jimenez, Maria C.; Ricardo Ricci; Leite, Juliana A.; Fabio T Costa; Luis C Ferreira; Bruce Russell; François Nosten; Laurent Rénia; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

    2013-01-01

    A recent clinical trial in African children demonstrated the potential utility of merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3 as a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study evaluated the use of Plasmodium vivax MSP-3 (PvMSP-3) as a target antigen in vaccine formulations against malaria caused by P. vivax. Recombinant proteins representing MSP-3α and MSP-3β of P. vivax were expressed as soluble histidine-tagged bacterial fusions. Antigenicity during natural infection was evaluated...

  10. Typing of murine cell-surface antigens by cellular radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labelled Protein A was used for detecting antigen-antibody complexes on gultaraldehyde fixed cells attached to microtiter plates. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for revealing H-2 private and public specificities as well as Ia and Lyt antigens. As plates may be kept for months, several reactivities can be tested in one step on a large panel rendering a regular supply of animals unnecessary. (Auth.)

  11. Modeling Influenza Antigenic Shift and Drift with LEGO Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of antigenic shift and drift could be found in almost every microbiology and virology syllabus, usually taught in the context of Influenza virus biology. They are central to understanding viral diversity and evolution and have direct application to anti-flu vaccine design and effectiveness. To aid student understanding of the concepts, I have developed an exercise to visualize the mechanistic aspects of antigenic shift and drift using LEGO bricks. This hands-on/minds-on exercise ...

  12. Molecular detection, monitoring and modulation of antigen specific immune responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, G

    2004-01-01

    Stem cell transplantati.on (SCT) represents the only curative treatment option for leukaemia. The bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells transferred in the transplant procedure restore immune functions, allowing the targeting of infected cells or cells expressing tumour antigens. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), key mediators of antigen specific killing, were investigated in the context of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). CMV infection after SCT in the abs...

  13. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassauer, M; Scheidtmann, K H; Walter, G.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, 32Pi-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T a...

  14. Immunogenicity of transgenic plant-derived hepatitis B surface antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Thanavala, Y; Yang, Y. F.; Lyons, P; Mason, H S; Arntzen, C

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the Children's Vaccine Initiative is to encourage the discovery of technology that will make vaccines more readily available to developing countries. Our strategy has been to genetically engineer plants so that they can be used as inexpensive alternatives to fermentation systems for production of subunit antigens. In this paper we report on the immunological response elicited in vivo by using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) purified from transgenic tobacco leaves...

  15. Differentiation of Rhizoctonia spp. Based on their antigenic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vico Ivana M.; Krstić Branka B.; Dukić Nataša

    2002-01-01

    Antigenic properties and serological relationship was investigated in binucleate and multinucleate Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from strawberries soybean, alfalfa and potato plants from Serbia, from Spain, anastomosis group testers and in strawberry roots inoculated with binucleate Rhizoctonia AG A and AG I. Two polyclonal antisera, unabsorbed and cross absorbed, were used in dot-immunobinding assay for these investigations. Antisera were produced against mycelial antigens of two isolates, which...

  16. Prevalence of Alloimmunization against RBC Antigens in Thalassemia Major Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mirzaeian; Gholamhossein Tamaddon; Majid Naderi; Marziyeh Hosseinpour; Narges Sargolzaie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regular blood transfusions to treat the patients with thalassemia major generate antibodies acting against red blood cells antigens. This immune response is called alloimmunity. This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the prevalence of alloantibodies and autoantibody, identifying the type of causative antigen, and recognizing the factors affecting alloimmunization among the patients with thalassemia major receiving blood. Materials and Methods: In this cross-secti...

  17. Antigenic Challenge in the Etiology of Autoimmune Disease in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A M Rogers; Levine, Deborah A.; Blumberg, Neil; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Kabeto, Mohammed; Kenneth M. Langa

    2011-01-01

    Infection has long been implicated as a trigger for autoimmune disease. Other antigenic challenges include receipt of allogeneic tissue or blood resulting in immunomodulation. We investigated antigenic challenges as possible risk factors for autoimmune disease in women using the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal study, linked to Medicare files, years 1991–2007. The prevalence of autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, Graves’ disease,...

