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Sample records for antigen ca 15-3

  1. Monitoring the response of breast cancer to radiotherapy and adjuvant therapy using breast cancer antigen CA 15-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 35 breast cancer patients were followed during their treatment in Radiation and Isotope Center of Khartoum (RICK) using breast cancer antigen CA 15-3 as an indicator of tumor marker. They were classified into three categories of CA 15-3 concentration level as stated by Colomer and Genolla (1989) as follows: normal level less than 40 UI/ml, moderate level more than 40 UI/ml and less than 60 UI/ml, and high level, more than 60 UI/ml to 3000 UI/ml. A 5 ml of venous blood samples' were collected using sterile syringes from patients with different stage of breast cancer. The sample size were thirty-five cases, one of the cases is rejected because the patient discontinued the treatment. The blood samples were collected as follows: before starting the treatment course, at the mid time of treatment course, after completion the treatment course, and after one month of completion of the treatment course. The patients classified into two groups according to their treatment protocol. The first group received only external radiation therapy treatment and those were 18 patients out of 35, while the second group received combined therapy and those were 16 patients out of 35. For those whom received external radiation radiation therapy only, the results showed that the mean value of CA 15-3 concentration level decreased at the mid of the treatment as follows: 26±3 UI/ml, 24±3 UI/ml, 22±3 UI/ml respectively, while the mean value of CA 15-3 concentration level before starting the treatment was found to be 46±14 UI/ml. The number of the patients in the normal concentration level of CA 15-3 increased by 11% at the mid of external radiotherapy treatment and by 13% at the mid combined therapy, while the moderate level decreased by 6% for both external radiotherapy and combined therapy, while the number of patients within the high level decreased by 5% for external radiotherapy and 7% for combined therapy. After completion and after one month of completion of external

  2. Optofluidic ring resonator sensor for sensitive label-free detection of breast cancer antigen CA15-3 in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Dale, Paul S.; Fan, Xudong

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide. Because of its great impact on society, a lot of research funding has been used to develop novel detection tools for aiding breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this work, we demonstrated a simple, fast, and sensitive detection of circulating breast cancer biomarker CA15-3 with opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensors. The OFRR sensor employs a thin-walled capillary with wall thickness less than 4 μm. The circular cross section of the capillary forms the optical ring resonator, in which the light circulates in the form of whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The capillary wall is thin enough that the evanescent field of the WGM extends into the capillary core and responds to refractive index changes in the capillary core or close to its interior surface. The WGM spectral position will change when the biomolecules bind to the surface, yielding quantitative and kinetic information about the biomolecule interaction. Here, the direct immunoassay method was employed for the detection of CA15-3 antigen without any signal amplification steps. The sensor performance in both PBS buffer and human serum were investigated, respectively. The experimental detection limit was 5 units/mL in PBS buffer and 30 units/mL for CA15-3 spiked in serum, both of which satisfied clinical diagnosis requirements. The potential use of the OFRR as the point-of-care device for breast cancer detection was tested by measuring the CA15-3 level in blood samples collected from stage IV breast cancer patients and the results were compared with standard clinical test.

  3. Developement of an Immunoradiometric Assay for Tumour Marker CA15-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A two-site sandwich immunoradiometric assay for quantifying CA15-3 in serum is developed byusing two monoclonal antibodies. One of the antibodies is labeled with 125I as a tracer and the otherrecognizing a different antigenic determinant of the CA15-3 molecule is immobilized to plastic tubes as

  4. Comparison of breast cancer mucin (BCM) and CA 15-3 in human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.B.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Wall, E. van der; Nortier, J.W.R.; Schornagel, J.H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Mucin (BCM) enzyme immunoassay utilizes two monoclonal antibodies (Mab), M85/34 and F36/22, for the identification of a mucin-like glycoprotein in serum of breast cancer patients. We have compared BCM with CA 15-3, another member of the human mammary epithelial antigen family. Seru

  5. Tumor marker CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hanifa Fejzić; Svjetlana Mujagić; Sanida Azabagić; Mensura Burina

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between the serum concentration of the tumor marker CA 15-3 and breast cancer, which has not been proven by the existence of regional and distant metastases, and breast cancer with the presence of regional and distant metastases. Patients and methods. The study was a retrospective-prospective study, and was conducted on 100 women aged 40-70 years of age in the period of January 2007 until June 2011, in whom, afte...

