WorldWideScience

Sample records for antigen delivery system

  1. Yeast retrotransposon particles as antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsman, A J; Burns, N R; Layton, G T; Adams, S E

    1995-05-31

    The development of technologies to produce recombinant proteins for use in the pharmaceutical industry has made substantial advances, in particular in the area of generating antigens containing multiple copies of important immunological regions. One such antigen-carrier system is based on the ability of a protein encoded by the yeast retrotransposon, Ty, to self-assemble into virus-like particles. Ty-fusion proteins retain this ability to form particles, and a range of hybrid VLPs carrying a variety of heterologous antigens have been produced and shown to induce potent immune responses. In particular, hybrid VLPs carrying the core protein p24 of HIV (p24-VLPs) have been shown to induce antibody and T-cell proliferative responses in both experimental animals and human volunteers, and immunization of rabbits with VLPs carrying the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV (V3-VLPs) resulted in the induction of neutralizing antibody responses and T-cell proliferation. Further studies with V3-VLPs have shown that this particulate antigen stimulates enhanced V3-specific lymphoproliferative responses as compared to whole recombinant gp120 or to V3 peptide conjugated to albumin. The V3-VLPs also induce potent CTL responses following immunization of mice in the absence of adjuvant. These responses are MHC class I restricted and are mediated by CD8-positive cells. These observations therefore demonstrate that hybrid Ty-VLPs induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against HIV and suggest that these immunogens may be important in combatting AIDS and other infections. PMID:7625653

  2. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A.; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R.; Crispe, I. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nano-scale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The con...

  3. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Crispe, I Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nanoscale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The conjugation of fluoresceinated ovalbumin (FLUO-OVA) and lactobionic acid with LDL resulted in a substantially increased uptake of FLUO-OVA by murine macrophage-like ANA1 cells in preference to NIH3T3 cells, and by primary peritoneal macrophages in preference to primary hepatic stellate cells. Such preferential uptake led to enhanced proliferation of OVA specific T cells, showing that the galactosylated LDL nanoscale platform is a successful antigen carrier, targeting antigen to macrophages but not to all categories of antigen presenting cells. This system will allow targeted delivery of antigen to macrophages in the liver and elsewhere, addressing the question of the role of Kupffer cells in liver immunology. It may also be an effective way of delivering drugs or vaccines directly at macrophages. PMID:19637876

  4. Chitosan-based delivery systems for protein therapeutics and antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, M.; Mastrobattista, E.; Jiskoot, W.; Hennink, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic peptides/proteins and protein-based antigens are chemically and structurally labile compounds, which are almost exclusively administered by parenteral injections. Recently, non-invasive mucosal routes have attracted interest for administration of these biotherapeutics. Chitosan-based del

  5. Heterologous protein secretion in Lactococcus lactis: a novel antigen delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langella P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive bacteria and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS organisms. Therefore, LAB could be used for heterologous protein secretion and they are good potential candidates as antigen delivery vehicles. To develop such live vaccines, a better control of protein secretion is required. We developed an efficient secretion system in the model LAB, Lactococcus lactis. Staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc was used as the reporter protein. We first observed that the quantity of secreted Nuc correlated with the copy number of the cloning vector. The nuc gene was cloned on a high-copy number cloning vector and no perturbation of the metabolism of the secreting strain was observed. Replacement of nuc native promoter by a strong lactococcal one led to a significant increase of nuc expression. Secretion efficiency (SE of Nuc in L. lactis was low, i.e., only 60% of the synthesized Nuc was secreted. Insertion of a synthetic propeptide between the signal peptide and the mature moiety of Nuc increased the SE of Nuc. On the basis of these results, we developed a secretion system and we applied it to the construction of an L. lactis strain which secretes a bovine coronavirus (BCV epitope-protein fusion (BCV-Nuc. BCV-Nuc was recognized by both anti-BCV and anti-Nuc antibodies. Secretion of this antigenic fusion is the first step towards the development of a novel antigen delivery system based on LAB-secreting strains.

  6. Preparing and Characterizing Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom as an Antigen Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chitosan nanoparticles have been studied widely for protein delivery. In this study, Hemiscorpius lepturus (HL venom was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The aim of the present work was to carry out a systematic study for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles for loading HL scorpion venom and to evaluate their potential as an antigen delivery system. In this study, HL venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles fabricated by ionic gelation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate and the factors which may be influenced in the preparation of nanoparticles were analyzed. Also, their physicochemical properties and in vitro release behavior were studied. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and capacity were observed when the chitosan concentration and HL venom were 2mg/ml and 500µg/ml, respectively. The HL venom loaded nanoparticles were in the size range of 130-160nm (polydispersity index values of 0.423 and exhibited the positive zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope imaging showed spherical and smooth surface of nanoparticles. The profiles of the release exhibited a burst releases about 50% in the first 4 hr and then slowed down at a constant rate. The obtained results suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles prepared in this work had the potential for antigen delivery.

  7. Nanogel antigenic protein-delivery system for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Mejima, Mio; Kohda, Tomoko; Harada, Norihiro; Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Kataoka, Nobuhiro; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Tsukada, Hideo; Kozaki, Shunji; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an innovative method of freely controlling nanometre-sized materials. Recent outbreaks of mucosal infectious diseases have increased the demands for development of mucosal vaccines because they induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. Here we developed an intranasal vaccine-delivery system with a nanometre-sized hydrogel ('nanogel') consisting of a cationic type of cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). A non-toxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type-A neurotoxin BoHc/A administered intranasally with cCHP nanogel (cCHP-BoHc/A) continuously adhered to the nasal epithelium and was effectively taken up by mucosal dendritic cells after its release from the cCHP nanogel. Vigorous botulinum-neurotoxin-A-neutralizing serum IgG and secretory IgA antibody responses were induced without co-administration of mucosal adjuvant. Importantly, intranasally administered cCHP-BoHc/A did not accumulate in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Moreover, intranasally immunized tetanus toxoid with cCHP nanogel induced strong tetanus-toxoid-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. These results indicate that cCHP nanogel can be used as a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccination. PMID:20562880

  8. In vitro performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system: lipid composition matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Ehrich, Marion; Fuhrman, Kristel; Zhang, Chenming

    2014-08-01

    Due to the many beneficial properties combined from both poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and liposomes, lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs have been intensively studied as cancer drug delivery systems, bio-imaging agent carriers, as well as antigen delivery vehicles. However, the impact of lipid composition on the performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs as a delivery system has not been well investigated. In this study, the influence of lipid composition on the stability of the hybrid NPs and in vitro antigen release from NPs under different conditions was examined. The uptake of hybrid NPs with various surface charges by dendritic cells (DCs) was carefully studied. The results showed that PLGA NPs enveloped by a lipid shell with more positive surface charges could improve the stability of the hybrid NPs, enable better controlled release of antigens encapsulated in PLGA NPs, as well as enhance uptake of NPs by DC.

  9. Immunostimulating complexes incorporating Eimeria tenella antigens and plant saponins as effective delivery system for coccidia vaccine immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskiy, A P; Tolmacheva, V P; Makhmudova, N R; Khudyakova, S S; Levandovskaya, S V; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Ermakova, O S; Aleksyuk, P G; Barfield, R C; Danforth, H D; Fetterer, R H

    2008-04-01

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique, multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids, and triterpene saponins of plant origin, and are an effective delivery system for various kinds of antigens. The uses of ISCOMs formulated with saponins from plants collected in Kazakhstan, with antigens from the poultry coccidian parasite Eimeria tenella, were evaluated for their potential use in developing a vaccine for control of avian coccidiosis. Saponins isolated from the plants Aesculus hippocastanum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were partially purified by HPLC. The saponin fractions obtained from HPLC were evaluated for toxicity in chickens and chicken embryos. The HPLC saponin fractions with the least toxicity, compared to a commercial saponin Quil A, were used to assemble ISCOMs. When chicks were immunized with ISCOMs prepared with saponins from Kazakhstan plants and E. tenella antigens, and then challenged with E. tenella oocysts, significant protection was conveyed compared to immunization with antigen alone. The results of this study indicate that ISCOMs formulated with saponins isolated from plants indigenous to Kazakhstan are an effective antigen delivery system which may be successfully used, with low toxicity, for preparation of highly immunogenic coccidia vaccine. PMID:18564738

  10. Whole Pichia pastoris yeast expressing measles virus nucleoprotein as a production and delivery system to multimerize Plasmodium antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Jacob

    Full Text Available Yeasts are largely used as bioreactors for vaccine production. Usually, antigens are produced in yeast then purified and mixed with adjuvants before immunization. However, the purification costs and the safety concerns recently raised by the use of new adjuvants argue for alternative strategies. To this end, the use of whole yeast as both production and delivery system appears attractive. Here, we evaluated Pichia pastoris yeast as an alternative vaccine production and delivery system for the circumsporozoite protein (CS of Plasmodium, the etiologic agent of malaria. The CS protein from Plasmodium berghei (Pb was selected given the availability of the stringent C57Bl/6 mouse model of infection by Pb sporozoites, allowing the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in vivo. PbCS was multimerized by fusion to the measles virus (MV nucleoprotein (N known to auto-assemble in yeast in large-size ribonucleoprotein rods (RNPs. Expressed in P. pastoris, the N-PbCS protein generated highly multimeric and heterogenic RNPs bearing PbCS on their surface. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses revealed the shape of these RNPs and their localization in peripheral cytoplasmic inclusions. Subcutaneous immunization of C57Bl/6 mice with heat-inactivated whole P. pastoris expressing N-PbCS RNPs provided significant reduction of parasitemia after intradermal challenge with a high dose of parasites. Thus, in the absence of accessory adjuvants, a very low amount of PbCS expressed in whole yeast significantly decreased clinical damages associated with Pb infection in a highly stringent challenge model, providing a proof of concept of the intrinsic adjuvancy of this vaccine strategy. In addition to PbCS multimerization, the N protein contributed by itself to parasitemia delay and long-term mice survival. In the future, mixtures of whole recombinant yeasts expressing relevant Plasmodium antigens would provide a multivalent formulation applicable for antigen

  11. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts retain crucial surface properties and express chlamydial antigen: an imaging study of a delivery system for the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Ladurner, Angela; Stein, Elisabeth; Belij, Sandra; Bintner, Nora; Schlacher, Simone; Schuerer, Nadine; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Lubitz, Werner; Leisch, Nikolaus; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2015-01-01

    To target chronic inflammatory ocular surface diseases, a drug delivery platform is needed that is safe, possesses immunomodulatory properties, and can be used either for drug delivery, or as a foreign antigen carrier. A new therapeutic approach that we have previously proposed uses nonliving bacterial ghosts (BGs) as a carrier-delivery system which can be engineered to carry foreign antigens and/or be loaded with therapeutic drugs. The parent strain chosen for development of our BG delivery system is the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN), whose intrinsic properties trigger the innate immune system with the flagella and fimbriae used to attach and stimulate epithelial cells. In previous studies, we have shown that EcN BGs are safe for the ocular surface route, but evidence that EcN BGs retain flagella and fimbriae after transformation, has never been visually confirmed. In this study, we used different visualization techniques to determine whether flagella and fimbriae are retained on EcN BGs engineered either for drug delivery or as a foreign antigen carrier. We have also shown by immunoelectron microscopy that EcN retains two foreign antigens after processing to become EcN BGs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BGs derived from EcN and expressing a foreign antigen attachment to conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro without causing reduced cell viability. These results are an important step in constructing a delivery system based on a nonliving probiotic that is suitable for use in ocular surface diseases pairing immunomodulation and targeted delivery. PMID:26229437

  12. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts retain crucial surface properties and express chlamydial antigen: an imaging study of a delivery system for the ocular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanaro J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Montanaro,1 Aleksandra Inic-Kanada,1 Angela Ladurner,1 Elisabeth Stein,1 Sandra Belij,1 Nora Bintner,1 Simone Schlacher,1 Nadine Schuerer,1 Ulrike Beate Mayr,2 Werner Lubitz,2 Nikolaus Leisch,3 Talin Barisani-Asenbauer11Laura Bassi Centres of Expertise, OCUVAC – Centre of Ocular Inflammation and Infection, Centre for Pathophysiology, Infectiology, and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2BIRD-C GmbH & Co KG, Kritzendorf, Austria; 3Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: To target chronic inflammatory ocular surface diseases, a drug delivery platform is needed that is safe, possesses immunomodulatory properties, and can be used either for drug delivery, or as a foreign antigen carrier. A new therapeutic approach that we have previously proposed uses nonliving bacterial ghosts (BGs as a carrier-delivery system which can be engineered to carry foreign antigens and/or be loaded with therapeutic drugs. The parent strain chosen for development of our BG delivery system is the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN, whose intrinsic properties trigger the innate immune system with the flagella and fimbriae used to attach and stimulate epithelial cells. In previous studies, we have shown that EcN BGs are safe for the ocular surface route, but evidence that EcN BGs retain flagella and fimbriae after transformation, has never been visually confirmed. In this study, we used different visualization techniques to determine whether flagella and fimbriae are retained on EcN BGs engineered either for drug delivery or as a foreign antigen carrier. We have also shown by immunoelectron microscopy that EcN retains two foreign antigens after processing to become EcN BGs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BGs derived from EcN and expressing a foreign antigen attachment to conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro without causing reduced cell viability. These results

  13. Oral delivery of the Sj23LHD-GST antigen by Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system protects against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoters (nirB or pagC were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE(1-104-Sj23LHD-GST efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG(2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.

  14. Lactobacilli as antigen delivery system for mucosal tolerance induction in autoimmune disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maassen, Kitty

    1999-01-01

    textabstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (eNS) that affects eNS myelin which isolates nerve axons and allows saltatory pulse conduction. It is the most important chronic disabling neurological disease in young adults, with a mean age of onset around 30 years. It has a prevalence of approximately I per 1000 in Western European countries and it affects women versus men at a ratio of 1.5 to I (Sadovnick and Ebers, 1993). Although the cau...

  15. Improvement of the live vaccine strain Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a for antigen delivery via the hemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Christian; Fensterle, Joachim; Goebel, Werner; Meyer, Susanne R; Kirchgraber, Gabriel; Heisig, Martin; Fürer, Andreas; Dietrich, Guido; Rapp, Ulf R; Gentschev, Ivaylo

    2009-02-01

    The attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a (Ty21a) is the only attenuated live oral vaccine against typhoid fever. Ty21a is also an attractive carrier for the delivery of heterologous antigens. We have used Ty21a for antigen delivery via the hemolysin (HlyA) secretion system of Escherichia coli, the prototype of the type I secretion system (T1SS). In this study, we identified by genetic complementation that the specific mutation of rpoS correlated with the hemolysin production of strain Ty21a. We furthermore showed that complementation with a plasmid encoding rfaH, which is described to be a downstream target of rpoS, led to increased expression and secretion of hemolysin. Finally, we demonstrated a significant enhancement of antibody responses against the heterologous HlyA antigen of Ty21a after immunization of mice with rfaH complemented S. typhi strain secreting HlyA compared with the same strain without rfaH plasmid. PMID:18706861

  16. Targeted Delivery of VP1 Antigen of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. In particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from FMDV transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where FMDV infecti...

  17. Potent Antigen-Adjuvant Delivery System by Conjugation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B-HspX Fusion Protein with Arabinogalactan-Poly(I:C) Conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingrui; Yu, Weili; Hu, Tao

    2016-04-20

    Protein-based vaccine is promising to improve or replace Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine for its specificity, safety, and easy production. However, protein-based vaccine calls for potent adjuvants and improved delivery systems to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Poly(I:C) is one of the most potent pathogen-associated molecular patterns that signals primarily via TLR3. Arabinogalactan (AG) is a biocompatible polysaccharide that can increase splenocyte proliferation and stimulate macrophages. The AG-poly(I:C) conjugate (AG-P) showed an adjuvant potency through a synergistic interaction of AG and poly(I:C). Ag85B and HspX are two important virulent protein antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Ag85B-HspX fusion protein (AH) was prepared. An antigen-adjuvant delivery system (AH-AG-P) was developed by conjugation of AH with AG-P to ensure that both AH and AG-P reach the APCs simultaneously. AH-AG-P elicited high AH-specific IgG titers and stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. AH-AG-P provoked the secretion of Th1-type cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Pharmacokinetics revealed that conjugation with AG-P could prolong the serum exposure of AH to the immune system. Pharmacodynamics suggested that conjugation with AG-P led to a rapid and intense production of AH-specific IgG. Accordingly, conjugation with AG-P could promote a robust cellular and humoral immune response to AH. Thus, conjugation of AH with a potent adjuvant AG-P is an effective strategy to develop an efficacious protein-based vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:27002920

  18. Use of the alpha-hemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli for antigen delivery in the Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Dietrich, Guido; Spreng, Simone; Neuhaus, Beatrice; Maier, Elke; Benz, Roland; Goebel, Werner; Fensterle, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of the hemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli for expression and delivery of alpha-hemolysin (HlyA) by the S. typhi Ty21a strain, the only live oral Salmonella vaccine strain licensed for human use, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. For this purpose, two plasmid vectors encoding either the whole alpha-hemolysin of E. coli (pANN202-812/pMOhly2) or the hemolysin secretion signal (pMOhly1) were transferred into S. typhi Ty21a. S. typhi Ty21a carrying pANN202-812/pMOhly2 revealed efficient secretion of hemolysin in vitro. After formulation according to a process suitable for commercial production of Salmonella-based live bacterial vaccines, plasmids were shown to be stable in Ty21a and hemolysin secretion was demonstrated even after storage of the strains under real-time and stress conditions. After intranasal immunization of mice with S. typhi Ty21a/pANN202-812 plasmids are stable in vivo, and immunization induced a profound immune response against the heterologous HlyA antigen. Therefore, the combination of the hemolysin secretion system and S. typhi Ty21a could form the basis for a new generation of live bacterial vaccines. PMID:15595386

  19. Oral Delivery of a Novel Recombinant Streptococcus mitis Vector Elicits Robust Vaccine Antigen-Specific Oral Mucosal and Systemic Antibody Responses and T Cell Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Xie

    Full Text Available The pioneer human oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus mitis has unique biologic features that make it an attractive mucosal vaccine or therapeutic delivery vector. S. mitis is safe as a natural persistent colonizer of the mouth, throat and nasopharynx and the oral commensal bacterium is capable of inducing mucosal antibody responses. A recombinant S. mitis (rS. mitis that stably expresses HIV envelope protein was generated and tested in the germ-free mouse model to evaluate the potential usefulness of this vector as a mucosal vaccine against HIV. Oral vaccination led to the efficient and persistent bacterial colonization of the mouth and the induction of both salivary and systemic antibody responses. Interestingly, persistently colonized animals developed antigen-specific systemic T cell tolerance. Based on these findings we propose the use of rS. mitis vaccine vector for the induction of mucosal antibodies that will prevent the penetration of the mucosa by pathogens such as HIV. Moreover, the first demonstration of rS. mitis having the ability to elicit T cell tolerance suggest the potential use of rS. mitis as an immunotherapeutic vector to treat inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  20. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar Biresh K; Jain Devananda; Banerjee Angshu

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecule...

  1. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Biresh K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecules, liposome, taste-masking, oral fast- dispersing dosage forms, technology for in- soluble drugs, and delivery of drugs through intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, vaginal, colon, and transmucosal routes.

  2. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  3. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  4. Health care delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, F; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective, meaningful, and socially accepted. From a sociological point of view, the analysis of health care delivery systems implies recognition of their distinct history over time, their specific values an...

  5. Health care delivery systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  6. Vivotif--a 'magic shield' for protection against typhoid fever and delivery of heterologous antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Spreng, Simone; Sieber, Heike; Ures, Jose; Mollet, Fabian; Collioud, Andre; Pearman, Jon; Griot-Wenk, Monika E; Fensterle, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R; Goebel, Werner; Rothen, Simon A; Dietrich, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The attenuated Salmonella typhi strain Ty21a is the main constituent of Vivotif, the only attenuated live oral vaccine against typhoid fever. In comparison with antibiotics, the 'magic bullets' which Paul Ehrlich was striving for to treat infectious diseases, this vaccine should be viewed as a 'magic shield', because rather than treating typhoid fever after the infection has started, immunisation with this vaccine strain prevents infection and disease by the induction of specific immune responses. Ty21a is also an attractive carrier for the delivery of heterologous antigens. Recently, we successfully used Ty21a for antigen delivery via the haemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli, which allows efficient protein secretion from the carrier bacteria. PMID:17347563

  7. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  8. Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  9. Antigen Delivery with Poly(Propylacrylic Acid) Conjugation Enhances MHC-1 Presentation and T-Cell Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Flanary, Suzanne; Hoffman, Allan S.; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    While many infectious diseases are controlled by vaccine strategies, important limitations continue to motivate the development of better antigen delivery systems. This study focuses on the use of a pH-sensitive polymeric carrier based on poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) to address the need for more potent CD8 cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses. An MHC-1/CD8 CTL cell model system with ovalbumin as the protein antigen was used to test whether PPAA could enhance the delivery of ovalbumin into the ...

  10. POLYMERS IN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    The future of pharmaceutical industry is now shifting from new drug research to novel drug delivery systems. Biopharmaceuticals present challenges because of their unique nature and difficulty in delivery through conventional routes. These challenges inspire for the invention of new medical grade polymers for novel drug delivery systems. Polymeric drug delivery systems bring a true benefit over glass. Polymer provide improved robustness against breakability and better ergonomy, while deliveri...

  11. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  12. Terplex Gene Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Wan

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric gene delivery systems have been developed to overcome problems caused by viral carriers. They are low cytotoxic, have no size limit, are convenient in handling, of low cost and reproducible. A Terplex gene delivery system consisting of plasmid DNA, low density lipoprotein and hydropholized poly-L-lysine was designed and characterized. The plasmid DNA, when formulated with stearyl PLL and LDL, forms a stable and hydrophobicity/charge-balanced Terplex system of optimal size for efficient cellular uptake. DNA is still intact after the Terplex formation. This information is expected to be utilized for the development of improved transfection vector for in vivo gene therapy. Terplex DNA complex showed significantly longer retention in the vascular space than naked DNA. This system was used in the augmentation of myocardial transfection at an infarction site with the VEGF gene. PMID:16243067

  13. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  14. Multivalent glycopeptide dendrimers for the targeted delivery of antigens to dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. García-Vallejo; M. Ambrosini; A. Overbeek; W.E. van Riel; K. Bloem; W.W.J. Unger; F. Chiodo; J.G. Bolscher; K. Nazmi; H. Kalay; Y. van Kooyk

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells are the most powerful type of antigen presenting cells. Current immunotherapies targeting dendritic cells have shown a relative degree of success but still require further improvement. One of the most important issues to solve is the efficiency of antigen delivery to dendritic cells

  15. Nanovehicular intracellular delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Ales; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2008-09-01

    This article provides an overview of principles and barriers relevant to intracellular drug and gene transport, accumulation and retention (collectively called as drug delivery) by means of nanovehicles (NV). The aim is to deliver a cargo to a particular intracellular site, if possible, to exert a local action. Some of the principles discussed in this article apply to noncolloidal drugs that are not permeable to the plasma membrane or to the blood-brain barrier. NV are defined as a wide range of nanosized particles leading to colloidal objects which are capable of entering cells and tissues and delivering a cargo intracelullarly. Different localization and targeting means are discussed. Limited discussion on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is also presented. NVs are contrasted to micro-delivery and current nanotechnologies which are already in commercial use. Newer developments in NV technologies are outlined and future applications are stressed. We also briefly review the existing modeling tools and approaches to quantitatively describe the behavior of targeted NV within the vascular and tumor compartments, an area of particular importance. While we list "elementary" phenomena related to different level of complexity of delivery to cancer, we also stress importance of multi-scale modeling and bottom-up systems biology approach. PMID:18200527

  16. Peptide/protein vaccine delivery system based on PLGA particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Mojgan; Mohit, Elham

    2016-03-01

    Due to the excellent safety profile of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles in human, and their biodegradability, many studies have focused on the application of PLGA particles as a controlled-release vaccine delivery system. Antigenic proteins/peptides can be encapsulated into or adsorbed to the surface of PLGA particles. The gradual release of loaded antigens from PLGA particles is necessary for the induction of efficient immunity. Various factors can influence protein release rates from PLGA particles, which can be defined intrinsic features of the polymer, particle characteristics as well as protein and environmental related factors. The use of PLGA particles encapsulating antigens of different diseases such as hepatitis B, tuberculosis, chlamydia, malaria, leishmania, toxoplasma and allergy antigens will be described herein. The co-delivery of antigens and immunostimulants (IS) with PLGA particles can prevent the systemic adverse effects of immunopotentiators and activate both dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NKs) cells, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of antigen-loaded PLGA particles. We will review co-delivery of different TLR ligands with antigens in various models, highlighting the specific strengths and weaknesses of the system. Strategies to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of DC-based vaccine using PLGA particles can be designed to target DCs by functionalized PLGA particle encapsulating siRNAs of suppressive gene, and disease specific antigens. Finally, specific examples of cellular targeting where decorating the surface of PLGA particles target orally administrated vaccine to M-cells will be highlighted. PMID:26513024

  17. Antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates enable co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant to dendritic cells in cis but only have partial targeting specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutz, M.; Giquel, B.; Hu, Q.; Abuknesha, R.; Uematsu, S.; Akira, S.; Nestle, F.O.; Diebold, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-antigen conjugates, which promote antigen-presentation by dendritic cells (DC) by means of targeted delivery of antigen to particular DC subsets, represent a powerful vaccination approach. To ensure immunity rather than tolerance induction the co-administration of a suitable adjuvant is par

  18. Antigen presenting cell-selective drug delivery by glycan-decorated nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, Theresa; Grabski, Elena; Durán, Verónica; Hozsa, Constantin; Stępczyńska, Anna; Furch, Marcus; Gieseler, Robert K; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Targeted drug delivery systems hold promise for selective provision of active compounds to distinct tissues or cell subsets. Thus, locally enhanced drug concentrations are obtained that would confer improved efficacy. As a consequence adverse effects should be diminished, as innocent bystander cells are less affected. Currently, several controlled drug delivery systems based on diverse materials are being developed. Some systems exhibit material-associated toxic effects and/or show low drug loading capacity. In contrast, liposomal nanocarriers are particularly favorable because they are well tolerated, poorly immunogenic, can be produced in defined sizes, and offer a reasonable payload capacity. Compared with other immune cells, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) demonstrate enhanced liposome uptake mediated by macropinocytosis, phagocytosis and presumably also by clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. In order to further enhance the targeting efficacy toward APCs, receptor-mediated uptake appears advisable. Since APC subsets generally do not express single linage-specific receptors, members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family are compelling targets. Examples of CLR expressed by APCs include DEC-205 (CD205) expressed by myeloid dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, the mannose receptor C type 1 (MR, CD206) expressed by DC, monocytes and macrophages, DC-SIGN (CD209) expressed by DC, and several others. These receptors bind glycans, which are typically displayed by pathogens and thus support pathogen uptake and endocytosis. Further research will elucidate whether glycan-decorated liposomes will not only enhance APCs targeting but also enable preferential delivery of their payload to discrete subcellular compartments. PMID:25701806

  19. Adenosine-Associated Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Ghanem, Amyl; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity, and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (less than 10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this paper, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials, and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted. PMID:26453156

  20. Immune response by nasal delivery of hepatitis B surface antigen and codelivery of a CpG ODN in alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Olga; Cordeiro-Da-Silva, Anabela; Tavares, Joana; Santarém, Nuno; Sousa, Adriano de; Borchard, Gerrit; Junginger, Hans E.

    2008-01-01

    Alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles were previously developed with the aim of protecting the antigen, adsorbed on the surface of those chitosan nanoparticles, from enzymatic degradation at mucosal surfaces. In this work, this new delivery system was loaded with the recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and applied to mice by the intranasal route. Adjuvant effect of the delivery system was studied by measuring anti-HBsAg IgG in serum, anti-HBsAg sIgA in faeces extracts or nasal an...

  1. Antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates enable co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant to dendritic cells in cis but only have partial targeting specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kreutz

    Full Text Available Antibody-antigen conjugates, which promote antigen-presentation by dendritic cells (DC by means of targeted delivery of antigen to particular DC subsets, represent a powerful vaccination approach. To ensure immunity rather than tolerance induction the co-administration of a suitable adjuvant is paramount. However, co-administration of unlinked adjuvant cannot ensure that all cells targeted by the antibody conjugates are appropriately activated. Furthermore, antigen-presenting cells (APC that do not present the desired antigen are equally strongly activated and could prime undesired responses against self-antigens. We, therefore, were interested in exploring targeted co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant in cis in form of antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates for the induction of anti-tumour immunity. In this study, we report on the assembly and characterization of conjugates consisting of DEC205-specific antibody, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN. We show that such conjugates are more potent at inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses than control conjugates mixed with soluble CpG. However, our study also reveals that the nucleic acid moiety of such antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates alters their binding and uptake and allows delivery of the antigen and the adjuvant to cells partially independently of DEC205. Nevertheless, antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates are superior to antibody-free antigen-adjuvant conjugates in priming CTL responses and efficiently induce anti-tumour immunity in the murine B16 pseudo-metastasis model. A better understanding of the role of the antibody moiety is required to inform future conjugate vaccination strategies for efficient induction of anti-tumour responses.

  2. Vaccine delivery by penetratin: mechanism of antigen presentation by dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouniotis, Dodie; Tang, Choon-Kit; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Pietersz, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) or membrane-translocating peptides such as penetratin from Antennapedia homeodomain or TAT from human immunodeficiency virus are useful vectors for the delivery of protein antigens or their cytotoxic (Tc) or helper (Th) T cell epitopes to antigen-presenting cells. Mice immunized with CPP containing immunogens elicit antigen-specific Tc and/or Th responses and could be protected from tumor challenges. In the present paper, we investigate the mechanism of class I and class II antigen presentation of ovalbumin covalently linked to penetratin (AntpOVA) by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with the use of biochemical inhibitors of various pathways of antigen processing and presentation. Results from our study suggested that uptake of AntpOVA is via a combination of energy-independent (membrane fusion) and energy-dependent pathways (endocytosis). Once internalized by either mechanism, multiple tap-dependent or independent antigen presentation pathways are accessed while not completely dependent on proteasomal processing but involving proteolytic trimming in the ER and Golgi compartments. Our study provides an understanding on the mechanism of antigen presentation mediated by CPP and leads to greater insights into future development of vaccine formulations. PMID:27138940

  3. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Deepika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human skin is a readily accessible surface for drug delivery. Skin of an average adult body covers a surface of approximately 2 m2 and receives about one-third of the blood circulating through the body. Over the past decades, developing controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. The human skin surface is known to contain, on an average, 10- 70 hair follicles and 200-250 sweat ducts on every square centimeters of the skin area. It is one of the most readily accessible organs of the human body. There is considerable interest in the skin as a site of drug application both for local and systemic effect. However, the skin, in particular the stratum corneum, poses a formidable barrier to drug penetration thereby limiting topical and transdermal bioavailability. Skin penetration enhancement techniques have been developed to improve bioavailability and increase the range of drugs for which topical and transdermal delivery is a viable option. During the past decade, the number of drugs formulated in the patches has hardly increased, and there has been little change in the composition of the patch systems. Modifications have been mostly limited to refinements of the materials used. The present review article explores the overall study on transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS which leads to novel drug delivery system (NDDS.

  4. Antigen delivery to macrophages using liposomal nanoparticles targeting sialoadhesin/CD169.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihsu C Chen

    Full Text Available Sialoadhesin (Sn, Siglec-1, CD169 is a member of the sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin (siglec family expressed on macrophages. Its macrophage specific expression makes it an attractive target for delivering antigens to tissue macrophages via Sn-mediated endocytosis. Here we describe a novel approach for delivering antigens to macrophages using liposomal nanoparticles displaying high affinity glycan ligands of Sn. The Sn-targeted liposomes selectively bind to and are internalized by Sn-expressing cells, and accumulate intracellularly over time. Our results show that ligand decorated liposomes are specific for Sn, since they are taken up by bone marrow derived macrophages that are derived from wild type but not Sn(-/- mice. Importantly, the Sn-targeted liposomes dramatically enhance the delivery of antigens to macrophages for presentation to and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells. Together, these data provide insights into the potential of cell-specific targeting and delivery of antigens to intracellular organelles of macrophages using Sn-ligand decorated liposomal nanoparticles.

  5. Dynamics of antigen delivery and the functional roles of L121-adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shan-Shan; Yang, Ya-Wun

    2015-08-20

    This study investigates the intracellular transport of protein antigens facilitated by L121-adjuvants and examines the associated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effect. EL4 mouse thymoma cells were treated with L121-adjuvant and stained with AnnexinV-propidium iodide (PI) followed by flow cytometric analysis. The intracellular trafficking dynamics of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-FITC in the J774.A.1 macrophages, influenced by the L121-adjuvant, was visualized by confocal microscopy. The antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effect induced by the L121-adjuvant was determined by the cleavage-specific fluorogenic caspase substrate. The trafficking of BSA-FITC in the J774A.1 cells by confocal microscopy illustrated that the L121-adjuvant facilitated the intracellular transport of proteins to the subcellular compartments, including the lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the cis-Golgi apparatus. The L121-adjuvant also facilitated antigen delivery to the dendritic cells in the lymph nodes. Immunization of mice with the L121-adjuvant resulted in cell-mediated cytotoxic responses in the target cells, as detected by PhiPhiLux, a fluorogenic caspase substrate. Taken together, the L121-adjuvant improved the dynamics of protein delivery to antigen presenting cells, and also induced caspase activation, thereby illustrating the mechanism of antigen-specific CTL effects. PMID:25917678

  6. Lactococcus lactis as an adjuvant and delivery vehicle of antigens against pneumococcal respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Marcela; Vintiñi, Elisa; Villena, Julio; Raya, Raul; Alvarez, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of Lactococcus lactis as delivery vehicles of pneumococcal antigens are focused on the effectiveness of mucosal recombinant vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in animal models. At present, there are three types of pneumococcal vaccines: capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines (PPV), protein-polysaccharide conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (PCV) and protein-based pneumococcal vaccines (PBPV). Only PPV and PCV have been licensed. These vaccines, however, do not represent...

  7. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mitul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a major part in this drug delivery system because the extent of Mucoadhesion is a very important phenomena for the buccal drug delivery system. This review covers merits and demerits of buccal drug delivery system, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug permeation, polymers and permeation enhancer used in buccal drug delivery system. This review also covers available marketed product as buccal drug delivery system and future aspects of buccal drug delivery system.

  8. Software Build and Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-10

    This presentation deals with the hierarchy of software build and delivery systems. One of the goals is to maximize the success rate of new users and developers when first trying your software. First impressions are important. Early successes are important. This also reduces critical documentation costs. This is a presentation focused on computer science and goes into detail about code documentation.

  9. Cancer antigen 125 after delivery in women with a normal pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Andersen, Malene R; Bjørngaard, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    , Denmark. POPULATION: Eight hundred and one women with expected normal pregnancies were investigated. Of these, 640 delivered vaginally, 82 by emergency cesarean section, and 79 by elective cesarean section; 720 women had uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: Samples were collected at gestational weeks 13...... gestational period and around delivery. RESULTS: CA-125 was fairly stable below 35 U/mL during pregnancy but increased markedly during vaginal delivery, to a minor degree during emergency cesarean section, and only slightly during elective cesarean section. In the early postpartum period, CA-125 decreased......OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in women with expected normal pregnancy, delivery, and early postpartum period. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Obstetrics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte...

  10. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural) to syntheti...

  11. VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    KALPESH CHHOTALAL ASHARA; Jalpa S. Paun; M. M. Soniwala; J.R.CHAVDA; S. V. NATHAWANI; NITIN M. MORI; Mendapara, Vishal P.

    2014-01-01

    A novel drug delivery system is that delivers drug at predetermined rate decided as per the requirement, pharmacological aspects, drug profile, physiological conditions of body etc. In current conditions not a single novel drug delivery system behaves ideally those high goals with fewer side effects. A Vesicular drug delivery system (VDDS) is the system in which encapsulation of active moieties in vesicular structure, which bridges gap between ideal and available of novel drug delivery system...

  12. Mucosal vaccine delivery of antigens tightly bound to an adjuvant particle made from food-grade bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roosmalen, ML; Kanninga, R; El Khattabi, M; Neef, J; Audouy, S; Bosma, T; Kuipers, A; Post, E; Steen, A; Kok, J; Buist, G; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K

    2006-01-01

    Mucosal immunization with subunit vaccines requires new types of antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants for optimal immune responses. We have developed a non-living and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial delivery particle (GEM) that has built-in adjuvant activity and a high loading ca

  13. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M;

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  14. Mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acartürk, Füsun

    2009-11-01

    Vaginal delivery is an important route of drug administration for both local and systemic diseases. The vaginal route has some advantages due to its large surface area, rich blood supply, avoidance of the first-pass effect, relatively high permeability to many drugs and self-insertion. The traditional commercial preparations, such as creams, foams, gels, irrigations and tablets, are known to reside in the vaginal cavity for a relatively short period of time owing to the self-cleaning action of the vaginal tract, and often require multiple daily doses to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. The vaginal route appears to be highly appropriate for bioadhesive drug delivery systems in order to retain drugs for treating largely local conditions, or for use in contraception. In particular, protection against sexually-transmitted diseases is critical. To prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity, bioadhesive therapeutic systems have been developed in the form of semi-solid and solid dosage forms. The most commonly used mucoadhesive polymers that are capable of forming hydrogels are synthetic polyacrylates, polycarbophil, chitosan, cellulose derivatives (hydroxyethycellulose, hydroxy-propylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose), hyaluronic acid derivatives, pectin, tragacanth, carrageenan and sodium alginate. The present article is a comprehensive review of the patents related to mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems. PMID:19925443

  15. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  16. PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wenxue Ma1, Mingshui Chen1, Sharmeela Kaushal1,2, Michele McElroy1,2, Yu Zhang3, Cengiz Ozkan3, Michael Bouvet1,2, Carol Kruse4, Douglas Grotjahn5, Thomas Ichim6, Boris Minev1,7,81Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, 2Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, 3Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology, University of California Riverside, 4UCLA Division of Neurosurgery, Los Angeles, 5Chemistry Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, 6MediStem Inc. San Diego, 7UCSD Division of Neurosurgery, San Diego, 8Genelux Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s. The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-γ ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI. The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of -15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs

  17. Systemic administration of RANKL overcomes the bottleneck of oral vaccine delivery through microfold cells in ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Sushila; Singh, Bijay; Jiang, Tao; Yoon, So-Yeon; Li, Hui-Shan; Kim, Girak; Gu, Min Jeong; Kim, Soo Ji; Park, Ok-Jin; Han, Seung Hyun; Kang, Sang-Kee; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2016-04-01

    A successful delivery of antigen through oral route requires to overcome several barriers, such as enzymatic barrier of gastrointestinal tract and epithelial barrier that constitutes of microfold cells (M cells) for antigen uptake. Although each barrier represents a critical step in determining the final efficiency of antigen delivery, the transcytosis of antigen by M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) to Peyer's patches appears to be a major bottleneck. Considering the systemic administration of receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-ĸB ligand (RANKL) induces differentiation of receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-ĸB (RANK)-expressing enterocytes into M cells, here, we illustrated a promising approach of antigen delivery using full length transmembrane RANKL (mRANKL). The results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of mRANKL increased the population of dendritic cells and macrophages in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. Subsequently, systemic administration of mRANKL resulted in significantly higher number of functional GP2(+) M cells leading higher transcytosis of fluorescent beads through them. To corroborate the effect of mRANKL in antigen delivery through M cells, we orally delivered microparticulate antigen to mice treated with mRANKL. Oral immunization induced strong protective IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses against orally delivered antigen in mRANKL-treated mice. The higher antibody responses are attributed to the higher transcytosis of antigens through M cells. Ultimately, the higher memory B cells and effector memory CD4 T cells after oral immunization in RANKL-treated mice confirmed potency of RANKL-mediated antigen delivery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate significant induction of mucosal and humoral immune responses to M cell targeted oral vaccines after the systemic administration of RANKL. PMID:26851393

  18. A REVIEW ON OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnish Patel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable controlled drug delivery systems and could be employed as oral drug delivery systems. Various patents available for osmotic drug delivery system like Rose-Nelson pump, Higuchi leeper pump, Higuchi Theeuwes pump, Elementary Osmotic pump etc. ODDS are useful for poorly soluble drug, for pulsatile drug release, zero order release. Various techniques available for preparation of ODDS include push pull osmotic Pump, osmotic Brusting osmotic pump, liquid oral osmotic system, sandwiched osmotic tablets , delayed delivery osmotic device, monolithic osmotic System and controlled porosity osmotic Pump. Osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active agents. These systems can be utilized for systemic as well as targeted delivery of drugs. The release of drugs from osmotic systems is governed by various formulation factors such as solubility and osmotic pressure of the core components, size of the delivery orifice, and nature of the rate-controlling membrane. In this Paper mainly focused on the Osmotic System with example, the basic component of osmotic system and evaluation parameter of the osmotic drug delivery system.