  18. Histocompatibility antigens in psoriasis, psoriatic arthropathy, and ankylosing spondylitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, R D; Panayi, G. S.; Welsh, K I

    1983-01-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and psoriasis alone were typed for HLA A, B, Cw, and DR antigens, and the antigen frequencies were compared with those in a normal control population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with psoriasis had a significantly raised frequency of Cw6. Those with arthritis in addition to their psoriasis also had raised frequencies of B27 and DR7. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis were characterised by the expected high fre...

  19. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  20. Negative effect of smoking on the performance of the QuantiFERON TB gold in tube test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G; Hermansen, Thomas Stig; Ruhwald, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: False negative and indeterminate Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) results are a well documented problem. Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB) and to impair Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses to antigenic challenge, but the impact of...... smoking on IGRA performance is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on IGRA performance in TB patients in a low and high TB prevalence setting respectively. METHODS: Patients with confirmed TB from Denmark (DK, n = 34; 20 smokers) and Tanzania (TZ, n = 172; 23 smokers......) were tested with the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In tube (QFT). Median IFN-gamma level in smokers and non smokers were compared and smoking was analysed as a risk factor for false negative and indeterminate QFT results. RESULTS: Smokers from both DK and TZ had lower IFN-gamma antigen responses (median 0.9 vs...

  1. Fetal blood grouping using cell free DNA - an improved service for RhD negative pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, V L; Soothill, P W

    2014-04-01

    Red cell alloimmunisation involves the transplacental movement of maternally derived red cell antibodies into the fetal circulation, causing red cell haemolysis, fetal anaemia and ultimately fetal death. Current standard UK practice is to prevent sensitisation to the D antigen by administering anti-D at about 28 weeks' gestation to all RhD negative pregnancies. The determination of fetal blood group by non-invasive cell free fetal DNA testing offers an improved and more efficient service to RhD negative pregnant women and avoids the potential iatrogenic harm associated with standard practice. It also has significantly improved the management of women with red cell alloimunisation to D and other antigens. This review summarises the past and future management of red cell alloimmunisation during pregnancy and the impact of ffDNA tests. PMID:24679596

  2. Nonprostatic sources of prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, E P; Yu, H

    1997-05-01

    The name prostate-specific antigen has been given to a protein that now is known not to be prostate-specific; however, prostatic tissue does produces extremely high levels of PSA and secrets it into the seminal plasma. Seminal plasma contains about 1 million micrograms/L of PSA and is the richest source of PSA reported. The biologic fluid with the second highest PSA concentration, however, is nipple aspirate fluid from the female breast (up to about 5000 micrograms/L), and the third is milk from lactating women (up to 300 micrograms/L). Male serum PSA is usually less than 4 micrograms/L. In nonprostatic tissues, PSA exists mainly in its free molecular form, but PSA-ACT complex is also present in most of the fluids that contain PSA, such as breast secretions and amniotic fluid. The gene expression and protein production of PSA in nonprostatic tissues are under the regulation of steroid hormones via their receptors. Androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestins up-regulate the PSA gene expression, resulting in an increase of protein production. Estrogen by itself seems to have no effect on PSA regulation, but it can impair PSA production induced by androgen. It remains unknown whether PSA is enzymatically active and what is the physiologic role of PSA in nonprostatic tissues. It is speculated that PSA may be involved in the regulation of growth factors. Measuring PSA in breast cancer cytosol, breast-nipple aspirate fluid, and female serum may have potential clinical utilities, including breast cancer prognosis, breast cancer risk assessment, and evaluation of androgen excess. Further studies are needed to identify the exact function and regulation of PSA in nonprostatic tissues and to explore the clinical application of this protein. PMID:9126224

  3. Lipid peroxidation causes endosomal antigen release for cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingjan, Ilse; Verboogen, Daniëlle Rj; Paardekooper, Laurent M; Revelo, Natalia H; Sittig, Simone P; Visser, Linda J; Mollard, Gabriele Fischer von; Henriet, Stefanie Sv; Figdor, Carl G; Ter Beest, Martin; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) present foreign antigen in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells in a process called cross-presentation. An important step in this process is the release of antigen from the lumen of endosomes into the cytosol, but the mechanism of this step is still unclear. In this study, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH-oxidase complex NOX2 cause lipid peroxidation, a membrane disrupting chain-reaction, which in turn results in antigen leakage from endosomes. Antigen leakage and cross-presentation were inhibited by blocking ROS production or scavenging radicals and induced when using a ROS-generating photosensitizer. Endosomal antigen release was impaired in DCs from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with dysfunctional NOX2. Thus, NOX2 induces antigen release from endosomes for cross-presentation by direct oxidation of endosomal lipids. This constitutes a new cellular function for ROS in regulating immune responses against pathogens and cancer. PMID:26907999

  4. Analysis of antigenic variation in equine 2 influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, V S; Naeve, C W; Webster, R G; Douglas, A; Skehel, J J; Bryans, J

    1983-01-01

    Influenza outbreaks involving viruses of the H3N8 subtype (equine 2) often occur in vaccinated horses. For this reason, a series of influenza viruses of the H3N8 subtype were examined to determine if antigenic variation could be detected in isolates during the period 1963-81. Antigenic analyses with post-infection ferret sera and monoclonal antibodies showed that the haemagglutinins of recent isolates were antigenically distinguishable from the prototype A/eq/Miami/1/63 and that antigenically distinguishable groups of equine 2 viruses co-circulate in the horse population. Based on these studies, it is recommended that a recent equine strain, A/equine/Fontainebleu/1/79 or A/equine/Kentucky/1/81, serve as an additional prototype strain for this subtype.Antigenic variation in equine 2 viruses may be of epidemiological significance, yet the overall conservation of these strains makes it unlikely that vaccine failures can be attributed solely to antigenic changes in these viruses. A sufficiently potent vaccine, containing a current representative of the most prevalent equine 2 strain, may improve the protection afforded by equine vaccines. PMID:6601538

  5. Targeting novel antigens in the arterial wall in thromboangiitis obliterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akkus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thromboangiitis obliterans is an inflammatory disease possibly resulting from cigarette smoking as a primary etiologic factor, perhaps as a delayed type of hypersensitivity or toxic angiitis. As little is known about the pathogenesis of the disease, we aimed to determine novel antigens that might be responsible from the local inflammatory reactions and structural changes observed in this disease. An indirect immunoperoxidase technique is used to examine the tissue samples obtained from the dorsalis pedis artery of affected individuals with twenty monoclonal antibodies. Among these several antigens which are not previously reported in TAO like CD34, CD44 and CD90 were determined in the tissue samples examined. On the other hand, many other antigens like cytokine/chemokine receptors, several enzymes and leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens were lacking giving some clues about the local pathological reactions. We briefly discussed our findings for several critical antigens those first described in the present work, possibly having roles in the development of the disease. Expression of the CD90/CD11c receptor/ligand pair seems to play an important role in mononuclear cell recruitment to the damage site. Vascular invasion of not only tunica intima but also the tunica media in affected vessels is clearly demonstrated using endothelial cell specific antigens.

  6. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  7. Partial purification and characterization of Ascaridia galli diagnostic worm antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahman, Eman H; Khalil, Fathia A M

    2005-08-01

    Partial purification of Ascaridia galli whole worm extract was conducted by Cyanogen bromide Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity column chromatography. The resulted fraction was characterized by sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. The fraction was found to be consisted of six bands of 207 KDa, 157 KDa. 110 KDa, 103 KDa, 76 KDa and 41 KDa. This profile was compared with that of whole worm and excretory-secretory antigens. Both antigens were resolved into multiple bands in both high and low molecular weight ranges. The isoelectric focusing of the fraction displayed 8 bands of isoelectric points 7.5, 7.0, 6.8, 6.5, 6.2, 5.8. 5.3 and 4.6. The potency of this fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens was assessed by ELISA compared with that of whole worm and ES antigens. The affinity purified fraction showed higher potentials in the diagnosis of A. galli infection in chickens than whole worm antigen at any sera dilution and than ES antigen at high sera dilutions. While ES antigen of the worms revealed higher diagnostic capabilities than whole worm extract. The current research recommends utilization of the affinity isolated fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens. PMID:16083065

  8. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  9. Novel vaccine strategies to T-independent antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, G B; Westerink, M A