  19. VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPESH CHHOTALAL ASHARA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel drug delivery system is that delivers drug at predetermined rate decided as per the requirement, pharmacological aspects, drug profile, physiological conditions of body etc. In current conditions not a single novel drug delivery system behaves ideally those high goals with fewer side effects. A Vesicular drug delivery system (VDDS is the system in which encapsulation of active moieties in vesicular structure, which bridges gap between ideal and available of novel drug delivery system.Varrious types of vesicular drug delivery system like liposome, niosome, archeosome, transferosome etc. were developed. Advances have since been made in vesicular drug delivery system. Focus of this review is to bring about a brief of vesicular drug delivery system as novel approach.

  20. Polymer nanomicelles for efficient mucus delivery and antigen-specific high mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young-Woock; Hong, Ji Hyun; Shim, Sang-Mu; Park, Hye Sun; Bae, Hee Ho; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chul-Ho; Cho, Seong Hun; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung; Lim, Yong Taik

    2013-07-22

    Micelles for mucosal immunity: A mucosal vaccine system based on γ-PGA nanomicelles and viral antigens was synthesized. The intranasal administration of the vaccine system induces a high immune response both in the humoral and cellular immunity (see picture). PMID:23765547

  1. Potential of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein-Derived Protein Transduction Domains as Antigen Carriers for Nasal Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hae-Duck; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Xing-Hai; Lee, Kyunglim

    2016-09-01

    Nasal vaccination offers a promising alternative to intramuscular (i.m.) vaccination because it can induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. However, its major drawback is poor absorption of large antigens in the nasal epithelium. Protein transduction domains (PTDs), also called cell-penetrating peptides, have been proposed as vehicles for nasal delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. Here, we evaluated the potential of a mutant PTD derived from translationally controlled tumor protein (designated TCTP-PTD 13) as an antigen carrier for nasal vaccines. We first compared the l- and d-forms of TCTP-PTD 13 isomers (l- or d-TCTP-PTD 13) as antigen carriers. Studies in mice demonstrated that nasally administered mixtures of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and d-TCTP-PTD 13 induced higher plasma IgG titers and secretory IgA levels in nasal washes than nasally administered OVA alone, OVA/l-TCTP-PTD 13, or i.m.-injected OVA. Plasma IgG subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG2a) of mice nasally administered OVA/d-TCTP-PTD 13 showed that the predominant IgG subclass was IgG1, indicating a Th2-biased immune response. We also used synthetic CpG oligonucleotides (CpG) as a Th1 immune response-inducing adjuvant. Nasally administered CpG plus OVA/d-TCTP-PTD 13 was superior in eliciting systemic and mucosal immune responses compared to those induced by nasally administered OVA/d-TCTP-PTD 13. Furthermore, the OVA/CpG/d-TCTP-PTD 13 combination skewed IgG1 and IgG2a profiles of humoral immune responses toward a Th1 profile. These findings suggest that TCTP-derived PTD is a suitable vehicle to efficiently carry antigens and to induce more powerful antigen-specific immune responses and a more balanced Th1/Th2 response when combined with a DNA adjuvant. PMID:27454469

  2. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  3. Chemically modified inulin microparticles serving dual function as a protein antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallovic, Matthew D; Montjoy, Douglas G; Collier, Michael A; Do, Clement; Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M

    2016-02-23

    To develop a new subunit vaccine adjuvant, we chemically modified a naturally-occurring, immunostimulatory inulin polysaccharide to produce an acid-sensitive biopolymer (acetalated inulin, Ace-IN). Various hydrophobic Ace-IN polymers were formed into microparticles (MPs) by oil-in-water emulsions followed by solvent evaporation These Ace-IN MPs possessed tunable degradation characteristics that, unlike polyesters used in FDA-approved microparticulate formulations, had only pH-neutral hydrolytic byproducts. Macrophages were passively targeted with cytocompatible Ace-IN MPs. TNF-α production by macrophages treated with Ace-IN MPs could be altered by adjusting the polymers' chemistry. Mice immunized with Ace-IN MPs encapsulating a model ovalbumin (OVA) antigen showed higher production of anti-OVA IgG antibody levels relative to soluble antigen. The antibody titers were also comparable to an alum-based formulation. This proof-of-concept establishes the potential for chemically-modified inulin MPs to simultaneously enable dual functionality as a stimuli-controlled antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant. PMID:26753184

  4. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural to synthetic ones (Polybutadiene, Polysiloxane, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinyl alcohol etc.. TDDS are of many types varying from single layer drug in adhesive to multi layer drug in adhesive and others are reservoir and the matrix systems. The market value of TDDS products are increasing with rapid rate, more than 35 products have now been approved for sale in US, and approximately 16 active ingredients are approved globally for use as a TDDS. Transdermal drug delivery is a recent technology which promises a great future it has a potential to limit the use of needles for administering wide variety of drugs but cost factor is a important thing to consider since developing nations like INDIA have second highest population, but due to higher cost TDDS are the hidden part of therapy used in general population.

  5. Microemulsion: As Excellent Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Pathan Maksud; Zikriya Abrar; Quazi Aamer

    2012-01-01

    Today though the oral drug delivery system is dominant still it is found to be need of ideal transdermal drug delivery system. “A micro emulsion is a system of water, oil and an amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution”. Microemulsions offer several advantages as drug delivery systems as these are thermodynamically stable and stability allows for self emulsification of the system with microemulsion acting as supersolvent of the drugs which...

  6. CURRENT TRENDS IN PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Tajane et al.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. This system is designed for chronopharmacotherapy. Thus, to mimic the function of living systems and in view of emerging chronotherapeutic approaches, pulsatile delivery, which is meant to release a ...

  7. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Mitul; Karigar Asif; Savaliya Pratik; Ramana MV; Dubal Ashwini

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS) over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a...

  8. Mucosal Delivery of Murine Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-6 by Recombinant Strains of Lactococcus lactis Coexpressing Antigen and Cytokine

    OpenAIRE

    Steidler, Lothar; Robinson, K.; Chamberlain, L.; SCHOFIELD, KM; Remaut, Erik; LE PAGE, RWF; Wells, JM

    1998-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic and noncolonizing bacterium which is being developed as a vaccine delivery vehicle for immunization by mucosal routes. To determine whether lactococci can also deliver cytokines to the immune system, we have constructed novel constitutive expression strains of L. lactis which accumulate a test antigen, tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC), within the cytoplasmic compartment and also secrete either murine interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-6. When mice were immunized i...

  9. RECENT TRENDS IN DENTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Nishu; Gnanarajan G

    2013-01-01

    Controlled release local drug delivery systems offer advantages compared to systemic dosage forms for many dental diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis. The objective of this literature survey was to gain knowledge about various dental drug delivery systems for targeted delivery of the drug. The polymer ethyl cellulose was used in the formulation of dental films. The dental film was then evaluated for various parameters like thickness, folding endurance and weight variation and content unif...

  10. Collagen macromolecular drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to examine collagen for use as a macromolecular drug delivery system by determining the mechanism of release through a matrix. Collagen membranes varying in porosity, crosslinking density, structure and crosslinker were fabricated. Collagen characterized by infrared spectroscopy and solution viscosity was determined to be pure and native. The collagen membranes were determined to possess native vs. non-native quaternary structure and porous vs. dense aggregate membranes by electron microscopy. Collagen monolithic devices containing a model macromolecule (inulin) were fabricated. In vitro release rates were found to be linear with respect to t1/2 and were affected by crosslinking density, crosslinker and structure. The biodegradation of the collagen matrix was also examined. In vivo biocompatibility, degradation and 14C-inulin release rates were evaluated subcutaneously in rats

  11. Integrated delivery systems. Evolving oligopolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T A

    1998-01-01

    The proliferation of Integrated Delivery Systems (IDSs) in regional health care markets has resulted in the movement of these markets from a monopolistic competitive model of behavior to an oligopoly. An oligopoly is synonymous with competition among the few, as a small number of firms supply a dominant share of an industry's total output. The basic characteristics of a market with competition among the few are: (1) A mutual interdependence among the actions and behaviors of competing firms; (2) competition tends to rely on the differentiation of products; (3) significant barriers to entering the market exist; (4) the demand curve for services may be kinked; and (5) firms can benefit from economies of scale. An understanding of these characteristics is essential to the survival of IDSs as regional managed care markets mature. PMID:10180497

  12. In situ Delivery of Tumor Antigen- and Adjuvant-Loaded Liposomes Boosts Antigen-Specific T-Cell Responses by Human Dermal Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Martine A; Bruijns, Sven C M; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; van Bloois, Louis; Storm, Gert; de Gruijl, Tanja; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in tumor control via the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses and are therefore an ideal target for immunotherapy. The human skin is an attractive site for tumor vaccination as it contains various DC subsets. The simultaneous delivery of tumor antigen with an adjuvant is beneficial for cross-presentation and the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses. We therefore developed liposomes that contain the melanoma-associated antigen glycoprotein 100280-288 peptide and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as adjuvant. These liposomes are efficiently taken up by monocyte-derived DCs, and antigen presentation to CD8(+) T cells was significantly higher with MPLA-modified liposomes as compared with non-modified liposomes or the co-administration of soluble MPLA. We used a human skin explant model to evaluate the efficiency of intradermal delivery of liposomes. Liposomes were efficiently taken up by CD1a(+) and especially CD14(+) dermal DCs. Induction of CD8(+) T-cell responses by emigrated dermal DCs was significantly higher when MPLA was incorporated into the liposomes as compared with non-modified liposomes or co-administration of soluble MPLA. Thus, the modification of antigen-carrying liposomes with TLR ligand MPLA significantly enhances tumor-specific T-cell responses by dermal DCs and is an attractive vaccination strategy in human skin. PMID:26083554

  13. Floating Drug Delivery Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babariya Nimeshkumar Arvindbhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery system was to focus on the principle mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. Technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate controlled oral drug delivery system to overcome physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence time (GRT and unpredictable gastric emptying times. It is new drug delivery system maximize effectiveness and compliance. This review summarizes advantages of floating drug delivery system approaches to design single unit and multiple unit floating system, in-vitro and in-vivo technology to evaluate the performance of floating system. At attempt has been made in this review article to introduce the readers to current development in floating drug delivery system.

  14. The adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis - a novel promising vehicke fer antigen delivery to dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimšová, Marcela; Šebo, Peter; Leclerc, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 293, - (2004), s. 571-576. ISSN 1438-4221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0934; GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant ostatní: GA QLK2-CT-1999(XX) 00556 Keywords : cyaa * cellular immune response * antigen delivery Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.919, year: 2004

  15. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  16. Development of the Choctaw Health Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh N.

    The Choctaw Tribe is the first and only tribe to develop a health delivery system to take over an existing Indian Health Service inpatient facility. The takeover was accomplished in January 1984 under the Indian Self-Determination Act through a contract with the Indian Health Service. The Choctaw Health Delivery System includes a 35-bed general…

  17. Gastroretentive delivery systems: hollow beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, R; Fassihi, R

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a floatable multiparticulate system with potential for intragastric sustained drug delivery. Cross-linked beads were made by using calcium and low methoxylated pectin (LMP), which is an anionic polysaccharide, and calcium, LMP, and sodium alginate. Beads were dried separately in an air convection type oven at 40 degrees C for 6 hours and in a freeze dryer to evaluate the changes in bead characteristics due to process variability. Riboflavin (B-2), tetracycline (TCN), and Methotrexate (MTX) were used as model drugs for encapsulation. Ionic and nonionic excipients were added to study their effects on the release profiles of the beads. The presence of noncross linking agents in low amounts (less than 2%) did not significantly interfere with release kinetics. For an amphoteric drug like TCN, which has pH dependent solubility, three different pHs (1.5, 5.0, and 8.0) of cross-linking media were used to evaluate the effects of pH on the drug entrapment capacity of the beads. As anticipated, highest entrapment was possible when cross-linking media pH coincided with least drug solubility. Evaluation of the drying process demonstrated that the freeze-dried beads remained buoyant over 12 hours in United States Pharmacopeia (USP) hydrochloride buffer at pH 1.5, whereas the air-dried beads remained submerged throughout the release study. Confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of air-filled hollow spaces inside the freeze dried beads, which was responsible for the flotation property of the beads. However, the release kinetics from freeze dried beads was independent of hydrodynamic conditions. Calcium-pectinate-alginate beads released their contents at much faster rates than did calcium-pectinate beads (100% in 10 hours vs. 50% in 10 hours). It appears that the nature of cross-linking, drying method, drug solubility, and production approach are all important and provide the opportunity and potential for development of a

  18. Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Nayerossadat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein-Barr virus] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers. In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed.

  19. NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhagwat* and I.S. Vaidhya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a conventional form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, safety and efficacy. In the form of a Novel Drug Delivery System an existing drug molecule can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery System can be a major advance for solving the problems related towards the release of the drug at specific site with specific rate. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery system. This article covers the basic information regarding Novel Drug Delivery Systems and also different types of the same.

  20. Magnetically Modulated Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyavati S, Koppisetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic drug delivery is a novel approach to delivery drug using engineered ’smart’ micro carriers which appears to overcome a number of limitations facing current methods of delivering medicines. The drug and a suitable ferrofluid are formulated into a pharmaceutically stable formulation which is usually injected through the artery that supplies the target organ or tumor in the presence of an external magnetic field. Depending on the fabrication method, particle size and nature they are named as magnetic microspheres, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic liposomes etc. This review gives the information regarding the all possible formulations that can be designed using magnetism as the drug delivery mode.

  1. Mitochondrion: A Promising Target for Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ru Wen; Umeano, Afoma C.; Lily Francis; Nivita Sharma; Smanla Tundup; Shanta Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most popular technologies in disease prevention and eradication. It is promising to improve immunization efficiency by using vectors and/or adjuvant delivery systems. Nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems have attracted increasing interest due to enhancement of antigen uptake via prevention of vaccine degradation in the biological environment and the intrinsic immune-stimulatory properties of the materials. Mitochondria play paramount roles in cell life and death ...

  2. Multifunctional Delivery Systems for Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    McErlean, Emma M.; McCrudden, Cian M; McCarthy, Helen O.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines key concepts with respect to cancer gene therapy and the current issues with respect to non-viral delivery. The biological and molecular barriers that need to be overcome before effective non-viral delivery systems can be appropriately designed for oncology applications are highlighted and ways to overcome these are discussed. Strategies developed to evade the immune response are also described and targeted gene delivery is examined with the most effective strategies hig...

  3. Magnetically Modulated Drug Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyavati S, Koppisetti; Sahiti. B

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic drug delivery is a novel approach to delivery drug using engineered ’smart’ micro carriers which appears to overcome a number of limitations facing current methods of delivering medicines. The drug and a suitable ferrofluid are formulated into a pharmaceutically stable formulation which is usually injected through the artery that supplies the target organ or tumor in the presence of an external magnetic field. Depending on the fabrication method, particle size and nature they are nam...

  4. PHARMACOSOMES: A POTENTIAL VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    De Pintu Kumar; De, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacosome is a potential approach in the vesicular drug delivery system which exhibit several advantages over conventional vesicular drug delivery systems. Pharmacosomes are amphiphilic lipid vesicular system possessing phospholipid complexes of drugs. Drugs bearing active hydrogen atom can be esterified to the lipid. This type of vesicular system improves permeation of drugs across the biomembranes and thus results in an improvement in the bioavailability and can also improve the pharmaco...

  5. Co-delivery of antigen and a lipophilic anti-inflammatory drug to cells via a tailorable nanocarrier emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Yap Pang; Zeng, Bi Yun; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Thomas, Ranjeny; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2012-02-15

    Nanotechnology promises new drug carriers that can be tailored to specific applications. Here we report a new approach to drug delivery based on tailorable nanocarrier emulsions (TNEs), motivated by a need to co-deliver a protein antigen and a lipophilic drug for specific inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Co-delivery for NF-κB inhibition holds promise as a strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We used a highly surface-active peptide (SAP) to prepare a nanosized emulsion having defined surface properties predictable from the SAP sequence. Incorporating the lipophilic drug into the oil phase at the time of emulsion formation enabled its facile packaging. The SAP is depleted from bulk during emulsification, allowing simple subsequent addition of the drug-loaded oil-in-water emulsion to a solution of protein antigen. Decoration of emulsion surface with antigen was achieved via electrostatic deposition. In vitro data showed that the TNE prepared this way was internalized and well-tolerated by model APCs, and that good suppression of NF-κB expression was achieved. This work reports a new type of nanotechnology-based carrier, a TNE, which can potentially be tailored for co-delivery of multiple therapeutic components, and can be made using simple methods using only biocompatible materials. PMID:22153851

  6. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  7. Gold nanocluster-based vaccines for dual-delivery of antigens and immunostimulatory oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Hui; Ren, Jinsong

    2015-07-01

    We here report a facile one-pot synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) via the peptide biomineralization method, which can elicit specific immunological responses. The as-prepared peptide-protected AuNCs (peptide-AuNCs) display strong red fluorescence, and more importantly, as compared to the peptide alone, the immune stimulatory ability of the resulting peptide-AuNCs can not only be retained, but can also be efficaciously enhanced. Moreover, through a dual-delivery of antigen peptides and cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), the as-prepared peptide-AuNC-CpG conjugates can also act as smart self-vaccines to assist in the generation of high immunostimulatory activity, and be applied as a probe for intracellular imaging. Both in vitro and in vivo studies provide strong evidence that the AuNC-based vaccines may be utilized as safe and efficient immunostimulatory agents that are able to prevent and/or treat a variety of ailments.We here report a facile one-pot synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) via the peptide biomineralization method, which can elicit specific immunological responses. The as-prepared peptide-protected AuNCs (peptide-AuNCs) display strong red fluorescence, and more importantly, as compared to the peptide alone, the immune stimulatory ability of the resulting peptide-AuNCs can not only be retained, but can also be efficaciously enhanced. Moreover, through a dual-delivery of antigen peptides and cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), the as-prepared peptide-AuNC-CpG conjugates can also act as smart self-vaccines to assist in the generation of high immunostimulatory activity, and be applied as a probe for intracellular imaging. Both in vitro and in vivo studies provide strong evidence that the AuNC-based vaccines may be utilized as safe and efficient immunostimulatory agents that are able to prevent and/or treat a variety of ailments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  8. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  9. Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Harshna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available IN recent years several advancement has been made in research and development of Oral Drug Delivery System. Concept of Novel Drug Delivery System arose to overcome the certain aspect related to physicochemical properties of drug molecule and the related formulations. Purpose of this review is to compile the recent literature with special focus on various gastro retentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery. Technological attempts have been made in the research and development of ratecontrolled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET. Therefore, gastro retentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS have been developed, which prolong the gastric emptying time. Several techniques such as floating drug delivery system, low density systems, raft systems, mucoadhesive systems, high density systems, super porous hydro gels and magnetic systems, have been employed. This review on GRDDS attempts to compile the available information with all the possible mechanism used to achieve gastric retention.

  10. PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil Faraz; Singh Arjun; Kumar Sunil; Sharma Ritika

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis,attention deficit syndrome in children, and hypercholesterolemia. PDDS can be classified into time...

  11. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  12. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria Sahil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent scientific and patented literature concluded that an increased interest in novel dosage forms which retained in the stomach for prolong and predictable period of time has been shown. Various technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological diversities, as short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times using gastro retentive drug delivery system. It is a well known fact that differences in gastric physiology, such as, gastric pH and motility exhibit both intra as well as inter-subject variability demonstrating significant impact on gastric retention time and drug delivery behavior. Various attempts have been made to develop Gastro retentive delivery systems. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems, swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bio adhesive systems, high-density systems, modified-shape systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices. Floating dosage forms are emerging as a promising dosage forms. Floating dosage form can be prepared as tablets, capsules by adding suitable ingredients as well as by adding gas generating agent. In this review various techniques used in floating dosage forms along with current & recent developments of stomach specific floating drug delivery system for gastro retention are discussed.

  13. Adenovirus retargeting and systemic delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seymour, L. W.; Fisher, K. D.; Green, N. K.; Hale, S. J.; Lyons, M.; Mautner, V.; Nicum, S.; Onion, D.; Oupický, D.; Stevenson, M.; Ulbrich, Karel

    Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2003 - (Rubanyi, G.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.), s. 107-117 ISBN 3-540-00413-0 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : gene delivery * adenovirus * HPMA copolymers Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  14. Delivery systems for intradermal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y C; Jarrahian, C; Zehrung, D; Mitragotri, S; Prausnitz, M R

    2012-01-01

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination. Scarification using a bifurcated needle was extensively used for smallpox eradication, but provides variable and inefficient delivery into the skin. Recently, ID vaccination has been simplified by introduction of a simple-to-use hollow microneedle that has been approved for ID injection of influenza vaccine in Europe. Various designs of hollow microneedles have been studied preclinically and in humans. Vaccines can also be injected into skin using needle-free devices, such as jet injection, which is receiving renewed clinical attention for ID vaccination. Projectile delivery using powder and gold particles (i.e., gene gun) have also been used clinically for ID vaccination. Building off the scarification approach, a number of preclinical studies have examined solid microneedle patches for use with vaccine coated onto metal microneedles, encapsulated within dissolving microneedles or added topically to skin after microneedle pretreatment, as well as adapting tattoo guns for ID vaccination. Finally, technologies designed to increase skin permeability in combination with a vaccine patch have been studied through the use of skin abrasion, ultrasound, electroporation, chemical enhancers, and thermal ablation. The prospects for bringing ID vaccination into more widespread clinical practice are encouraging, given the large number of technologies for ID delivery under development. PMID:21472533

  15. CHRONOTHERAPY: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubal Ashwini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in chronopharmacology and requirement of an appropriate technology to deliver the drug at specific time and site led to the development of novel type of drug delivery systems as “chronotropic or Pulsatile drug delivery systems”. Rationale behind designing these drug delivery systems is to release the drug at desired time (pathophysiological need of disease, which results into improved therapeutic efficacy and patient-compliance. These systems are meant for treatment of those diseases that are caused due to circadian changes in body like asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis and when zero order drug release is not desired. These drug delivery systems are designed to release the drug within a short period of time, immediately after a predetermined lag time. The current article focuses on diseases requiring chronotropic systems and their chronological behavior, various approaches like time controlled chronotropic systems, stimuli induced pulsatile drug delivery systems, externally regulated pulsatile drug delivery systems to design them, recent technologies for chronotherapy and currently available marketed formulations.

  16. The intestinal uptake of particles and the implications for drug and antigen delivery.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hagan, D T

    1996-01-01

    A number of researchers from different scientific disciplines have independently described the uptake of a variety of particulates across the gastrointestinal tract in animal models. The reports of particle uptake are briefly reviewed and the alternative mechanisms and proposed sites of uptake are discussed. Following these observations, some researchers have exploited the phenomenon of particulate uptake by using microparticles and nanoparticles as oral delivery systems for active agents, su...

  17. Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery System: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Harshna; Solanki N S

    2012-01-01

    IN recent years several advancement has been made in research and development of Oral Drug Delivery System. Concept of Novel Drug Delivery System arose to overcome the certain aspect related to physicochemical properties of drug molecule and the related formulations. Purpose of this review is to compile the recent literature with special focus on various gastro retentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled rel...

  18. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kataria Sahil; Middha Akanksha; Bhardwaj Sudeep; Sandhu Premjeet

    2011-01-01

    The recent scientific and patented literature concluded that an increased interest in novel dosage forms which retained in the stomach for prolong and predictable period of time has been shown. Various technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological diversities, as short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times using gastro retentive drug delivery system. It is a well known fa...

  19. TRANSCUTANEOUS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu Premjeet; Kataria Sahil; Bilandi Ajay; Jain Sonam; Rathore Devashish

    2011-01-01

    Conventional drug delivery systems are often not suitable for new protein based and other Therapeutic compounds produced by modern technology. Therefore an alternative Approach to deliver these drugs can be achieved through the skin in the form of transcutaneous drug delivery system. Modern medicine has responded with the development of methods to deliver drug transcutanously (through) the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to traditional route including oral, intravascular, intramusc...

  20. A REVIEW ON OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Harnish Patel; Upendra Patel; Hiren Kadikar; Bhavin Bhimani; Dhiren Daslaniya; Ghanshyam Patel

    2012-01-01

    Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable con...

  1. Emulsomes: An emerging vesicular drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawandeep Gill; Jatinder Singh; Vikas Sharma; S L Hari Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is the easiest, cost effective, and most vital method for drug administration. Therefore, improvement of dosage forms mainly for the prolonged release purpose has been a challenge for scientists. Vesicular drug delivery systems are developed with a purpose to overcome problems coupled with the drugs such a poor bioavailability, protection from harsh gastric environment, and from gastric enzymes, which degrade the drug. Vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, emulsion...

  2. Alginate Nanoparticles as a Promising Adjuvant and Vaccine Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sarei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During last decades, diphtheria has remained as a serious disease that still outbreaks and can occur worldwide. Recently, new vaccine delivery systems have been developed by using the biodegradable and biocompatible polymers such as alginate. Alginate nanoparticles as a carrier with adjuvant and prolong release properties that enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study diphtheria toxoid loaded nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation technique and characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, release profile, and immunogenicity. Appropriate parameters (calcium chloride and sodium alginate concentration, homogenization rate and homogenization time redounded to the formation of suitable nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 70±0.5 nm. The loading studies of the nanoparticles resulted in high loading capacities (>90% and subsequent release studies showed prolong profile. The stability and antigenicity of toxoid were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ouchterlony test and proved that the encapsulation process did not affect the antigenic integrity and activity. Guinea pigs immunized with the diphtheria toxoid-loaded alginate nanoparticles showed highest humoral immune response than conventional vaccine. It is concluded that, with regard to the desirable properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising vaccine delivery and adjuvant system.

  3. PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Faraz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis,attention deficit syndrome in children, and hypercholesterolemia. PDDS can be classified into time controlled systems wherein the drug release is controlled primarily by the delivery system; stimuli induced PDDS in which release is controlled by the stimuli, like the pH or enzymes present in the Intestinal tract or enzymes present in the drug delivery system and externally regulated system where release is programmed by external stimuli like magnetism, ultrasound, electrical effect and irradiation. Marketed product like Pulsicap®, Ritalin® and Pulsys® are based on pulsatile release system. The aim of this review is to describe several types of drug delivery systems. This review also summarizes some current PDDS already available in the market. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  4. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meenakshi bharkatiya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of any drug delivery system is to achieve desired concentration of the drug in blood or tissue, which is therapeutically effective and non toxic for a prolonged period. Various attempts have been made to develop gastroretentive delivery systems such as high density system, swelling, floating system. The recent developments of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are covered in detail. This review also summarizes the studies to evaluate the performance and application of floating systems, and applications of these systems. Gastric emptying is a complex process and makes in vivo performance of the drug delivery systems uncertain. In order to avoid this variability, efforts have been made to increase the retention time of the drug-delivery systems for more than 12 hours. The floating or hydrodynamically controlled drug delivery systems are useful in such application.

  5. Vaccine delivery system for tuberculosis based on nano-sized hepatitis B virus core protein particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasooraj D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dhananjayan Dhanasooraj, R Ajay Kumar, Sathish MundayoorMycobacterium Research Group, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Kerala, IndiaAbstract: Nano-sized hepatitis B virus core virus-like particles (HBc-VLP are suitable for uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10 is an important vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. The purified antigen shows low immune response without adjuvant and tends to have low protective efficacy. The present study is based on the assumption that expression of these proteins on HBc nanoparticles would provide higher protection when compared to the native antigen alone. The cfp-10 gene was expressed as a fusion on the major immunodominant region of HBc-VLP, and the immune response in Balb/c mice was studied and compared to pure proteins, a mixture of antigens, and fusion protein-VLP, all without using any adjuvant. The humoral, cytokine, and splenocyte cell proliferation responses suggested that the HBc-VLP bearing CFP-10 generated an antigen-specific immune response in a Th1-dependent manner. By virtue of its self-adjuvant nature and ability to form nano-sized particles, HBc-VLPs are an excellent vaccine delivery system for use with subunit protein antigens identified in the course of recent vaccine research.Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, VLP, hepatitis B virus core particle, CFP-10, self-adjuvant, vaccine delivery

  6. Emulsomes: An emerging vesicular drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawandeep Gill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the easiest, cost effective, and most vital method for drug administration. Therefore, improvement of dosage forms mainly for the prolonged release purpose has been a challenge for scientists. Vesicular drug delivery systems are developed with a purpose to overcome problems coupled with the drugs such a poor bioavailability, protection from harsh gastric environment, and from gastric enzymes, which degrade the drug. Vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, emulsions, niosomes, proniosomes, solid lipid-nano particles, ethosomes, nanoparticles, and pharmacosomes, etc have gained much attention, but emulsomes have rouse as system, which bypasses many disadvantages associated with other systems, developed as novel lipoidal vesicular system with internal solid fat core surrounded by phospholipid bilayer. This technology is designed to act as vehicle for poorly soluble drugs. The drug is enclosed in the emulsomes and provide prolong existence of drug in systemic circulation. Furthermore, emulsomal-based formulations of genetic drugs such as antisense oligonucleotides and plasmids for gene therapy that have clear potential for systemic utility are increasingly available. This review addresses the concept of emulsomal drug delivery system, summarizes the success of emulsomes for the delivery of small molecules, and special attention has been paid to its formulation design, advantages, biopharmaceutical aspects, stability aspects, and various aspects related to drug delivery including future aspects.

  7. NOVEL APPROACH: MICROSPONGE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sunder Mandava et al.

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDS) is not practically for delivery of materials whose final target is skin itself. Application topical agents generally offer many problems such as rashes, skin irritancy and burning sensation etc due to higher percutaneous absorption of drugs on the skin. Some conventional dosage e.g., gels and ointments. Which are often aesthetically unappealing, greasiness and stickiness etc. that often result into lack of patient compliance. For reduce this side effects...

  8. RECENT TRENDS IN DENTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nishu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release local drug delivery systems offer advantages compared to systemic dosage forms for many dental diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis. The objective of this literature survey was to gain knowledge about various dental drug delivery systems for targeted delivery of the drug. The polymer ethyl cellulose was used in the formulation of dental films. The dental film was then evaluated for various parameters like thickness, folding endurance and weight variation and content uniformity, in vitro and in vivo study. There has been a great attention in using iontophoretic technique for the transdermal drug delivery of medications, both ionic and non ionic. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference is one of the most promising physical skin penetrations enhancing method. Another novel approach is the use of lasers in dentistry. Lasers can be used in both hard and soft tissue applications including laser bleaching, frenectomy, gingivectomy, caries removal etc. Drugs delivery via the buccal routs using bio adhesive dosage forms offers such a novel route of drugs administration. This route has been used successfully for the systematic delivery of number of drugs candidates. Problems such as high first pass metabolisms and drugs degradation in the gastrointestinal tract can be circumvented by administrating the drug buccal routes.

  9. CURRENT TRENDS IN PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Tajane et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. This system is designed for chronopharmacotherapy. Thus, to mimic the function of living systems and in view of emerging chronotherapeutic approaches, pulsatile delivery, which is meant to release a drug following programmed lag phase, has increasing interest in the recent years. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, and attention deficit syndrome in children, cancer, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery system divided into 2 types’ preplanned systems and stimulus induced system, preplanned systems based on osmosis, rupturable layers, and erodible barrier coatings. Stimuli induced system based on electrical, temperature and chemically induced systems. This review also summarizes some current PDDS already available in the market. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  10. OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Deshwal et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug technology specialists are continuing to search for new methods that can effectively and painlessly deliver larger molecules in therapeutic quantities to overcome the difficulties associated with the oral route. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Skin is an effective medium from which absorption of the drug takes place and enters in to circulatory system. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via skin. The patches have been proved effective because of its large advantages over other controlled drug delivery systems. This review article covers a brief outline of various components of transdermal patch, applications of transdermal patch, their advantages, disadvantages, when the transdermal patch are used and when their use should be avoided, types of transdermal patch, recent techniques for enhancing TDDS

  11. Microemulsion: As Excellent Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan Maksud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Today though the oral drug delivery system is dominant still it is found to be need of ideal transdermal drug delivery system. “A micro emulsion is a system of water, oil and an amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution”. Microemulsions offer several advantages as drug delivery systems as these are thermodynamically stable and stability allows for self emulsification of the system with microemulsion acting as supersolvent of the drugs which are poorly or insoluble in water. They are preferred more as compared to conventional emulsions due stability. The dispersed phase mainly acts as the solvent for the water insoluble drug. Microemulsions have been proved to increase the cutaneous absorption of both lipophilic and hydrophilic API’s when compared to conventional vehicles.

  12. Pulsatile drug delivery systems: An approach for controlled drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Shweta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right site of action at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery and increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. The principle rationale for the use of pulsatile release is for the drugs where a constant drug release, i.e., a zero-order release is not desired. The release of the drug as a pulse after a lag time has to be designed in such a way that a complete and rapid drug release follows the lag time. Various systems like capsular systems, osmotic systems, single- and multiple-unit systems based on the use of soluble or erodible polymer coating and use of rupturable membranes have been dealt with in the article. It summarizes the latest technological developments, formulation parameters, and release profiles of these systems. Products available as once-a-daily formulation based on Pulsatile release like Pulsincap ®, Ritalin ®, and Pulsys ® are also covered in the review. These systems are beneficial for the drugs having chronopharmacological behaviour where night time dosing is required and for the drugs having high first-pass effect and having specific site of absorption in GIT. Drugs used in asthmatic patients and patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are also discussed along with many other examples.

  13. Delivery systems for gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of DNA was unraveled by Watson and Crick in 1953, and two decades later Arber, Nathans and Smith discovered DNA restriction enzymes, which led to the rapid growth in the field of recombinant DNA technology. From expressing cloned genes in bacteria to expressing foreign DNA in transgenic animals, DNA is now slated to be used as a therapeutic agent to replace defective genes in patients suffering from genetic disorders or to kill tumor cells in cancer patients. Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives that were unthinkable two decades ago. Progress in molecular biology and especially, molecular medicine is now changing the basics of clinical medicine. A variety of viral and non-viral possibilities are available for basic and clinical research. This review summarizes the delivery routes and methods for gene transfer used in gene therapy.

  14. Pharmacosomes: A Potential Vesicular Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagasamy Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid based drug delivery systems have been examined in various studies and exhibited their potential in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Pharmacosomes, a novel vesicular drug delivery system, offering a unique advantage over liposomes and niosomes, and serve as potential alternative to these conventional vesicles. They constitute an amphiphilic phospholipid complex with drug bearing an active hydrogen atom covalently that bind to phospholipids. They provide an efficient delivery of drug required at the site of action, which ultimately reduces the drug toxicity with reduced adverse effects and also reduces the cost of therapy by imparting better biopharmaceutical properties to the drug, resulting in increases bioavailability, especially in case of poorly soluble drugs. As the system is formed by binding the drug (pharmakon to carrier (soma, they are termed as pharmacosomes. Depending upon the chemical structure of the drug lipid complex they may exist as ultrafine vesicular, micellar and hexagonal aggregate. Drug having active hydrogen group such as carboxyl, hydroxyl group can be esterified to lipids, resulting in amphiphilic compound. Pharmacosomes are widely used as carriers for various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs. The release of drug from pharmacosomes is generally governed by the process of enzymatic reaction and acid hydrolysis. Here, in the present review paper we have discussed the potential of pharmacosomes as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system and highlighted the method of preparation and characterization.

  15. Servir: an automated document delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SERVIR, an automated document delivery system developed by CIN/CNEN, is described. Parametric procedures for reading bibliographic data bases and requesting documents from libraries through computer are specified. Statistical procedures, accounting system and the on-line fulfillment of requests are presented. (Author)

  16. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of writing this review on the floating drug delivery systems (FDDS was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. FDDS is one of the approaches in chronotherapeutic drug delivery. In the past reviews of FDDS the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, their classification and formulation aspects have been covered. This review summarizes the special focus on chronotherapeutics, diseases affected by biological rhythm, its importance, advantages, various approaches in Chronotherapeutic drug delivery and applications of FDDS. These systems are useful for several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  17. NOVEL APPROACH: MICROSPONGE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sunder Mandava et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDS is not practically for delivery of materials whose final target is skin itself. Application topical agents generally offer many problems such as rashes, skin irritancy and burning sensation etc due to higher percutaneous absorption of drugs on the skin. Some conventional dosage e.g., gels and ointments. Which are often aesthetically unappealing, greasiness and stickiness etc. that often result into lack of patient compliance. For reduce this side effects, microsponge technology offers many advantage over the conventional drug delivery. The microsponge based drug delivery system is a unique technology for controlled release and enhanced drug deposition in the skin while minimizing transdermal penetration of topically active agents. Drug loaded microsponge consist of microporous beads, typically 10-25 μm in diameter. Microsponge delivery system (MDS can provide increased efficacy for topically active agents with enhanced safety, extended product stability, enhanced formulation flexibility, reduced side effects and improved aesthetic properties in an efficient and novel manner. In addition these are non-irritating, non-allergenic, non-mutagenic, and non-toxic. MDS technology is being used currently in cosmetics, over-the-counter skin care, sunscreen and prescription products.

  18. Brain drug delivery systems for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbayo, E; Ansorena, E; Blanco-Prieto, M J

    2012-09-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are rapidly increasing as population ages. However, successful treatments for NDs have so far been limited and drug delivery to the brain remains one of the major challenges to overcome. There has recently been growing interest in the development of drug delivery systems (DDS) for local or systemic brain administration. DDS are able to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and reduce their side effects. The present review provides a concise overview of the recent advances made in the field of brain drug delivery for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Examples include polymeric micro and nanoparticles, lipidic nanoparticles, pegylated liposomes, microemulsions and nanogels that have been tested in experimental models of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Overall, the results reviewed here show that DDS have great potential for NDs treatment. PMID:23016644

  19. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Patel DS; Patel MV; Patel KN; Patel BA; Patel PA

    2012-01-01

    Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS) provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients o...

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan Rangasamy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivered can have significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range with in which maximum benefit is derived and concentrations above (or below the range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic effect. Various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. The main goal for developing such delivery systems is to minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase bioavailability. Targeting is the ability to direct the drug loaded system to the site of interest. Among drug carrier one can name soluble polymers, microparticles made of insoluble (or biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers, microcapsules, cells, cell ghosts, lipoproteins, liposomes and micelles. Two major mechanisms can be distinguished for addressing the desired sites for drug release, (a Passive and (b Active targeting. Controlled drug carrier systems such as micellar solutions, vescicles and liquid crystal dispersions, as well as nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10 – 400 nm show great promise as drug delivery systems. Hydrogels are three dimensional, hydrophilic, polymer networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids. Buckyballs, a novel delivery system with 60 carbon atoms formed in the shape of hollow ball. They are other type’s namely bucky babies, fuzzy balls, gadofullereness, and giant fullerenes. Nanoparticles can be classified as nano tubes, nano wires, nano cantilever, nanoshells, quantum dots, nano pores. Researchers at north western university using gold particles to develop ultra sensitive detection systems for DNA and protein markers associated with many forms of cancer, including breast and prostrate cancer. Drug loaded erythrocytes is one of the growing and potential systems for delivery of drugs and enzymes.

  1. [Progression of drug delivery system for glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Lyu, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) by drugs is a major treatment for glaucoma. Clinically, diverse antiglaucoma drugs take effect to decrease the IOP through different mechanisms.However, due to limitations of traditional form of eye drops, the bioavailability of the drug and the patient compliance is lowered, the clinical efficacy is not good and also some toxic and side-effects come out.Otherwise, traditional medication is not suitable for neuroprotective drugs to work on both retina and optic nerve. Drug delivery system has the potential to improve the bioavailability of the drug, prolong the time of drug action, decrease the dosage and frequency of drugs, reduce the side-effects, and improve the patient compliance and efficacy.It is one of the most important studies in glaucoma medication development because it is valuable for patients' neuroprotection.Nowadays, several novel delivery systems have been designed. This review will focus on the progressions of some of the sustained-release antiglaucoma eye drops, polymeric gels, colloidal systems, membrane-controlled drug delivery system, ocular implants, and transscleral drug delivery systems. PMID:25619186

  2. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms

  3. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  4. Polyplex nanoparticles as drug delivery system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brezániová, I.; Král, V.; Černochová, Zulfiya; Hrubý, Martin

    Kathmandu : ICIDN-2015 Conference Secretariat, 2015. s. 52. [International Conference on Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine /2./ - ICIDN-2015. 15.12.2015-18.12.2015, Kathmandu] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyplex nanoparticles * drug delivery system Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Liposomes as a gene delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ropert

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is an active field that has progressed rapidly into clinical trials in a relatively short time. The key to success for any gene therapy strategy is to design a vector able to serve as a safe and efficient gene delivery vehicle. This has encouraged the development of nonviral DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques such as liposomes. Many liposome-based DNA delivery systems have been described, including molecular components for targeting given cell surface receptors or for escaping from the lysosomal compartment. Another recent technology using cationic lipids has been evaluated and has generated substantial interest in this approach to gene transfer.