    2001-11-01

    T cell independent antigens do not require T cell help to induce an immune response, and are characterized by a lack of immunologic memory. These antigens can be divided into two classes, TI-1 or TI-2. TI-1 antigens, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, are potent B-cell mitogens, capable of non-specific, polyclonal activation of B cells. In contrast, TI-2 antigens can only activate mature B cells and consist of highly repetitive structures, such as capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from bacteria. Many vaccines currently in use consist of purified capsular polysaccharides from pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. These vaccines are efficacious in immune-competent adults, however, due to their TI-2 nature, are not effective in children <2 years of age. Converting polysaccharides into T cell dependent (TD) antigens, allows children, <2, to produce an effective immune response. This review focuses on various strategies used to convert the immune response to polysaccharide antigens from TI-2 to a TD response. Conjugate vaccines, anti-idiotypic antibodies, phage display library technology and DNA vaccines are discussed. PMID:11576678

  10. Double-antibody radioimmunoassay for factor VIII-related antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma protein required for the support of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was isolated from antihemophilic factor concentrate and radiolabeled with 125I. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed, with use of specific rabbit anti-VIII related antigen serum and goat anti-rabbit globulin. The assay is sensitive, reproducible, and technically simple to perform. Values obtained in normal subjects ranged from 0.65 to 1.53 units, similar to our normal range for VIII coagulant activity (0.67 to 1.43 units). However, normal or increased values of VIII-related antigen were observed in VIII coagulant-deficient hemophiliacs. Also, concentrations of VIII-related antigen significantly exceeded coagulant concentrations in several patients with liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation, or both. Of a broad selection of congenital coagulation disorders examined, only patients with von Willebrand's disease had decreased VIII-related antigen concentrations, and these corresponded to the lowered concentration of ristocetin cofactor in the patients. In three transfused patients, VIII-related antigen values correlated with the concentration of the cofactor. Our results suggest that the radioimmunoassay of VIII-related antigen is a simple and valuable adjunct in the study of patients with clotting abnormalities

  11. Levels of estrogen, carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen of breast in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the period from february 2004 to July 2004; with the objective of measuring the levels of estrogen (E2), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen of breast (CA-15.3) so as to facilitate the early diagnosis of breast cancer and determine the involvement of these parameters as risk factors for breast cancer. Ninety blood samples were collected from Sudanese females, divided into two groups; control group and patient groups. The patients group was sixty Sudanese females visiting the Radio Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and they were confirmed as breast cancer patient by histopathology. The levels of the above mentioned parameters were determined by using radioimmunoassay technique. The results showed that, no significant (p=0.05) difference between the levels of the estrogen in patients compared to the control, on the other hand there was non significant (p>0.05) elevation in CEA levels in the patients with breast cancer compared to the control. The level of CA15.3 was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the breast cancer patients compared to the control.(Author)

  12. Genetic analysis of a Treponema phagedenis locus encoding antigenic lipoproteins with potential for antigenic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mamoona; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Loftsdottir, Heidur; Pringle, Märit; Segerman, Bo; Zuerner, Richard; Rosander, Anna

    2016-06-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful and debilitating claw disease in cattle. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The occurrence of Treponema phagedenis in DD lesions, especially near the interface of healthy and diseased tissue, suggests that this species contributes to the development and/or progression of the lesions. In this study we characterized a genetic locus in T. phagedenis that contains coding regions for three antigenic proteins, PrrA, VpsA, and VpsB. Comparative analysis of homologous loci from fifteen strains suggests that prrA may be transposed into or out of this locus. Alterations in the copy number of TA repeats within the putative promoter region may regulate VpsA/B expression. The vpsA and prrA genes occur in allelic variants in different T. phagedenis isolates and may provide one explanation for the antigenic variation observed in T. phagedenis DD isolates. PMID:27259832

  13. Structure and antigenicity of the phosphorylated lipopolysaccharide antigens from the leprosy and tubercle bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S W; Gaylord, H; Brennan, P J