  6. Drug Delivery Systems: Entering the Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Theresa M.; Cullis, Pieter R.

    2004-03-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDS) such as lipid- or polymer-based nanoparticles can be designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of drugs administered parenterally. Many of the early problems that hindered the clinical applications of particulate DDS have been overcome, with several DDS formulations of anticancer and antifungal drugs now approved for clinical use. Furthermore, there is considerable interest in exploiting the advantages of DDS for in vivo delivery of new drugs derived from proteomics or genomics research and for their use in ligand-targeted therapeutics.

  7. PHARMACOSOMES: A POTENTIAL VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Pintu Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacosome is a potential approach in the vesicular drug delivery system which exhibit several advantages over conventional vesicular drug delivery systems. Pharmacosomes are amphiphilic lipid vesicular system possessing phospholipid complexes of drugs. Drugs bearing active hydrogen atom can be esterified to the lipid. This type of vesicular system improves permeation of drugs across the biomembranes and thus results in an improvement in the bioavailability and can also improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various types of drug molecules.This vesicular system can be characterized by surface morphology, solubility study, differential scanning calorimrtry, x-ray powder diffraction, in vitro dissolution study. Pharmacosomes are suitable for incorporating both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs.Preparations of pharmacosomes are basically performed for various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs.

  8. Development of soluble inulin microparticles as a potent and safe vaccine adjuvant and delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Tummala, Hemachand

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the present study is to develop a potent and safe vaccine adjuvant that can also stabilize vaccine formulations during lyophilization and storage. Inulin is a safe plant polysaccharide, and in its water soluble isoform, it is known to stabilize protein formulations during storage. However, soluble inulins have never been shown to stimulate the immune system. In this study, for the first time, we showed that water soluble inulins could be developed into vaccine adjuvants by formulating as antigen encapsulated microparticles. A method was developed to prepare soluble inulin microparticles (sIMs) with high encapsulation efficiency (∼75%) and loading (∼75 μg/mg) of the antigen. When immunized in mice, sIMs have generated robust Th2-type antibody titers (IgG1: 500,000) compared to unadjuvanted antigens (IgG1: 17,500) or alum adjuvanted antigens (IgG1: 80,000). In vitro assays showed that a higher proportion of antigen presenting cells (APC's) have taken up the antigen when presented in sIMs versus in solution (99 % vs 22 %). In addition, the amount of antigen taken up per cell has also been enhanced by more than 25 times when antigen was presented in sIMs. Efficient uptake of the antigen by APCs through sIMS was attributed to the observed enhancement in the immune response by antigen loaded sIMs. The sIMs neither caused any granuloma/tissue damage at the injection site in mice nor were they toxic to the APC's in cell culture. In conclusion, the current study has developed a safe, soluble inulin based vaccine adjuvant and delivery system. PMID:23506468

  9. NOVEL PARADIGMS IN MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is a field of current interest in the design of drug delivery systems. Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system may be designed to enable prolonged residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption and facilitate an intimate contact of the dosage form with the underline absorption surface. Extending the residence time of a dosage form at a particular site and controlling the release of drug from the dosage form are useful especially for achieving controlled plasma level of the drug as well as improving bioavailability. Application of these dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The present review describes mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive polymers and use of these polymers in designing different types of mucoadhesive gastrointestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal and rectal drug delivery systems. The research on mucoadhesives, however, is still in its early stage, and further advances need to be made for the successful translation of the concept into practical application in controlled drug delivery.

  10. Systemic delivery of artemether by dissolving microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuqin; Li, Chun; Zhang, Suohui; Yang, Guozhong; He, Meilin; Gao, Yunhua

    2016-07-11

    Dissolving microneedles (DMNs) based transdermal delivery is an attractive drug delivery approach with minimal invasion. However, it is still challenging to load poorly water-soluble drugs in DMNs for systemic delivery. The aim of the study was to develop DMNs loaded with artemether (ARM) as a model drug, to enable efficient drug penetration through skin for systemic absorption and distribution. The micro-conduits created by microneedles were imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the insertion depth was suggested to be about 270μm. The maximum amount of ARM delivered into skin was 72.67±2.69% of the initial dose loaded on DMNs preparation. Pharmacokinetics study in rats indicated a dose-dependent profile of plasma ARM concentrations, after ARM-loaded DMNs treatment. In contrast to intramuscular injection, DMNs application resulted in lower peak plasma levels, but higher plasma ARM concentration at 8h after administration. There were no significant difference in area under the curve and bioavailability between DMNs group and intramuscular group (P>0.05). Pharmacodynamics studies performed in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats showed that ARM-loaded DMNs could reverse paw edema, similar to ARM intramuscular injection. In conclusion, developed DMNs provided a potential minimally invasive route for systemic delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:27150946

  11. A wireless actuating drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wireless actuating drug delivery system was devised. The system is based on induction heating for drug delivery. In this study, thermally generated nitrogen gas produced by induction heating of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was utilized for pressure-driven release of the drug. The delivery device consists of an actuator chamber, a drug reservoir, and a microchannel. A semicircular copper disc (5 and 6 mm in diameter and 100 µm thick), and thermal conductive tape were integrated as the heating element in the actuator chamber. The final device was 2.7 mm thick. 28 µl of drug solution were placed in the reservoir and the device released the drug quickly at the rate of 6 µl s−1 by induction heating at 160 µT of magnetic intensity. The entire drug solution was released and dispersed after subcutaneous implantation under identical experimental condition. This study demonstrates that the device was simply prepared and drug delivery could be achieved by wireless actuation of a thin, pressure-driven actuator. (paper)

  12. AN OVERVIEW ON VARIOUS APPROACHES TO ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM VIA GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla.Neetika; Deep Arsh; Goswami Manish

    2012-01-01

    In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of oral drug delivery system. Oral sustained drug delivery system is complicated by limited gastric residence times (GRTs). In order to understand various physiological difficulties to achieve gastric retention, we have summarized important factors controlling gastric retention. To overcome these limitations, various approaches have been proposed to increase gastric residence of drug deli...

  13. A Comprehensive Review on: Transdermal drug delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Kharat, Rekha; Bathe, Ritesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. Despite their relatively higher costs, transdermal delivery systems have proved advantageous for delivery of selected drugs, such as estrogens, testosterone, clonidine and nitro-glycerine. Transdermal delivery provides a leading edge over injectable and oral routes by increasing patient compliance and avoiding first pass metabolism respectively. Topical  administration  of  therap...

  14. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  15. Delivery of Exogenous Antigens to Induce Cytotoxic CD8+ T Lymphocyte Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines intended to induce a cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response are highly sought after. However, some of these vaccines can be problematic if they replicate in the host. An alternative strategy is to exploit cross-presentation of exogenous antigens to express peptides on major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I molecules. During cross-presentation, the delivered exogenous antigen can be taken up and processed through diverse mechanisms. Here, we will discuss the recent advances regarding the complex nature of the cross-priming process and the models that reflect its relevance in vivo. Moreover, we summarize current data that explore potential adjuvants and vaccine vectors that deliver antigens to activate CD8+ T cells relying on cross-presentation.

  16. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  17. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyavathi Maravajhala et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is science of matter and material that deal with particle size in nanometers. Nanotechnology has received a lot of attention with never-seen-before enthusiasm because of its future potential. It has provided fine lined diagnosis and focus treatment of disease at molecular level. This technology offers the advantage of protecting drugs from degradation; reduce the number of doses required. In this review, a discussion was carried out on different techniques for the preparation of nanodrug delivery systems like nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals, nanosuspensions, nanoemulsions. The concept of nanotechnology is widely expanded and applied to many drugs to the present. The ultimate application goal of nano drug delivery system is to develop clinically useful formulation for treating diseases in patients.

  18. FAST DISSOLVING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ritika; Rajput Meenu; Prakash Pawan; Sharma Saurabh

    2011-01-01

    Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. To overcome these drawbacks, immediate release pharmaceutical dosage form has emerged as alternative oral dosage forms. There are novel types of dosage forms that act very quickly after administration. Drug delivery systems are becoming sophisticated day by ...

  19. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Eggl, Siegfried; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the ...

  20. An Insight into Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore K. S.; Nema R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Promising management of eye ailments take off effective concentration of drug at the eye for sufficient period of time. Dosage forms are administered directly to eye for localized ophthalmic therapy. Most of the treatments call for the topical administration of ophthalmic active drugs to the tissues around the ocular cavity. Conventional ophthalmic drug delivery systems including eye drops, ophthalmic ointments, are no longer sufficient to encounter eye diseases. This article reviews the cons...

  1. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  2. TRANSCUTANEOUS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Premjeet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drug delivery systems are often not suitable for new protein based and other Therapeutic compounds produced by modern technology. Therefore an alternative Approach to deliver these drugs can be achieved through the skin in the form of transcutaneous drug delivery system. Modern medicine has responded with the development of methods to deliver drug transcutanously (through the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to traditional route including oral, intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and sublingual. Transcutaneous drug delivery has many theoretic and practical advantage and disadvantages, and such issues are often a concern for both clinicians and patients. Transcutaneous patches are flexible pharmaceutical preparations of varying sizes, containing one or more active ingredient, intended to be applied to the unbroken skin in order to deliver the active ingredient to the systemic circulation after passing through the skin barriers. A Transcutaneous patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. In this method, the drug enters the bloodstream directly through skin and it avoid first pass effect. Characterization of Transcutaneous patch are necessary because check it’s quality, size, time of onset & duration, adhesive property, thickness, weight of patch, moisture of content, uniformity & cutaneous toxicological studies. Their requirements for evaluation are HPLC, U.V. spectrophotometer, screw gauge, digital balance, desiccators, thin layer chromatography & K.C. Cell used.

  3. Generation of an attenuated Salmonella-delivery strains expressing adhesin and toxin antigens for progressive atrophic rhinitis, and evaluation of its immune responses in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hoyeon; Hur, Jin; Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-09-01

    An expression/secretion plasmid containing genes encoding the FimA, CP39, PtfA, ToxA and F1P2 antigens associated with porcine pneumonic pasteurellosis and progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) was constructed and harbored in an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium, which was used as the vaccine candidate. The immune responses induced by this delivery strain were investigated in a murine model. Each antigen secreted from the delivery strain was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided equally into two groups; group A were intranasally inoculated with the mixture of the five delivery strains, and group B were inoculated with sterile PBS. In group A, all antigen-specific serum IgG were significantly increased compared to those of group B from the 2nd week post-inoculation (WPI) till the 8th WPI. All antigen-specific mucosal IgA in group A were also significantly greater than those of group B. In addition, the significant splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses, the elevations of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+) and B-cell populations, and the induction of IFN-γ expression in group A were observed. In conclusion, the mixture of five delivery strains expressing specific antigen for these diseases was found to be capable of inducing significant humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:25045826

  4. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Kumar Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole.

  5. Hypoxia Responsive Drug Delivery Systems in Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Houman; Matikonda, Siddharth S; Gamble, Allan B; Giles, Gregory I; Greish, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors. It is mainly determined by low levels of oxygen resulting from imperfect vascular networks supplying most tumors. In an attempt to improve the present chemotherapeutic treatment and reduce associated side effects, several prodrug strategies have been introduced to achieve hypoxia-specific delivery of cytotoxic anticancer agents. With the advances in nanotechnology, novel delivery systems activated by the consequent outcomes of hypoxia have been developed. However, developing hypoxia responsive drug delivery systems (which only depend on low oxygen levels) is currently naïve. This review discusses four main hypoxia responsive delivery systems: polymeric based drug delivery systems, oxygen delivery systems combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, anaerobic bacteria which are used for delivery of genes to express anticancer proteins such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 1 alpha (HIF1α) responsive gene delivery systems. PMID:26898739

  6. SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayal Ayushi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral route still remains the favorite route of drug administration in many diseases and till today it is the first wayinvestigated in the development of new dosage forms. Approximately 40 per cent of new drug candidates have poor water solubility and the oral delivery ofsuch drugs is frequently associated with implications of low bioavailability, high intra and inter-subjectvariability, and lack of dose proportionality. Bioavailability problem of lipophillic drugs can be solved byformation of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS. SEDDS are isotropicmixtures of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug with a unique ability to form fine oil in water microemulsion upon mild agitation following dilution with aqueous phase. The principal characteristic of thesesystems is their ability to form fine oil-in-water (o/w emulsions or micro-emulsions upon mild agitation followingdilution by an aqueous phase. For lipophilic drugs, which have dissolution rate-limited absorption, SEDDS may be apromising strategy to improve the rate and extent of oral absorption.This review article explains how self-emulsifying drug delivery systems can increase the solubility and bioavailability ofpoorly soluble drug.

  7. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008

  8. Transdermal drug delivery system: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS is one of the systems lying under the category of controlled drug delivery, in which the aim is to deliver the drug through the skin in a predetermined and controlled rate. It has various advantages, like prolonged therapeutic effect, reduced side-effects, improved bioavailability, better patient compliance and easy termination of drug therapy. The stratum corneum is considered as the rate limiting barrier in transdermal permeation of most molecules. There are three main routes of drug penetration, which include the appendageal, transcellular and intercellular routes. Skin age, condition, physicochemical factors and environmental factors are some factors that are to be considered while delivering drug through this route. Basic components of TDDS include polymer matrix, membrane, drug, penetration enhancers, pressure-sensitive adhesives, backing laminates, release liner, etc. Transdermal patches can be divided into various systems like reservoir system, matrix system and micro-reservoir system, which are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via the skin. After preparation of transdermal patches, consistent methodology are adopted to test the adhesion properties, physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro skin permeation studies, skin irritation studies and stability studies. According to the duration of therapy, various drugs are commercially available in the form of transdermal patches.

  9. MICROENCAPSULATION: AN INDISPENSABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Malakar Jadupati; Das Tanmay; Ghatak Souvik

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the various new and well established technologies relevant to the controlled and targeted drug delivery systems have been precisely discussed. A perfectly designed controlled drug delivery system can be of huge advantage towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue and controlling the rate of drug delivery at the target site. Novel drug delivery systems have various advantages over other conventional drug therapy. In which microenc...

  10. Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Lena M; Diken, Mustafa; Haas, Heinrich; Kreiter, Sebastian; Loquai, Carmen; Reuter, Kerstin C; Meng, Martin; Fritz, Daniel; Vascotto, Fulvia; Hefesha, Hossam; Grunwitz, Christian; Vormehr, Mathias; Hüsemann, Yves; Selmi, Abderraouf; Kuhn, Andreas N; Buck, Janina; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Rae, Richard; Attig, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Jabulowsky, Robert A; Heesch, Sandra; Hassel, Jessica; Langguth, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-06-16

    Lymphoid organs, in which antigen presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to T cells, are the ideal microenvironment for efficient priming and amplification of T-cell responses. However, the systemic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells (DCs) is hampered by various technical challenges. Here we show that DCs can be targeted precisely and effectively in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX) based on well-known lipid carriers by optimally adjusting net charge, without the need for functionalization of particles with molecular ligands. The LPX protects RNA from extracellular ribonucleases and mediates its efficient uptake and expression of the encoded antigen by DC populations and macrophages in various lymphoid compartments. RNA-LPX triggers interferon-α (IFNα) release by plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages. Consequently, DC maturation in situ and inflammatory immune mechanisms reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated. We show that RNA-LPX encoding viral or mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens induce strong effector and memory T-cell responses, and mediate potent IFNα-dependent rejection of progressive tumours. A phase I dose-escalation trial testing RNA-LPX that encode shared tumour antigens is ongoing. In the first three melanoma patients treated at a low-dose level, IFNα and strong antigen-specific T-cell responses were induced, supporting the identified mode of action and potency. As any polypeptide-based antigen can be encoded as RNA, RNA-LPX represent a universally applicable vaccine class for systemic DC targeting and synchronized induction of both highly potent adaptive as well as type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27281205

  11. Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Lena M.; Diken, Mustafa; Haas, Heinrich; Kreiter, Sebastian; Loquai, Carmen; Reuter, Kerstin C.; Meng, Martin; Fritz, Daniel; Vascotto, Fulvia; Hefesha, Hossam; Grunwitz, Christian; Vormehr, Mathias; Hüsemann, Yves; Selmi, Abderraouf; Kuhn, Andreas N.; Buck, Janina; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Rae, Richard; Attig, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Jabulowsky, Robert A.; Heesch, Sandra; Hassel, Jessica; Langguth, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-06-01

    Lymphoid organs, in which antigen presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to T cells, are the ideal microenvironment for efficient priming and amplification of T-cell responses. However, the systemic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells (DCs) is hampered by various technical challenges. Here we show that DCs can be targeted precisely and effectively in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX) based on well-known lipid carriers by optimally adjusting net charge, without the need for functionalization of particles with molecular ligands. The LPX protects RNA from extracellular ribonucleases and mediates its efficient uptake and expression of the encoded antigen by DC populations and macrophages in various lymphoid compartments. RNA-LPX triggers interferon-α (IFNα) release by plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages. Consequently, DC maturation in situ and inflammatory immune mechanisms reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated. We show that RNA-LPX encoding viral or mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens induce strong effector and memory T-cell responses, and mediate potent IFNα-dependent rejection of progressive tumours. A phase I dose-escalation trial testing RNA-LPX that encode shared tumour antigens is ongoing. In the first three melanoma patients treated at a low-dose level, IFNα and strong antigen-specific T-cell responses were induced, supporting the identified mode of action and potency. As any polypeptide-based antigen can be encoded as RNA, RNA-LPX represent a universally applicable vaccine class for systemic DC targeting and synchronized induction of both highly potent adaptive as well as type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms for cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Delivery of a multivalent scrambled antigen vaccine induces broad spectrum immunity and protection against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicholas P; Thomson, Scott A; Triccas, James A; Medveczky, C Jill; Ramshaw, Ian A; Britton, Warwick J

    2011-10-13

    The development of effective anti-Tuberculosis (TB) vaccines is an important step towards improved control of TB in high burden countries. Subunit vaccines are advantageous in terms of safety, particularly in the context of high rates of HIV co-infection, but they must contain sufficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens to stimulate immunity in genetically diverse human populations. We have used a novel approach to develop a synthetic scrambled antigen vaccine (TB-SAVINE), comprised of overlapping, recombined peptides from four M. tuberculosis proteins, Ag85B, ESAT-6, PstS3 and Mpt83, each of which is immunogenic and protective against experimental TB. This polyvalent TB-SAVINE construct stimulated CD4 and CD8T cell responses against the individual proteins and M. tuberculosis in C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice, when delivered as DNA, Fowl Pox Virus or Vaccinia Virus vaccines. In addition, the DNA-TBS vaccine induced protective immunity against pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection in C57BL/6 mice. Co-immunization of Balb/c mice with virally expressed TBS and HIV1-SAVINE vaccine stimulated strong T cell responses to both the M. tuberculosis and HIV proteins, indicating no effects of antigenic competition. Further development of this TB-SAVINE vaccine expressing components from multiple M. tuberculosis proteins may prove an effective vaccine candidate against TB, which could potentially form part of a safe, combined preventative strategy together with HIV immunisations. PMID:21846485

  13. M cell-derived vesicles suggest a unique pathway for trans-epithelial antigen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhon, Olivia S; Ross, Brittany; Gusti, Veronica; Pham, An Joseph; Vu, Kathy; Lo, David D

    2015-01-01

    M cells are a subset of mucosal epithelial cells with specialized capability to transport antigens across the mucosal barrier, but there is limited information on antigen transfer in the subepithelial zone due to the challenges in tracking microparticles and antigens that are transcytosed by this unique cell. Using transgenic reporter mice expressing dsRed in the cytoplasm of M cells and EGFP in myeloid cells, we observed that the M cell basolateral pocket hosts a close interaction between B lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Interestingly, we identified a population of previously undescribed M cell-derived vesicles (MCM) that are constitutively shed into the subepithelial space and readily taken up by CX3CR1(+)CD11b(+) CD11c(+) dendritic cells. These MCM are characterized by their cytoplasmic dsRed confirming their origin from the M cell cytoplasm. MCM showed preferential colocalization in dendritic cells with transcytosed bacteria but not transcytosed polystyrene beads, indicating a selective sorting of cargo fate in the subepithelial zone. The size and number of MCM were found to be upregulated by bacterial transcytosis and soluble toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist, further pointing to dynamic regulation of this mechanism. These results suggest that MCM provide a unique function by delivering to dendritic cells, various materials such as M cell-derived proteins, effector proteins, toxins, and particles found in the M cell cytoplasm during infection or surveillance. PMID:25838974

  14. MYELIN ANTIGEN LOAD INFLUENCES ANTIGEN PRESENTATION AND SEVERITY OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTOIMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Jaini, Ritika; Popescu, Daniela C.; Flask, Chris A.; Macklin, Wendy B.; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to understand the impact of self-antigen load on manifestation of organ specific autoimmunity. Using a transgenic mouse model characterized by CNS hypermyelination, we show that larger myelin content results in greater severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis attributable to an increased number of microglia within the hypermyelinated brain. We conclude that a larger self-antigen load affects an increase in number of tissue resident antigen presenting cells...

  15. 42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457.490... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems. A... targeted low-income children, including a description of the proposed methods of delivery and...

  16. Modeling the Delivery Physiology of Distributed Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Gilbert; Rosca, Ioan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses instructional delivery models and their physiology in distributed learning systems. Highlights include building delivery models; types of delivery models, including distributed classroom, self-training on the Web, online training, communities of practice, and performance support systems; and actors (users) involved, including experts,…

  17. Microemulsions based transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, Harini C; Narendran, Hyndavi; Nagaswaram, Tejeswari; Yaga, Gowri; Thanniru, Jyotsna; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of microemulsions by Jack H Schulman, there has been huge progress made in applying microemulsion systems in plethora of research and industrial process. Microemulsions are optically isotropic systems consisting of water, oil and amphiphile. These systems are beneficial due to their thermodynamic stability, optical clarity, ease of preparation, higher diffusion and absorption rates. Moreover, it has been reported that the ingredients of microemulsion can effectively overcome the diffusion barrier and penetrate through the stratum corneum of the skin. Hence it becomes promising for both transdermal and dermal drug delivery. However, low viscosity of microemulsion restrains its applicability in pharmaceutical industry. To overcome the above drawback, the low viscous microemulsions were added to viscous gel bases to potentiate its applications as topical drug delivery systems so that various drug related toxic effects and erratic drug absorption can be avoided. The present review deals with the microemulsions, various techniques involved in the development of organic nanoparticles. The review emphasized on microemulsion based systems such as hydrogels and organogels. The physicochemical characteristics, mechanical properties, rheological and stability principles involved in microemulsion based viscous gels were also explored. PMID:25466399

  18. Liposomes as delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Luis Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Liposome drug formulations are defined as pharmaceutical products containing active drug substances encapsulated within the lipid bilayer or in the interior aqueous space of the liposomes. The main importance of this drug delivery system is based on its drastic reduction in systemic dose and concomitant systemic toxicity that in comparison with the free drug, results in an improvement of patient compliance and in a more effective treatment. There are several therapeutic drugs that are potential candidates to be encapsulated into liposomes; particular interest has been focused in therapeutic and antineoplastic drugs, which are characterized for its low therapeutic index and high systemic toxicity. The use of liposomes as drug carriers has been extensively justified and the importance of the development of different formulations or techniques to encapsulate therapeutic drugs has an enormous value in benefit of patients affected by neoplastic diseases.

  19. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu M Boddupalli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT require increased duration of stay in GIT. Thus, mucoadhesive dosage forms are advantageous in increasing the drug plasma concentrations and also therapeutic activity. In this regard, this review covers the areas of mechanisms and theories of mucoadhesion, factors influencing the mucoadhesive devices and also various mucoadhesive dosage forms.

  20. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Jeffrey A; Hearld Larry R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned). This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not) into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to desc...

  1. Microcontainers - an oral drug delivery system for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Petersen, Ritika Singh; Marizza, Paolo;

    of these studies was to fabricate microcontainers in either SU-8 or biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and fill the microcontainers with poorly soluble drugs. Furthermore, the application of the microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system was investigated in terms of release, in situ......In oral delivery, it can sometimes be necessary to employ drug delivery systems to achieve targeted delivery to the intestine. Microcontainers are polymeric, cylindrical devices in the micrometer size range (Figure 1), and are suggested as a promising oral drug delivery system [1],[2]. The purpose...

  2. Online Mapping Systems for Climate Data Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S. T.; Nicholson, C. M.; Bergantino, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Online, map-based applications have experienced an explosion in popularity over the past decade. The success of these systems is largely due to their ability to provide a spatial framework data exploration, and for the visual context (e.g., satellite images) they offer. Here we detail the development of a new online mapping system for Wyoming that will serve as a portal for the delivery of weather, climate, and water-related data for users across the state. While capitalizing on the success of previous online mapping efforts, this new system also highlights the potential for additional applications and functionality. Known as the Wyoming Internet Map Server (WyoIMS), the system brings together real-time observations and summary products from multiple federal agencies (NOAA-NWS, NRCS, USGS) to provide “one-stop-shopping” for key climatic datasets. Likewise this system is providing a platform for data delivery, archiving, and QC/QA as part of a new statewide hydroclimatic monitoring network. Moving beyond the simple transfer of data, this system also allows users to access information from resources that include state libraries and various databases that contain information related to climate and water resources. Users can, for example, select individual counties, watersheds, irrigation districts, or municipalities and download a wide range of documents and reports specific to those locations. On the whole, WyoIMS has become a catalyst for the development of new climate-related products, and a foundation for decision support with applications in water resources, wildlife management, and agriculture.

  3. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations insi...

  4. PHYTOSOMES: A NOVEL HERBAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manglani Nishant

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel drug delivery system in the field of medicine had taken a popular attention now a day as it makes the intake, bioavailability and overall therapeutics of a drug easier and in short period of time. In current scenario herbal drugs has been also fascinated a lot of researchers because of their less side effects, cost effectiveness and easy availability. To make herbal drugs more potent newer approaches are going on and current review deals one of the herbal Novel Drug Delivery System (NDDS i.e. Phytosomes.Phytosomes are herbal formulation which has enhanced the therapeutic effect of the plant extracts and herbal lead molecule by increasing bioavailability in the target site. Development of Phytosomes is at its budding stage in India and abroad. It has a lot of potential in the field of medicine, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. These drug phospholipid complexes can be formulated in the form solution suspension, emulsion, pills capsule powder. Current review will give all the information about Phytosomes and their benefits in the recent herbal drug formulations.

  5. FAST DISSOLVING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ritika

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. To overcome these drawbacks, immediate release pharmaceutical dosage form has emerged as alternative oral dosage forms. There are novel types of dosage forms that act very quickly after administration. Drug delivery systems are becoming sophisticated day by day as pharmaceutical scientists has acquired a better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters of drugs and excipients. Over the past three decades, fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs have gained considerable attention and is one of the most widely employed commercial product which is preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules especially for the pediatric and geriatric patients and for the patients who are bedridden, those having hand tremors, motion sickness, disphagia and who may not have access to water during traveling or who are uncooperative, on reduced liquid intake plan and also preferred in sudden episodes of allergic attack. Fast-dissolving drug delivery systems may offer a solution for these problems.

  6. Coacervate delivery systems for proteins and small molecule drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Noah R.; Wang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    Coacervates represent an exciting new class of drug delivery vehicles, developed in the past decade as carriers of small molecule drugs and proteins. This review summarizes several well-described coacervate systems, including Elastin-like peptides for delivery of anti-cancer therapeutics,Heparin-based coacervates with synthetic polycations for controlled growth factor delivery,Carboxymethyl chitosan aggregates for oral drug delivery,Mussel adhesive protein and hyaluronic acid coacervates.

  7. Ternary particles for effective vaccine delivery to the pulmonary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Treniece La'shay

    Progress in the fields of molecular biology and genomics has provided great insight into the pathogenesis of disease and the defense mechanisms of the immune system. This knowledge has lead to the classification of an array of abnormal genes, for which, treatment relies on cellular expression of proteins. The utility of DNA-based vaccines hold great promise for the treatment of genetically based and infectious diseases, which ranges from hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. Synthetic delivery systems consisting of cationic polymers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI), are capable of condensing DNA into compact structures, maximizing cellular uptake of DNA and yielding high levels of protein expression. To date, short term expression is a major obstacle in the development of gene therapies and has halted their expansion in clinical applications. This study intends to develop a sustained release vaccine delivery system using PLA-PEG block copolymers encapsulating PEI:DNA polyplexes. To enhance the effectiveness of such DNA-based vaccines, resident antigen presenting cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, will be targeted within the alveoli regions of the lungs. Porous microspheres will be engineered with aerodynamic properties capable of achieving deep lung deposition. A fabrication technique using concentric nozzles will be developed to produce porous microspheres. It was observed that modifications in the dispersed to continuous phase ratios have the largest influence on particle size distributions, release rates and encapsulation efficiency which ranged form 80--95% with fourteen days of release. Amphiphilic block copolymers were also used to fabricate porous microspheres. The confirmation of PEG within the biodegradable polymer backbone was found to have a tremendous impact on the microsphere morphology and encapsulation efficiency which varied from 50--90%. Porous microspheres were capable of providing sustained gene expression when tested in vitro using the

  8. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  9. A telemedicine health care delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jay H.

    1991-01-01

    The Interactive Telemedicine Systems (ITS) system was specifically developed to address the ever widening gap between our medical care expertise and our medical care delivery system. The frustrating reality is that as our knowledge of how to diagnose and treat medical conditions has continued to advance, the system to deliver that care has remained in an embryonic stage. This has resulted in millions of people being denied their most basic health care needs. Telemedicine utilizes an interactive video system integrated with biomedical telemetry that allows a physician at a base station specialty medical complex or teaching hospital to examine and treat a patient at multiple satellite locations, such as rural hospitals, ambulatory health centers, correctional institutions, facilities caring for the elderly, community hospital emergency departments, or international health facilities. Based on the interactive nature of the system design, the consulting physician at the base station can do a complete history and physical examination, as if the patient at the satellite site was sitting in the physician's office. This system is described.

  10. Pulmonary drug delivery systems for tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dinh-Duy; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2015-01-30

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem as it is the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conventional treatments fail either because of poor patient compliance to the drug regimen or due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The aim of this review is to give an update on the information available on tuberculosis, its pathogenesis and current antitubercular chemotherapies. Direct lung delivery of anti-TB drugs using pulmonary delivery systems is then reviewed since it appears as an interesting strategy to improve first and second line drugs. A particular focus is place on research performed on inhalable dry powder formulations of antitubercular drugs to target alveolar macrophages where the bacteria develop. Numerous studies show that anti-TB drugs can be incorporated into liposomes, microparticles or nanoparticles which can be delivered as dry powders to the deep lungs for instantaneous, targeted and/or controlled release. Treatments of infected animals show a significant reduction of the number of viable bacteria as well as a decrease in tissue damage. These new formulations appear as interesting alternatives to deliver directly drugs to the lungs and favor efficient TB treatment. PMID:25499020

  11. Recent development in novel drug delivery systems of herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel technologies have been developed recently for drug delivery systems. The use of herbal formulations for novel drug delivery systems is more advantageous and has more benefits compared to others. The use of liposome, ethosome, phytosomes, emulsion, microsphere, solid lipid nanoparticles of herbal formulation has enhanced the therapeutic effects of plant extracts. With the use of all these, targeted delivery of the formulation is achieved, due to which the formulation demonstrates effect on the site, and the bioavailability of the formulation is also increased. With these novel drug delivery systems, the actives and extracts which are used in herbal formulations demonstrate enhancement in stability, sustained release of formulation, protection from toxicity and improved therapeutic efficacy. The main purpose of developing alternative drug delivery technologies is to increase efficiency of drug delivery and safety in the process of drug delivery and provide more convenience for the patient. The present paper includes information about novel formulations of herbal formulations.

  12. Oral Dispersible System: A New Approach in Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, P A; Khan, J A; Khan, A; Safiullah, S

    2016-01-01

    Dosage form is a mean used for the delivery of drug to a living body. In order to get the desired effect the drug should be delivered to its site of action at such rate and concentration to achieve the maximum therapeutic effect and minimum adverse effect. Since oral route is still widely accepted route but having a common drawback of difficulty in swallowing of tablets and capsules. Therefore a lot of research has been done on novel drug delivery systems. This review is about oral dispersible tablets a novel approach in drug delivery systems that are now a day's more focused in formulation world, and laid a new path that, helped the patients to build their compliance level with the therapy, also reduced the cost and ease the administration especially in case of pediatrics and geriatrics. Quick absorption, rapid onset of action and reduction in drug loss properties are the basic advantages of this dosage form. PMID:27168675

  13. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of thedrug occurs by means of skin. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitationof hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steadyplasma level of the drug. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the activeingredients into the circulatory system via skin. This review article covers a brief outline of theprinciples of transdermal permeation, various components of transdermal patch, approaches oftransdermal patch, evaluation of transdermal system, its application with its limitation.

  14. RECENT ADVANCES IN GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    DASH ALOK KUMAR; MISHRA JHANSEE

    2013-01-01

    Several controlled oral drug delivery systems with prolonged gastric residence time have been reported recently. Gastro retentive drug delivery system is an approach to prolong gastric residence time, thereby targeting site-specific drug release in upper gastro intestinal tract improving the oral sustained delivery of drug that have an absorption window in a particular region of the gastrointestinal tract. These systems help in continuously releasing the drug before it reaches the absorption ...

  15. ROLE OF NATURAL POLYMERS USED IN FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Amit Kumar; Dubey Vivek; Arora Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Floating drug delivery system is the form of gastro-retentive drug delivery system that controls the kinetic release rate of a drug to a specific site for its pharmacological action. These are achieved by use of various polymeric substance including natural polymers such as Guar Gum, Xanthan Gum, Gellan Gum etc. This delivery system prolongs the retention time of the drug in the stomach as compared to conventional dosage forms. The present article highlights the use of polymers for the formul...

  16. DESIGN OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    L. K. Omray

    2014-01-01

    Gastro retentive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was designed and evaluated for its effectiveness for the management of mild to moderate hypertension. Gastro retentive drug delivery system were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent for the reduction of floating lag time. Gastro retentive drug delivery system tablets were prepared by wet granulation method by compression in tablet co...

  17. ROLE OF NATURAL POLYMERS USED IN FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amit Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Floating drug delivery system is the form of gastro-retentive drug delivery system that controls the kinetic release rate of a drug to a specific site for its pharmacological action. These are achieved by use of various polymeric substance including natural polymers such as Guar Gum, Xanthan Gum, Gellan Gum etc. This delivery system prolongs the retention time of the drug in the stomach as compared to conventional dosage forms. The present article highlights the use of polymers for the formulation of the floating drug delivery system especially with natural polymers.

  18. Proniosomes: A Superior Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagasamy Venkatesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Proniosomes are solid colloidal particles which may be hydrated immediately before use to yield aqueous niosomes dispersions similar to those produced by more cumbersome conventional methods. The proniosomes minimize the problems associated with niosomes in terms of its physical stability such as aggregation, fusion and leaking. They also offer an additional convenience in transportation, distribution, storage, and dosing. The proniosomes derived niosomes are better than conventional niosomes in terms of their morphology, particle size, particle size distribution, and drug release. A slurry method was commonly used to produce proniosomes using maltodextrin as carrier. The time required to produce proniosomes by this simple method is independent of the ratio of surfactant solution to carrier material and appears to be a scalable process. The encapsulation efficiency of proniosomes is depends upon the amount of maltodextrin used in the process. The present review describes the method of preparation, characterization, applications of proniosomes as a potential drug delivery system.

  19. Implantable microchip: the futuristic controlled drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, Kumar Bishwajit; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that controlled and pulsatile drug delivery system is an important challenge in medicine over the conventional drug delivery system in case of therapeutic efficacy. However, the conventional drug delivery systems often offer a limited by their inability to drug delivery which consists of systemic toxicity, narrow therapeutic window, complex dosing schedule for long term treatment etc. Therefore, there has been a search for the drug delivery system that exhibit broad enhancing activity for more drugs with less complication. More recently, some elegant study has noted that, a new type of micro-electrochemical system or MEMS-based drug delivery systems called microchip has been improved to overcome the problems related to conventional drug delivery. Moreover, micro-fabrication technology has enabled to develop the implantable controlled released microchip devices with improved drug administration and patient compliance. In this article, we have presented an overview of the investigations on the feasibility and application of microchip as an advanced drug delivery system. Commercial manufacturing materials and methods, related other research works and current advancement of the microchips for controlled drug delivery have also been summarized. PMID:24758139

  20. Modified Approaches for Colon Specific Drug Delivery System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar1*, Amrish Chandra2, Pawan Kumar Gautam3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topicaltreatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeteddirectly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. This review mainly describes the primaryapproaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, andmicrobially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDSnamely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules. Oral administration of different dosage forms is the mostcommonly used method due to flexibility in design of dosage form and high patient acceptance, but thegastrointestinal tract presents several formidable barriers to drug delivery. In oral colon-specific drug deliverysystem, colon has a large amount of lymphoma tissue (facilitates direct absorption in to the blood, negligible brushboarder membrane activity, and much less pancreatic enzymatic activity as compared with the small intestine.Colon-specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for treatment oflocal diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for the delivery of proteins and therapeutic peptides.Different approaches are designed based on prodrug formulation, pH-sensitivity, time-dependency (lag time,microbial degradation and osmotic pressure etc to formulate the different dosage forms like tablets, capsules,multiparticulates, microspheres, liposomes for colon targeting. The delivery of drugs to the colon has a number oftherapeutic implications in the field of drug delivery. In the recent times, the colon specific delivery systems are alsogaining importance not only for local drug delivery of drugs but also for the systemic delivery of protein and peptidedrugs. This review updated the research on different approaches formulation and

  1. Dermal delivery of ascorbyl palmitate: the potential of colloidal delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gosenca, Mirjam; GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the suitability of various colloidal systems for ascorbyl palmitate (AP) skin delivery. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram for Tween 80/lecithin/butanol, isopropyl myristate (IPM), and water was constructed and regions of lipophilic (w/o) or hydrophilic (o/w) microemulsions (MEs), and emulsions (EMs) were identified. Afterwards, various phase transition systems on the selected dilution line, as well as liquid crystal (LC) as a delivery system on the same dilution line (b...

  2. RECENT ADVANCES IN GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DASH ALOK KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several controlled oral drug delivery systems with prolonged gastric residence time have been reported recently. Gastro retentive drug delivery system is an approach to prolong gastric residence time, thereby targeting site-specific drug release in upper gastro intestinal tract improving the oral sustained delivery of drug that have an absorption window in a particular region of the gastrointestinal tract. These systems help in continuously releasing the drug before it reaches the absorption window, thus ensuring optimal bioavailability. Various approaches for gastric retention are Floating system, Swelling and expanding system, Bioadhesive systems, Modified-shape systems, High density systems etc.

  3. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kusum Devi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc. of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

  4. Recent advances in vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana S; Alonso, María J

    2016-01-01

    The field of vaccination is moving from the use of attenuated or inactivated pathogens to safer but less immunogenic protein and peptide antigens, which require stronger adjuvant compositions. Antigen delivery carriers appear to play an important role in vaccine development, providing not only antigen protection and controlled release but also an intrinsic adjuvant potential. Among them, carriers based on polymers and lipids are the most representative ones. Patent applications in this area have disclosed, either the design and preparation methods for new biocompatible antigen delivery systems or the application of the previously developed systems for the delivery of novel antigens. Some of them have also reported the use of these technologies for modern therapeutic vaccination approaches. PMID:26667309

  5. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jorgegabriel@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  6. REVIEW ON ADVANCES IN COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunena Sethi, SL Harikumar* and Nirmala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The colon is the terminal part of the GIT which has gained in recent years as a potential site for delivery of various novel therapeutic drugs, i.e. peptides. However, colon is rich in microflora which can be used to target the drug release in the colon. Colon is a site where both local and systemic drug delivery can take place. Local delivery allows the topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. If drug can be targeted directly into the colon, treatment can become more effective and side effects can be minimized. These systemic side effects can be minimized by primary approaches for CDDS (Colon specific drug delivery namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems and microbially triggered system which gained limited success and have limitations as compared with recently new CDDS namely pressure controlled colon delivery capsules (PCDCS, CODESTM (Novel colon targeted delivery system osmotic controlled drug delivery system, Pulsincap system, time clock system, chronotropic system. This review is to understand the pharmaceutical approaches to colon targeted drug delivery systems for better therapeutic action without compromising on drug degradation (or its low bioavailability.

  7. NASAL IN SITU GEL: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrupesh panchal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, advances in the in situ gel technologies have spurred development in manymedical and biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery. Many novel in situ gel baseddelivery matrices have been designed and fabricated to fulfill the ever increasing needs of thepharmaceutical and medical fields. In situ gelling systems are liquid at room temperature but undergogelation when in contact with body fluids or change in pH. In situ gel forming drug delivery is a type ofmucoadhesive drug delivery system. The formation of gel depends on factors like temperaturemodulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultraviolet irradiation from which the drug gets released ina sustained and controlled manner. Nasal delivery is a promising drug delivery option where commondrug administrations such as intravenous, intramuscular or oral are inapplicable. Recently, it has beenshown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than the oral route. This has beenattributed to rich vasculature and a highly permeable structure of the nasal mucosa coupled withavoidance of hepatic first-pass elimination, gut wall metabolism and/or destruction in thegastrointestinal tract. The physiology of the nose presents obstacles but offers a promising route for noninvasivesystemic delivery of numerous therapies and debatably drug delivery route to the brain. Thusthis review focuses on nasal drug delivery, various aspects of nasal anatomy and physiology, nasal drugabsorption mechanisms, various nasal drug delivery systems and their applications in drug delivery.

  8. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Kulkarni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase.  In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  9. The Liquisolid Technique: Based Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhar Ahmed Syed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Liquisolid” technique is a novel and capable addition towards such an aims for solubility enhancement and dissolution improvement, thereby it increases the bioavailability. It contains liquid medications in powdered form. This technique is an efficient method for formulating water insoluble and water soluble drugs. This technique is based upon the admixture of drug loaded solutions with appropriate carrier and coating materials. The use of non-volatile solvent causes improved wettability and ensures molecular dispersion of drug in the formulation and leads to enhance solubility. By using hydrophobic carriers (non-volatile solvents one can modify release (sustained release of drugs by this technique. Liquisolid system is characterized by flow behavior, wettability, powder bed hydrophilicity, saturation solubility, drug content, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, in-vitro release and in-vivo evaluation. By using this technique, solubility and dissolution rate can be improved, sustained drug delivery systems be developed for the water soluble drugs.

  10. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  11. Vesicular system: Versatile carrier for transdermal delivery of bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deependra; Pradhan, Madhulika; Nag, Mukesh; Singh, Manju Rawat

    2015-01-01

    The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained immense interest for pharmaceutical researchers. The major hurdle for diffusion of drugs and bioactives through transdermal route is the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. Currently, various approaches such as physical approach, chemical approach, and delivery carriers have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. This review provides a brief overview of mechanism of drug transport across skin, different lipid vesicular systems, with special emphasis on lipid vesicular systems including transfersomes, liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, virosomes, and pharmacosomes and their application for the delivery of different bioactives. PMID:24564350

  12. ORAL MULTIPARTICULATE PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shaji Jessy; Shinde Amol B

    2011-01-01

    Pulsatile drug delivery aims to release drugs in a planned pattern i.e. at appropriate time and/or at a suitable site of action. Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. However, in recent pharmaceutical applications involving pulsatile delivery, multiparticulate dosage forms are gaining much favour over single-unit dosage forms because of their potential benefits like pred...

  13. A multiportal compensator system for IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a multiportal compensator system for IMRT delivery, comprising a rotational compensator mount for a linac head, cylindrical compensator enclosures positioned in the mount, a vacuum-formed thermoplastic sheet with heavy alloy granules inside the enclosure, and a vacuum thermoforming device. The mount rotates like a revolver by a stepping motor, thus allowing automatic multiportal IMRT without exchanging compensators by human operators during treatment. The thermoforming device has servo-motor-driven 10x10 metal rod elements to actualize an arbitrary intensity profile. The thermoplastic sheet is preheated by a built-in biplanar heater and then it is placed over the rod elements. Subsequently, vacuum forming is performed through corner cut-outs of the rod elements. After forced cooling down, the heavy alloy granules are fed into the formed sheet. Preliminary experiment using solid water phantoms and an x-ray film has shown that the intensity profile on the film agrees reasonably well with the desired profile

  14. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  15. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  16. Nuclear delivery systems in the threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India, Israel, Pakistan, and south Africa are today each capable of building nuclear arms and if they have not done so already, could well be prepared to deploy such weapons in any future war. Although attention has been focused over the years on how these and other emerging nuclear nations have progressed toward the acquisition of nuclear weapons capabilities, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how such capabilities, once acquired, may be militarized---that is, transformed into small nuclear forces. An early and essential first step in this process is the mating of nuclear weapons with the mean for delivering them to enemy targets. Over the next decade, the delivery systems potentially available to the new nuclear states will fall into two principal categories: manned aircraft and ballistic missiles. (Cruise missiles are a third possibility, but one that appears more remote at present.) This paper reports on a number of the de facto nuclear-weapons states, along with several other industrializing countries, are today producing jet combat aircraft and military missiles

  17. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the strong dynamical interactions in the main belt region around 2 AU can be efficient water transporting vessels. The Hungaria asteroid group is the best example that such scenarios are realistic. Assuming that the gas giants and the terrestrial planets are already formed, we monitor the collisions of scattered small bodies containing water (in the order of a few percent) with the terrestrial planets. Thus we are able to give a first estimate concerning the respective contribution of such bodies to the actual water content i...

  18. Immunoliposome-PCR: a generic ultrasensitive quantitative antigen detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Junkun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate quantification of antigens at low concentrations over a wide dynamic range is needed for identifying biomarkers associated with disease and detecting protein interactions in high-throughput microarrays used in proteomics. Here we report the development of an ultrasensitive quantitative assay format called immunoliposome polymerase chain reaction (ILPCR that fulfills these requirements. This method uses a liposome, with reporter DNA encapsulated inside and biotin-labeled polyethylene glycol (PEG phospholipid conjugates incorporated into the outer surface of the liposome, as a detection reagent. The antigenic target is immobilized in the well of a microplate by a capture antibody and the liposome detection reagent is then coupled to a biotin-labeled second antibody through a NeutrAvidin bridge. The liposome is ruptured to release the reporter DNA, which serves as a surrogate to quantify the protein target using real-time PCR. Results A liposome detection reagent was prepared, which consisted of a population of liposomes ~120 nm in diameter with each liposome possessing ~800 accessible biotin receptors and ~220 encapsulated reporters. This liposome detection reagent was used in an assay to quantify the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in human serum. This ILPCR assay exhibited a linear dose–response curve from 10-10 M to 10-16 M CEA. Within this range the assay coefficient of variance was Conclusions The ILPCR assay has several advantages over other immuno-PCR methods. The reporter DNA and biotin-labeled PEG phospholipids spontaneously incorporate into the liposomes as they form, simplifying preparation of the detection reagent. Encapsulation of the reporter inside the liposomes allows nonspecific DNA in the assay medium to be degraded with DNase I prior to quantification of the encapsulated reporter by PCR, which reduces false-positive results and improves quantitative accuracy. The ability to

  19. Controlled drug delivery systems towards new frontiers in patient care

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Filippo; Masi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of controlled drug delivery systems, covering the most important innovative applications. The principles of controlled drug release and the mechanisms involved in controlled release are clearly explained. The various existing polymeric drug delivery systems are reviewed, and new frontiers in material design are examined in detail, covering a wide range of polymer modification techniques. The concluding chapter is a case study focusing on use of a drug-eluting stent. The book is designed to provide the reader with a complete understanding of the mechanisms and design of controlled drug delivery systems, and to this end includes numerous step-by-step tutorials. It illustrates how chemical engineers can advance medical care by designing polymeric delivery systems that achieve either temporal or spatial control of drug delivery and thus ensure more effective therapy that eliminates the potential for both under-and overdosing.

  20. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  1. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  2. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-09-02

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  3. Polymer based delivery systems for efficient tumor therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Chytil, Petr; Šírová, Milada; Hoffman, S.; Müller, T.; Mäder, K.; Říhová, Blanka; Ulbrich, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Proceedings (2015), s. 67. ISSN 2153-2435. [International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems /5./ - Pharmaceutica 2015. 16.03.2015-18.03.2015, Dubai ] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : drug delivery * polymer Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  4. An Overview on Osmotic Controlled Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummar A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews constructed drug delivery systems applying osmotic principles for controlled drugrelease from the formulation. Osmotic devices which are tablets coated with walls of controlled porosityare the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. In contrast to commontablets, these pumps provide constant (zero order drug release rate. When these systems are exposed towater, low levels of water soluble additive is leached from polymeric material i.e. semipermeablemembrane and drug releases in a controlled manner over an extended period of time. The main clinicalbenefits of oral osmotic drug delivery system are their ability to improve treatment tolerability andpatient compliance. These advantages are mainly driven by the capacity to deliver drugs in a sustainedmanner, independent of the drug chemical properties, of the patient’s physiological factors or followingfood intake. This review brings out the theoretical concept of drug delivery, history, advantages anddisadvantages of the delivery systems, types of oral osmotic drug delivery systems, factors affecting thedrug delivery system and marketed products.

  5. Chylomicrons Promote Intestinal Absorption and Systemic Dissemination of Dietary Antigen (Ovalbumin) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuehui; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Ward, Martin; de Villiers, Willem; Woodward, Jerold; Eckhardt, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background A small fraction of dietary protein survives enzymatic degradation and is absorbed in potentially antigenic form. This can trigger inflammatory responses in patients with celiac disease or food allergies, but typically induces systemic immunological tolerance (oral tolerance). At present it is not clear how dietary antigens are absorbed. Most food staples, including those with common antigens such as peanuts, eggs, and milk, contain long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which stimulate m...

  6. Evaluation of the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis for delivery of Mycobacterium T cell antigen ESAT-6 into cytosol of antigen presenting cells to elicit effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis to deliver genetically fused ESAT-6 (early secretory antigen target), a potent T cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, into cytosol to elicit Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. In vitro Th1 cytokines data and CTL assay proved that efficient delivery of LFn.ESAT-6 occurs in cytosol, in the presence of protective antigen (PA), and leads to generation of effective CTL response. Since CTL response is essential for protection against intracellular pathogens and, it is well known that only single T cell epitope or single antigenic protein is not sufficient to elicit protective CTL response due to variation or polymorphism in MHC-I alleles among the individuals, we suggest that as a fusion protein LFn can be used to deliver multiepitopes of T cells or multiproteins which can generate effective CTLs against intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis. It can be used to enhance the protective efficacy of BCG vaccine

  7. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system. PMID:19209604

  8. NIOSOMES: A ROLE IN TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles inclosing an aqueous phase and a wide range of molecules could be encapsulated within aqueous spaces of lipid membrane vesicles. They are microscopic lamellar structures formed on the admixture of a non-ionic surfactant, cholesterol and phosphate with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. Niosomes belongs to novel drug delivery system which offers a large number of advantages over other conventional and vesicular delivery systems. Namely they are the targeted drug delivery system which showing reduction of dose, stability and compatibility of non-ionic surfactants, easy modification, delayed clearance, suitability for a wide range of Active Pharmaceutical Agents.

  9. FLOATING MULTI-PARTICULATE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimini Manish; Joshi Vishalkumar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review on floating drug delivery systems is the recent literature with mechanism to achieve gastric retention by floatation. Gastroretentive drug delivery system have advantages besides providing better bioavailability to poorly absorbed drugs and a required release profile thus attracting interest of pharmaceutical formulation. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form. The objectives of the review disc...

  10. THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Amit; Sharma Sharad; Ajazuddin,; Khan Mohammed Junaid; Swarna

    2011-01-01

    Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of...

  11. A mechanical valve assembly for xenon 133 gas delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some gas delivery systems used in pulmonary ventilation scanning are unable to satisfactorily supply 133Xe gas to bed-ridden patients. A mechanical gas valve assembly to control the flow of gas in such systems was constructed. A commercially produced 133Xe gas delivery system when fitted with the new assembly was able to ventilate almost all patients whereas previously this could be achieved with approximately only 50% of patients

  12. Subunit Protein Vaccine Delivery System for Tuberculosis Based on Hepatitis B Virus Core VLP (HBc-VLP) Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasooraj, Dhananjayan; Kumar, R Ajay; Mundayoor, Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of modern medicine, tuberculosis (TB), caused by the pathogenic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the deadliest diseases. This bacterium can lay dormant in individuals and get activated when immunity goes down and has also shown considerable prowess in mutating into drug resistant forms. The global emergence of such drug resistant Mtb and the lack of efficacy of Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available so far, have resulted in a situation which cries out for a safe and effective tuberculosis vaccine.Number of different strategies has been used for developing new anti-TB vaccines and several protective antigens have been identified so far. One strategy, the use of protein subunits, has the potential to develop into a powerful tuberculosis vaccine, not only because of its efficacy and safety, but also because they are economical. The proper delivery of protein subunit vaccines with adjuvants or novel delivery systems is necessary for inducing protective immune responses. The available adjuvants or delivery systems are inadequate for generating such a response. In the present method, we have constructed a vaccine delivery system for tuberculosis based on Virus-Like Particles (VLPs). Hepatitis B Virus core antigen gene was recombinantly modified using Overlap Extension PCR (OEPCR). The final construct was designed to express HBc-VLP carrying external antigen (fusion VLP). Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen CFP-10 was used for the construction of fusion VLP. The recombinant gene for the construct was cloned into a pET expression system and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and induced with IPTG to express the protein. The fusion protein was purified using the Histidine tag and allowed to form VLPs. The preformed VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The VLPs were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). PMID:27076312

  13. OSMOTIC PUMP DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmir Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drug delivery systems have little control over their drug release and almost no control over the effective concentration at the target site. The major problem associated with conventional drug delivery system is unpredictable plasma concentrations. Controlled drug delivery systems offer spatial control over the drug release. Osmotic pumps are most promising systems for controlled drug delivery. These systems are used for both oral administration and implantation. The present review is concerned with the study of drug release systems which are tablets coated with walls of controlled porosity. . Osmotic pump uses the basic principle of osmosis for release of drug(s. Osmotic pumps consist of an inner core containing drug and osmogens, coated with a semi permeable membrane. As the core absorbs water, it expands in volume, which pushes the drug solution out through the delivery ports. Osmotic pumps release drug at a rate that is independent of the pH and hydrodynamics of the dissolution medium. Various patents available for osmotic drug delivery system like Rose-Nelson pump, Higuchi-leeper pump, higuchi-theeuwes pump and elementary osmotic pump. In this paper, various types of osmotic pump and the basic components of  osmotic system tablets have been discussed briefly. Keywords: Osmosis, component of osmotic system, Osmotic pump

  14. REVIEW ON FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN APPROACH TO ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY VIA GASTRIC RETENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam Shashikant M; Kadam.S.R; Patil.U.S; Ratan G N; Jamkandi.V.G.

    2011-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with many important drugs. Several approaches are currently utilized in prolongation of gastric residence time, including floating drug delivery system, swelling and expanding system, polymeric bioadhesive system, modified shape system, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices. However, the development processes are faced with several physiological difficulties such as the inability to res...

  15. Drug delivery systems in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Oudot, Emilie J M; Baird, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of biologically active agents to animals is often perceived to be the poor relation of human drug delivery. Yet this field has a long and successful history of species-specific device and formulation development, ranging from simple approaches and devices used in production animals to more sophisticated formulations and approaches for a wide range of species. While several technologies using biodegradable polymers have been successfully marketed in a range of veterinary and human products, the transfer of delivery technologies has not been similarly applied across species. This may be due to a combination of specific technical requirements for use of devices in different species, inter-species pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physiological differences, and distinct market drivers for drug classes used in companion and food-producing animals. This chapter reviews selected commercialised and research-based parenteral and non-parenteral veterinary drug delivery technologies in selected domestic species. Emphasis is also placed on the impact of endogenous drug transporters on drug distribution characteristics in different species. In vitro models used to investigate carrier-dependent transport are reviewed. Species-specific expression of transporters in several tissues can account for inter-animal or inter-species pharmacokinetic variability, lack of predictability of drug efficacy, and potential drug-drug interactions. PMID:20204584

  16. Microneedles As a Delivery System for Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Shi, De; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery systems can be divided to two major types: vector-based (either viral vector or non-viral vector) and physical delivery technologies. Many physical carriers, such as electroporation, gene gun, ultrasound start to be proved to have the potential to enable gene therapy. A relatively new physical delivery technology for gene delivery consists of microneedles (MNs), which has been studied in many fields and for many molecule types and indications. Microneedles can penetrate the stratum corneum, which is the main barrier for drug delivery through the skin with ease of administration and without significant pain. Many different kinds of MNs, such as metal MNs, coated MNs, dissolving MNs have turned out to be promising in gene delivery. In this review, we discussed the potential as well as the challenges of utilizing MNs to deliver nucleic acids for gene therapy. We also proposed that a combination of MNs and other gene delivery approaches may lead to a better delivery system for gene therapy. PMID:27303298

  17. An efficient fusion protein system for expression ofBacillus anthracis protective antigen as immunogenic and diagnostic antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid Bagheri; Hossein Motamedi; Masoud Reza Seifiabad Shapouri

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To produce high quantities of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) for human vaccine and diagnosis.Methods: ThePAgene was amplified byPCR with pXO1 plasmid as template. ThePCR product was cloned into pMAL-c2X vector using theBamHI andSalI restriction enzymes. The recombinant plasmid was transformed intoEscherichia coliDH5α strain and then screened for transformation. The expression of protective antigen was analyzed bySDS-PAGE and Western blotting after isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG) induction.Results:The full-length PA gene (2.2kb) was cloned into pMAL vector system. The recombinant vector was confirmed by restriction enzyme andPCRanalysis. The expression of cytoplasmic maltose-binding protein-protective (MBP-P) antigen fusion protein was detected bySDS-PAGE and Western blotting, and obtained a125 kDa protein band, which was similar to expected size of fusion protein.Conclusions: This expression system can be used in the high production of rPA. After purification and immunization studies, the purified rPA may be used in the development of the human recombinant anthrax vaccine and also in diagnosis of anthrax disease.

  18. Video Delivery Performance of a Large-Scale VoD System and the Implications on Content Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhenyu; Wu, Qinghua; Salamatian, Kavé; Xie, Gaogang

    2015-01-01

    Video delivery performance is the main factor that affects Internet video quality. Characterizing the video delivery performance, especially the delivery throughput, can help content providers as well as Internet service providers (ISPs) in system optimization and network planning. Based on a unique dataset consisting of 20 million video download speed measurements , this paper comprehensively studies the video delivery throughput of a large-scale commercial video-on- demand (VoD) system. We ...

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahoti S.R.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The reason of writing this research article on gastro retentive drug delivery systems was to gather the recent literature with special focus on various gastro retentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery. In order to identify with various physiological difficulties to achieve gastric retention, we have summarized important factors controlling gastric retention. Afterwards, we have reviewed various gastro retentive approaches designed and developed until now, i.e. microspheres, microcapsules, floating gel beads, floating matrix tablets and in-situ gel, with advantages and limitations of gastro retentive drug delivery systems in detail.

  20. Healthcare Delivery Systems at Higher Educational Institutions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Chintaman Yeravdekar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The collective responses obtained could provide the basis for a policy formulation. The policy formulation in turn could be the basis of a national consensus for health care delivery systems operational at higher educational institutions in India.

  1. Thermosensitive release systems for image guided local drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Elk, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized drug delivery systems are developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy and to reduce unwanted side effects of existing drugs as well as drug candidates. Liposomes are the most intensively studied drug delivery systems and a number of studies showed that encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX) in liposomes resulted in an increased therapeutic index particularly due to a significant reduction in unwanted side effects. Nevertheless, the concentration of free drug in the tumor is relatively...

  2. SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: HITHERTO AND RECENT ADVANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Taksande Jayshree B; Trivedi Rashmi V; Mahore Jayashri G; Wadher Kamlesh J; Umekar Milind J.

    2011-01-01

    Oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs creates critical problem for their formulation as 35- 40% of new active pharmaceutical ingredients have poor water solubility and frequently associated with low bioavailability. Recently much attention has been given to lipid-based formulation with particular emphasis on self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability. These can exist in either liquid or solid states. Self-emulsifying system formulation mainly depen...

  3. Improving oral healthcare delivery systems through workforce innovations: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, Elizabeth A.; Finocchio, Len

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the purpose, rationale and key elements of the special issue, Improving Oral Healthcare Delivery Systems through Workforce Innovations. The purpose of the special issue is to further develop ideas presented at the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) workshop, Sufficiency of the U.S. Oral Health Workforce in the Coming Decade. Using the IOM discussions as their starting point, the authors evaluate oral health care delivery system performance for specific...

  4. A REVIEW ON FLOATING TYPE GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Pal; Vijay Sharma; Lalit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Oral controlled release delivery systems are programmed to deliver the drug in predictable time frame that will increase the efficacy and minimize the adverse effects and increase the bioavailability of drugs. Oral route is considered mostnatural, uncomplicated, convenient and safe due to its ease of administration, patient acceptance, and cost-effective manufacturing process.Floating Drug delivery system are designed to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration, at particu...

  5. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    OpenAIRE

    Reshmy Rajan; Shoma Jose; V P Biju Mukund; Deepa T Vasudevan

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes a...

  6. Customer participation in service production and delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Sridhar

    1998-01-01

    Highlights significance of designing service delivery system, explains the integral role of customer in service production process, stresses the importance of customer-organisation interface, lists important ingredients of service package to be considered while designing customer interface, enumerates various dimensions of customer interface which can be positively made use of in design of service production and delivery system, discusses various ways and means of inducing and enhancing custo...

  7. SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Tayal Ayushi; Jamil Faraz; Sharma Ritika; Sharma Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    Oral route still remains the favorite route of drug administration in many diseases and till today it is the first wayinvestigated in the development of new dosage forms. Approximately 40 per cent of new drug candidates have poor water solubility and the oral delivery ofsuch drugs is frequently associated with implications of low bioavailability, high intra and inter-subjectvariability, and lack of dose proportionality. Bioavailability problem of lipophillic drugs can be solved byformation of...

  8. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with GRAS status. Iota-carrageen and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compound, res...

  9. Cyclodextrin-based gene delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José M.; Benito, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclodextrin (CD) history has been largely dominated by their unique ability to form inclusion complexes with guests fitting in their hydrophobic cavity. Chemical funcionalization was soon recognized as a powerful mean for improving CD applications in a wide range of fields, including drug delivery, sensing or enzyme mimicking. However, 100 years after their discovery, CDs are still perceived as novel nanoobjects of undeveloped potential. This critical review provides an overview of different...

  10. In vivo efficacy and toxicity evaluation of polycaprolactone nanoparticles and aluminum based admixture formulation as vaccine delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj; Bhardwaj, Arun; Brahmne, H G; Singh, Harpal

    2015-10-13

    Delivery of antigen through admixture formulation containing poly caprolactone (PCL) and aluminum phosphate was studied as a promising strategy to generate antigen specific immune response. The present study demonstrates the synergistic effect of admixture formulation of PCL with reduced aluminum (PCL-Al 0.2 mg-TT and PCL-PEG-Al 0.2 mg-TT) as a potential adjuvant system using tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen. On evaluation of the magnitude of efficacy for the proposed formulation by ELISA as well as challenge method, persistent and strong antibody response was obtained throughout the 180 day study period on storage at 5 ± 3 °C. In comparison to the aluminum phosphate based conventional tetanus vaccine, higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were obtained with PCL-Al 0.2 mg-TT and PCL-PEG-Al 0.2 mg-TT, indicating the presence of cell mediated as well as humoral immune responses. Histopathology and serum biochemistry profile in mice further indicated the suitability of the proposed formulation. Percent adsorption/encapsulation of the antigen also increased to nearly 95% in the admixture formulation compared to 55% adsorption in the conventional tetanus vaccine. The present study established a useful baseline for designing biocompatible and effective delivery system for toxoid vaccines through judicious use of PCL based biodegradable nanoparticles in combination with aluminum phosphate. PMID:26343498

  11. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen conce...

  12. Recent Advances In Ndds (Nov el Drug Delivery System For Delivery Of Anti- Hypertensive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vikas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel drug delivery systems present an opportunity for formulation scientists to overcome the many challenges associated with antihypertensive drug therapy, thereby improving the management of patients with hypertension. Currently available Anti-hypertensive drugs can be classified into these categories: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin antagonist, calcium channel blocker, diuretics, central sympathomimetics, á- adernergic blocker, vasodilator, â-adernergic blocker. Most of these drugs bear some significant drawbacks such as relatively short half-life, low bioavailability, poor permeability and undesirable side effects. Efforts have been made to design drug delivery systems for anti hypertensive drugs to: a reduce the dosing frequency, b increase the bioavailability, c deliver them to the target cells selectively with minimal side effects. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the various anti hypertensive drug delivery systems that have been developed for achieving sustained drug release kinetics, and for addressing formulation difficulties such as poor solubility, stability and drug entrapment. The physicochemical properties and the in vitro/in vivo performances of various system such as such as sustained release tablets, ceramic implants, nanoparticles, nanocontainers, liposomes, emulsomes, aspasomes, microemulsions, nanopowders and PheroidTM are summarised. This review highlights the significant potential that novel drug delivery systems have for the future effective treatment of hypertensive patients on anti-hypertensive drug therapy.

  13. Simulation model for the WIPP transportation and delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation modelling is a powerful analysis tool used to evaluate complex systems or processes. The modeling concept was utilized to evaluate the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation and delivery system. The model will assist in analyzing the responsiveness of the components in the system to the variations in waste generation schedule, system failures, and material handling options. (author)

  14. In situ delivery of tumor antigen- and adjuvant-loaded liposomes boosts antigen-apecific T-Cell responses by human dermal dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, M.A.; Bruijns, Sven C.M.; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; Bloois, van Louis; Storm, G.; Gruijl, de T.D.; Kooyk, van Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in tumor control via the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses and are therefore an ideal target for immunotherapy. The human skin is an attractive site for tumor vaccination as it contains various DC subsets. The simultaneous delivery of tumor ant

  15. In situ Delivery of Tumor Antigen- and Adjuvant-Loaded Liposomes Boosts Antigen-Specific T-Cell Responses by Human Dermal Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Martine A.; Bruijns, Sven C M; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; Van Bloois, Louis; Storm, G; De Gruijl, Tanja; Van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in tumor control via the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses and are therefore an ideal target for immunotherapy. The human skin is an attractive site for tumor vaccination as it contains various DC subsets. The simultaneous delivery of tumor ant

  16. A REVIEW ON PARENTERAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Agrawal et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The parenteral administration route is the most effective and common form of delivery for active drug substances with poor bioavailability and the drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Drug delivery technology that can reduce the total number of injection throughout the drug therapy period will be truly advantageous not only in terms of compliance, but also to improve the quality of the therapy and also may reduce the dosage frequency. Such reduction in frequency of drug dosing is achieved by the use of specific formulation technologies that guarantee the release of the active drug substance in a slow and predictable manner. The development of new injectable drug delivery system has received considerable attention over the past few years. A number of technological advances have been made in the area of parenteral drug delivery leading to the development of sophisticated systems that allow drug targeting and the sustained or controlled release of parenteral medicines.

  17. Lineage-specific T cell responses to cancer mucosa antigen oppose systemic metastases without mucosal inflammatory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Snook, Adam E.; Li, Peng; Stafford, Benjamin J.; Elizabeth J. Faul; Huang, Lan; Birbe, Ruth C; Bombonati, Alessandro; Schulz, Stephanie; Schnell, Matthias J.; Eisenlohr, Laurence C.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer mucosa antigens comprise an emerging category of self-antigens expressed normally in immunologically privileged mucosal compartments and universally by their derivative tumors (1, 2). These antigens leverage the established immunological partitioning of systemic and mucosal compartments (3, 4), limiting tolerance opposing systemic antitumor efficacy (5). An unresolved issue surrounding self-antigens as immunotherapeutic targets is autoimmunity following systemic immunization (6-8). In ...

  18. AN OVERVIEW OF GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoti S.R.; Syed Iftequar; Sabina M; Dehghan M.H.; Shoaib S; Mohiuddin S

    2011-01-01

    The reason of writing this research article on gastro retentive drug delivery systems was to gather the recent literature with special focus on various gastro retentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery. In order to identify with various physiological difficulties to achieve gastric retention, we have summarized important factors controlling gastric retention. Afterwards, we have review...

  19. ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Modi Kushal; Modi Monali; Mishra Durgavati; Panchal Mittal; Sorathiya Umesh; Shelat Pragna

    2013-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is the most preferred and convenient option as the oral route provides maximum active surface area among all drug delivery system for administration of various drugs. The attractiveness of these dosage forms is due to awareness to toxicity and ineffectiveness of drugs when administered by oral conventional method in the form of tablets and capsules. Usually conventional dosage form produces wide range of fluctuation in drug concentration in the bloodstream and tissues with ...

  20. Multiparticulate system for colon targeted delivery of ondansetron

    OpenAIRE

    Jose S; Dhanya K; Cinu T; Aleykutty N

    2010-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs to colon has the potential for local treatment of a variety of colonic diseases. The main objective of the study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing chitosan microspheres for the colon targeted delivery of ondansetron for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. This work combines pH-dependent solubility of eudragit S-100 polymers and microbial degradability of chitosan polymers. Chitosan microspheres containing ondansetron were prepared by emulsio...

  1. Albumin-based nanocomposite spheres for advanced drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, Heath E; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Gopu, Janani S; Man, Ka-Poh; Zacharias, Nora M; Wooley, Paul H; Yang, Shang-You

    2014-01-01

    A novel drug delivery system incorporating human serum albumin, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, magnetite nanoparticles, and therapeutic agent(s) was developed for potential application in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and skin cancer. An oil-in-oil emulsion/solvent evaporation (O/OSE) method was modified to produce a drug delivery system with a diameter of 0.5–2 μm. The diameter was mainly controlled by adjusting the viscosity of albumin in the discontinuous phase of the O/OSE method. The drug-release study showed that the release of drug and albumin was mostly dependent on the albumin content of the drug delivery system, which is very similar to the drug occlusion-mesopore model. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that increasing the albumin content in the drug delivery system increased cell viability, possibly due to the improved biocompatibility of the system. Overall, these studies show that the proposed system could be a viable option as a drug delivery system in the treatment of many illnesses, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and skin and breast cancers. PMID:24106002

  2. In vivo evaluation of self emulsifying drug delivery system for oral delivery of nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Chudasama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevirapine is a highly lipophilic and water insoluble non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Lymphoid tissue constitutes the major reservoir of HIV virus and infected cells in HIV-infected patients. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system, using long chain triglycerides, is a popular carrier of drugs due to their ability to transport lipophilic drugs into the lymphatic circulation. However, HIV/AIDS patients experience a variety of functional and anatomical abnormalities in gastrointestinal tract that result in diarrhoea and nutrient malabsorption. Medium chain triglycerides are readily absorbed from the small bowel under conditions in which the absorption of long chain triglycerides is impaired. Therefore, nevirapine self-emulsifying drug delivery system containing medium chain fatty acid, caprylic acid and a solubilizer, Soluphor ® P (2-pyrrolidone was developed and found to be superior to the marketed conventional suspension with respect to in vitro diffusion and ex vivo intestinal permeability. This self-emulsifying drug delivery system has now been further investigated for in vivo absorption in an animal model. The contribution of caprylic acid and Soluphor ® P on in vivo absorption of nevirapine was also studied in the present study. The bioavailability of nevirapine from self-emulsifying drug delivery system, after oral administration, was 2.69 times higher than that of the marketed suspension. The improved bioavailability could be due to absorption of nevirapine via both portal and intestinal lymphatic routes. The study indicates that medium chain or structured triglycerides can be a better option to develop self-emulsifying drug delivery system for lipophilic and extensively metabolised drugs like nevirapine for patients with AIDS-associated malabsorption.

  3. In vivo Evaluation of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Delivery of Nevirapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, A S; Patel, V V; Nivsarkar, M; Vasu, Kamala K; Shishoo, C J

    2014-05-01

    Nevirapine is a highly lipophilic and water insoluble non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Lymphoid tissue constitutes the major reservoir of HIV virus and infected cells in HIV-infected patients. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system, using long chain triglycerides, is a popular carrier of drugs due to their ability to transport lipophilic drugs into the lymphatic circulation. However, HIV/AIDS patients experience a variety of functional and anatomical abnormalities in gastrointestinal tract that result in diarrhoea and nutrient malabsorption. Medium chain triglycerides are readily absorbed from the small bowel under conditions in which the absorption of long chain triglycerides is impaired. Therefore, nevirapine self-emulsifying drug delivery system containing medium chain fatty acid, caprylic acid and a solubilizer, Soluphor(®) P (2-pyrrolidone) was developed and found to be superior to the marketed conventional suspension with respect to in vitro diffusion and ex vivo intestinal permeability. This self-emulsifying drug delivery system has now been further investigated for in vivo absorption in an animal model. The contribution of caprylic acid and Soluphor(®) P on in vivo absorption of nevirapine was also studied in the present study. The bioavailability of nevirapine from self-emulsifying drug delivery system, after oral administration, was 2.69 times higher than that of the marketed suspension. The improved bioavailability could be due to absorption of nevirapine via both portal and intestinal lymphatic routes. The study indicates that medium chain or structured triglycerides can be a better option to develop self-emulsifying drug delivery system for lipophilic and extensively metabolised drugs like nevirapine for patients with AIDS-associated malabsorption. PMID:25035533

  4. PROBIOTIC DELIVERY SYSTEMS: APPLICATIONS, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Nisha R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic are bacteria that help to maintain the natural balance of the microorganism in the intestine. Probiotic is gaining its popularity as an alternate approach for the healthcare management and till now has proofed its therapeutic indication in many simple to complex diseases. Diverse mechanism of action and being a living organism are two main advantages. However there are several drawbacks also associated with this new emerging therapeutic area. Probiotic strain identification, characterization, screening, understanding its mechanism of action for particular disease which is seeking much attention. The primary aim associated with the probiotic delivery is maintaining bacteria viability during product manufacturing and during storage. Several approaches such as microencapsulation and use of suitable biocompatible material have been studied and still under continuous exploration. Along with the regulatory aspect associated with the probiotics in this review details on current research in the area of exploring indication and advancement in delivery technologies has been covered. Review concluded with rational recommendations of each aspect of probiotics.

  5. Recent trends in protein and peptide drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of insulin in 1922, identification and commercialization of potential protein and peptide drugs have been increased. Since then, research and development to improve the means of delivering protein therapeutics to patients has begun. The research efforts have followed two basic pathways: One path focused on noninvasive means of delivering proteins to the body and the second path has been primarily aimed at increasing the biological half-life of the therapeutic molecules. The search for approaches that provide formulations that are stable, bioavailable, readily manufacturable, and acceptable to the patient, has led to major advances in the development of nasal and controlled release technology, applicable to every protein or peptide. In several limited cases, sustained delivery of peptides and proteins has employed the use of polymeric carriers. More successes have been achieved by chemical modification using amino acid substitutions, protein pegylation or glycosylation to improve the pharmacodynamic properties of certain macromolecules and various delivery systems have been developed like the prolease technology, nano-particulate and microparticulate delivery systems, and the mucoadhesive delivery of peptides. The needle and syringe remain the primary means of protein delivery. Major hurdles remain in order to overcome the combined natural barriers of drug permeability, drug stability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of protein therapeutics. In our present review we have tried to compile some recent advances in protein and peptide drug delivery systems.

  6. Waste feed delivery program systems engineering implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the systems engineering processes and products planned by the Waste Feed Delivery Program to develop the necessary and sufficient systems to provide waste feed to the Privatization Contractor for Phase 1. It defines roles and responsibilities for the performance of the systems engineering processes and generation of products

  7. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  8. Improving vaccine delivery using novel adjuvant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Adjuvants have been common additions to vaccines to help facilitate vaccine delivery. With advancements in vaccine technology, several adjuvants which activate immune specific responses have emerged. Available data show these adjuvants elicit important immune responses in both healthy and immunocompromised populations, as well as the elderly. Guidelines for the use and licensure of vaccine adjuvants remain under discussion. However, there is a greater understanding of the innate and adaptive immune response, and the realization of the need for immune specific adjuvants appears to be growing. This is a focused review of four adjuvants currently in clinical trial development: ASO4, ASO2A, CPG 7907, and GM-CSF. The vaccines including these adjuvants are highly relevant today, and are expected to reduce the disease burden of cervical cancer, hepatitis B and malaria. PMID:18398303

  9. Dendrimeric Systems and Their Applications in Ocular Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most attractive and challenging research area for pharmaceutical scientists and ophthalmologists. Absorption of an ophthalmic drug in conventional dosage forms is seriously limited by physiological conditions. The use of nonionic or ionic biodegradable polymers in aqueous solutions and colloidal dosage forms such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, microspheres, microcapsules, microemulsions, and dendrimers has been studied to overcome the problems mentioned above. Dendrimers are a new class of polymeric materials. The unique nanostructured architecture of dendrimers has been studied to examine their role in delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Dendrimers can enhance drug’s water solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility and can be applied for different routes of drug administration successfully. Permeability enhancer properties of dendrimers were also reported. The use of dendrimers can also reduce toxicity versus activity and following an appropriate application route they allow the delivery of the drug to the targeted site and provide desired pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, dendrimeric drug delivery systems are of interest in ocular drug delivery. In this review, the limitations related to eye’s unique structure, the advantages of dendrimers, and the potential applications of dendrimeric systems to ophthalmology including imaging, drug, peptide, and gene delivery will be discussed.

  10. Dendrimeric systems and their applications in ocular drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Burçin; Pehlivan, Sibel Bozdağ; Unlü, Nurşen

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most attractive and challenging research area for pharmaceutical scientists and ophthalmologists. Absorption of an ophthalmic drug in conventional dosage forms is seriously limited by physiological conditions. The use of nonionic or ionic biodegradable polymers in aqueous solutions and colloidal dosage forms such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, microspheres, microcapsules, microemulsions, and dendrimers has been studied to overcome the problems mentioned above. Dendrimers are a new class of polymeric materials. The unique nanostructured architecture of dendrimers has been studied to examine their role in delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Dendrimers can enhance drug's water solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility and can be applied for different routes of drug administration successfully. Permeability enhancer properties of dendrimers were also reported. The use of dendrimers can also reduce toxicity versus activity and following an appropriate application route they allow the delivery of the drug to the targeted site and provide desired pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, dendrimeric drug delivery systems are of interest in ocular drug delivery. In this review, the limitations related to eye's unique structure, the advantages of dendrimers, and the potential applications of dendrimeric systems to ophthalmology including imaging, drug, peptide, and gene delivery will be discussed. PMID:24396306

  11. Osmotically controlled drug delivery system with associated drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Brahma Prakash; Thakur, Navneet; Jain, Nishi P; Banweer, Jitendra; Jain, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Conventional drug delivery systems have slight control over their drug release and almost no control over the effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the controlled or modified release drug delivery systems. They include dosage forms for oral and transdermal administration as well as injectable and implantable systems. For most of drugs, oral route remains as the most acceptable route of administration. Certain molecules may have low oral bioavailability because of solubility or permeability limitations. Development of an extended release dosage form also requires reasonable absorption throughout the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Among the available techniques to improve the bioavailability of these drugs fabrication of osmotic drug delivery system is the most appropriate one. Osmotic drug delivery systems release the drug with the zero order kinetics which does not depend on the initial concentration and the physiological factors of GIT. This review brings out new technologies, fabrication and recent clinical research in osmotic drug delivery. PMID:21486532

  12. Oral tolerance originates in the intestinal immune system and relies on antigen carriage by dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Worbs, Tim; Bode, Ulrike; Yan, Sheng; Hoffmann, Matthias W.; Hintzen, Gabriele; Bernhardt, Günter; Förster, Reinhold; Pabst, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance induction is a key feature of intestinal immunity, generating systemic nonresponsiveness to ingested antigens. In this study, we report that orally applied soluble antigens are exclusively recognized in the intestinal immune system, particularly in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Consequently, the initiation of oral tolerance is impeded by mesenteric lymphadenectomy. Small bowel transplantation reveals that mesenteric lymph nodes require afferent lymph to accomplish the recognition...