    1986-09-15

    A family of major arabinose- and mannose-containing phosphorylated lipopolysaccharides was isolated from Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The only antigenic member of the family, lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-B, was purified by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography in detergent and recovered in large quantities (15 mg/g of bacteria). It yielded a broad diffuse band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but appeared homogeneous by this criterion and gel filtration. Besides arabinose and mannose, it contained glycerol and a polyol phosphate and was acylated by lactate, succinate, palmitate, and 10-methyloctadecanoate. The phosphate was released by alkalinolysis and identified by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as myoinositol 1-phosphate. Thus, the group-specific "arabinomannan" of the genus Mycobacterium in the native state is acylated, contains the substituents of phosphatidylinositol, and is apparently membrane associated. LAM-B is one of the dominant immunogens of the leprosy bacillus reacting readily with antibodies from lepromatous leprosy patients and monoclonal antibodies in plate and nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and on electrophoretic immunoblots. It is immunologically cross-reactive with a like product from M. tuberculosis. LAM-B is clearly the pervasive "glycoprotein" antigen of the leprosy bacillus and may be the long sought lipoteichoic acid-like polymer of Mycobacterium with a role in cell wall physiology, macrophage recognition, and perhaps an involvement in cross-protective immunity. PMID:3091602

  14. Soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens contain carbohydrate moieties important for immune reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Jensen, J B;

    1987-01-01

    The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from ....... The results might have important implications for the strategy of developing a malaria vaccine....

  15. A "new" primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) defined DP-antigen associated with a private HLA--DR antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P;

    1980-01-01

    We have recently described a "new" private HLA-DR antigen, DR"LTM", which has a frequency of approximately 0.6% in Danes. Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells directed towards DR"LTM"-associated determinants were generated in vitro by haplotype primings in two unrelated families with DR...... total agreement between the results obtained by HLA-DR typing with the antiserum "LTM" and by PLT-typing with these two haplotype primed PLT-cells. None of the DP"LTM"-positive individuals carried more than one of the antigens HLA-Dw/-DRw/DP1-8 and the local specificity D/DP"H". Accordingly, this "new......" PLT-defined antigen, DP"LTM", most probably belongs to the series of HLA-D/DR-associated DP-antigens previously described....

  16. Antigens of worms and eggs showed a differentiated detection of specific IgG according to the time of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correlation between the immunological assay and the antibody titer can offer a tool for the experimental analysis of different phases of the disease. METHODS: Two simple immunological assays for Schistosoma mansoni in mice sera samples based on specific IgG detection for worms soluble antigens and eggs soluble antigens were standardized and evaluated in our laboratory. Fifty mice were used in negative and positive groups and the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA assays were compared with the number of worms counted and the IgG titers at different times of infection. RESULTS: Data showed that ELISA using adult worm antigens (ELISA-SWAP presented a satisfactory correlation between the absorbance value of IgG titers and the individual number of worms counted after perfusion technique (R²=0.62. In addition, ELISA-SWAP differentially detected positive samples with 30 and 60 days post infection (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively, whereas ELISA using egg antigens (ELISA-SEA detected samples after 140 days (p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the use of different antigens in immunological methods can be used as potential tools for the analysis of the chronological evolution of S. mansoni infection in murine schistosomiasis. Correlations with human schistosomiasis are discussed.

  17. PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wenxue Ma1, Mingshui Chen1, Sharmeela Kaushal1,2, Michele McElroy1,2, Yu Zhang3, Cengiz Ozkan3, Michael Bouvet1,2, Carol Kruse4, Douglas Grotjahn5, Thomas Ichim6, Boris Minev1,7,81Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, 2Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, 3Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology, University of California Riverside, 4UCLA Division of Neurosurgery, Los Angeles, 5Chemistry Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, 6MediStem Inc. San Diego, 7UCSD Division of Neurosurgery, San Diego, 8Genelux Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s. The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-γ ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI. The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of -15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs

  18. Structural Basis for Antigenic Peptide Recognition and Processing by Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Aminopeptidase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpakali, Anastasia; Giastas, Petros; Mathioudakis, Nikolas; Mavridis, Irene M; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2015-10-23