  13. Antibodies to early EBV, CMV, and HHV6 antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N S; Draborg, A H; Nielsen, C T;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the antibody levels against early antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls, and further correlated these antibodies to haematology/biochemistry, serol......OBJECTIVES: We investigated the antibody levels against early antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls, and further correlated these antibodies to haematology...

  14. Polymers used in ocular dosage form and drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagh Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical application of drugs to the eye is most popular and well-accepted route of administration for the treatment of various eye disorders. A variety of ocular dosage form and drug delivery systems, including a controlled release of the drug, drug targeting, and penetration enhancement of the drug, have been investigated. Polymers have been widely used as the drug carrier for controlled-release systems. Polymers release the drug as they themselves degrade and are sometimes finally absorbed within the body. In this article, several ocular drug delivery systems have discussed using different kinds of polymers and their acceptance over conventional.

  15. Current status of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: Application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies are currently investigating the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent various infectious diseases. Multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems have been developed to avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional vaccines (i.e., live-attenuated, killed or inactivated pathogens, carrier proteins and cytotoxic adjuvants. Recently, two main approaches have been used to develop multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: (1 the addition of functional components, e.g., T-cell epitopes, cell-penetrating peptides, and lipophilic moieties; and (2 synthetic approaches using size-defined nanomaterials, e.g., self-assembling peptides, non-peptidic dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles, as antigen-displaying platforms. This review summarizes the recent experimental studies directed to the development of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems.

  16. Flexible power delivery system and its intelligent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some of the features and capabilities of the novel energy distribution system called FRIENDS. The main FRIENDS objective is distribution system reliability, with flexible system structure reconfiguration, inclusion of dispersed energy generation systems. Altogether, it represents a new concept of reliable and economic electric power delivery to end users. The FRIENDS project is a challenge for future research and development, including new technology and devices for the implementation of such an integrated system. (author)

  17. Niosomes: a controlled and novel drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajera, Rampal; Nagpal, Kalpana; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade formulation of vesicles as a tool to improve drug delivery, has created a lot of interest amongst the scientist working in the area of drug delivery systems. Vesicular system such as liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, pharmacosomes and ethosomes provide an alternative to improve the drug delivery. Niosomes play an important role owing to their nonionic properties, in such drug delivery system. Design and development of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) has two prerequisites. First, it should deliver the drug in accordance with a predetermined rate and second it should release therapeutically effective amount of drug at the site of action. Conventional dosage forms are unable to meet these requisites. Niosomes are essentially non-ionic surfactant based multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles in which an aqueous solution of solute is entirely enclosed by a membrane resulting from the organization of surfactant macromolecules as bilayer. Niosomes are formed on hydration of non-ionic surfactant film which eventually hydrates imbibing or encapsulating the hydrating aqueous solution. The main aim of development of niosomes is to control the release of drug in a sustained way, modification of distribution profile of drug and for targeting the drug to the specific body site. This paper deals with composition, characterization/evaluation, merits, demerits and applications of niosomes. PMID:21719996

  18. Tolerability of Two Sequential Electroporation Treatments Using MedPulser DNA Delivery System (DDS) in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Mark; Evans, Barbara; Woods, Sandra; Mogg, Robin; Zhang, Lei; Finnefrock, Adam C.; Rabussay, Dietmar; Fons, Michael; Mallee, John; Mehrotra, Devan; Schödel, Florian; Musey, Luwy

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy against infectious agents and malignant tumors requires efficient priming of effector cells through direct expression and/or efficient cross-presentation of antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Electroporation is a new procedure aimed at transiently increasing cell membrane permeability and direct delivery of antigen or antigen-encoding nucleic acids inside targeted cells. We evaluated the tolerability including compliance with repeated electroporation treatments using MedPulse...

  19. Structure analysis and performance measurement of Chinese health delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although evidence has already demonstrated that the performance of Health Delivery System (HDS) varies widely across nations, relatively little is known about the factors that give rise to these variations and the key point to improve the performance besides adjusting system structure. By setup of HDS performance measurement system on the base of association of financial, social, and environmental characteristics, we construct system dynamic model of HDS to simulate the invention policies. Methods:Performance measures were collected from HDS in 31 regions of China and combined with secondary data sources. Multivariate, linear, nonlinear regression and factor analysis models were used to estimate associations between system characteristics and the performance. Results: Performance varied significantly with the size, financial resources and organizational structure of HDS. Performance measurement system of health delivery system was developed to give the rank of all Chinese regions. Conclusion: Performance measurement system of HDS is the basic of HDS modeling by system dynamic.

  20. Engaging Faculty in Telecommunications-Based Instructional Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalec, John J.

    In the design and development of telecommunications-based instructional delivery systems, attention to faculty involvement and training is often overlooked until the system is operational. The Waubonsee Telecommunications Instructional Consortium (TIC), in Illinois, is one network that benefited from early faculty input. Even before the first…

  1. An epitope delivery system for use with recombinant mycobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetzel, C.; Janssen, R.; Ely, S.J.; Kristensen, N.M.; Bunting, K.; Cooper, J.B.; Lamb, J.R.; Young, D.B.; Thole, J.E.R.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a novel epitope delivery system based on the insertion of peptides within a permissive loop of a bacterial superoxide dismutase molecule. This system allowed high-level expression of heterologous peptides in two mycobacterial vaccine strains, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette- G

  2. Pulsatile Drug Delivery System Based on Electrohydrodynamic Method

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi; Hu, Junqiang; Gao, Wenle

    2012-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) generation, a commonly used method in BioMEMS, plays a significant role in the pulsatile drug delivery system for a decade. In this paper, an EHD based drug delivery system is well designed, which can be used to generate a single drug droplet as small as 2.83 nL in 8.5 ms with a total device of 2\\times2\\times3 mm^3, and an external supplied voltage of 1500 V. Theoretically, we derive the expressions for the size and the formation time of a droplet generated by EHD method, while taking into account the drug supply rate, properties of liquid, gap between two electrodes, nozzle size, and charged droplet neutralization. This work proves a repeatable, stable and controllable droplet generation and delivery system based on EHD method experimentally as well as theoretically.

  3. MULTIPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: PELLETIZATION THROUGH EXTRUSION AND SPHERONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuli Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. Recent trends indicate that multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release patterns as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. Pelletization is a technique used to prepare fine powders into pellets used as multiparticulate drug delivery systems. There are different pelletization techniques used to prepare pellets. Extrusion and spheronization is one of them used to prepare pellets drug loaded beads/pellets for extended release or sustained release oral formulations such as tablets and capsules.

  4. Safety design integrated in the building delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    In construction, it is important to view safety and health as an integrated part of the way that “designers” are working. The designers cowers architects, constructors, engineers and others who carry out their consulting services in the design phase of a construction project. The philosophy....... The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design phases integrated in the management delivery systems within construction, The method for the research was to go through the building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what, when...... and how to fully integrate safety in each part of the process. The result is a concept and guideline including control forms for how to integrate safety design in the Building Delivery System plus what to do and when. The concept has been tested in an educational context. The practical value...

  5. Safety design integrated in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    It is important to see safety and health in construction as an integrated part of the way in which designers, architects, constructors, engineers and others carry out their consulting services. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design...... phases of the building delivery system by using the principle of the lean construction modelling. The method for the research was to go through the lean construction building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what to do, when to do and how to do to fully integration...... and the consultants. The result is a concept and guideline including control schemes for how to integrate safety design in the lean construction building delivery system including what to do and when. The concept has been tested in an educational context and found useful by the designers. The practical value...

  6. Biologically erodable microspheres as potential oral drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowitz, Edith; Jacob, Jules S.; Jong, Yong S.; Carino, Gerardo P.; Chickering, Donald E.; Chaturvedi, Pravin; Santos, Camilla A.; Vijayaraghavan, Kavita; Montgomery, Sean; Bassett, Michael; Morrell, Craig

    1997-03-01

    Biologically adhesive delivery systems offer important advantages1-5 over conventional drug delivery systems6. Here we show that engineered polymer microspheres made of biologically erodable polymers, which display strong adhesive interactions with gastrointestinal mucus and cellular linings, can traverse both the mucosal absorptive epithelium and the follicle-associated epithelium covering the lymphoid tissue of Peyer's patches. The polymers maintain contact with intestinal epithelium for extended periods of time and actually penetrate it, through and between cells. Thus, once loaded with compounds of pharmacological interest, the microspheres could be developed as delivery systems to transfer biologically active molecules to the circulation. We show that these microspheres increase the absorption of three model substances of widely different molecular size: dicumarol, insulin and plasmid DNA.

  7. Engineering Stent Based Delivery System for Esophageal Cancer Using Docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Mohsin; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Knott, Robert; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal cancer patients are often diagnosed as "advanced" cases. These patients are subjected to palliative stenting using self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) to maintain oral alimentation. Unfortunately, SEMS get reoccluded due to tumor growth, in and over the stent struts. To investigate potential solutions to this problem, docetaxel (DTX) delivery films were prepared using PurSil AL 20 (PUS), which can be used as a covering material for the SEMS. Drug-polymer miscibility and interactions were studied. Bilayer films were prepared by adhering the blank film to the DTX loaded film in order to maintain the unidirectional delivery to the esophagus. In vitro release and the local DTX delivery were studied using in vitro permeation experiments. It was found that DTX and PUS were physically and chemically compatible. The bilayer films exhibited sustained release (>30 days) and minimal DTX permeation through esophageal tissues in vitro. The rate-determining step for the DTX delivery was calculated. It was found that >0.9 fraction of rate control lies with the esophageal tissues, suggesting that DTX delivery can be sustained for longer periods compared to the in vitro release observed. Thus, the bilayer films can be developed as a localized sustained delivery system in combination with the stent. PMID:25936529

  8. Oral drug delivery systems comprising altered geometric configurations for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix(®) multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise(®), which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix(®) as well as "release modules assemblage", which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments. PMID:22312236

  9. Structure-dependent immunostimulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and their delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanagata N

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka HanagataNanotechnology Innovation Station, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, and Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs are recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 found in antigen-presenting cells and B cells and can activate the immune system. Using CpG ODNs as an adjuvant has been found to be effective for treating infectious diseases, cancers, and allergies. Because natural ODNs with only a phosphodiester backbone are easily degraded by nuclease (deoxyribonuclease [DNase] in serum, CpG ODNs with a phosphorothioate backbone have been studied for clinical application. CpG ODNs with a phosphorothioate backbone have raised concern regarding undesirable side effects; however, several CpG ODNs with only a phosphodiester backbone have been reported to be stable in serum and to show an immunostimulatory effect. In recent years, research has been conducted on delivery systems for CpG ODNs using nanoparticles (NPs. The advantages of NP-based delivery of CpG ODN include (1 it can protect CpG ODN from DNase, (2 it can retain CpG ODN inside the body for a long period of time, (3 it can improve the cellular uptake efficiency of CpG ODN, and (4 it can deliver CpG ODN to the target tissues. Because the target cells of CpG ODN are cells of the immune system and TLR9, the receptor of CpG ODN is localized in endolysosomes, CpG ODN delivery systems are required to have qualities different from other nucleic acid drugs such as antisense DNA and small interfering RNA. Studies until now have reported various NPs as carriers for CpG ODN delivery. This review presents DNase-resistant CpG ODNs with various structures and their immunostimulatory effects and also focuses on delivery systems of CpG ODNs that utilize NPs. Because CpG ODNs interact with TLR9 and activate both the innate and the adaptive immune

  10. H2T liquid hydrogen delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation provides a preliminary evaluation of the cost of delivering liquid hydrogen produced in Quebec to hydrogen fuelled cars in Germany. The presentation describes the chain of events regarding liquid hydrogen delivery, beginning with the production of hydrogen from an initial source of hydro power. Water passes through an electrolyzer where hydrogen is liquefied and then placed into a container which is transported to market via truck, rail or tanker. Once transported, the hydrogen fuel is made available for consumers at refueling stations. The paper lists the costs related to transportation with reference to safety rules, pure transportation costs, leasing fees for the containers, and permission of customs duties for the import of hydrogen and export of empty containers between Quebec and Germany. A graph depicting a typical refueling station in Germany and the refueling events per hour was presented. For safety reasons, refueling is performed by a refueling robot. A blueprint of safety and protection distances at a refueling station was also presented. tabs., figs

  11. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  12. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford's underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis

  13. Nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite for drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In drugs delivery system the incorporation of an inorganic nanophase in polymer matrix, i.e. production of an inorganic-organic nanocomposite is an attractive alternative to obtain a constant release rate for a prolonged time. This study was performed to obtain films of nanocomposites Chitosan/montmorillonite intercalation by the technique of solution in the proportions of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the feasibility of obtaining films of nanocomposites exfoliate. Among the suggested applications for films developed in this study includes them use for drugs delivery system. (author)

  14. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tianjing

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of lipophilic drug candidates in development in the pharmaceutical industry calls for advanced drug delivery systems with increased bioavailability less day-to-day and food-intake-dependent. Many of these drug candidates possess poor water solubility, so that their dissolution rate in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) limits their absorption following oral administration. In the past few decades, various lipid-based formulations have been investigated to enhance the bi...

  15. In vivo Evaluation of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Delivery of Nevirapine

    OpenAIRE

    Chudasama, A. S.; Patel, V. V.; Nivsarkar, M.; Kamala K Vasu; C. J. Shishoo

    2014-01-01

    Nevirapine is a highly lipophilic and water insoluble non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Lymphoid tissue constitutes the major reservoir of HIV virus and infected cells in HIV-infected patients. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system, using long chain triglycerides, is a popular carrier of drugs due to their ability to transport lipophilic drugs into the lymphatic circulation. However, HIV/AIDS patients experience a variety of functional a...

  16. Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Dhote, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Punit; Pradyumna K Mishra; Mahajan, Suresh C.; Mishra, Dinesh K.

    2011-01-01

    The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin o...

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Native Antigens for the Development of Brucellosis Antibody Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Bano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a highly infectious zoonotic disease and an economically important infection of humans and livestock with a worldwide distribution. The main mode of transmission of this disease to humans is through the consumption of infected milk, milk products, and uncooked or raw meat. The present study was designed to prepare few native antigens, that is, sonicated antigen (SA, cell envelope (CE antigen, and freeze and thaw (FT antigen from Brucella abortus S99 culture and to test them in a highly sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA in both a microtiter plate and a dot-blot format for the development of field-based diagnosis. All 50 suspected bovine samples were tested by plate as well as in dot ELISA formats for all the three antigens prepared. The CE antigen was found to be more suitable as it had the maximum agreement with the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test results followed by the SA and the least agreement was found with that of the FT antigen. This detection system in microtiter plates and a dot-blot format will be useful for the rapid screening of samples for the disease surveillance and routine diagnosis.

  18. Advanced Drug Delivery Systems - a Synthetic and Biological Applied Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lise Nørkjær

    Specific delivery of drugs to diseased sites in the body is a major topic in the development of drug delivery system today. Especially, the field of cancer treatment needs improved drug delivery systems as the strong dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy today often present a barrier for an...... unloading of the encapsulated drug have been tried optimized in a variety of ways. Many propose the use of small molecules, such as vitamins and peptides, for active targeting of the liposomes to overexpressed receptors on the cancerous tissue. Once located close to the diseased site a trigger mechanism for...... function as the targeting moiety on the surface of the liposomes. Several examples of synthetic procedures known from the literature are presented. The chapter is completed with a study covering the conjugation efficiencies of a variety of chemical functionalities. Large differences are revealed between...

  19. Micro and nanoparticle drug delivery systems for preventing allotransplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James D; Acharya, Abhinav P; Little, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Despite decades of advances in transplant immunology, tissue damage caused by acute allograft rejection remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the transplant recipient. Moreover, the long-term sequelae of lifelong immunosuppression leaves patients at risk for developing a host of other deleterious conditions. Controlled drug delivery using micro- and nanoparticles (MNPs) is an effective way to deliver higher local doses of a given drug to specific tissues and cells while mitigating systemic effects. Herein, we review several descriptions of MNP immunotherapies aimed at prolonging allograft survival. We also discuss developments in the field of biomimetic drug delivery that use MNP constructs to induce and recruit our bodies' own suppressive immune cells. Finally, we comment on the regulatory pathway associated with these drug delivery systems. Collectively, it is our hope the studies described in this review will help to usher in a new era of immunotherapy in organ transplantation. PMID:25937032

  20. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-04-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems' researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We've reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  1. Smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering traceable drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tang, Yonghong; Dai, Sheng; Kleitz, Freddy; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells.A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03869g

  2. New perspectives on lipid and surfactant based drug delivery systems for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllertz, Anette; Ogbonna, Anayo; Ren, Shan;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight relevant considerations when implementing a rational strategy for the development of lipid and surfactant based drug delivery system and to discuss shortcomings and challenges to the current classification of these delivery systems. We also aim to offer...

  3. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  4. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V P Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T

    2011-07-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the immobilization plant for processing. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for all Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and AZ Tank Farms

  6. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  7. Printing technologies in fabrication of drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Viitala, Tapani; Ihalainen, Petri; Genina, Natalja; Peltonen, Jouko; Sandler, Niklas

    INTRODUCTION: There has been increased activity in the field recently regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in fabrication of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. These technologies may offer benefits and flexibility in manufacturing, potentially paving the way...... for personalized dosing and tailor-made dosage forms.\

  8. Strategies for Instructors Using Electronic Instruction Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Presents strategies needed by instructors changing to electronic instruction delivery systems in higher education. Topics include developing pedagogical goals, including interactive learning; organization and hierarchy of course content; communications skills; making students feel welcome; fostering student-to-student collaboration; providing…

  9. Modification of microbial polyacids for drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz Landázuri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are becoming preferred materials in biomedical applications because of their vast diversity of properties, functionalities and applications. Properties as mechanical strength, stability against degradation, biocompatibility and biodegradability, among others, have been attractive for different medical applications. One of the most interesting applications of these materials is drug delivery systems. Biodegradable polymers and copolymers are the preferred materials for the manufacture...

  10. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  11. Biological studies of matrix metalloproteinase sensitive drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Thermann

    for delivery of drugs to specific tissues or cells utilizing biological knowledge of cancer tissue is getting increased attention. In this thesis a novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) sensitive poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) coated liposomal drug delivery system for treatment of cancer was developed......Cancer, which is a group of diseases characterized by cells with elevated replication rate and compromised DNA damage response, is often treated with cytotoxic drugs, chemotherapeutics, inducing DNA damage that results in cell death. The use of chemotherapeutics in the clinic, however, is limited...... due to severe side effects as a result of drug distribution to healthy tissues. To enhance ecacy of treatment and improve life quality of patients, tumor specific drug delivery strategies, such as liposome encapsulated drugs, which accumulate in tumor tissue, has gained increased attention. Several...

  12. Unsteady jet in designing innovative drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Mazur, Paul; Cosse, Julia; Rider, Stephanie; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    Micro-needle injections, a promising pain-free drug delivery method, is constrained by its limited penetration depth. This deficiency can be overcome by implementing fast unsteady jet that can penetrate sub-dermally. The development of a faster liquid jet would increase the penetration depth and delivery volume of micro-needles. In this preliminary work, the nonlinear transient behavior of an elastic tube balloon in providing fast discharge is analyzed. A physical model that combines the Mooney Rivlin Material model and Young-Lapalce's Law was developed and used to investigate the fast discharging dynamic phenomenon. A proof of concept prototype was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of a simple thumb-sized delivery system to generate liquid jet with desired speed in the range of 5-10 m/s. This work is supported by ZCUBE Corporation.

  13. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems′ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We′ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients.

  14. Highly efficient intracellular chromobody delivery by mesoporous silica nanoparticles for antigen targeting and visualization in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Engelke, Hanna; Helma, Jonas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Bein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Chromobodies have recently drawn great attention as bioimaging nanotools. They offer antigen binding specificity and affinity comparable to conventional antibodies, but much smaller size and higher stability. Importantly, chromobodies can be used in live cell imaging for highly specific spatio-temporal visualization of cellular processes. To date, functional application of chromobodies requires lengthy genetic manipulation of the target cell. Here, we developed multifunctional large-pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as nanocarriers to directly transport chromobodies into living cells for antigen-visualization in real time. The multifunctional large-pore MSNs feature high loading capacity for chromobodies, and are efficiently taken up by cells. By functionalizing the internal MSN surface with nitrilotriacetic acid-metal ion complexes, we could control the release of His6-tagged chromobodies from MSNs in acidified endosomes. When chromobodies escape from the endosomes through the proton sponge effect ...

  15. MICROEMULSIONS AS ANTIDIABETIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Sarhan, Mahmoud M. Ibrahim* and Mahmoud Mahdy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Glibenclamide is practically insoluble in water and its gastrointestinal absorption is limited by its dissolution rate. Therefore, to enhance the drug dissolution and its hypoglycemic effects, the drug was formulated in different microemulsion systems and in vitro/in vivo evaluated. Microemulsion systems were prepared by Water titration method in which surfactants and cosurfactants (S/CoS were mixed at different weight ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. They were subjected to transmission electron microscopical examination, pH determination and viscosity tests. The solubility of Glibenclamide in different microemulsion systems was determined. Forms 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 18 were found to have high Glibenclamide solubility using different oils. Form 11 and 9 showed the highest Glibenclamide release rates of 59.72% and 52.35%, respectively after 6 hours. In-vivo studies were tested using diabetic rats by application of form 11 with n-butanol as cosurfactant transdermally and form 8 with propylene glycol cosurfactant orally and transdermally. The results were compared to the drug suspension as a positive control. It was shown that microemulsion systems gave an effective tool of increasing drug dissolution probably due to enhanced wettability and reduced drug particle size, which in turn led to enhance its hypoglycemic effects.

  16. Self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for phytoconstituents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Neeraj; Mittal, Vineet; Kaushik, Deepak; Khatkar, Anurag; Raina, Mitali

    2015-01-01

    The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is considered to be the novel technique for the delivery of lipophillic plant actives. The self emulsifying (SE) formulation significantly enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble phytoconstituents. The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be developed for such plant actives to enhance the oral bioavailability using different excipients (lipid, surfactant, co solvent etc.) and their concentration is selected on the basis of pre formulation studies like phase equilibrium studies, solvent capacity of oil for drug and mutual miscibility of excipients. The present review focuses mainly on the development of SEDDS and effect of excipients on oral bioavailability and aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble phytoconstituents/ derived products. A recent list of patents issued for self emulsifying herbal formulation has also been included. The research data for various self emulsifying herbal formulation and patents issued were reviewed using different databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Google patents, Scopus and Web of Science. In a nutshell, we can say that SEDDS was established as a novel drug delivery system for herbals and with the advances in this technique, lots of patents on herbal SEDDS can be translated into the commercial products. PMID:25335929

  17. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu_agarwal02@rediffmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2014-03-15

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  18. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  19. Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Enhancing Bioavailability and Lymphatic Delivery of Tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hea-Young; Choi, Ji-Hoon; Oh, In-Joon; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2015-02-01

    A self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) containing tacrolimus has been developed to enhance the bioavailability and lymphatic delivery of tacrolimus. Solubility tests, combination tests, and phase diagrams were constructed for different sorts and ratios of oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants to identify optimal formulation. Optimized SEDDS was assessed for droplet size, zeta potential, stability in various media, and in vitro release. The tacrolimus-loaded SEDDS and commercial capsule (Prograf®) were orally administered (5 mg/kg) to rats. Whole blood, and mesenteric and axillary lymph node samples were taken and the concentrations of tacrolimus were measured to evaluate pharmacokinetic characteristics and the lymphatic delivery effects. The optimized SEDDS droplets were approximately 40 nm in size and stable enough to endure gastric pH environments. The release rate of tacrolimus from SEDDS was significantly higher than that from the commercial capsule. The bioavailability of tacrolimus in SEDDS after oral administration was significantly improved versus that of Prograf®. The lymphatic targeting efficiency of the prepared SEDDS formulation showed significantly greater than that of Prograf®. Our research indicates that prepared SEDDS can be an alternative to the conventional oral formulation of tacrolimus. Furthermore, SEDDS should be explored as a potential drug carrier for other lipophilic drugs. PMID:26353739

  20. Cost analysis of two implantable narcotic delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedder, M D; Burchiel, K; Larson, A

    1991-08-01

    This survey compares costs of two commonly utilized implantable narcotic delivery systems. The systems are classified into type-I (exteriorized system using the DuPen epidural catheter) and type-II (implanted system using the Synchromed pump). Costs were analyzed by reviewing actual patient hospital financial service records and Homecare vendor quotations. From the perspective of cost analysis alone, we conclude that savings accrue when patients requiring treatment beyond 3 months duration are managed with a type-II implanted system compared with a type-I system with an external pump. PMID:1908884

  1. Biochemical characterization of antigens of the blood group rhesus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human red cells of various rhesus (rh) phenotypes were surface-labelled with 125I and rh-specific labelled polypeptides were isolated by preparative SDS-PAGE. The purified rh proteins when analysed by SDS-PAGE comigrated with immunoprecipitated rh proteins and showed the characteristic properties due to their hydrophobicity. Two-dimensional iso-electric focusing/SDS-PAGE of rh proteins resulted in the pI=6,8-7,0 for all investigated rh types and did not show any separation of presumably different rh-specific polypeptide chains. The purified 125I-labelled rh proteins were subjected to limited proteolysis and the resulting fragments were analysed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Chymotryptic peptide maps of proteins obtained from rh(D)-positive and -negative types appeared to be identical, indicating a high degree of structural homology between these proteins. In contrast, the tryptic peptide maps revealed a characteristic difference: a fragment of Mr 17500 was associated with the rh(D) antigen and one of Mr 19000 with the rh(C/c, E/e) antigens. This result supports other evidence that the rh(D) protein is not identical with the rh(C/c, E/e) protein(s). Treatment of rh polypeptides with carboxypeptidase Y prior to tryptic digestion resulted in a shift of nearly all tryptic fragment, including a small fragment of Mr 8000, indicating that the surface label was incorporated into the C-terminal part of the molecules. Moreover, by chemical cleavage a cysteine-residue was identified within the C-terminal region. This region which contains both the surface label and the cysteine-residue is well suited for the location of the rh-specific epitopes. 40 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  3. Pricing strategies for capitated delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gruenberg, Leonard; Wallack, Stanley S.; Tompkins, Christopher P.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses alternative methods for establishing a fairer pricing mechanism for Medicare recipients who enroll in health maintenance organizations and other competitive medical plans. The current method, based upon the adjusted average per capita cost, is inadequate because it fails to adjust premium levels for differences in health status; it establishes undesirable incentives that may lead to underservice, and it is tied to costs in the fee-for-service system. Alternative methods...

  4. Marine origin polysaccharides in drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matias J. Cardoso; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents an...

  5. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  6. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Vyas; Avinesh Kumar Sonker; Bina Gidwani

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of...

  7. Achieving breakthrough performance in an integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, M

    1995-01-01

    The challenges facing Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts were considerable. Its products were largely indemnity-oriented. Its cost structure was high compared to the newer managed care industry. Its service culture was more internally directed than the competition. Its financing and payment systems were not well integrated into the delivery system. The ultimate challenge in the face of an increasingly competitive environment was to reengineer the company. PMID:10142024

  8. Floating bioadhesive drug delivery system using novel effervescent agents

    OpenAIRE

    Belgamwar V; Surana S

    2009-01-01

    Oral sustained release gastroretentive dosage forms offer many advantages for drugs having absorption from the upper gastrointestinal tract and improve the bioavailability of medications that are characterized by the narrow absorption window. A new gastroretentive sustained release delivery system using the novel effervescent system was developed with floating, swellable, and bioadhesive properties. Various release retarding polymers like psyllium husk, HPMC K15M, and a swelling agent crosspo...

  9. A REVIEW ON ADVANCES OF SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Bose

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustained release matrix tablets facilitate prolonged and continuous drug release and improve the bioavailability of drugs while avoiding unwanted side effects. Ofloxacin is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent used for treating wide range of gram positive and gram negative infections. The goal in designing sustained or controlled delivery systems is to reduce frequency of dosing or to increase the effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of action, reducing the dose required, providing uniform drug delivery. Sustained release drug administration means not only prolongation of duration of drug delivery, but the term also implies the predictability and reproducibility of drug release kinetics. The controlled release of drug substances and their effective transport to sites of action can be exploited to maximize the beneficial clinical response and to minimize the incidence of unbeneficial adverse reactions and side effects. Oral ingestion has long been the most convenient and commonly employed route of drug delivery. Indeed, for sustained release systems, oral route of administration has received most of the attention with respect to research on physiological and drug constraints as well as design and testing of products.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles as targeted delivery systems in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many different types of nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles being just a category among them, offer exciting opportunities for technologies at the interfaces between chemistry, physics and biology. Some magnetic nanoparticles have already been utilized in clinical practice as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their physicochemical properties are constantly being improved upon also for other biological applications, such as magnetically-guided delivery systems for different therapeutics. By exposure of magnetic nanoparticles with attached therapeutics to an external magnetic field with appropriate characteristics, they are concentrated and retained at the preferred site which enables the targeted delivery of therapeutics to the desired spot. The idea of binding chemotherapeutics to magnetic nanoparticles has been around for 30 years, however, no magnetic nanoparticles as delivery systems have yet been approved for clinical practice. Recently, binding of nucleic acids to magnetic nanoparticles has been demonstrated as a successful non-viral transfection method of different cell lines in vitro. With the optimization of this method called magnetofection, it will hopefully become another form of gene delivery for the treatment of cancer

  11. Induction of mucosal immune responses and protection of cattle against direct-contact challenge by intranasal delivery with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen mediated by nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan L

    2014-12-01

    a double dose of Chi-Tre-Inactivated nanoparticles and animals immunized by intranasal route three times with Chi-Tre-Inactivated nanoparticles (P<0.05. FMDV-specific IgA antibodies in serum showed a similar pattern. All animals immunized by intranasal route developed low levels of detectable IgG in serum at 10 dpv. Following stimulation with FMDV, the highest levels of proliferation were observed in splenocytes harvested from Chi-PLGA-DNA-immunized animals, followed by proliferation of cells harvested from Chi-Tre-Inactivated nanoparticle-immunized animals (P<0.05. Higher protection rates were associated with the highest sIgA antibody responses induced in the Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticle-immunized group. Only one animal was clinically affected with mild signs after 7 days of contact challenge, after a delay of 2–3 days compared with the clinically affected negative-control group. Of the five animals directly challenged that were vaccinated by intranasal route with a double dose of Chi-Tre-Inactivated, four were clinically infected; however, the degree of severity of disease in this group was lower than in control cattle. The number of viral RNA copies in nasal swabs from the vaccinated, severely infected group was significantly higher than in swabs from the vaccinated, clinically protected group. These data suggested that intranasal delivery of Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticles resulted in higher levels of mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity than did of Chi-Tre-Inactivated nanoparticles. In conclusion, although intranasal delivery with FMDV antigen mediated by nanoparticles did not provide complete clinical protection, it reduced disease severity and virus excretion and delayed clinical symptoms. Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticle vaccines have potential as a nasal delivery system for vaccines. Keywords: FMDV, nanoparticles, chitosan, trehalose, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA

  12. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    -ATRP) from commercially available polymers. Initially, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films were applied as a model system to demonstrate that hydrophilization of a substrate could be obtained by SI-ATRP. PEEK has ketone groups which can be reduced to hydroxyl groups and used for anchoring of 2....... X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the poly(PEGMA) grafts on the PEEK surface by comparing the C/O ratio and the chemical composition after each modification step. The surface topography was evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the polymeric...... AspB28 insulin at the present conditions. The first stability study revealed an inverse correlation between AspB28 insulin related impurities and higher molecular weight proteins and the same trend seemed to be present in the second study. PP coated with poly(DMAAm) resulted in a poor chemical...

  13. Preparation and Evaluation of Solid-Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing Paclitaxel for Lymphatic Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Hea-Young Cho; Jun-Hyuk Kang; Lien Ngo; Phuong Tran; Yong-Bok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Solid-self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS) of paclitaxel (Ptx) was developed by the spray drying method with the purpose of improving the low bioavailability (BA) of Ptx. 10% oil (ethyl oleate), 80% surfactant mixture (Tween 80 : Carbitol, 90 : 10, w/w), and 10% cosolvent (PEG 400) were chosen according to their solubilizing capacity. The mean droplet size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency of the prepared S-SEDDS were 16.9 ± 1.53 nm, 12.5 ± 1.66 mV, and 56.2 ± 8.1%, res...

  14. THE ROLE OF HOSPITAL IN OVERALL HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nozadi

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Since hospitals are an important and integral part of the overall health delivery system, this study was carried out to measure the effectiveness of this institution within the system. The records of 633 hospitalized patients in the pediatrics ward of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad during 1357 (21 March 1978-20 March 1979 has been consulted. More than half of the patients were hospitalized with the following diagnoses: Bronchopneumonia, Gastroentritis, Septicemia, and Malnutrition. Bronchopneumonia peaked in winter, whereas Gastroentritis and Malnutrition peaked in summer. Most of the hospitalized patients were male and the malnutrition was limited to the pre-school children of 1-6 years of age. The importance of these findings in development and utilization of the health delivery system has been discussed and considering the preventable nature of the above mentioned diseases, development and expansion of primary health care activities has been stressed.

  15. MICROSPONGE DELIVERY SYSTEM (MDS: A UNIQUE TECHNOLOGY FOR DELIVERY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical industry, various controlled released dosage forms like solid formulation, semi solid formulation and topical preparation have more importance due to efficacy and patient compliance. Topical preparations have some disadvantages like unpleasant odour, greasiness and skin irritation and fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. This problem is overcome by microsponge delivery system. Microsponges are tiny sponge like spherical and highly porous micro-sized particles with a unique ability for entrapping actives. They offers programmable release active drug into the skin in order to reduce systemic exposure and minimize local cutaneous reactions to active. These MDS’s are closely related to microspheres, and used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over- the-counter (OTC skin care preparations, recently used in oral drug as well as biopharmaceuticals (peptides, proteins and DNA-based therapeutics drug delivery. The present review introduces microsponge technology along with its synthesis, characterization, programmable parameters and release mechanism of MDS.

  16. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -6100C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  17. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil, E-mail: simina.dreve@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610{sup 0}C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  18. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610°C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  19. A lipid based multi-compartmental system: Liposomes-in-double emulsion for oral vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Jin Jau; Hook, Sarah; Prestidge, Clive A; Barnes, Timothy J

    2015-11-01

    The gastric mucosa provides the entry point for the majority of pathogens, as well as being the induction site for protective immunity; however, there remain few examples of oral vaccines due to the challenges presented by the gastrointestinal route. In this study, we develop a lipid-based multi-compartmental system for oral vaccine delivery. Specifically, we have optimised the formulation of a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion prepared from a triglyceride - soya bean oil, using surfactants Span 80/Tween 80 and Pluronic F127 to stabilise the internal and external water phases, respectively. Into the internal water phase, we also incorporated a PEGylated liposome, prepared using hydrogenated phosphatidyl choline as a carrier for our model protein, FITC-labelled ovalbumin. We demonstrated the successful incorporation of intact liposomes into the internal water phase of the double emulsion using imaging techniques including cryo-SEM and confocal microscopy. Finally, we use in vitro release studies of FITC-ovalbumin, to provide further confirmation of the multi-compartmental structure of the double emulsion system and demonstrate significant extended release of the entrapped model antigen compared with PEG-liposomes; these characteristics are attractive for oral vaccine delivery. PMID:26455337

  20. Dendrimers as a Potential Drug Delivery System: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagasamy Venkatesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are synthetic, highly branched, monodisperse macromolecules of nanometer dimensions with exact and large number of functional groups, distributed with unprecedented control, makes them a promising scaffolds, for drug delivery. Dendrimers serves as an ideal vehicle for cancer therapy, immunology, vaccines, antivirals, biosensors for diagnostics, neuron capture therapy, photodynamic therapy and photo thermal therapy. Dendrimers chemistry is one of the most fascinating and rapidly expanding areas in the field of chemistry. Prior to the dendrimer technology, nanoparticle drug delivery systems were one of the choicest systems owing to their selectivity and stability of therapeutic agents incorporated into the system. However, few drawbacks such as reticuloendothelial system (RES uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, hemolytic toxicity, cytotoxicity, hydrophobicity etc., impede the usage of these nanostructures. Further, these shortcomings shall be circumvented by modifying the surface engineering, such as poly ester dendrimer, arginine dendrimer, glycol dendrimer, PEGylated dendrimers etc., Unique properties of uniform size, water solubility, modifiable surface functionality and availability of internal cavities makes them intriguing carrier for biological and drug delivery system. In the present review, we focused on the bioactive agents that can be easily encapsulated into the interior cavity (or chemical attachment, conjugation (or physically adsorbed on to the dendrimer surface to serve the desired properties of the carrier to cater specific needs of the active components, its characterization and application.

  1. LIPOSOME AS A POTENTIAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Tapaswi Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes are microscopic phospholipid vescicles made of lipid bilayer which are the drug carrier for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes” to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol (PEG in liposome composition. Due to advancement in liposomal technology a number of liposomal formulations are available in market for clinical use, with gene delivery and cancer therapy and some formulations are under clinical trial. Reformulation of drugs in liposomes has provided an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic indices of various agents mainly through alteration in their biodistribution. This review discusses the basic principles of liposome structures and preparations, evaluation parameters of liposomal formulation, pharmacokinetics of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs, the potential applications of liposomes in drug delivery with examples of formulations approved for clinical use, and the problems associated with further exploitation of this drug delivery system.

  2. BIOADHESIVE MULTIPARTICULATE (MICROSPHERS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra B Borade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of controlled drug delivery has been traditionally used to obtain specific release rates or targeting of active ingredients. The phenomenon of bioadhesion has been studied extensively in the last decade and applied to improve the performance of these drug delivery systems. Recent advances in polymer science and drug carrier technologies have promulgated the development of novel drug carriers such as bioadhesive microspheres that have boosted the use of “bioadhesion” in drug delivery. This article presents the spectrum of potential applications of bioadhesive microspheres in controlled drug delivery ranging from the small molecules, to peptides, and to the macromolecular drugs such as proteins, oligonucleotides and even DNA. The development of mucus or cell-specific bioadhesive polymers and the concepts of cytoadhesion and bioinvasion provide unprecedented opportunities for targeting drugs to specific cells or intracellular compartments. Developments in the techniques for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of bioadhesive microspheres have also been discussed. Keywords: - Bioadhesion, Bioadhesive Microspheres, Development, Polymers.

  3. Gamma- scintigraphy in the evaluation of drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical delivery systems, particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate radionuclide such as technetium-99m or indium-111 into the formulation or by addition of a non- radioactive isotope such as samarium-152 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Drug delivery systems can be tested in vitro using various techniques like dissolution rate. Since in vitro testing methods are not predictive of in vivo results, such systems should be evaluated in vivo using animal models, especially oral dosage forms. Altered gastrointestinal transit due to individual variation, physiologic factors, or the presence of food may influence bioavailability. Distribution or drug release may be premature or delayed in vivo. Similarly, altered deposition or clearance from other routes of administration such as nasal, ocular, or inhalation may explain drug absorption anomalies. Therefore, there is a growing tendency for new drug delivery systems to be tested, whenever possible, in human subjects in a so called phase 1 clinical evaluation. Gamma- scintigraphy combined with knowledge of physiological and dosage from design can help to identify some of these variables. the resulting insight can be used to accelerate the formulation development process and to ensure success in early clinical trials

  4. Milk IgA responses are augmented by antigen delivery to the mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan; Bourges, Dorothee; Wijburg, Odilia; Strugnell, Richard A; Lew, Andrew M

    2006-07-01

    The mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM) is expressed on the venules of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT); it is also expressed on the venules of the lobules of the mammary gland. We have previously found that MAdCAM-targeting using a rat anti-MAdCAM monoclonal Ab as both antigen and targeting moiety resulted in an enhanced local IgA gut response. We therefore surmised that such targeting may also enhance IgA responses in the mammary gland. We show that our model antigen localizes to the lobules of the mammary glands as well as the GALT, but not to the draining lymph nodes and that targeting MAdCAM results in secretory IgA responses in the milk. We provide evidence that this milk IgA Ab is of a secretory nature and is consistent with derivation from gut plasmablasts that have migrated to the mammary gland. Targeting MAdCAM may be a way for a novel vaccine strategy that affords protection to the mammary gland and the suckling neonate. PMID:16723174

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Solid-Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing Paclitaxel for Lymphatic Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea-Young Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS of paclitaxel (Ptx was developed by the spray drying method with the purpose of improving the low bioavailability (BA of Ptx. 10% oil (ethyl oleate, 80% surfactant mixture (Tween 80 : Carbitol, 90 : 10, w/w, and 10% cosolvent (PEG 400 were chosen according to their solubilizing capacity. The mean droplet size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency of the prepared S-SEDDS were 16.9 ± 1.53 nm, 12.5 ± 1.66 mV, and 56.2 ± 8.1%, respectively. In the S-SEDDS, Ptx presents in the form of molecular dispersion in the emulsions or is distributed in an amorphous state or crystalline with very small size. The prepared S-SEDDS formulation showed 70 and 75% dissolution in 60 and 30 min in dissolution medium pH 1.2 and 6.8, respectively. Significant increase (P≤0.05 in the peak concentration (Cmax, the area under the curve (AUC0–∞, and the lymphatic targeting efficiency of Ptx was observed after the oral administration of the Ptx-loaded S-SEDDS to rats (20 mg/kg as Ptx. Our research suggests the prepared Ptx-loaded S-SEDDS can be a good candidate for the enhancement of BA and targeting drug delivery to the lymphatic system of Ptx.

  6. Process simulation for fuel delivery from storage and delivery system in fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage and delivery system (SDS) in fusion power plant should deliver the fuel gases, such as tritium and deuterium for the DT plasma operation. Under the environment with various fuelling scenarios and with the limitation of tritium compatible equipments it is needed to determine the process design for the fuel delivery in the SDS. The SDS has functions to satisfy the various fuelling scenarios, to minimize the tritium inventory in vapor state, and to operate safely. Based on the preliminary analysis, the configuration of pumps is selected as the three and two parallel-combined MB 601 pumps for the fuelling of T2 and D2(T) gases, respectively. The volumes of buffer vessels are determined as 0.4 m3 and 0.3 m3 as minimum values to satisfy the all fuelling scenarios with 120 kPa for the initial pressure for T2 and D2(T) gases, respectively. The numerical process simulations identify the new issue between the SDS and the fuelling system (FS). It needs the guideline for the lower bound of the inlet pressure in the FS to reduce the tritium inventory in long tubes between the SDS and the FS and to optimize the operability of the SDS.

  7. CURRENT TRENDS IN β-CYCLODEXTRIN BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Rita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds identified through various screening programs are poorly soluble in the water. These molecules are difficult to formulate using the conventional formulation approaches. An important tool in this regard is the use of cyclodextrins, especially chemically modified cyclodextrins. These starch derivatives interact via dynamic complex formation and other mechanisms in a way that camouflages undesirable physicochemical properties, including low aqueous solubility, poor dissolution rate and limited drug stability, which leads to additional benefits such as increased solubility, increased bioavaibility, protection of active molecules from physicochemical degradation and decreased side-effects. This review aims to assess the use of cyclodextrins in newer drug delivery systems such as nanosponges, nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanoassemblies, drug-in cyclodextrin-in deformable liposomes and other drug delivery systems. These approaches are useful for resolving many of the current issues associated with developing and commercializing poorly water soluble drugs.

  8. APPROACHES, TECHNIQUES AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar D; Saini S; Seth N; Khullar R; Sharma R

    2011-01-01

    This review explains the recent advances in gastroretentive drug delivery systems with special focus on floating drug delivery systems. Oral route is the most convenient and painless technique of drug delivery. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems have been developed which overcome physiological conditions in gastrointestinal tract such as short gastric resident time (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). Various approaches used for prolonging GRT are mucoadhesive systems (Bio...

  9. A review on self-emulsified drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Thakare, Priya; Mogal, Vrushali; Dusane, Jaydeep; Kshirsagar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Improving oral bioavailability of low poorly water soluble drugs using self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) possess significant potential. Oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs can be improved using SEDDS, and appears most promising. Their dispersion in gastro intestinal (GI) fluid after administration forms micro or nano emulsified drug which gets easily absorbed through lymphatic pathways bypassing the hepatic first pass metabolism. Parameters like surfactant concentration, oi...

  10. Formulation and Evaluation of Floating Drug Delivery System of Famotidine

    OpenAIRE

    Satishbabu, B. K.; Sandeep, V. R.; Ravi, R. B.; Shrutinag, R.

    2010-01-01

    A multiple unit oral floating drug delivery system of famotidine was developed to prolong gastric residence time, target stomach mucosa and increase drug bioavailability. Drug and polymer compatibility was studied by subjecting physical mixtures of drug and polymers to differential scanning calorimetry. Cod liver oil entrapped calcium alginate beads containing famotidine, capable of floating in the gastric condition were formulated and evaluated. The gel beads were prepared by emulsion gelati...

  11. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu M Gilhotra; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a cli...

  12. A REVIEW ON ADVANCES OF SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sujit Bose; Amandeep Kaur; Sharma, S K

    2013-01-01

    Sustained release matrix tablets facilitate prolonged and continuous drug release and improve the bioavailability of drugs while avoiding unwanted side effects. Ofloxacin is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent used for treating wide range of gram positive and gram negative infections. The goal in designing sustained or controlled delivery systems is to reduce frequency of dosing or to increase the effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of action, reducing the dose required, pr...

  13. Fully Supramolecular Polyrotaxanes as Biphase Drug Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Pseudopolyrotaxanes (PPR) consisting of α-cyclodextrin rings and polyethylene glycol axes with end thymine groups have been synthesized and characterized successfully. Fluorescein (Fl) as a model drug was conjugated to the hydroxyl functional groups of cyclodextrin rings of PPR via ester bonds and PPR-Fl as the primary drug delivery system was obtained. Finally PPR-Fl was capped by hydrogen bonds between end thymine groups and a suitable complementary molecule such as polycitric acid, citric ...

  14. Logistics system and process in express delivery service companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hanzheng

    2010-01-01

    Express delivery services (EDS), as a young industry, are currently experiencing a rapid growth to fulfill the increasing demand. With the aims of being fast, safe, controllable and traceable, EDS companies have developed a quite different logistics network and systems in their logistics process. The purpose of this study was to describe EDS network models, like the spoke-hub paradigm, as well as the way of EDS processing. It was also studied how much of advanced and automated technologies an...

  15. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  16. Design and Optimization of Floating Drug Delivery System of Acyclovir

    OpenAIRE

    Kharia A; Hiremath S; Singhai A; Omray L; Jain S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50...

  17. SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: HITHERTO AND RECENT ADVANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taksande Jayshree B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs creates critical problem for their formulation as 35- 40% of new active pharmaceutical ingredients have poor water solubility and frequently associated with low bioavailability. Recently much attention has been given to lipid-based formulation with particular emphasis on self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS to improve the oral bioavailability. These can exist in either liquid or solid states. Self-emulsifying system formulation mainly depends on the nature of oil/lipid excipients, surfactants, their concentration and temperature at which emulsification occurs. As advancement or substitute of conventional liquid SEDDS, Solid SEDDS are better in minimizing manufacturing cost, makes simpler industrial manufacture, enhancing stability, patient compliance and most prominently these are very flexible to develop different solid dosage forms for oral and parentral administration. In addition, such formulation prevents GI irritation and able to control drug release. Recently self emulsifying drug delivery system is used as an efficient approach for the formulation of drugs that are beneficial in the diseases such as hypertension and congestive heart failure, HIV infections, cancer etc. The main difficulty in the development of SEDDS and other lipid-based formulations is the lack of high-quality in vitro models for their evaluation. Finally, the existing problems and the possible future research directions in this field are pointed out.

  18. DESIGN OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Omray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastro retentive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was designed and evaluated for its effectiveness for the management of mild to moderate hypertension. Gastro retentive drug delivery system were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent for the reduction of floating lag time. Gastro retentive drug delivery system tablets were prepared by wet granulation method by compression in tablet compression machine. Formulations DL1, DL2, DL3, DL4 and DL5 were developed which differed in the ratio of polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose polymers. All the formulations were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content, swelling index, buoyancy studies and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United State Pharmacopoeia 23 type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 r/pm. Dissolution medium was 900 ml of 0.1N hydrochloric acid at 37ºC ± 3ºC. Formulations DL3 was found to be better as compared to other formulation.

  19. A look at emerging delivery systems for topical drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Sharon; Toledano, Ofer; Neimann, Karine; Loboda, Natalia; Dayan, Nava

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new topical drugs based on new chemical entities has become a rare event. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have been focused on reformulating existing drugs resulting in an ever-growing number of topical drug products for every approved drug substance. In light of this trend, soon reformulations may not be as rewarding to their sponsors as they are today unless they offer a substantial improvement over other formulations of the same drug substance and the same indication, namely improved efficacy over existing drugs, reduced side effects, unique drug combinations, or applicability for new indications. This article reviews and compares topical drug delivery systems currently under active research that are designed to offer such advantages in the coming years. The reviewed delivery systems are: liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrin, and sol-gel microcapsules. Among all the topical drug delivery systems currently undergoing active research, only the sol-gel microencapsulation is at clinical stages. PMID:22353154

  20. Overview on gastroretentive drug delivery systems for improving drug bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla M; Bettencourt, Catarina; Rossi, Alessandra; Buttini, Francesca; Barata, Pedro

    2016-08-20

    In recent decades, many efforts have been made in order to improve drug bioavailability after oral administration. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems are a good example; they emerged to enhance the bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs with a narrow absorption window in the upper gastrointestinal tract and/or to promote local activity in the stomach and duodenum. Several strategies are used to increase the gastric residence time, namely bioadhesive or mucoadhesive systems, expandable systems, high-density systems, floating systems, superporous hydrogels and magnetic systems. The present review highlights some of the drugs that can benefit from gastroretentive strategies, such as the factors that influence gastric retention time and the mechanism of action of gastroretentive systems, as well as their classification into single and multiple unit systems. PMID:27173823

  1. Differences in HLA antigens between patients with mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruuska, P; Hämeenkorpi, R; Forsberg, S; Julkunen, H; Mäkitalo, R; Ilonen, J; Tiilikainen, A

    1992-01-01

    Patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, n = 32) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 60) were typed for HLA-A, B, C, Dw, and DR antigens. All patients with SLE fulfilled at least four criteria of SLE and the patients with MCTD met the criteria proposed by Alarcon-Segovia (1989). The presence of antibodies to Sm was not considered as an exclusion for MCTD. In the patients with SLE, Dw3, DR3, and the associated B8 and A1 antigens were increased, whereas in the patients with MC...

  2. Liposomal drug delivery system from laboratory to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, N A; Pandya, S K; Kirodian, G B; Sanath, S

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of drug delivery systems is to deliver a drug effectively, specifically to the site of action and to achieve greater efficacy and minimise the toxic effects compared to conventional drugs. Amongst various carrier systems, liposomes have generated a great interest because of their versatility. Liposomes are vesicular concentric bilayered structures, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nonimmumnogenic. They can control the delivery of drugs by targeting the drug to the site of action or by site avoidance drug delivery or by prolonged circulation of drugs. Amphotericin B (Amp B) remains the drug of choice in most systemic mycoses and also as a second line treatment for Kala azar. However, its toxic effects often limit its use. Although the liposome delivery system has been tried for several drugs, only a few have been used in patients due to the slow development of necessary large-scale pharmaceutical procedures. This paper reviews the development of the technique for liposomal Amphotericin B (L-Amp-LRC-1, Fungisome) drug delivery system in our laboratory in collaboration with the department of Biochemistry, Delhi University in India and proving the safety and efficacy of this preparation in clinical practice. It also attempts to compare the efficacy and benefits of our product for Indian patients with those of similar products and it includes facts from the publications that flowed from our work. As compared to conventional Amp B, Fungisome is infused over a much shorter period requiring a smaller volume and no premedication. It was found to be safe in patients who had developed serious unacceptable toxicity with conventional Amp B. In renal transplant patients, Fungisome did not produce any nephrotoxicity. Fungisome is effective in fungal infections resistant to fluconazole, conventional Amp B and in virgin and resistant cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The cost of any drug is of great significance, especially in India. We have therefore

  3. Liposomal drug delivery system from laboratory to clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of drug delivery systems is to deliver a drug effectively, specifically to the site of action and to achieve greater efficacy and minimise the toxic effects compared to conventional drugs. Amongst various carrier systems, liposomes have generated a great interest because of their versatility. Liposomes are vesicular concentric bilayered structures, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nonimmumnogenic. They can control the delivery of drugs by targeting the drug to the site of action or by site avoidance drug delivery or by prolonged circulation of drugs. Amphotericin B (Amp B remains the drug of choice in most systemic mycoses and also as a second line treatment for Kala azar. However, its toxic effects often limit its use. Although the liposome delivery system has been tried for several drugs, only a few have been used in patients due to the slow development of necessary large-scale pharmaceutical procedures. This paper reviews the development of the technique for liposomal Amphotericin B (L-Amp-LRC-1, FungisomeTM drug delivery system in our laboratory in collaboration with the department of Biochemistry, Delhi University in India and proving the safety and efficacy of this preparation in clinical practice. It also attempts to compare the efficacy and benefits of our product for Indian patients with those of similar products and it includes facts from the publications that flowed from our work. As compared to conventional Amp B, Fungisome is infused over a much shorter period requiring a smaller volume and no premedication. It was found to be safe in patients who had developed serious unacceptable toxicity with conventional Amp B. In renal transplant patients, Fungisome did not produce any nephrotoxicity. Fungisome is effective in fungal infections resistant to fluconazole, conventional Amp B and in virgin and resistant cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The cost of any drug is of great significance, especially in India

  4. Spectroscopic investigations of chitosan-based systems for diclofenac delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Drug targeting is the delivery of drugs to receptors or organs or any other specific part of the body to which one wishes to deliver the drug exclusively. The concept of designing a specified delivery system to achieve selective drug targeting has been originated from the perception of Paul Ehrlich, who proposed drug delivery to be as a 'magic bullet', where a drug-carrier complex/conjugate, delivers drug(s) exclusively to the preselected target cells in a specific manner. Through the novel biomaterials chitin and chitosan are intensively studied due to its many potential applications as a pharmaceutical drug carrier. Modern biocompatible systems target not only infectious diseases, but also autoimmune disorders, allergies, chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. The study was aimed to develop and characterize a novel polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) chitosan with Tween-80 and oleic acid as drug carrier for controlled drug delivery, with possible use in skin burnt painfull injuries. The PEC chitosan complexes were prepared by coacervation method using the same ratios of Tween-80, oleic acid and chitosan. Diclofenac sodium (DCF) is used as model drug because it is one of the most useful non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The use of chitosan as base in polyelectrolite complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper is reported the preparation of chitosan (CS) hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug. The immobilisation of DCF in chitosan is done by mixing the chitosan hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. Chitosan sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -61 deg C and 0.009 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by FTIR and UV-VIS spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated the

  5. Gelucire-stabilized nanoparticles as a potential DNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Moses O; Wehrung, Daniel; Sadana, Prabodh

    2016-09-01

    Clinical viability of gene delivery systems has been greatly impacted by potential toxicity of the delivery systems. Recently, we reported the nanoparticle (NP) preparation process that employs biocompatible materials such as Gelucire® 44/14 and cetyl alcohol as matrix materials. In the current study, the NP preparation was modified for pDNA loading through: (i) inclusion of cationic lipids (DOTAP or DDAB) with NP matrix materials; or (ii) application of cationic surfactants (CTAB) to generate NPs with desired surface charges for pDNA complexation. Colloidal stability and efficiency of loading pGL3-DR4X2-luciferase plasmid DNA in NPs were verified by gel permeation chromatography. Compared to pDNA alone, all the NPs were effective in preserving pDNA from digestion by DNase. While pDNA loading using CTAB-NPs involved fewer steps compared to DOTAP-NPs and DDAB-NPs, CTAB-NPs were greatly impacted by elevated cytotoxicity level which could be ascribed to the concentrations of CTAB in NP formulations. In vitro transfection studies (in HepG2 cells) based on luciferase expression showed the ranking of cell transfection efficiency as DOTAP-NPs > DDAB-NPs > CTAB-NPs. The overall work provided an initial assessment of gelucire-stabilized NPs as a potential platform for gene delivery. PMID:25915179

  6. MAGNETIC MICROSPHERES AS A TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARUN PATEL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The in-vivo targeting of tumors with magnetic microspheres is currently realized through the applicationof external non-uniform magnetic fields generated by rare-earth permanent magnets or electromagnets.This technique can be applied to magnetically targeted cancer therapy, magnetic embolization therapywith magnetic particles that contain anticancer agent, such as chemotherapeutic drugs or therapeuticradioisotopes. Drug targeting is one way of local or regional antitumor treatment. Magneticallycontrolled drug targeting is one of the various possible ways of drug targeting. This technology is basedon binding establish anticancer drug with ferrofluids that concentrate the drug in the area of interest(tumor site by means of magnetic fields. There has been keen interest in the development of amagnetically target drug delivery system. These drug delivery systems aims to deliver the drug at a ratedirected by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the activity entity to the siteof action. This paper gives an overview of current application of magnetic microspheres (ferrofluid inconjunction with magnetic fields as they relate to the latest advances in medical application and inparticular to anticancer therapy and also discuss about mechanism of magnetic targeted delivery, drugrelease rate in-vitro, benefits and drawbacks of magnetic targeting.

  7. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of the drugs. However parental route may overcome the drawback related with the oral route but these formulations have high cost, supervision is required and least patient compliance. By the buccal route the drug are directly pass through into systemic circulation, less hepatic metabolism and high bioavailability. The aim of the review article is an overview of buccal drug delivery, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug penetration and their in-vitro and in-vivo mucoadhesion testing method.

  8. Sublingual route for the systemic delivery of Ondansetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Patel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery via sublingual mucous membrane is considered to be a promising alternative to the oral route. This route is useful when rapid onset of action is desired as in the case of antiemetics such as ondansetron. In terms of permeability, the sublingual area of the oral cavity is more permeable than cheek and palatal areas of mouth. The drug absorbed via sublingual blood vessels bypasses the hepatic first-pass metabolic processes giving acceptable bioavailability with low doses and hence decreases the side effects. Sublingual drug delivery system is convenient for paediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. This review highlights the different sublingual dosage forms, advantages, factors affecting sublingual absorption, pharmacology of ondasetron, methods of preparation and various in vitro and in vivo evaluation parameters of sublingual tablet of ondansetron

  9. Mesostructured silica and aluminosilicate carriers for oxytetracycline delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, D; Nastase, S; Mitran, R A; Petrescu, M; Vasile, E; Matei, C; Negreanu-Pirjol, T

    2016-08-30

    Oxytetracycline delivery systems containing various MCM-type silica and aluminosilicate with different antibiotic content were developed in order to establish the influence of the support structural and textural properties and aluminum content on the drug release profile. The antibiotic molecules were loaded into the support mesochannels by incipient wetness impregnation method using a drug concentrated aqueous solution. The carriers and drug-loaded materials were investigated by small- and wide-angle XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Faster release kinetics of oxytetracycline from uncalcined silica and aluminosilicate supports was observed, whereas higher drug content led to lower delivery rate. The presence of aluminum into the silica network also slowed down the release rate. The antimicrobial assays performed on Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates showed that the oxytetracycline-loaded materials containing MCM-41-type mesoporous silica or aluminosilicate carriers inhibited the bacterial development. PMID:26861688

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillat, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.fillat@crg.es; Jose, Anabel; Ros, Xavier Bofill-De; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Sobrevals, Luciano [Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica-CRG, UPF, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona-PRBB and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-18

    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed

  12. Applications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajazuddin; Saraf, S

    2010-10-01

    Over the past several years, great advances have been made on development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for plant actives and extracts. The variety of novel herbal formulations like polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microsphere, transferosomes, and ethosomes has been reported using bioactive and plant extracts. The novel formulations are reported to have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of plant actives and extracts which include enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity, enhancement of pharmacological activity, enhancement of stability, improved tissue macrophages distribution, sustained delivery, and protection from physical and chemical degradation. The present review highlights the current status of the development of novel herbal formulations and summarizes their method of preparation, type of active ingredients, size, entrapment efficiency, route of administration, biological activity and applications of novel formulations. PMID:20471457

  13. Numerical simulation of iontophoresis in the drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Nenad; Zivanovic, Marko; Savic, Andrej; Bijelic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The architecture and composition of stratum corneum act as barriers and limit the diffusion of most drug molecules and ions. Much effort has been made to overcome this barrier and it can be seen that iontophoresis has shown a good effect. Iontophoresis represents the application of low electrical potential to increase the transport of drugs into and across the skin or tissue. Iontophoresis is a noninvasive drug delivery system, and therefore, it is a useful alternative to drug transportation by injection. In this study, we present a numerical model and effects of electrical potential on the drug diffusion in the buccal tissue and the stratum corneum. The initial numerical results are in good comparison with experimental observation. We demonstrate that the application of an applied voltage can greatly improve the efficacy of localized drug delivery as compared to diffusion alone. PMID:26592537

  14. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  15. Development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and solid-self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of telmisartan

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Parul; Aggarwal, Geeta; Harikumar, Sasidharan Leelakumari; Singh, Kashmir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and solid-SMEDDS of telmisartan was aimed at overcoming the problems of poor solubility and bioavailability. Methodology: The formulation strategy included selection of oil phase based on saturated solubility studies and surfactant and co-surfactant screening on the basis of their emulsification ability. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the self-emulsifying region using a dilution method. The prepared formulatio...

  16. Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (EBV-EA/D)-directed immunoglobulin A antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, A H; Jørgensen, J M; Müller, H; Nielsen, C T; Jacobsen, S; Iversen, L V; Theander, E; Nielsen, L P; Houen, Gunnar; Duus, K

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.......We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients....

  17. Development of magnetically targeted drug delivery system using superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a novel drug delivery system was made to accumulate/navigate magnetic drugs with the help of a superconducting magnet in order to control the drugs in blood vessels located deep inside the body. In the present paper, we tested the feasibility of a novel navigation system, made by applying a strong external (magnetic) field through SmBaCuO and YBaCuO bulk superconductors in order to realize the practice of using externally applied magnetic fields for targeting the magnetic particles to a circumscribed body region

  18. A clinician-driven home care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, D A; Faubion, W C; Ryan, M L; Haggerty, R H; Wesley, J R

    1993-12-01

    The financial, entrepreneurial, administrative, and legal forces acting within the home care arena make it difficult for clinicians to develop and operate home care initiatives within an academic setting. HomeMed is a clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery system wholly owned by the University of Michigan. The advantages of a clinician-directed system include: Assurance that clinical and patient-based factors are the primary determinants of strategic and procedural decisions; Responsiveness of the system to clinician needs; Maintenance of an important role for the referring physician in home care; Economical clinical research by facilitation of protocol therapy in ambulatory and home settings; Reduction of lengths of hospital stays through clinician initiatives; Incorporation of outcome analysis and other research programs into the mission of the system; Clinician commitment to success of the system; and Clinician input on revenue use. Potential disadvantages of a clinician-based system include: Entrepreneurial, financial, and legal naivete; Disconnection from institutional administrative and data management resources; and Inadequate clinician interest and commitment. The University of Michigan HomeMed experience demonstrates a model of clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery that has been innovative, profitable, and clinically excellent, has engendered broad physician, nurse, pharmacist, and social worker enthusiasm, and has supported individual investigator clinical protocols as well as broad outcomes research initiatives. It is concluded that a clinician-initiated and -directed home care program is feasible and effective, and in some settings may be optimal. PMID:8242586

  19. Targeted gene delivery to the synovial pannus in antigen-induced arthritis by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xi; Tang, Yuanjiao; Leng, Qianying; Zhang, Lingyan; Qiu, Li

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique to improve the in vivo transfection efficiency of the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the synovial pannus in an antigen-induced arthritis rabbit model. A mixture of microbubbles and plasmids was locally injected into the knee joints of an antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) rabbits. The plasmid concentrations and ultrasound conditions were varied in the experiments. We also tested local articular and intravenous injections. The rabbits were divided into five groups: (1) ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid; (2) ultrasound+plasmid; (3) microbubble+plasmid; (4) plasmid only; (5) untreated controls. EGFP expression was observed by fluorescent microscope and immunohistochemical staining in the synovial pannus of each group. The optimal plasmid dosage and ultrasound parameter were determined based on the results of EGFP expression and the present and absent of tissue damage under light microscopy. The irradiation procedure was performed to observe the duration of the EGFP expression in the synovial pannus and other tissues and organs, as well as the damage to the normal cells. The optimal condition was determined to be a 1-MHz ultrasound pulse applied for 5 min with a power output of 2 W/cm(2) and a 20% duty cycle along with 300 μg of plasmid. Under these conditions, the synovial pannus showed significant EGFP expression without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The EGFP expression induced by the local intra-articular injection was significantly more increased than that induced by the intravenous injection. The EGFP expression in the synovial pannus of the ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid group was significantly higher than that of the other four groups (P<0.05). The expression peaked on day 5, remained detectable on day 40 and disappeared on day 60. No EGFP expression was detected in the other tissues and organs. The UTMD

  20. Polymeric-based particulate systems for delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-05-01

    Polymeric-based particulate systems have been intensively developed to increase the short biological half-life and prevent enzymatic degradation of therapeutic proteins. These techniques demonstrate the useful characteristics for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides to the targeted site of application and prevent the interaction of encapsulated drug with the normal cells. In this article, we have described the in depth of different pharmaceutical-based techniques that are currently being practiced for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides. A comprehensive English literature was searched using different electronic search databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, google scholar and library search. Different search terms and advanced search were made by combining all the search fields in abstract, keywords and/or titles. Findings of various studies that have been discussed in this article clearly indicate that polymeric-based techniques can significantly increase the therapeutic potentials of incorporated proteins with no known toxic effects. These techniques have shown to maintain the stability and retain biological activity of protein therapeutics. Hence it can be suggested that pharmaceutical-based techniques are promising drug carriers for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:25567454

  1. Packaged Au-PPy valves for drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han-Kuan A.; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Zoval, Jim; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2006-03-01

    The most common methods for the drug delivery are swallowing pills or receiving injections. However, formulations that control the rate and period of medicine (i.e., time-release medications) are still problematic. The proposed implantable devices which include batteries, sensors, telemetry, valves, and drug storage reservoirs provide an alternative method for the responsive drug delivery system [1]. Using this device, drug concentration can be precisely controlled which enhances drug efficiency and decreases the side effects. In order to achieve responsive drug delivery, a reliable release valve has to be developed. Biocompatibility, low energy consumption, and minimized leakage are the main requirements for such release method. A bilayer structure composed of Au/PPy film is fabricated as a flap to control the release valve. Optimized potentiostatic control to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) is presented. The release of miniaturize valve is tested and showed in this paper. A novel idea to simultaneously fabricate the device reservoirs as well as protective packaging is proposed in this paper. The solution of PDMS permeability problem is also mentioned in this article.

  2. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems. PMID:25513958

  3. Formulation of microemulsion systems for dermal delivery of silymarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panapisal, Vipaporn; Charoensri, Sawitree; Tantituvanont, Angkana

    2012-06-01

    Silymarin is a standardized extract from Silybum marianum seeds, known for its many skin benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, the potential of several microemulsion formulations for dermal delivery of silymarin was evaluated. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the various microemulsion formulations which were prepared using glyceryl monooleate, oleic acid, ethyl oleate, or isopropyl myristate as the oily phase; a mixture of Tween 20®, Labrasol®, or Span 20® with HCO-40® (1:1 ratio) as surfactants; and Transcutol® as a cosurfactant. Oil-in-water microemulsions were selected to incorporate 2% w/w silymarin. After six heating-cooling cycles, physical appearances of all microemulsions were unchanged and no drug precipitation occurred. Chemical stability studies showed that microemulsion containing Labrasol® and isopropyl myristate stored at 40°C for 6 months showed the highest silybin remaining among others. The silybin remainings depended on the type of surfactant and were sequenced in the order of: Labrasol® > Tween 20® > Span 20®. In vitro release studies showed prolonged release for microemulsions when compared to silymarin solution. All release profiles showed the best fits with Higuchi kinetics. Non-occlusive in vitro skin permeation studies showed absence of transdermal delivery of silybin. The percentages of silybin in skin extracts were not significantly different among the different formulations (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, some silybin was detected in the receiver fluid when performing occlusive experiments. Microemulsions containing Labrasol® also were found to enhance silymarin solubility. Other drug delivery systems with occlusive effect could be further developed for dermal delivery of silymarin. PMID:22350738

  4. Advances in the Applications of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Nanoparticles for Novel Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Rok Kim; Anupama Shrivastav; Hae-Yeong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery technology is emerging as an interdisciplinary science aimed at improving human health. The controlled delivery of pharmacologically active agents to the specific site of action at the therapeutically optimal rate and dose regimen has been a major goal in designing drug delivery systems. Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in developing biodegradable drug carriers as effective drug delivery systems. Polymeric materials from natural sources play an imp...

  5. G2 Autonomous Control for Cryogenic Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dito, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The Independent System Health Management-Autonomous Control (ISHM-AC) application development for cryogenic delivery systems is intended to create an expert system that will require minimal operator involvement and ultimately allow for complete autonomy when fueling a space vehicle in the time prior to launch. The G2-Autonomous Control project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to a rocket for testing purposes. To develop this application, the project is using the programming language/environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. We have learned G2 through training classes and subsequent application development, and are now in the process of building the application that will soon be used to test on cryogenic loading equipment here at the Kennedy Space Center Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL). The G2 ISHM-AC application will bring with it a safer and more efficient propellant loading system for the future launches at Kennedy Space Center and eventually mobile launches from all over the world.

  6. THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Amit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

  7. Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro. (paper)

  8. Paclitaxel Nano-Delivery Systems: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J

    2013-02-18

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs ever developed and is active against a broad range of cancers, such as lung, ovarian, and breast cancers. Due to its low water solubility, paclitaxel is formulated in a mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated ethanol (50:50, v/v) a combination known as Taxol. However, Taxol has some severe side effects related to Cremophor EL and ethanol. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative Taxol formulations. The encapsulation of paclitaxel in biodegradable and non-toxic nano-delivery systems can protect the drug from degradation during circulation and in-turn protect the body from toxic side effects of the drug thereby lowering its toxicity, increasing its circulation half-life, exhibiting improved pharmacokinetic profiles, and demonstrating better patient compliance. Also, nanoparticle-based delivery systems can take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect for passive tumor targeting, therefore, they are promising carriers to improve the therapeutic index and decrease the side effects of paclitaxel. To date, paclitaxel albumin-bound nanoparticles (Abraxane®) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, there are a number of novel paclitaxel nanoparticle formulations in clinical trials. In this comprehensive review, several types of developed paclitaxel nano-delivery systems will be covered and discussed, such as polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based formulations, polymer conjugates, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanocrystals, and cyclodextrin nanoparticles. PMID:24163786

  9. An Architectural Design for Brokered Collaborative Content Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Simalango, Mikael Fernandus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in web technologies have driven massive content uploads and requests that can be identified by the increased usage of multimedia web and social web services. This situation enforces the content providers to scale their infrastructure in order to cope with the extra provisioning of network traffic, storage and other resources. Since the complexity and cost factors in scaling the infrastructure exist, we propose a novel solution for providing and delivering contents to clients by introducing a brokered collaborative content delivery system. The architectural design of this system leverages content redundancy and content distribution mechanisms in other content providers to deliver contents to the clients. With the recent emergence of cloud computing, we show that this system can also be adopted to run on the cloud. In this paper, we focus on a brokering scheme to mediate user requests to the most appropriate content provider based on a ranking system. The architecture provides a novel Global Rank Value...

  10. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  11. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  12. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.;

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  13. Tuning of the Compact Linear Collider Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Latina, A; Tomas, R; Snuverink, J

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) BeamDelivery System (BDS), and in particular the Final Focus (FF), is a challenging task. In simulations without misalignments, the goal is to reach 120%o f the nominal luminosity target, in order to allow for 10% loss due to static imperfections, and another 10% loss from dynamic imperfections. Various approaches have been considered to correct the magnet misalignments, including 1-1 correction, Dispersion Free Steering (DFS), and several minimization methods utilizing multipole movers. In this paper we report on the recent advancements towards a feasible tuning approach that reaches the required luminosity target.

  14. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  15. Bionanocomposites containing magnetic graphite as potential systems for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Alcântara, Ana C S; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Herrmann, Paulo S P; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; García-Hernández, Mar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-12-30

    New magnetic bio-hybrid matrices for potential application in drug delivery are developed from the assembly of the biopolymer alginate and magnetic graphite nanoparticles. Ibuprofen (IBU) intercalated in a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was chosen as a model drug delivery system (DDS) to be incorporated as third component of the magnetic bionanocomposite DDS. For comparative purposes DDS based on the incorporation of pure IBU in the magnetic bio-hybrid matrices were also studied. All the resulting magnetic bionanocomposites were processed as beads and films and characterized by different techniques with the aim to elucidate the role of the magnetic graphite on the systems, as well as that of the inorganic brucite-like layers in the drug-loaded LDH. In this way, the influence of both inorganic components on the mechanical properties, the water uptake ability, and the kinetics of the drug release from these magnetic systems were determined. In addition, the possibility of modulating the levels of IBU release by stimulating the bionanocomposites with an external magnetic field was also evaluated in in vitro assays. PMID:25455784

  16. Developing system for delivery of optical radiation in medicobiological researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschenov, Victor B.; Taraz, Majid

    2004-06-01

    Methods of optical diagnostics and methods of photodynamic therapy are actively used in medico-biological researches. The system for delivery of optical radiation is one of the key methods in these researches. Usually these systems use flexible optical fibers with diameters from 200 to 1000 micron. Two types of systems for delivery are subdivided, first for diagnostic researches, second for therapeutic procedures. Existing diagnostic catheters, which have most widely applied in medicine, have bifurcated with diameter of the tip equal 1.8 mm. These devices, which are called fiber-optical catheters, satisfy the majority endoscopes researches. However, till now the problem of optical-diagnostics inside tissue is not soled. Especially it is important at diagnostics of a mammary gland, livers, thyroid glands tumor, tumor of a brain and some other studies connected with punctures. In these cases, it is necessary that diameter of fiber-optical catheters be less than one millimeter. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters. Also in clinical procedures such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP), cylindrical light diffusing tips are rapidly becoming a popular device for the administration of the desired light dose for the illumination of hollow organs, such as bronchus, trachea and oesophagus. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters.

  17. Alginate based hydrogel as a potential biopolymeric carrier for drug delivery and cell delivery systems: present status and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Thakur, Deepa; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2012-11-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer with a number of peculiar physicochemical properties for which it has wide applications in drug delivery and cell delivery systems. Hydrogel formation can be obtained by interactions of anionic alginates with multivalent inorganic cations by simple ionotropic gelation method. Hydrophilic polymeric network of three dimensional cross linked structures of hydrogels absorb substantial amount of water or biological fluids. Among the numerous biomaterials used for hydrogel formation alginate has been and will continue to be one of the most important biomaterial. Therefore, in view of the vast literature support, we focus in this review on alginate - based hydrogel as drug delivery and cell delivery carriers for biomedical applications. Various properties of alginates, their hydrogels and also various techniques used for preparing alginate hydrogels have been reviewed. PMID:22998675

  18. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O and M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis

  19. Nanodelci: sodobni dostavni sistem za učinkovine in antigene celicam imunskega sistema:

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Janko; Kristl, Julijana; Obermajer, Nataša

    2007-01-01

    As the immune cells are distributed in bodily fluids and tissues throughout the organism, they represent a moving target for drug delivery. In this case aclassical approach applying high doses of the drug is not appropriate and, therefore, the use of nanoparticles represents a good alternative to avoid, orat least decrease its side effects and increase efficacy. Nanoparticles can be used as an efficient delivery system to enhance the uptake of antigens by antigen presenting cells as well as t...

  20. A Soybean Oil-Based Liposome-Polymer Transfection Complex as a Co delivery System for DNA and Subunit Vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inexpensive liposome-polymer transfection complexes (LPTCs) were developed and used as for DNA or protein delivery. The particle sizes of the LPTCs were in the range of 212.2 to 312.1 m, and the zeta potential was +38.7 mV. LPTCs condensed DNA and protected DNA from DNase I digestion and efficiently delivered LPTC/DNA complexes in Balb/3T3 cells. LPTCs also enhanced the cellular uptake of antigen in mouse macrophage cells and stimulated TNF-α release in naive mice splenocytes, both indicating the potential of LPTCs as adjuvants for vaccines. In vivo studies were performed using H. pylori relative heat shock protein 60 as an antigen model. The vaccination of BALB/c mice with LPTC-complexed DNA and protein enhanced the humoral immune response. Therefore, we developed a DNA and protein delivery system using LPTCs that is inexpensive, and we successfully applied it to the development of a DNA and subunit vaccine.

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A protease mediates cleavage in attenuated Sabin 3 poliovirus vectors engineered for delivery of foreign antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattion, N M; Harnish, E C; Crowley, J C; Reilly, P A

    1996-01-01

    Poliovirus vectors are being studied as potential vaccine delivery systems, with foreign genetic sequences incorporated as part of the viral genome. The foreign sequences are expressed as part of the viral polyprotein. Addition of proteolytic cleavage sites at the junction of the foreign polypeptide and the viral proteins results in cleavage during polyprotein processing. The ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A to mediate proteolytic cleavage in the context of poliovirus vectors...

  2. Optical fiber-based photomechanical molecular delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Koki; Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ashida, Hiroshi; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    Molecular delivery based on nanosecond pulsed laser-induced photomechanical waves (PMWs) enables endoscopic application by using an optical fiber for laser transmission. In our previous fiber system, a laser target, which was a black natural rubber film as a laser absorbing material covered with an optically transparent polyethylene terephthalate disk to confine the laser-induced plasma, was attached to the output end of a 1 mm core diameter quartz fiber. There were two problems in that system: 1) the outer diameter was large (~2.7 mm) and 2) available peak pressure rapidly decreased with increasing pulse number. In this study, we developed a new fiber delivery system to overcome these problems. As a laser absorbing material, we used a cap-type silicone rubber containing carbon black, into which the fiber output end can simply be inserted. The fiber end surface works to confine the laser-induced plasma. The outer diameter of the fiber system was reduced to ~1.4 mm. At an output laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2, peak pressure of the first PMW pulse exceeded ~40 MPa. With successive 10 laser pulses, decreasing rate of the peak pressure was 22%, which was considerably lower than that with the previous fiber system (82%), enabling generation of at least successive 30 pulses of PMW with the same cap-type target. With this fiber system, we attempted transfer of plasmid DNA encoding EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) to the rat skin as a test tissue in vivo, showing site-selective efficient gene expression.

  3. Cubic and Hexagonal Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  4. Pulsatile Drug Delivery System: Method and Technology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Amit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, drugs are released in an immediate or extended manner. A pulsatile drug release, where the drug is released rapidly after a well defined lag-time, could be advantageous for many drugs or therapies. As the pulsatile drug delivery achieve desired therapeutic effect and reducing side effect, so patient compliance can be obtained along with lowering dose frequency. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body and the drug is released as a pulse. Diseases like asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular ailments, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia can be cured by drugs, released by PDDS. Recent trends include Multiparticulate drug delivery systems that are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release patterns as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. Various methods and marketed technologies of PDDS such as Pulsincap TM, Diffucaps, CODAS, OROS and PULSYSTM are covered in this review.

  5. Self-Assembling Multifunctional Peptide Dimers for Gene Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitae Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling multifunctional peptide was designed for gene delivery systems. The multifunctional peptide (MP consists of cellular penetrating peptide moiety (R8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 specific sequence (GPLGV, pH-responsive moiety (H5, and hydrophobic moiety (palmitic acid (CR8GPLGVH5-Pal. MP was oxidized to form multifunctional peptide dimer (MPD by DMSO oxidation of thiols in terminal cysteine residues. MPD could condense pDNA successfully at a weight ratio of 5. MPD itself could self-assemble into submicron micelle particles via hydrophobic interaction, of which critical micelle concentration is about 0.01 mM. MPD showed concentration-dependent but low cytotoxicity in comparison with PEI25k. MPD polyplexes showed low transfection efficiency in HEK293 cells expressing low level of MMP-2 but high transfection efficiency in A549 and C2C12 cells expressing high level of MMP-2, meaning the enhanced transfection efficiency probably due to MMP-induced structural change of polyplexes. Bafilomycin A1-treated transfection results suggest that the transfection of MPD is mediated via endosomal escape by endosome buffering ability. These results show the potential of MPD for MMP-2 targeted gene delivery systems due to its multifunctionality.