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidases process antigenic peptide precursors to generate epitopes for presentation by MHC class I molecules and help shape the antigenic peptide repertoire and cytotoxic T-cell responses. To perform this function, ER aminopeptidases have to recognize and process a vast variety of peptide sequences. To understand how these enzymes recognize substrates, we determined crystal structures of ER aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) in complex with a substrate analogue and a peptidic product to 2.5 and 2.7 Å, respectively, and compared them to the apo-form structure determined to 3.0 Å. The peptides were found within the internal cavity of the enzyme with no direct access to the outside solvent. The substrate analogue extends away from the catalytic center toward the distal end of the internal cavity, making interactions with several shallow pockets along the path. A similar configuration was evident for the peptidic product, although decreasing electron density toward its C terminus indicated progressive disorder. Enzymatic analysis confirmed that visualized interactions can either positively or negatively impact in vitro trimming rates. Opportunistic side-chain interactions and lack of deep specificity pockets support a limited-selectivity model for antigenic peptide processing by ERAP2. In contrast to proposed models for the homologous ERAP1, no specific recognition of the peptide C terminus by ERAP2 was evident, consistent with functional differences in length selection and self-activation between these two enzymes. Our results suggest that ERAP2 selects substrates by sequestering them in its internal cavity and allowing opportunistic interactions to determine trimming rates, thus combining substrate permissiveness with sequence bias. PMID:26381406

  19. O antigen modulates insect vector acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Kinsinger, Nichola; Perring, Thomas M; Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Walker, Sharon; Roper, M Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Hemipteran insect vectors transmit the majority of plant pathogens. Acquisition of pathogenic bacteria by these piercing/sucking insects requires intimate associations between the bacterial cells and insect surfaces. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and thus mediates bacterial interactions with the environment and potential hosts. We hypothesized that bacterial cell surface properties mediated by LPS would be important in modulating vector-pathogen interactions required for acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Utilizing a mutant that produces truncated O antigen (the terminal portion of the LPS molecule), we present results that link this LPS structural alteration to a significant decrease in the attachment of X. fastidiosa to blue-green sharpshooter foreguts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that this defect in initial attachment compromised subsequent biofilm formation within vector foreguts, thus impairing pathogen acquisition. We also establish a relationship between O antigen truncation and significant changes in the physiochemical properties of the cell, which in turn affect the dynamics of X. fastidiosa adhesion to the vector foregut. Lastly, we couple measurements of the physiochemical properties of the cell with hydrodynamic fluid shear rates to produce a Comsol model that predicts primary areas of bacterial colonization within blue-green sharpshooter foreguts, and we present experimental data that support the model. These results demonstrate that, in addition to reported protein adhesin-ligand interactions, O antigen is crucial for vector-pathogen interactions, specifically in the acquisition of this destructive agricultural pathogen. PMID:26386068

  20. HLA class II antigens and haplotypes associated with susceptibility of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetical and environmental factors play an interactive role in the development of acute and chronic leukemias. HLA antigens have been considered as possible genetic risk factors. The aim of this work was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II polymorphisms and leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome. In the present study we investigated HLA class II antigens, DR/DQ and DR51/DR52/DR53 haplotypes in 100 patients: 7 suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS,37 from acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL,32 from acute myeloid leukemia (AML and 24 from chronic myeloid leukemia(CML. A panel of 210 healthy unrelated individuals of the same origin, from Vojvodina, served as controls. HLA phenotyping was performed by two color fluorescence method. In patients suffering from MDS was found a positive association with DR7(RR=2.598,EF=0.175 and DQ7(3(RR=4.419, EF=0.632, while negative association was found for DR15(2(RR=0.405, PF=0.172 and DQ6(1 (RR=0.889, PF=0,936.Positive association was found in the group of patients with ALL for DR7(RR=2.391,EF=0.688 and DQ2(RR=1.62, EF=0.15,while negative association was found with DQ5(1(RR=0.075, PF=0.324. In the group of patients with AML, there were positive associations with DR11(5(RR=1.732,EF=0.211,DQ2(RR= 1.594, EF=0.151 and DQ7(3 (RR=2.547,EF=0.266,while possible protective antigen was DQ5(1 (RR=0.107,RF=0.701. Higher RR than 1 and EF>0.15, in patients suffering from CML was found for DQ6(1(RR=1.661,EF=0.232, while negative association was found for DR4 (RR=0.182,PF=0.155.Possible protective haplotype in this study was DR3DQ8(3 for patients suffering from AML(RR=0.007, PF=0.501.The distribution of DR53-DR53 haplotypes showed significant difference in male patients with ALL(6% vs 0.09%, while DR52-DR52 haplotype was significantly less frequent in male patients with CML (4% vs 20.47% and female patients with MDS (1% vs 18.57%, respectively, in comparison to controls. We deduced that DR7 antigen in