  6. Preungual drug delivery systems of Terbinafine Hydrochloride Nail Lacquer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sabreen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to formulate and evaluate the terbinafine hydrochloride nail lacquer as preungual drug delivery system for the treatment of onychomycosis. Terbinafine hydrochloride was chosen as the model drug, and the formulations were prepared with and without polymer Eudargit RL 100 (Eu within the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/v in the polymeric system. Then, these lacquers were compared for glossiness, film formation, drying rate, smoothness of flow, and nonvolatile content, The in vitro studies were preformed on the artificial membrane and bovine hooves in solvent A (phosphate buffer, pH 7.4; and methanol, AR grade, in the ratio of 4:1. The result obtained indicated that the nail lacquer formulation F2 (1.3% of the drug and 1.3% of Eudargit RL100 showed good release of the drug. Thus nail lacquers can be used as a successful tool for targeted drug delivery for onychomycosis.

  7. Advanced drug delivery systems of curcumin for cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shyam S; Goel, Mehak; Aqil, Farrukh; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-08-01

    Since ancient times, chemopreventive agents have been used to treat/prevent several diseases including cancer. They are found to elicit a spectrum of potent responses including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, anticarcinogenic, and antiangiogenic activity in various cell cultures and some animal studies. Research over the past 4 decades has shown that chemopreventives affect a number of proteins involved in various molecular pathways that regulate inflammatory and carcinogenic responses in a cell. Various enzymes, transcription factors, receptors, and adhesion proteins are also affected by chemopreventives. Although, these natural compounds have shown significant efficacy in cell culture studies, they elicited limited efficacy in various clinical studies. Their introduction into the clinical setting is hindered largely by their poor solubility, rapid metabolism, or a combination of both, ultimately resulting in poor bioavailability upon oral administration. Therefore, to circumvent these limitations and to ease their transition to clinics, alternate strategies should be explored. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microemulsions, and polymeric implantable devices are emerging as one of the viable alternatives that have been shown to deliver therapeutic concentrations of various potent chemopreventives such as curcumin, ellagic acid, green tea polyphenols, and resveratrol into the systemic circulation. In this review article, we have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook for these delivery approaches, using curcumin as a model agent, and discussed future strategies to enable the introduction of these highly potent chemopreventives into a physician's armamentarium. PMID:21546540

  8. Spatiotemporal drug delivery using laser-generated-focused ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jin; Kim, Jinwook; Hu, Quanyin; Jiang, Xiaoning; Gu, Zhen

    2015-12-28

    Laser-generated-focused ultrasound (LGFU) holds promise for the high-precision ultrasound therapy owing to its tight focal spot, broad frequency band, and stable excitation with minimal ultrasound-induced heating. We here report the development of the LGFU as a stimulus for promoted drug release from microgels integrated with drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. The pulsed waves of ultrasound, generated by a carbon black/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-photoacoustic lens, were introduced to trigger the drug release from alginate microgels encapsulated with drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. We demonstrated the antibacterial capability of this drug delivery system against Escherichia coli by the disk diffusion method, and antitumor efficacy toward the HeLa cell-derived tumor spheroids in vitro. This novel LGFU-responsive drug delivery system provides a simple and remote approach to precisely control the release of therapeutics in a spatiotemporal manner and potentially suppress detrimental effects to the surrounding tissue, such as thermal ablation. PMID:26299506

  9. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications. PMID:27375781

  10. Targeted delivery of lipid antigen to macrophages via the CD169/sialoadhesin endocytic pathway induces robust invariant natural killer T cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Norihito; Vela, Jose Luis; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Rademacher, Christoph; Khurana, Archana; van Rooijen, Nico; Crocker, Paul R.; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Paulson, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells induce a protective immune response triggered by foreign glycolipid antigens bound to CD1d on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A limitation of using glycolipid antigens to stimulate immune responses in human patients has been the inability to target them to the most effective APCs. Recent studies have implicated phagocytic CD169+ macrophages as major APCs in lymph nodes for priming iNKT cells in mice immunized with glycolipid antigen in particulate form...

  11. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes diffusion controlled drug delivery systems; dissolution controlled drug delivery systems, osmotically controlled drug delivery systems, ion-exchange controlled drug delivery systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, multi-Particulate drug delivery systems and microencapsulated drug delivery system. The systems are formulated using different natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The purpose of the review is to provide information about the orally controlled drug delivery system, polymers which are used to formulate these systems and characterizations of one of the most convenient dosage form which is the tablets. 

  12. Formulation development and evaluation of controlled porosity osmotic pump delivery system for oral delivery of atenolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvendra S Rathore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we developed and evaluated the controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP based drug delivery system of sparingly water soluble drug atenolol (ATL. We selected target release profile and optimized different variables to help us achieve this. Formulation variables, such as, the levels of solubility enhancer (0-15% w/w of drug, ratio of the drug to the osmogents, coat thickness of the semipermeable membrane (SPM and level of pore former (0-20% w/w of polymer were found to effect the drug release from the developed formulations. Cellulose acetate (CA 398-10 was used as the semipermeable membrane containing polyethylene glycol 400 as the Cplasticizer. ATL release was directly proportional to the level of the solubility enhancer, osmotic pressure generated by osmotic agent and level of pore former; however, was inversely proportional to the coat thickness of SPM. Drug release from developed formulations was independent of the pH and agitation intensities of release media. Burst strength of the exhausted shells decreased with increase in the level of pore former. The optimized formulations were subjected to stability studies as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines, and formulations were found to be stable after 3 months study. Steady-state plasma levels of drug were predicted by the method of superposition.

  13. Preparing a health care delivery system for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Station is viewed as the beginning of man's permanent presence in space. This paper presents the guidelines being developed by NASA's medical community in preparing a quality, permanent health care delivery system for Space Station. The guidelines will be driven by unique Space Station requirements such as mission duration, crew size, orbit altitude and inclination, EVA frequency and rescue capability. The approach will emphasize developing a health care system that is modular and flexible. It will also incorporate NASA's requirements for growth capability, commonality, maintainability, and advanced technology development. Goals include preventing unnecessary rescue attempts, as well as maintaining the health and safety of the crew. Proper planning will determine the levels of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment necessary to achieve these goals.

  14. Spatial service delivery system for smart licensing & enforcement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Nor, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Noordin, N. M.; Mansor, S.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial information has introduced a new sense of urgency for a better understanding of the public needs in term of what, when and where they need services and through which devices, platform or physical locations they need them. The objective of this project is to value- add existing license management process for business premises which comes under the responsibility of Local Authority (PBT). Manipulation of geospatial and tracing technology via mobile platform allows enforcement officers to work in real-time, use a standardized system, improve service delivery, and optimize operation management. This paper will augment the scope and capabilities of proposed concept namely, Smart Licensing/Enforcement Management (SLEm). It will review the current licensing and enforcement practice of selected PBT in comparison to the enhanced method. As a result, the new enhanced system is expected to offer a total solution for licensing/enforcement management whilst increasing efficiency and transparency for smart city management and governance.

  15. A NOVEL OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: IN-SITU GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Patil*, A.A. Tagalpallewar, G.M. Rasve, A.V. Bendre, P.G. Khapekar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ophthalmic in-situ gels now days proved an palpable sustained drug delivery in various eye diseases. The formulation of in-situ gels for eye which carries the advantages like easy for administration, reduces frequency of dose and improves patient compliance. The formation of in-situ gels depends on phase transition system or sol-gel transition system. The formulation approaches like temperature intonation, pH change and presence of ions from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner are utilised for in-situ gels. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in-situ gels include chitosan, Pluronic F-127, poly-caprolactone, gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin etc.

  16. Skin delivery of ferulic acid from different vesicular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiangli; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to evaluate the skin delivery capabilities of different vesicular systems, including conventional liposomes (CL), Tween 80-based deformable liposomes (DL), invasomes (INS) and ethosomes bearing ferulic acid (FA) being an antioxidant exhibiting a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases. All of the test formulations were characterized for particle size distribution, zeta-potential, vesicular shape and surface morphology, in vitro human skin permeation and skin deposition. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) defined that all of liposomal vesicles were almost spherical, displaying unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (PDI ethosomal system containing 18.0 mg/ml of ferulic acid with an significantly (P ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for delivering ferulic acid into or across the skin. PMID:21329050

  17. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  18. Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Farha

    2016-03-01

    A targeted delivery system based on the polymeric nanoparticles as a drug carrier represents a marvelous avenue for cancer therapy. The pivotal characteristics of this system include biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, prolonged circulation and a wide payload spectrum of a therapeutic agent. Other outstanding features are their distinctive size and shape properties for tissue penetration via an active and passive targeting, specific cellular/subcellular trafficking pathways and facile control of cargo release by sophisticated material engineering. In this review, the current implications of encapsulation of anticancer agents within polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and cyclodextrin based nanoparticles to precisely target the tumor site, i.e., cell, tissue and organ are highlighted. Furthermore, the promising perspectives in this emerging field are discussed. PMID:26706565

  19. Stateless and Delivery Guaranteed Geometric Routing on Virtual Coordinate System

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    Stateless geographic routing provides relatively good performance at a fixed overhead, which is typically much lower than conventional routing protocols such as AODV. However, the performance of geographic routing is impacted by physical voids, and localization errors. Accordingly, virtual coordinate systems (VCS) were proposed as an alternative approach that is resilient to localization errors and that naturally routes around physical voids. However, VCS also faces virtual anomalies, causing their performance to trail geographic routing. In existing VCS routing protocols, there is a lack of an effective stateless and delivery guaranteed complementary routing algorithm that can be used to traverse voids. Most proposed solutions use variants of flooding or blind searching when a void is encountered. In this paper, we propose a spanning-path virtual coordinate system which can be used as a complete routing algorithm or as the complementary algorithm to greedy forwarding that is invoked when voids are encountere...

  20. Conceptualizing the use of system products and system deliveries in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Thuesen, Christian; Haug, Anders

    This article describes the concepts system products and system deliveries based on the use of product modularization and product configuration. The concepts are outlined and discussed based on examples from both the construction industry and related industry. The description focuses partly on the...... product architecture and partly of the setup of the business processes by using e.g. Configure to Order processes and Engineer to Order processes. Furthermore the potential impacts from using system products and system deliveries are discussed based on the examples included....

  1. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zheng Zhao,1,3 Li-Na Du,2 Cui-Tao Lu,1 Yi-Guang Jin,2 Shu-Ping Ge3 1Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3St Christopher’s Hospital for Children/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. Keywords: ultrasound, targeted therapy, clinical application

  2. Absorption Enhancing Excipients in Systemic Nasal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T. Maggio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal drug delivery is becoming an increasingly important form of drug administration for chronic and chronic-intermittent diseases. Important new applications in development include drugs for diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, certain types of convulsive disorders, migraine headaches, symptomatic pain relief, nausea, and anxiety, among others. Transmucosal absorption across the nasal mucosa is generally limited to molecules under 1,000 Da in size. Systemic delivery of molecules larger than this requires formulation with a suitable transmucosal absorption enhancer. More than one hundred potential transmucosal absorption enhancing excipients have been tested to date. Nearly all have failed to be practical due to poor effectiveness or unacceptable toxicity to mucosal tissue. Alkylsaccharides, cyclodextrins, and chitosan's have emerged as the leading candidates for potential broad clinical applications and are allowing development of convenient, patient-friendly, needle free formulations of small molecule drugs, as well as peptide and protein drugs that can be administered at home, at work, or in other public and private settings outside of the doctor’s office or hospital environment.

  3. Delivery Systems for In Vivo use of Nucleic Acid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende R.R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notorious biotechnological advance of the last few decades has allowed the development of experimental methods for understanding molecular mechanisms of genes and new therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy is maturing into a viable, practical method with the potential to cure a variety of human illnesses. Some nucleic-acid-based drugs are now available for controlling the progression of genetic diseases by inhibiting gene expression or the activity of their gene products. New therapeutic strategies employ a wide range of molecular tools such as bacterial plasmids containing transgenic inserts, RNA interference aptamers. A nucleic-acid based constitution confers a lower immunogenic potential and as result of the high stringency selection of large molecular variety, these drugs have high affi nity and selectivity for their targets. However, nucleic acids have poor biostability thus requiring chemical modifications and delivery systems to maintain their activity and ease their cellular internalization. This review discusses some of the mechanisms of action and the application of therapies based on nucleic acids such as aptamers and RNA interference as well as platforms for cellular uptake and intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides and their trade-offs.

  4. Multiparticulate system for colon targeted delivery of ondansetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of drugs to colon has the potential for local treatment of a variety of colonic diseases. The main objective of the study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing chitosan microspheres for the colon targeted delivery of ondansetron for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. This work combines pH-dependent solubility of eudragit S-100 polymers and microbial degradability of chitosan polymers. Chitosan microspheres containing ondansetron were prepared by emulsion cross linking method. The effect of process variables like chitosan concentration, drug-polymer ratio, emulsifier concentration and stirring speed were studied on particle size and entrapment efficiency of chitosan microspheres. In vitro drug release studies in simulated gastro intestinal fluids showed a burst drug release pattern in the initial hour necessitating microencapsulation around the chitosan microspheres. The optimized formulation was then subjected to microencapsulation with eudragit S-100 by solvent evaporation technique. The effect of different coat/core ratio on particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release were studied. Formulation which contain 1:10 core/coat ratio released lesser amount of drug in the upper gastro intestinal conditions and so selected as best formulation and then subjected to in vitro drug release studies in presence of rat ceacal contents to assess biodegradability of chitosan microspheres in colon. In order to study the drug release mechanism in vitro drug release data was fitted into various kinetic models. Analysis of regression values suggested that the possible drug release mechanism was Peppas model.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Maliandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  6. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: AN ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Nandan Reddy* and Arshia Shariff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, research and clinical medicine, as well as in other varied sciences. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN dispersions have been proposed as a new type of colloidal drug carrier system suitable for intravenous administration. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs technology represents a promising new approach to lipophilic drug delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles are spherical lipid particles ranging in size from 1 to 1000 nm and are dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solution. It is identical to an oil-in-water emulsion, but the liquid lipid (oil of the emulsion has been replaced by a solid lipid, i.e., yielding Solid Lipid Nanoparticles. SLN are particles made from solid lipid or lipid blends produced by high pressure homogenization. The biodegradable and bioacceptable nature of SLNs makes them less toxic as compared to polymeric nanoparticles. SLNs can also be used to improve the bioavailability of drugs. In this present review this new approach is discussed in terms of their advantages, disadvantages, methods, characterization, pharmacokinetic studies, in-vivo studies, in-vitro studies, and special features

  7. Strategic workforce planning for a multihospital, integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, David; Hallberg, Colleen; Harris, Kathy; Harrison, Lisa; Samples, Patience

    2012-01-01

    Banner Health has long recognized the need to anticipate, beyond the immediate operational realities or even the annual budgeting projection exercises, the necessary workforce needs of the future. Thus, in 2011, Banner implemented a workforce planning model that included structures, processes, and tools for predicting workforce needs, with particular focus on identified critical systemwide practice areas. The model represents the incorporation of labor management tools and processes with more strategic, broad-view, long-term assessment and planning mechanisms. The sequential tying of the workforce planning lifecycle with the organization's strategy and financial planning process supports alignment of goals, objectives, and resource allocation. Collaboration among strategy, finance, human resources, and operations has provided us with the ability to identify critical position groups based on 3-year strategic priorities. By engaging leaders from across the organization, focusing on activities at facility, regional, and system levels, and building in mechanisms for accountability, we are now engaged in continuous evaluations of our delivery models, the competencies and preparations necessary for the staff to effectively function within those delivery models, and developing and implementing action plans designed to ensure adequate numbers of the staff whose competencies will be suited to the work expected of them. PMID:22955225

  8. Phyto-vesicles:conduit between conventional and novel drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Mishra; Narayan P Yadav; Jaya Gopal Meher; Priyam Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the preparation, characterization, targeting and formulation aspect of phospholipids based drug delivery system i.e. Phyto-vesicles. Methods: The methods of phyto-vesicles preparation on R & D scale and different analytical techniques to characterize them have been discussed. Result: Phyto-vesicles are the advanced form of herbal drug delivery systems as its structure includes water soluble head and two fat soluble tails which act as an effective emulsifier. Conclusion: It is concluded that phytovesicular delivery system has improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter as compared to conventional system Therefore, phyto-vesicles are called as conduit between conventional and novel drug delivery system.

  9. Oral β-glucans modulate systemic antigen responses in dogs and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Stuyven, Edith; Arnouts, Sven; Goddeeris, Bruno; Cox, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The cell wall glucans of yeasts and fungi consist of a linear backbone of -1,3-linked glucosylunits with -1,6-linked side chains (1, 2). Although a lot is already known about the mechanism of action of -1,3/1,6-glucans on the innate immune system (3, 4), there is still a lot to be learned about their effects on the adaptive immune system in mammals. We aimed to determine if oral supplementation could modulate a systemic immune response. The latter was examined in pigs using a model antigen...

  10. Progress in psoriasis therapy via novel drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a lifelong condition which is caused by the negative signals produced by immune system, which leads to hyper proliferation and other inflammatory reactions on the skin. In this case, keratinocytes which are the outermost layer of skin possess shortened life cycle and results in the alteration of desquamation process where the cytokines will come out through lesions of affected patients and as a result, scaling marks appears on the skin. These conditions may negatively affect the patient’s quality of life and lead to psychosocial stress. Psoriasis can be categorized as mild, moderate and severe conditions. Mild psoriasis leads to the formation of rashes, and when it becomes moderate, the skin turns into scaly. In severe conditions, red patches may be present on skin surface and becomes itchy. Topical therapy continues to be one of the pillars for psoriasis management. Drug molecules with target effect on the skin tissues and other inflammations should be selected for the treatment of psoriasis. Most of the existing drugs lead to systemic intoxication and dryness when applied in higher dose. Different scientific approaches for topical delivery are being explored by researches including emollient, modified gelling system, transdermal delivery, spray, nanogels, hydrogels, micro/nano emulsion, liposomes, nano capsules etc. These topical dosage forms are evaluated for various physico chemical properties such as drug content, viscosity, pH, extrudability, spreadability, toxicity, irritancy, permeability and drug release mechanism. This review paper focus attention to the impact of these formulation approaches on various anti-psoriasis drugs for their successful treatment.

  11. ROLE OF XANTHAN GUM (XANTHOMONAS COMPESTRIS) IN GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Uday Prakash; Lalit Singh; Vijay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Floating drug delivery system is the form of gastro-retentive drug delivery system. That controls kinetic release rate of drug to a specific site for its pharmacological action. These are achieved by use of various polymeric substances including natural polymer such as xanthan gum. This delivery system prolongs the retention time of the drug in the stomach as compared to conventional dosage form. The present article highlights the use of xanthan gum for the formulation of the gastro-retentive...

  12. Progress in non-viral gene delivery systems fabricated via supramolecular assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Youxiang; SHEN Jiacong

    2005-01-01

    Gene delivery systems are one of key issues that limit the development of gene therapy. The novel non-viral gene delivery systems fabricated via supramolecular assembly have begun to show increasing promising and applications in gene therapy due to its suitable nanometric size, controllable structure and excellent biocompatibility. In this review, the fundamental and recent progress of non-viral gene supramolecular assembly is reviewed. Artificial viruses--the future direction of non-viral gene delivery systems are also described.

  13. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBOURDENX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood-brain-barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery.

  14. Naltrexone: a review of existing sustained drug delivery systems and emerging nano-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Ujoodha, Reetesh; Jhugroo, Anil; Hulse, Gary K; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2014-06-10

    Narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone (NTX) have shown some efficiency in the treatment of both opiate addiction and alcohol dependence. A few review articles have focused on clinical findings and pharmacogenetics of NTX, advantages and limitations of sustained release systems as well as pharmacological studies of NTX depot formulations for the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependency. To date, three NTX implant systems have been developed and tested in humans. In this review, we summarize the latest clinical data on commercially available injectable and implantable NTX-sustained release systems and discuss their safety and tolerability aspects. Emphasis is also laid on recent developments in the area of nanodrug delivery such as NTX-loaded micelles and nanogels as well as related research avenues. Due to their ability to increase the therapeutic index and to improve the selectivity of drugs (targeted delivery), nanodrug delivery systems are considered as promising sustainable drug carriers for NTX in addressing opiate and alcohol dependence. PMID:24704710

  15. Tailoring subunit vaccine immunity with adjuvant combinations and delivery routes using the Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain as an antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Lan

    Full Text Available The development of an effective vaccine is critical for prevention of a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV pandemic. Some studies have indicated the receptor-binding domain (RBD protein of MERS-CoV spike (S is a good candidate antigen for a MERS-CoV subunit vaccine. However, highly purified proteins are typically not inherently immunogenic. We hypothesised that humoral and cell-mediated immunity would be improved with a modification of the vaccination regimen. Therefore, the immunogenicity of a novel MERS-CoV RBD-based subunit vaccine was tested in mice using different adjuvant formulations and delivery routes. Different vaccination regimens were compared in BALB/c mice immunized 3 times intramuscularly (i.m. with a vaccine containing 10 µg of recombinant MERS-CoV RBD in combination with either aluminium hydroxide (alum alone, alum and polyriboinosinic acid (poly I:C or alum and cysteine-phosphate-guanine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN. The immune responses of mice vaccinated with RBD, incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA and CpG ODN by a subcutaneous (s.c. route were also investigated. We evaluated the induction of RBD-specific humoral immunity (total IgG and neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity (ELISpot assay for IFN-γ spot-forming cells and splenocyte cytokine production. Our findings indicated that the combination of alum and CpG ODN optimized the development of RBD-specific humoral and cellular immunity following subunit vaccination. Interestingly, robust RBD-specific antibody and T-cell responses were induced in mice immunized with the rRBD protein in combination with IFA and CpG ODN, but low level of neutralizing antibodies were elicited. Our data suggest that murine immunity following subunit vaccination can be tailored using adjuvant combinations and delivery routes. The vaccination regimen used in this study is promising and could improve the protection offered by the MERS-CoV subunit vaccine by eliciting

  16. Optimized formulation of solid self-microemulsifying sirolimus delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho W

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wonkyung Cho,1,2 Min-Soo Kim,3 Jeong-Soo Kim,2 Junsung Park,1,2 Hee Jun Park,1,2 Kwang-Ho Cha,1,2 Jeong-Sook Park,2 Sung-Joo Hwang1,4 1Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Republic of Korea; 4College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: The aim of this study was to develop an optimized solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS formulation for sirolimus to enhance its solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Methods: Excipients used for enhancing the solubility and stability of sirolimus were screened. A phase-separation test, visual observation for emulsifying efficiency, and droplet size analysis were performed. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to optimize the liquid SMEDDS formulation. The selected liquid SMEDDS formulations were prepared into solid form. The dissolution profiles and pharmacokinetic profiles in rats were analyzed. Results: In the results of the oil and cosolvent screening studies, Capryol™ Propylene glycol monocaprylate (PGMC and glycofurol exhibited the highest solubility of all oils and cosolvents, respectively. In the surfactant screening test, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS was determined to be the most effective stabilizer of sirolimus in pH 1.2 simulated gastric fluids. The optimal formulation determined by the construction of ternary phase diagrams was the T32 (Capryol™ PGMC:glycofurol:vitamin E TPGS = 30:30:40 weight ratio formulation with a mean droplet size of 108.2 ± 11.4 nm. The solid SMEDDS formulations were prepared with Sucroester 15 and mannitol. The droplet size of the reconstituted solid SMEDDS showed no significant difference compared with the liquid SMEDDS. In the dissolution study, the release amounts of

  17. Enzymatically triggered multifunctional delivery system based on hyaluronic acid micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Tumor targetability and stimuli responsivity of drug delivery systems (DDS) are key factors in cancer therapy. Implementation of multifunctional DDS can afford targetability and responsivity at the same time. Herein, cholesterol molecules (Ch) were coupled to hyaluronic acid (HA) backbones to afford amphiphilic conjugates that can self-assemble into stable micelles. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, were encapsulated by Ch-HA micelles and were selectively released in the presence of hyaluronidase (Hyals) enzyme. Cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were done using three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7) and one normal cell line (WI38). Higher Ch-HA micelles uptake was seen in cancer cells versus normal cells. Consequently, DOX release was elevated in cancer cells causing higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cell death. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Fenton-treated functionalized diamond nanoparticles as gene delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Roberto; Alvaro, Mercedes; Herance, José Raúl; García, Hermenegildo

    2010-01-26

    When raw diamond nanoparticles (Dnp, 7 nm average particle size) obtained from detonation are submitted to harsh Fenton-treatment, the resulting material becomes free of amorphous soot matter and the process maintains the crystallinity, reduces the particle size (4 nm average particle size), increases the surface OH population, and increases water solubility. All these changes are beneficial for subsequent Dnp covalent functionalization and for the ability of Dnp to cross cell membranes. Fenton-treated Dnps have been functionalized with thionine and the resulting sample has been observed in HeLa cell nuclei. A triethylammonium-functionalized Dnp pairs electrostatically with a plasmid having the green fluorescent protein gene and acts as gene delivery system permitting the plasmid to cross HeLa cell membrane, something that does not occur for the plasmid alone without assistance of polycationic Dnp. PMID:20047335

  19. A Novel Drug Delivery System for Osteosarcoma Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A thermo-responsive chitosan hydrogel system (TRCHS) was prepared by chitosan ( CS ) andβ- glycerophosphate ( β- GP ) to deliver Adriamycin (ADM) locally for curing osteosarcoma . Release property was investigated by release experiments in vitro and results show that it can be applied to local drug release because it is able to release drug at high concentration for 17 days. The treatment effect was studied by injecting intratumorally to osteosarcoma tumors ( CRL- 1427) implanted subcutaneously on Specific Pathogen-free (SPF) mice. The statistical analytical results show that TRCHS delivering ADM is more efficacious than saline intratumoral injection,which loads the same quantity of ADM , but is less poisonous. Based on the analysis above, this novel biodegradable polymer implant is an effective and safe vehicle for sustained local delivery of ADM, and is supposed to be applied in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.

  20. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  1. Recent developments in retinal lasers and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocoagulation is the standard of care for several ocular disorders and in particular retinal conditions. Technology has offered us newer lasing mediums, wavelengths and delivery systems. Pattern scan laser in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema allows laser treatment that is less time consuming and less painful. Now, it is possible to deliver a subthreshold micropulse laser that is above the threshold of biochemical effect but below the threshold of a visible, destructive lesion thereby preventing collateral damage. The advent of solid-state diode yellow laser allows us to treat closer to the fovea, is more effective for vascular structures and offers a more uniform effect in patients with light or irregular fundus pigmentation. Newer retinal photocoagulation options along with their advantages is discussed in this review.

  2. Bioinspired silica as drug delivery systems and their biocompatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steven, Christopher R.; Busby, Grahame A.; Mather, Craig;

    2014-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles have been shown to have great potential as drug delivery systems (DDS), however, their fabrication often involves harsh chemicals and energy intensive laborious methods. This work details the employment of a bioinspired "green" method for the controlled synthesis of silica, use...... of the products to entrap and release drug molecules and their cytotoxicity in order to develop novel DDS. Bioinspired silica synthesis occurs at pH 7, room temperature and in less than 5 minutes, resulting in a rapid, cheaper and greener route. Drugs were loaded into silica during the silica...... formation, thus allowing a one step and one pot method for simultaneous silica synthesis and drug loading. We established that the drug release profile can be modulated by synthetic parameters, which can allow design of tailored DDS. A systematic investigation using a two level factorial design was adopted...

  3. Evaluation of metal nanoparticles for drug delivery systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluyomi S.Adeyemi; Faoziyat A.Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Diminazene aceturate is a trypanocide with unwanted toxicity and limited efficacy.It was reasoned that conjugating diminazene aceturate to functionalized nanoparticle would lower untoward toxicity while improving selectivity and therapeutic efficacy.Silver and gold nanoparticles were evaluated for their capacities to serve as carriers for diminazene aceturate.The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized,functionalized and coupled to diminazene aceturate following established protocols.The nanoparticle conjugates were characterized.The free diminazene aceturate and drug conjugated nanoparticles were subsequently evaluated for cytotoxicity in vitro.The characterizations by transmission electron microscopy or UV/Vis spectroscopy revealed that conjugation of diminazene aceturate to silver or gold nanoparticles was successful.Evaluation for cytotoxic actions in vitro demonstrated no significance difference between free diminazene aceturate and the conjugates.Our data suggest that surface modified metal nanoparticles could be optimized for drug delivery systems.

  4. Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-08-01

    Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin. PMID:18492190

  5. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B;

    2012-01-01

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of...... the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly...... reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen....

  6. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  7. Loading, Release, Biodegradation, and Biocompatibility of a Nanovector Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrai, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    A nanovector multistage system has been created to overcome or bypass sequential barriers within the human body, in order to deliver a therapeutic or imaging agent to a specific location. This innovation consists of a composition that includes two or more stages of particles, such that smaller, later-stage particles are contained in the larger, early-stage particles. An active agent, such as a therapeutic agent or imaging agent, is preferentially delivered and/or localized to a particular target site in the body of a subject. The multistage composition overcomes multiple biological barriers in the body. The multistage composition also allows for simultaneous delivery and localization at the same or different target sites of multiple active agents.

  8. [Anti-HIV drugs and drug delivery system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaru, K; Mitsuya, H

    1998-03-01

    A number of candidate drugs for therapy of HIV-1 infection which show significant activity against the virus in vitro were reported; however, many of them have been dropped from drug development due to (i) insufficient intracellular activation in certain human target cells (particularly in case of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (ii) poor pharmacokinetic profiles, or (iii) intolerable in vitro and/or in vivo toxicities. To circumvent some of these problems, certain drug delivery systems have been applied and several candidate drugs including two novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, abacavir and adefovir, have acquired favorable properties in the clinical setting. This paper reviews several avenues for developing prodrugs of anti-HIV-1 agents to overcome their inherent limitations. PMID:9549371

  9. Azithromycin novel drug delivery system for ocular application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Nagpal, Kalpana; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2011-01-01

    Background: Azithromycin (AZT) is a macrolide antibiotic derived from and similar in structure to erythromycin. Oral administration of AZT is effective for the treatment of trachoma; however, topical formulations are difficult to develop because of the drug's hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to formulate a novel topical ophthalmic delivery system of AZT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ocular inserts of AZT are prepared using alginate, carbopol, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to solve the said formulation problem of drug and to facilitate ocular bioavailability. Ocular inserts were prepared by film casting method and the prepared films were subjected to investigations for their physical and mechanical properties, swelling behaviors, ex vivo bioadhesion, and in vitro drug release. Ocular irritation of the developed formulation was also checked by hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane test for ocular irritation potential. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of films were found to vary significantly depending on the type of polymers used and their combinations. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the carbopol films. HPMC addition to the films significantly affected the properties of ocular inserts. Carbopol:HPMC (30:70)-based ocular inserts sustained drug release for longest span of 6 h. The release profile of AZT showed that drug release was by both diffusion and swelling. The formulation was found to be practically nonirritant in ocular irritation studies. Conclusion: AZT can therefore be developed as an ocular insert delivery system for the treatment of ocular surface infections. PMID:23071916

  10. MIMiC IMRS and IMRT delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiosurgery is a single application of high radiation dose to a stereotactically defined target volume. Treatment delivery involves multiple stereotactically targeted, arced fields. The goal of radiosurgery is to deliver a high dose to the target while sparing the normal tissue just a few millimeters away.We will present the first experience of planning, verification and realization of treatment with a new treatment and navigation system for IMRS and IMRT as well as present the first comparison of these methods. 1. Introduction. Since 1993, the stereotactic radiosurgery on linac is used at St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in Bratislava. Until September 2006 we have treated 870 patients with primary brain tumours, metastases, recurrences and AV malformations with Leibinger stereotaxy circular collimators system on Clinac 600C/D of Varian accelerator. Since May 2005 we have been using also a Nomos MIMiC (with BEAK) stereotaxy IMRS and IMRT delivery system with Corvus treatment planning system and Autocrane positioning of cauch. Till September 2006 we have treated 36 patients with MIMiC and five patients with 120 MLC Milenium. 2. Method. 2.1. Navigation and immobilization equipment. For the reason of continuity, for stereotactic immobilization at STRS we use Leibinger system with autocrane mowing system on Clinac 600C/D and for IMRT thermoplastic masks. 2.2. MiniMLC MIMiC with active monitor. MiniMLC MIMiC is attached to the gantry of linac. It is used for dynamic arc IMRS and IMRT. The device consists of 20 pairs of leaves 1 cm wide in two rows, with pneumatic control of the position of each leaf by the active monitor according to the data for a given treatment from the treatment planning system transferred on a floppy disc. Each leaf has its own position control. The active monitor also contains a system for angle gantry detection with an accuracy of 0.1 deg.. Taking into account the position of gantry and data in memory, it opens or closes the respective

  11. Radioimmunoassay in the detection of the hepatitis Be antigen/antibody system in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to e (anti-HBe) was developed and sera of 71 asymptomatic chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), in 44 of whom liver biopsy was obtained, were tested. In addition, testing for Dane particle associated DNA polymerase activity was performed in all sera. HBeAg was detected in 14 subjects (19.7%) and anti-HBe in 46 (64.8%). The highest proportion of HBeAg positivity (40%) was found among carriers with histological evidence of chronic hepatitis, whereas anti-HBe was present in 80% of carriers with normal liver histology, in 58% of carriers with non-specific reactive hepatitis and in 60% of carriers with chronic liver lesions. DNA polymerase activity was present in 92.8% of sera positive for HBeAg, in 13% of sera positive for anti HBe, and in 9% of sera negative for both markers. Our results demonstrate that not all HBsAg carriers reactive to HBeAg show evidence of chronic hepatitis nor, conversely, that anti-HBe is invariably associated with the healthy carrier state of HBsAg. Finally, circulating Dane particles, as revealed by the presence of serum specific DNA polymerase activity, may also be present in anti-HBe positive sera other than those of some HBsAg carriers lacking both HBeAg and anti-HBe. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe...... delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract are...... summarized. Additionally, the paper provides an overview of recent studies on characterization of solid drug carriers for peptide/protein drugs, drug distribution in particles, drug release and stability in simulated GI fluids, as well as the absorption of peptide/protein drugs in cell-based models. The use...

  13. Cost analysis of stratospheric albedo modification delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform engineering cost analyses of systems capable of delivering 1–5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of albedo modification material to altitudes of 18–30 km. The goal is to compare a range of delivery systems evaluated on a consistent cost basis. Cost estimates are developed with statistical cost estimating relationships based on historical costs of aerospace development programs and operations concepts using labor rates appropriate to the operations. We evaluate existing aircraft cost of acquisition and operations, perform in-depth new aircraft and airship design studies and cost analyses, and survey rockets, guns, and suspended gas and slurry pipes, comparing their costs to those of aircraft and airships. Annual costs for delivery systems based on new aircraft designs are estimated to be $1–3B to deliver 1 Mt to 20–30 km or $2–8B to deliver 5 Mt to the same altitude range. Costs for hybrid airships may be competitive, but their large surface area complicates operations in high altitude wind shear, and development costs are more uncertain than those for airplanes. Pipes suspended by floating platforms provide low recurring costs to pump a liquid or gas to altitudes as high as ∼ 20 km, but the research, development, testing and evaluation costs of these systems are high and carry a large uncertainty; the pipe system’s high operating pressures and tensile strength requirements bring the feasibility of this system into question. The costs for rockets and guns are significantly higher than those for other systems. We conclude that (a) the basic technological capability to deliver material to the stratosphere at million tonne per year rates exists today, (b) based on prior literature, a few million tonnes per year would be sufficient to alter radiative forcing by an amount roughly equivalent to the growth of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing over the next half century, and that (c) several different methods could possibly deliver this quantity for less

  14. Technical note: A simple and effective CO2 delivery system for angiography using a blood bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several angiographic techniques have been developed to image the arterial system, the commonest using iodinated contrast media. Useful as they may be, they are not without disadvantages. One other modality is angiography using CO2. Although CO2 can be used as an alternative contrast medium, delivery systems are expensive to procure. We describe an indigenous and effective delivery system developed at our institute

  15. Antigen presenting cells in the skin of a patient with hair loss and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hair loss is one of the most striking clinical features of active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, however, very few studies have investigated the immunological features of this process. Case report: We describe a 33 years old female who presented with scalp hair loss and arthralgias. Physical examination revealed erythematous plaques on the nose and scalp, with bitemporal hair loss. Scalp biopsies revealed epidermal hyperkeratosis, with a mild interface infiltrate of lymphocytes and histiocytes and a superficial and deep, perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate of mostly CD4 positive cells. Antibodies to HAM 56, CD68, CD1a, S-100, mast cell tryptase and c-kit/CD117 were strongly positive around the hair follicles, and in the adjacent sebaceous glands. Conclusion: We present the first report showing a significant presence of several antigen presenting cells around the hair follicular units in a patient with alopecia in active SLE. Today, antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells (DC are modeled as the master regulators of human immunity. One aspect that has become clearly appreciated is the great diversity of DC subtypes, each with considerable functional differences. Thus, we suggest that APC and DCs are equipped with Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs to some hair follicular unit antigens; that these innate sensors recognize conserved molecular patterns on self- tissue, and play a significant role in the pathophysiology of alopecia in SLE patients.

  16. Antigen presenting cells in the skin of a patient with hair loss and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hair loss is one of the most striking clinical features of active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, however, very few studies have investigated the immunological features of this process. Case report: We describe a 33 years old female who presented with scalp hair loss and arthralgias. Physical examination revealed erythematous plaques on the nose and scalp, with bitemporal hair loss. Scalp biopsies revealed epidermal hyperkeratosis, with a mild interface infiltrate of lymphocytes and histiocytes and a superficial and deep, perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate of mostly CD4 positive cells. Antibodies to HAM 56, CD68, CD1a, S-100, mast cell tryptase and c-kit/CD117 were strongly positive around the hair follicles, and in the adjacent sebaceous glands. Conclusion : We present the first report showing a significant presence of several antigen presenting cells around the hair follicular units in a patient with alopecia in active SLE. Today, antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells (DC are modeled as the master regulators of human immunity. One aspect that has become clearly appreciated is the great diversity of DC subtypes, each with considerable functional differences. Thus, we suggest that APC and DCs are equipped with Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs to some hair follicular unit antigens; that these innate sensors recognize conserved molecular patterns on self- tissue, and play a significant role in the pathophysiology of alopecia in SLE patients

  17. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  18. IN SITU GELS- A NEW TRENDS IN OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanjit Saini; Seema Saini; Gurpreet Singh; Dr. Angshu Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavor facing the pharmaceutical scientist. The conventional ocular drug delivery systems like solutions, suspensions, and ointments show drawbacks such as increased precorneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision respectively so there was a need for developing advanced drug delivery system. In situ forming polymeric formulations were developed to overcome the conventional drug therapy drawbac...

  19. The lung as a route for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Kinget Renaat; Armand Michoel; Ikechukwu Ugwoke Michael; Uchenna Agu Remigius; Verbeke Norbert

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The large surface area, good vascularization, immense capacity for solute exchange and ultra-thinness of the alveolar epithelium are unique features of the lung that can facilitate systemic delivery via pulmonary administration of peptides and proteins. Physical and biochemical barriers, lack of optimal dosage forms and delivery devices limit the systemic delivery of biotherapeutic agents by inhalation. Current efforts to overcome these difficulties in order to deliver metabolic horm...

  20. Oral delivery of peptides and proteins using lipid-based drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-01-01

    most important barriers (extensive enzymatic degradation and poor transmucosal permeability). This paper also gives a clear-cut idea about advantages and drawbacks of using different lipidic colloidal carriers ((micro)emulsions, solid lipid core particles and liposomes) for oral delivery of peptides...

  1. Approaches and Challenges of Engineering Implantable Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS Drug Delivery Systems for in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Tye Yong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advancements made in drug delivery systems over the years, many challenges remain in drug delivery systems for treating chronic diseases at the personalized medicine level. The current urgent need is to develop novel strategies for targeted therapy of chronic diseases. Due to their unique properties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology has been recently engineered as implantable drug delivery systems for disease therapy. This review examines the challenges faced in implementing implantable MEMS drug delivery systems in vivo and the solutions available to overcome these challenges.

  2. Modulating Gold Nanoparticle in vivo Delivery for Photothermal Therapy Applications Using a T Cell Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura Carpin

    This thesis reports new gold nanoparticle-based methods to treat chemotherapy-resistant and metastatic tumors that frequently evade conventional cancer therapies. Gold nanoparticles represent an innovative generation of diagnostic and treatment agents due to the ease with which they can be tuned to scatter or absorb a chosen wavelength of light. One area of intensive investigation in recent years is gold nanoparticle photothermal therapy (PTT), in which gold nanoparticles are used to heat and destroy cancer. This work demonstrates the utility of gold nanoparticle PTT against two categories of cancer that are currently a clinical challenge: trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer and metastatic cancer. In addition, this thesis presents a new method of gold nanoparticle delivery using T cells that increases gold nanoparticle tumor accumulation efficiency, a current challenge in the field of PTT. I ablated trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer in vitro for the first time using anti-HER2 labeled silica-gold nanoshells, demonstrating the potential utility of PTT against chemotherapy-resistant cancers. I next established for the first time the use of T cells as gold nanoparticle vehicles in vivo. When incubated with gold nanoparticles in culture, T cells can internalize up to 15000 nanoparticles per cell with no detrimental effects to T cell viability or function (e.g. migration and cytokine secretion). These AuNP-T cells can be systemically administered to tumor-bearing mice and deliver gold nanoparticles four times more efficiently than by injecting free nanoparticles. In addition, the biodistribution of AuNP-T cells correlates with the normal biodistribution of T cell carrier, suggesting the gold nanoparticle biodistribution can be modulated through the choice of nanoparticle vehicle. Finally, I apply gold nanoparticle PTT as an adjuvant treatment for T cell adoptive transfer immunotherapy (Hyperthermia-Enhanced Immunotherapy or HIT) of distant tumors in a melanoma mouse

  3. COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACHES WITH CURRENT TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaragiri Keerthi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years colon specific drug delivery has gained importance not just for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also as potential site for the systemic delivery of drugs like therapeutic proteins and peptides. This article reviews a detailed study about diseases of colon, diagnosis of diseases of colon, limitations and challenges, applications, anatomy of colon, factors affecting colon and different approaches of colon which include some current new approaches such as Pulsinicap system, Port system, Probiotic approach, Chronotropic system, Colal-pred system, Multiparticulate system, Enterion capsule technology and some past studies of colon drug delivery and also a study on evaluation for site specific drug delivery to colon.

  4. Porous carrier based floating granular delivery system of repaglinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil K; Agrawal, Govind P; Jain, Narendra K

    2007-04-01

    A floating granular delivery system consisting of calcium silicate (CS) as porous carrier; repaglinide (Rg), an oral hypoglycemic agent; and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M (HPMC K4M), ethyl cellulose (EC) and carbopol 940 (CP940) as matrix forming polymers was prepared and evaluated for its gastro-retentive and controlled release properties. The effect of various formulation and process variables on the particle morphology, micromeritic properties, in vitro floating behavior, drug content (%) and in vitro drug release was studied. The transit of floating granules of optimized formulation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was monitored by gamma scintigraphy in albino rabbits. The optimized formulation was compared in vivo with lactose granules (RgSCLG) prepared from identical polymers with their optimized composition ratio. Repaglinide-loaded optimized formulation was orally administered to albino rabbits and blood samples collected were used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of Rg from floating granular formulation. Results were compared with pharmacokinetic parameters of marketed tablet formulation of Rg. The optimized formulation (RgSCG4) demonstrated favorable in vitro floating and release characteristics. Prolonged gastric residence time (GRT) of over 6 hr was achieved in all subjects for calcium silicate based floating granules of Rg. The relative bioavailability of Rg-loaded floating granules increased 3.8-fold in comparison to that of its marketed capsule. The designed system, combining excellent buoyant ability and suitable drug release pattern, offered clear advantages in terms of increased bioavailability of repaglinide. PMID:17523003

  5. A New Beam and Delivery System for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new beam delivery system consists of an electron accelerator and a system of magnets (one or more). Introducing a transverse magnetic field in and near the tumor, causes the electrons to spiral in this region, thereby producing an effective peak in the depth dose distribution, within the tumor volume. Although the basic idea is not new, we suggest here for the first time, a viable as well as a workable, magnetic field configuration, which in addition to focusing the beam does not interfere with its propagation to the target. Prototypes were successfully tested by means of computer simulation. The electron accelerator : can be a linear accelerator or any other type electron accelerator, capable of producing different electron energies for different depths and dose absorptionaccumulation . The Field size can be as small as a pencil beam and as big as any of the other standard field sizes that are used in radiotherapy. The scatter filter can be used or removed. The dose rate accumulation can be as higher as possible. The magnets are able to produce magnetic fields. The order, direction, width, place, shape and number of the magnetic fields define the shape and the Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curve of the electron beam.

  6. Properties of Amorphous Silica Entrapped Isoniazid Drug Delivery System (DDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the properties of drug delivery system (DDS) produced using micelles entrapment approach. Isoniazid, which is a water soluble drug for tuberculosis was used in the system. The effects of synthesis parameters were systematically studied such as synthesis temperature (38- 70 degree Celsius), amount of butanol co-solvent (6-18 ml), and amount of Si organic precursor (2-8 ml). From transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the size of DDS could be tuned from 21-104 nm by changing the reaction temperature. While, the increase of butanol cosolvent enlarged the size of DDS in the range of 40-94 nm. A similar trend was observed for DDS with increasing organic Si precursor whereby the particle size could be tuned from 40-132 nm. However, at high amount of organic Si precursor of > 2 ml, a bimodal structure of DDS was observed. Stability study in biological media at 37 degree Celsius of selected samples showed that the produced DDS had acceptable degree of agglomeration (author)

  7. CARBON NANOTUBES: AN APPROACH TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alai et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of material science as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They have unique electronic, mechanical, optical and chemical properties that make them good candidates for a wide variety of applications, including drug transporters, new therapeutics, delivery systems and diagnostics. Their unique surface area, stiffness, strength and resilience have led to much excitement in the field of pharmacy. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes, multiple walled nanotubes. Various techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition. They can pass through membranes, carrying therapeutic drugs, vaccines and nucleic acids deep into the cell to targets previously unreachable. Purification of the tubes can be divided into a couple of main techniques: oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering and functionalization techniques. The main problem of insolubility in aqueous media has been solved by developing a synthetic protocol that allows highly water-soluble carbon NTs to be obtained. The modifications are done to improve efficiency of carbon nanotubes by formulating luminescent carbon nanotubes, ultrathin carbon nanoneedles, magnetically guided nanotubes. The application of carbon nanotube in tissue engineering, drug carrier release system, wound healing, in cancer treatment and as biosensor. Researchers have recently developed a new approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the treatment of cancer using substituted Carborane-Appended Water-Soluble single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  8. Floating bioadhesive drug delivery system using novel effervescent agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgamwar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sustained release gastroretentive dosage forms offer many advantages for drugs having absorption from the upper gastrointestinal tract and improve the bioavailability of medications that are characterized by the narrow absorption window. A new gastroretentive sustained release delivery system using the novel effervescent system was developed with floating, swellable, and bioadhesive properties. Various release retarding polymers like psyllium husk, HPMC K15M, and a swelling agent crosspovidone in different combinations were tried and optimized to get the release profile for 12hours. The formulations were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, in vitro drug release profile, swelling characteristics, floating capacity, and in vitro bioadhesive property. i0 n vitro drug release followed the Higuchi kinetics and the release mechanism was found to be of a non-Fickian type. The swelling properties were increased with increasing crosspovidone concentration and contributed to the drug release from the tablet matrix. In this study, an attempt has been made to explore novel effervescent agents such as citroglycine and disodium glycine carbonate for achieving the desired floating time.

  9. An experimental platform for systemic drug delivery to the retina.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Campbell, Matthew

    2009-10-20

    Degenerative retinopathies, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and hereditary retinal disorders--major causes of world blindness--are potentially treatable by using low-molecular weight neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, or antineovascular drugs. These agents are, however, not in current systemic use owing to, among other factors, their inability to passively diffuse across the microvasculature of the retina because of the presence of the inner blood-retina barrier (iBRB). Moreover, preclinical assessment of the efficacies of new formulations in the treatment of such conditions is similarly compromised. We describe here an experimental process for RNAi-mediated, size-selective, transient, and reversible modulation of the iBRB in mice to molecules up to 800 Da by suppression of transcripts encoding claudin-5, a protein component of the tight junctions of the inner retinal vasculature. MRI produced no evidence indicative of brain or retinal edema, and the process resulted in minimal disturbance of global transcriptional patterns analyzed in neuronal tissue. We show that visual function can be improved in IMPDH1(-\\/-) mice, a model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, and that the rate of photoreceptor cell death can be reduced in a model of light-induced retinal degeneration by systemic drug delivery after reversible barrier opening. These findings provide a platform for high-throughput drug screening in models of retinal degeneration, and they ultimately could result in the development of a novel "humanized" approach to therapy for conditions with little or no current forms of treatment.

  10. Immunoblotting profiles in 55 systemic lupus erythematosus sera lacking precipitating antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, O.; Bourgeois, P; Aeschlimann, A.; Haim, T; Mery, J P; Kahn, M F

    1989-01-01

    Serum samples from 55 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were selected for the absence of anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies after routine immunodiffusion tests. These sera were immunoblotted for anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies on a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Ten (18%) were negative and 45 (82%) produced complex patterns: 10 (18%) suggestive of anti-Sm, three (5%) anti-RNP, and 32 (58%) a combination of anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies. These data were very similar to th...

  11. Educational Audiology: A Comparison of Service Delivery Systems Utilized by Missouri Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, J. Brad; Golden, Diane Cordry

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of three audiology service delivery systems--(1) school-based audiology within the district, (2) non-school-based audiology in the community, and (3) school-based audiology in a remote community--found the local school-based delivery system superior on various quality indicators. (Author/DB)

  12. Amino-functionalized poly(L-lactide lamellar single crystals as a valuable substrate for delivery of HPV16-E7 tumor antigen in vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Bonito P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paola Di Bonito,1 Linda Petrone,1 Gabriele Casini,2 Iolanda Francolini,2 Maria Grazia Ammendolia,3 Luisa Accardi,1 Antonella Piozzi,2 Lucio D’Ilario,2 Andrea Martinelli2 1Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases, Italian National Institute of Health, 2Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Technology and Health, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Background: Poly(L-lactide (PLLA is a biodegradable polymer currently used in many biomedical applications, including the production of resorbable surgical devices, porous scaffolds for tissue engineering, nanoparticles and microparticles for the controlled release of drugs or antigens. The surfaces of lamellar PLLA single crystals (PLLAsc were provided with amino groups by reaction with a multifunctional amine and used to adsorb an Escherichia coli-produced human papillomavirus (HPV16-E7 protein to evaluate its possible use in antigen delivery for vaccine development.Methods: PLLA single crystals were made to react with tetraethylenepentamine to obtain amino-functionalized PLLA single crystals (APLLAsc. Pristine and amino-functionalized PLLAsc showed a two-dimensional microsized and one-dimensional nanosized lamellar morphology, with a lateral dimension of about 15–20 µm, a thickness of about 12 nm, and a surface specific area of about 130 m2/g. Both particles were characterized and loaded with HPV16-E7 before being administered to C57BL/6 mice for immunogenicity studies. The E7-specific humoral-mediated and cell-mediated immune response as well as tumor protective immunity were analyzed in mice challenged with TC-1 cancer cells.Results: Pristine and amino-functionalized PLLAsc adsorbed similar amounts of E7 protein, but in protein-release experiments E7-PLLAsc released a higher amount of protein than E7-APLLAsc. When the complexes were dried for observation by scanning electron microscopy, both samples showed a

  13. An antigen-mediated selection system for mammalian cells that produce glycosylated single-chain Fv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection and production of specific antibodies are limiting the development of high-throughput immunoassays such as antibody chips. In this study, we propose an antigen-mediated selection of antibody producers (ASAP) system in mammalian cells. As a model system, transgenes encoding anti-fluorescein ScFv fused to cytokine receptors were introduced to IL-3-dependent cell lines. Addition of fluorescein-conjugated BSA induced growth signal through the ScFv/receptor chimeras, leading to selective expansion of the transduced cells. Cre recombinase was then used to excise the receptor gene flanked by two loxP recognition sites in the introns, resulting in secretion of his-myc-tagged ScFv to the culture medium. When the first loxP site was used in the exon as a linker between ScFv and receptor, enhanced antigen-mediated cell proliferation and production of unexpectedly glycosylated ScFv were achieved. ASAP is the first mammalian selection/production system of recombinant human ScFvs, without need for subcloning and with the advantage of glycosylated product

  14. siRNA delivery with lipid-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    allow for protection of the siRNA, steric stabilization, targeting, membrane fusion and triggered drug release. At present a variety of lipid-based transfectants for siRNA delivery have been used for in vitro and in vivo purposes. The majority bears a cationic charge to electrostatically complex the si......RNA into more hydrophobic lipoplexes, which promote passage of the siRNA across cellular membrane barriers, especially when lipids are added that facilitate membrane fusion. Despite these attractive features, siRNA delivery vehicles are facing a number of challenges such as the limited delivery efficiency...

  15. Naive T lymphocytes traffic to inflamed central nervous system, but require antigen recognition for activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M L; Owens, T

    2000-01-01

    Organ-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by infiltration of the target tissue by CD4(+) T cells with specificity for self antigen(s). As disease progresses, T cells of other specificities appear in the tissue. Traffic of naive, antigen-inexperienced T cells to target tissues has not been...

  16. Bimodal gastroretentive drug delivery systems of lamotrigine: Formulation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Poonuru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroretentive bimodal drug delivery systems of lamotrigine were developed using immediate release and extended release segments incorporated in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose capsule and in vitro and in vivo evaluations were conducted. In vivo radiographic studies were carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy human volunteers with replacement of drug polymer complex by barium sulphate and the floating time was noted. Here the immediate release segment worked as loading dose and extended release segment as maintenance dose. The results of release studies of formulations with hydrophillic matrix to formulations with dual matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate shown that as the percentage of polymer increased, the release decreased. Selected formulation F2 having F-Melt has successfully released the drug within one hour and hydrophillic matrix composing polyethylene oxide with 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate showed a lag time of one hour and then extended its release up to 12th hour with 99.59% drug release following zero order kinetics with R 2 value of 0.989. The Korsmeyer-Peppas equation showed the R 2 value to be 0.941 and n value was 1.606 following non-Fickian diffusion pattern with supercase II relaxation mechanism. Here from extended release tablet the drug released slowly from the matrix while floating.

  17. A novel colonic drug delivery system of ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohel M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present endeavor was directed towards fabrication of the novel colonic drug delivery system of ibuprofen. To begin with, the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose capsules containing adsorbate of eutectic mixture of ibuprofen and menthol and pregelatinized starch were coated with ethyl cellulose. These ethyl cellulose coated capsules were filled in another capsule and the capsules were coated with a Eudragit; S100. The in vitro drug release study was conducted using sequential dissolution technique at pH 1.2 (two hour, 6.0 (1hr, 7.2 (two hour and 6.4 (three hour mimicking different regions of gastrointestinal tract. The optimized batch with two per cent and 6.5% weight gain of ethyl cellulose and Eudragit; S100 showed less than eight per cent drug release in stomach and intestinal pH. The remaining 92% drug release was obtained thereafter from the optimized batch within two hours in colonic pH. Scanning electron microscopy study of the optimized batch confirmed presence of ibuprofen crystals (rod shape in the formulation. The infrared spectroscopy study of the optimized batch indicated stability of ibuprofen during processing of the formulation.

  18. Design and optimization of floating drug delivery system of acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharia A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1 and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2 were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t 50% and 70% (t 70% drug dissolution were selected as dependent variables. All the designed nine batches of formulations were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, swelling index, in vitro buoyancy, and in vitro drug release profile. All formulations had floating lag time below 3 min and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 24 h. Validity of the developed polynomial equation was verified by designing two check point formulations (C1 and C2. The closeness of predicted and observed values for t 50% and t 70% indicates validity of derived equations for the dependent variables. These studies indicated that the proper balance between psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to the predicted dissolution profile. The optimized formulations followed Higuchi′s kinetics while the drug release mechanism was found to be anomalous type, controlled by diffusion through the swollen matrix.

  19. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Shujun; Sun Lei; Zhang Xinge, E-mail: zhangxinge@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China); Wu Zhongming [Tianjin Medical University, Metabolic Diseases Hospital (China); Wang Zhen; Li Chaoxing, E-mail: lcx@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China)

    2011-09-15

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  20. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  1. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α or β glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, anti oxidation, anti aging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  2. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α- or β-glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, antioxidation, antiaging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  3. Design and optimization of floating drug delivery system of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharia, A A; Hiremath, S N; Singhai, A K; Omray, L K; Jain, S K

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t(50%)) and 70% (t(70%)) drug dissolution were selected as dependent variables. All the designed nine batches of formulations were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, swelling index, in vitro buoyancy, and in vitro drug release profile. All formulations had floating lag time below 3 min and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 24 h. Validity of the developed polynomial equation was verified by designing two check point formulations (C1 and C2). The closeness of predicted and observed values for t(50%) and t(70%) indicates validity of derived equations for the dependent variables. These studies indicated that the proper balance between psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to the predicted dissolution profile. The optimized formulations followed Higuchi's kinetics while the drug release mechanism was found to be anomalous type, controlled by diffusion through the swollen matrix. PMID:21694992

  4. Buccoadhesive drug delivery system of isosorbide dinitrate: Formulation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doijad R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccoadhesive buccal delivery systems for isosorbide dinitrate in the form of unidirectional buccal films were developed and characterized for improving bioavailability. The films were formulated by solvent casting method using different bioadhesive polymers like Carbopol 934P and polyvinyl pyrrolidone by using two different plasticizers propylene glycol and diethyl phthalate. Unidirectional release was achieved by preparing composite films with backing membrane. The films were characterized on the basis of their physical characteristics, bioadhesive performance, and other parameters. In vitro studies revealed that release rate of isosorbide dinitrate was higher from carbopol films containing ratio of Eudragit RL100 and polyvinyl pyrrolidine in proportion of 1:2 and 2:1, respectively by using both plasticizers. Drug diffusion from buccal films showed apparently zero order kinetics and release mechanism was diffusion controlled after considerable swelling. All the films exhibited sufficient in vitro bioadhesion strength. Promising formulations were further studied for temperature dependent stability studies. Results of our preliminary experiments indicate that, therapeutic level of isosorbide dinitrate can be achieved using this buccaladhesive formulation.

  5. Recent patents survey on self emulsifying drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R

    2014-01-01

    Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System is a unique feasible approach to overcome low oral bioavailability problem which is associated with the hydrophobic drugs due to their unparalleled potential as a drug delivery with the broad range of application. The estimated 40% of active pharmaceuticals are poorly water soluble. Now recently, formulation containing oral SEDDS has received much interest as it solve problems related to oral bioavailability, intra and inter-subject variability and lack of dose proportionality of hydrophobic drugs. Now a days, it is the first way to investigate the development of any kind of innovative dosage forms. Many important in-vitro characteristics such as surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, emulsion polarity, droplet size and zeta potential play an important role in oral absorption of drug from SEEDS. It can be orally administered in the form of SGC or HGC and also enhances bioavailability of drugs to increase solubility and minimizes the gastric irritation. After administration the drug remains entrapped in the oily droplets (inside the droplet or in the surfactant`s film at the interface) of the emulsion that are formed in the GIT upon self-emulsification process. It is also a bit problematic to say that the drug is being released from SMEDDS, it would be more precise to say that it diffuses out of oily droplets into the GIT media resulting in the formation of an equilibrium between the drug dissolved in oily droplets and the outer dispersed media (e.g. GIT fluids). Many of the application and preparation methods of SEDDS are reported by research articles and patents in different countries. We present an exhaustive and updated account of numerous literature reports and more than 150 patents published on SEDDS in the recent period. This current patent review is useful in knowledge of SEDDS for its preparations and patents in different countries with emphasis on their formulation, characterization and systematic optimization

  6. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  7. A new family of folate-decorated and carbon nanotube-mediated drug delivery system: synthesis and drug delivery response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Yuan, Q; Shah, J S; Misra, R D K

    2011-11-01

    We describe here a new family of folate-decorated and carbon nanotube (CNT)-mediated drug delivery system that involves uniquely combining carbon nanotubes with anticancer drug (doxorubicin) for controlled drug release, which is gaining significant attention. The synthesis of nanocarrier involved attachment of doxorubicin (DOX) to CNT surface via π-π stacking interaction, followed by encapsulation of CNTs with folic acid-conjugated chitosan. The π-π stacking interaction, ascribed as a non-covalent type of functionalization, allows controlled release of drug. Furthermore, encapsulation of CNTs enhances the stability of the nanocarrier in aqueous medium because of the hydrophilicity and cationic charge of chitosan. The unique integration of drug targeting and visualization has high potential to address the current challenges in cancer therapy. Thus, it is attractive to consider the possibility of investigating a drug delivery system that combines the biodegradable chitosan and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). PMID:21514336

  8. Pressure-sensitive adhesives for transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan; Pfister

    1999-02-01

    Adhesives are a critical component in transdermal drug delivery (TDD) devices. In addition to the usual requirements of functional adhesive properties, adhesives for TDD applications must have good biocompatibility with the skin, chemical compatibility with the drug, various components of the formulation, and provide consistent, effective delivery of the drug. This review discusses the three most commonly used adhesives (polyisobutylenes, polyacrylates and silicones) in TDD devices, and provides an update on recently introduced TDD products and recent developments of new adhesives. PMID:10234208

  9. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Farnaz Rostami

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems′ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We′ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmen...

  10. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems’ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We’ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmen...

  11. Gums' based delivery systems: Review on cashew gum and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, António J; de Souza, Flávia R Lucena; Bezerra, Janira M N A; Oliveira, Claudia; Nadvorny, Daniela; de La Roca Soares, Monica F; Nunes, Lívio C C; Silva-Filho, Edson C; Veiga, Francisco; Soares Sobrinho, José L

    2016-08-20

    The development of delivery systems using natural polymers such as gums offers distinct advantages, such as, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and cost effectiveness. Cashew gum (CG) has rheological and mucoadhesive properties that can find many applications, among which the design of delivery systems for drugs and other actives such as larvicide compounds. In this review CG is characterized from its source through to the process of purification and chemical modification highlighting its physicochemical properties and discussing its potential either for micro and nanoparticulate delivery systems. Chemical modifications of CG increase its reactivity towards the design of delivery systems, which provide a sustained release effect for larvicide compounds. The purification and, the consequent characterization of CG either original or modified are of utmost importance and is still a continuing challenge when selecting the suitable CG derivative for the delivery of larvicide compounds. PMID:27178924

  12. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Annual Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that co-localization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of recombinant subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. NLPs are are biocompatible, high-density lipoprotein mimetics that are amenable to the incorporation of multiple, chemically-disparate adjuvant and antigen molecules. We hypothesize that the ability to co-localize optimized adjuvant formulations with subunit antigens within a single particle will enhance the stimulation and activation of key immune effector cells, increasing the protective efficacy of subunit antigen-based vaccines. While Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis subunit antigens are the focus of this proposal, we anticipate that this approach is applicable to a wide range of DOD-relevant biothreat agents. The F344 rat aerosol challenge model for F. tularensis has been successfully established at Battelle under this contract, and Year 3 efficacy studies performed at Battelle demonstrated that an NLP vaccine formulation was able to enhance survival of female F344 rats relative to naïve animals. In addition, Year 3 focused on the incorporation of multiple Burkholderia antigens (both polysaccharides and proteins) onto adjuvanted NLPs, with immunological analysis poised to begin in the next quarter.

  13. Live bacterial delivery systems for development of mucosal vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.E.R.; Dalen, P.J. van; Havenith, C.E.G.; Pouwels, P.H.; Seegers, J.F.M.L.; Tielen, F.D.; Zee, M.D. van der; Zegers, N.D.; Shaw, M.

    2000-01-01

    By expression of foreign antigens in attenuated strains derived from bacterial pathogens and in non-pathogenic commensal bacteria, recombinant vaccines are being developed that aim to stimulate mucosal immunity. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and molecular biology of these bacteria have allowed

  14. Design and development of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for telmisartan for oral drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jaydeep; Kevin, Garala; Patel, Anjali; Raval, Mihir; Sheth, Navin

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Telmisartan (TEL) is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) antihypertensive agent. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble TEL. Materials and Methods: The solubility of TEL in various oils was determined to identify the oil phase of a SNEDDS. Various surfactants and co-surfactants were screened for their ability to emulsify the selected oil. Pseud...

  15. SELF-NANO EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SNEDDS) FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF ATORVASTATIN- FORMULATION AND BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Miryala Venkatesh; Kurakula Mallesh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a self-nano emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for the  atorvastatin which belongs to BCS class II lipid lowering agent with poor water solubility and dissolution rate. The solubility of atorvastatin in individual micro emulsion components viz. oil and surfactants was determined. The surfactants were screened for emulsification ability. Based on the solubility determinations and emulsification properties oleic acid as oil; surfactants Brij 80 and Twe...

  16. Autoantibodies to histone, DNA and nucleosome antigens in canine systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monestier, M; Novick, K E; Karam, E T; Chabanne, L; Monier, J C; Rigal, D

    1995-01-01

    Dogs can develop systemic lupus erythematosus syndromes that are clinically similar to those seen in humans. In contrast, previous observations suggest differences in their autoantibody reactivity patterns against histones and DNA which are components of the nucleosome in chromatin. The objective of this study was to assess comprehensively the levels of autoantibodies against histone, DNA and nucleosome antigens in a population of lupus dogs. The specificities of antibodies in lupus and control dog sera were determined using IgM- and IgG-specific reagents in an ELISA against a variety of chromatin antigens. When compared with control sera, IgG antibodies to individual histones H1, H2A, H3 and H4 were significantly higher in the lupus group. In contrast, we did not detect IgG antibodies specific for H2B, H2A-H2B, DNA, H2A-H2B-DNA or nucleosome in lupus dogs. There was no significant increase in any of the IgM specificities tested. Therefore, the reactivity pattern to nucleosome antigens in canine lupus is restricted to IgG antibodies against individual histones H1, H2A, H3 and H4. This stands in contrast with human and murine lupus, where autoantibodies are directed against a wide variety of nucleosomal determinants, suggesting that unique mechanisms lead to the expansion of anti-histone antibody clones in canine lupus. The high incidence of glomerulonephritis in dog lupus suggests that anti-DNA antibodies are not required for the development of this complication, whereas IgG anti-histone antibodies may be relevant to its pathogenesis. PMID:7529150

  17. Novel Drug Delivery System Shows Early Promise for Treating Lupus in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Shows Early Promise for Treating Lupus in Mice A drug delivery system using nanoparticle technology that ... administered the MPA-loaded nanogel to lupus-prone mice that had not yet developed symptoms of the ...

  18. Miniature Sample Collection and Delivery System using Gas-Entrained Powder Transport Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a miniature system for acquisition and delivery of solid samples to landed planetary instruments. This system would entrain powder produced by...

  19. ROLE OF XANTHAN GUM (XANTHOMONAS COMPESTRIS IN GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floating drug delivery system is the form of gastro-retentive drug delivery system. That controls kinetic release rate of drug to a specific site for its pharmacological action. These are achieved by use of various polymeric substances including natural polymer such as xanthan gum. This delivery system prolongs the retention time of the drug in the stomach as compared to conventional dosage form. The present article highlights the use of xanthan gum for the formulation of the gastro-retentive drug delivery system especially with natural polymer (xanthan gum. The main goal of any drug delivery system is to achieve desired concentration of the drug in blood or tissue, which is therapeutically effective and non toxic for a prolonged period. Oral delivery of drugs is by far the most preferable route of drug delivery due to the ease of administration, patient compliance and flexibility in formulation etc. From immediate release to cite specific delivery, oral dosage forms have really progressed.

  20. Delivery of antigenic candidates by a DNA/MVA heterologous approach elicits effector CD8+T cell mediated immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shivali; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have characterized the immune mechanisms elicited by antigenic candidates, TcG2 and TcG4, delivered by a DNA-prime/MVA-boost approach, and evaluated the host responses to T. cruzi infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunization of mice with antigenic candidates elicited antigen-specific, high-avidity, trypanolytic antibody response (IgG2b>IgG1) and CD8+T cells that exhibited type-1 cytolytic effector (CD8+CD107a+IFN-γ+Perforin+) phenotype. The extent of TcG2-dependent type 1 B and T...

  1. Totally implanted drug delivery system for hepatic arterial chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A totally implanted drug delivery system for hepatic arterial chemotherapy was evaluated in 13 patients with metastatic (11 colon and one carcinoid) or primary (one hepatoma) cancer of the liver. During laparotomy, a Silastic catheter was positioned in the hepatic artery for infusion to the entire liver arterial vasculature as ascertained by low-flow radionuclide angiography with 99Tc-macroaggregated albumin. The catheter was connected to a subcutaneously implanted model 400 Infusaid pump (Metal Bellows Corp, Sharon, MA). Each pump had a 50-ml volume and a set rate (3--6 ml/day) and required refill every 8--16 days. A side port bypassed the pumping mechanism and allowed direct catheter injection for nuclide angiography, for bolus drug administration, or for clearing of a blocked catheter. Pump refills and side port injections were performed by percutaneous injection. The 13 patients in this ongoing study received a median of 6 months (range, 4.5--17) of continuous hepatic arterial infusion. The pump performed reliably with stable (+/- 10%) flow rates and only one malfunction in 2800 cumulative days of use. Flow distribution determined by low-flow radionuclide angiography did not change in 12 patients. Patient acceptance was excellent, with the ability to participate fully in normal daily activities. Eleven patients showed partial hepatic tumor regressions documented by physical examination and nuclide liver scans. All patients were treated with 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. Two patients failed 5-fluorodeoxyuridine therapy and subsequently responded briefly to dichloromethotrexate. This implanted system should facilitate future investigation of regional chemotherapy using these and other agents

  2. Patient-centredness in integrated healthcare delivery systems - needs, expectations and priorities for organised healthcare systems

    OpenAIRE

    Juhnke, Christin; Mühlbacher, Axel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patient-centred healthcare is becoming a more significant success factor in the design of integrated healthcare systems. The objective of this study is to structure a patient-relevant hierarchy of needs and expectations for the design of organised healthcare delivery systems. Methods A questionnaire with 84 items was conducted with N = 254 healthcare experts and N = 670 patients. Factor analyses were performed using SPSS©18. The number of factors retained was controlled by Kaiser...

  3. PNIPAM Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide): A Thermoresponsive “Smart” Polymer in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mody, Hardik R.; Vaibhav K Shah; Rashmi R Kokardekar

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years, extensive research has been carried out in designing and optimizing various drug delivery systems in order to maximize therapeutic effect and minimize unwanted effects of drugs. Many drug carrier systems have been developed on the basis of nanotechnology including systems based on polymeric nanoparticles. Polymeric drug delivery research has been extended to targeting of the drug at the specific site by utilizing various stimuli responsive systems which depend upon physio...

  4. MO-G-BRE-01: A Real-Time Virtual Delivery System for Photon Radiotherapy Delivery Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, F; Gu, X; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Graves, Y [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) method. Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM) is calculated. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an inhouse developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes overlaid on the CT image for treatment monitoring. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time. Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the two cases, respectively. The average time per MC calculation is 0.1sec with <2% relative uncertainty. The update frequency of ∼10Hz is considered as real time. Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.

  5. MO-G-BRE-01: A Real-Time Virtual Delivery System for Photon Radiotherapy Delivery Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) method. Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM) is calculated. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an inhouse developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes overlaid on the CT image for treatment monitoring. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time. Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the two cases, respectively. The average time per MC calculation is 0.1sec with <2% relative uncertainty. The update frequency of ∼10Hz is considered as real time. Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process

  6. A computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. III: graphical simulation and monitoring of treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Safe and efficient delivery of radiotherapy using computer-controlled machines requires new procedures to design and verify the actual delivery of these treatments. Graphical simulation and monitoring techniques for treatment delivery have been developed for this purpose. Methods and Materials: A graphics-based simulator of the treatment machine and a set of procedures for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts are used to simulate machine motions, detect collisions, and monitor machine positions during treatment. The treatment delivery simulator is composed of four components: a three-dimensional dynamic model of the treatment machine; a motion simulation and collision detection algorithm, user-interface widgets that mimic the treatment machine's control and readout devices; and an icon-based interface for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts. These components are used in a stand-alone fashion for interactive treatment delivery planning and integrated with a machine control system for treatment implementation and monitoring. Results: A graphics-based treatment delivery simulator and a set of procedures for planning and monitoring computer-controlled treatment delivery have been developed and implemented as part of a comprehensive computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. To date, these techniques have been used to design and help monitor computer-controlled treatments on a radiotherapy machine for more than 200 patients. Examples using these techniques for treatment delivery planning and on-line monitoring of machine motions during therapy are described. Conclusion: A system that provides interactive graphics-based tools for defining the sequence of machine motions, simulating treatment delivery including collision detection, and presenting the therapists with continual visual feedback from the treatment machine has been successfully implemented for routine clinical use as part of an overall system for computer

  7. The influences of patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of medical service, and trust in health delivery system on patient's life satisfaction in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Liyang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patient’s satisfaction with medical service delivery/assessment of medical service/trust in health delivery system may have significant influence on patient’s life satisfaction in China’s health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals. The aim of this study was to test whether and to what extent patient’s satisfaction with medical service delivery/patient’s assessments of various major aspects of medical service/various major aspects of patient’s trust in health deli...

  8. In situ Delivery of Antigen to DC-SIGN(+)CD14(+) Dermal Dendritic Cells Results in Enhanced CD8(+) T-Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehres, Cynthia M; van Beelen, Astrid J; Bruijns, Sven C M; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; van Bloois, Louis; Unger, Wendy W J; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; Storm, Gert; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-09-01

    CD14(+) dendritic cells (DCs) present in the dermis of human skin represent a large subset of dermal DCs (dDCs) that are considered macrophage-like cells with poor antigen (cross)-presenting capacity and limited migratory potential to the lymph nodes. CD14(+) dDC highly express DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), a receptor containing potent endocytic capacity, facilitating intracellular routing of antigens to major histocompatibility complex I and II (MHC-I andII) loading compartments for the presentation to antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Here we show using a human skin explant model that the in situ targeting of antigens to DC-SIGN using glycan-modified liposomes enhances the antigen-presenting capacity of CD14(+) dDCs. Intradermal vaccination of liposomes modified with the DC-SIGN-targeting glycan Lewis(X), containing melanoma antigens (MART-1 or Gp100), accumulated in CD14(+) dDCs and resulted in enhanced Gp100- or MART-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. Simultaneous intradermal injection of the cytokines GM-CSF and IL-4 as adjuvant enhanced the migration of the skin DCs and increased the expression of DC-SIGN on the CD14(+) and CD1a(+) dDCs. These data demonstrate that human CD14(+) dDCs exhibit potent cross-presenting capacity when targeted in situ through DC-SIGN. PMID:25885805

  9. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane (∼0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are sterically

  10. Effect of a cyclosporine A delivery system in corneal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立信; 史伟云; 王治宇; 贝建中; 王身国

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the immunosuppressive effect of cyclosporine (Cs) in a polymer placed in the anterior chamber of corneal allograft recipients. Methods Wistar inbred rats with vascularized corneas were recipients of corneal allografts from Sprague-Dawley donor rats. Rats underwent penetrating keratoplasty and were divided randomly into four groups: untreated control animals (UCA); Cs-polymer anterior chamber recipients (CPA); co-polymer subconjunctival recipients (CPS); and Cs-olive oil drop recipients (COO). Grafts were examined by slit lamp every 3 days and clinical conditions were scored. Cs concentration in the aqueous humor was assayed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. At 1, 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation, the operated eyes were collected for histopathological evaluation of the grafts. Results The median survival time of the allografts was 8.2±1.48 days for the UCA group, 11.4±2.50 days for the CPS group, and 17.0±2.00 days for the CPA group. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between survival time of the allografts in the animals of the CPA group compared to the other groups of graft recipients. Significantly higher concentrations of Cs were found in the eyes given an anterior chamber implant of Cs-polymer, compared to other treatment groups or untreated rats. A transient inflammatory response in the anterior chamber was observed in the CPA group. Conclusions Cs-polymer placed in the anterior chamber significantly prolongs corneal allograft survival time in a high risk corneal graft rejection model. This intraocular delivery system may be a valuable adjunct for the suppression of immune graft rejection.

  11. PNIPAM Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide: A Thermoresponsive “Smart” Polymer in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik R Mody

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, extensive research has been carried out in designing and optimizing various drug delivery systems in order to maximize therapeutic effect and minimize unwanted effects of drugs. Many drug carrier systems have been developed on the basis of nanotechnology including systems based on polymeric nanoparticles. Polymeric drug delivery research has been extended to targeting of the drug at the specific site by utilizing various stimuli responsive systems which depend upon physiological conditions of the body such as pH of biological fluids and temperature of the human body. Thermoresponsive polymers with Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST have been investigated for various biomedical and pharmaceutical formulations. One such polymer of considerable focus is PNIPAM Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide. PNIPAM is a thermosensitive polymer which has been utilized in many drug delivery systems including for cancer therapeutics. The present article deals with the properties of PNIPAM and their applications in different drug delivery systems.

  12. NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol/Plurol Isostearique/isostearylic isostearate/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride......), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T(1) relaxation times were used to characterise the microemulsions. Transdermal flux of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochloride through...... and transdermal flux was indicated. The increased transdermal drug delivery from microemulsion formulations was found to be due mainly to the increased solubility of drugs and appeared to be dependent on the drug mobility in the individual vehicle. The microemulsions did not perturb the skin barrier, indicating...

  13. Nasal administration of ondansetron using a novel microspheres delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Gattani, Surendra G

    2009-01-01

    Gellan gum microspheres of ondansetron hydrochloride, for intranasal delivery, were prepared to avoid the first pass metabolism as an alternative therapy to parentral, and to improve therapeutic efficiency in treatment of nausea and vomiting. The microspheres were prepared using conventional spray-drying method. The microspheres were evaluated for characteristics like particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling ability, zeta potential, in-vitro mucoadhesion, thermal analysis, XRD study and in-vitro drug release. Treatment of in-vitro data to different kinetic equations indicated diffusion controlled drug delivery from gellan gum microspheres. The results of DSC and XRD studies revealed molecular amorphous dispersion of ondansetron into the gellan gum microspheres. PMID:19519195

  14. Gelatin-based particulate systems in ocular drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathout, Rania M; Omran, Mohamed K

    2016-05-01

    Despite all scientists efforts exerted over the past years, the ocular delivery of drugs remains a great challenge due to several barriers and hurdles faced by this kind of administration. The exploitation of gelatin that has a long history of safe use in pharmaceuticals and which is considered as a GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) material by the FDA was not fully achieved in this field. This review summarizes the recent studies and findings where gelatin-based micro- and nanoparticles were used for successful ocular delivery aiming at drawing the attention of researchers and scientists to this valuable biomaterial that has not been fully explored. PMID:25567143

  15. 42 CFR 457.1005 - Cost-effective coverage through a community-based health delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health delivery system. 457.1005 Section 457.1005 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... through a community-based health delivery system. (a) Availability of waiver. The Secretary may waive the... health care delivery system, such as through contracts with health centers receiving funds under......

  16. 47 CFR 63.02 - Exemptions for extensions of lines and for systems for the delivery of video programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... systems for the delivery of video programming. 63.02 Section 63.02 Telecommunication FEDERAL... systems for the delivery of video programming. (a) Any common carrier is exempt from the requirements of... with respect to the establishment or operation of a system for the delivery of video programming....

  17. Understanding the Organization of Public Health Delivery Systems: An Empirical Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Glen P.; Scutchfield, F. Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W.; Smith, Sharla A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational s...

  18. The study of optimal nursing position in health care delivery system in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahshahani, Maryam Sadat; Salehi, Shayesteh; Rastegari, Mohammad; Rezayi, Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the recent decade, due to the overwhelming importance of health and prevention of diseases, nurses, the greatest part of the health care system, are acting in any position of the health care delivery system; because nursing have a key role in promotion of health and health care everywhere. The objective of this research was to study the desired positions of nursing in the health care delivery system in Iran. METHODS: This was a triangulation study done on three steps during 200...

  19. Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vishal Gupta; Shivakumar, H. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Many drugs which have narrow therapeutic window and are absorbed mainly in stomach have been developed as gastroretentive delivery system. Rosiglitazone maleate, an anti-diabetic, is highly unstable at basic pH and is extensively absorbed from the stomach. Hence there is a need to develop a gastroretentive system. In this study a superporous hydrogel was developed as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. Methods Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenet...

  20. Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vishal Gupta; Shivakumar, H. G.

    2010-01-01

    "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drugs which have narrow therapeutic window and are absorbed mainly in stomach have been developed as gastroretentive delivery system. Rosiglitazone maleate, an anti-diabetic, is highly unstable at basic pH and is extensively absorbed from the stomach. Hence there is a need to develop a gastroretentive system. In this study a superporous hydrogel was developed as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. "nMethods: Chito...