  6. Preliminary results on the use of Ca 15-3 in malignant ovarian pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ca 15-3 was evaluated as a tumoral marker for ovarian carcinoma and compared to Ca 125, Ca 19-9 and TPA. Fourteen women with untreated malignant epitelial ovarian neoplasm and 52 women with various gynecological pathologies (16 benign ovarian tumors, 9 endometriosis, 16 malignant uterine tumors, 8 malignant uterine tumors and 3 vulvar carcinomas) were studied. All patients were sampled once before surgery. Patients with ovarian carcinoma were also sampled monthly for 18 months during and after chemiotherapy. Serum concentrations were assayed with an immunoradiometric assay using monoclonal antibodies (Ca 15-3, Ca 125 and Ca 19-9) or with a radioimmunoassay using polyclonal antibodies (TPA). Sensitivity and specificity were 42.9% and 92.3% for Ca 15-3, 71.4% and 94.2% for Ca 125, 28.6% and 92.3% for Ca 19-9, 71.4% and 80.8% for TPA, respectively. When Ca 15-3 was evaluated in association with Ca 125 and Ca 19-9 sensitivity and specificity were 71.4% and 88.5% for Ca 15-3 + Ca 125, and 64.3% and 88.5% for Ca 15-3 + Ca 19-9 respectively. Ca 125 gave the best accuracy and specificity. Ca 15-3 was positively correlated to Ca 125 (P<0.01) but because of its lower sensitivity cannot be used alone for monitoring ovarian malignant epithelial neoplasms

  7. Electrochemical Enzyme Immunoassay of Tumor Marker CA15-3 with Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tumor marker CA15-3 was determined by using capillary electrophoretic enzyme immunoassay with electrochemical detection (CE-EIA-ED). The method can be used to detect CA15-3 with a limit of 0.024 U/mL.

  8. Ferrocenyl-doped silica nanoparticles as an immobilized affinity support for electrochemical immunoassay of cancer antigen 15-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Chenglin [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002 (China); Yuan Ruo [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Zhuo Ying [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2009-02-09

    The aim of this study is to elaborate a simple and sensitive electrochemical immunoassay using ferrocenecarboxylic (Fc-COOH)-doped silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as an immobilized affinity support for cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) detection. The Fc-COOH-doped SNPs with redox-active were prepared by using a water-in-oil microemulsion method. The use of colloidal silica could prevent the leakage of Fc-COOH and were easily modified with trialkoxysilane reagents for covalent conjugation of CA 15-3 antibodies (anti-CA 15-3). The Fc-COOH-doped SNPs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fabrication process of the electrochemical immunosensor was demonstrated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Under optimal conditions, the developed immunosensor showed good linearity at the studied concentration range of 2.0-240 U mL{sup -1} with a coefficient 0.9986 and a detection limit of 0.64 U mL{sup -1} at S/N = 3.

  9. CA 15-3: uses and limitation as a biomarker for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    CA 15-3 which detects soluble forms of MUC-1 protein is the most widely used serum marker in patients with breast cancer. Its main use is for monitoring therapy in patients with metastatic disease. In monitoring therapy in this setting, CA 15-3 should not be used alone but measured in conjunction with diagnostic imaging, clinical history and physical examination. CA 15-3 is particularly valuable for treatment monitoring in patients that have disease that cannot be evaluated using existing radiological procedures. CA 15-3 may also be used in the postoperative surveillance of asymptomatic women who have undergone surgery for invasive breast cancer. In this setting, serial determination can provide median lead-times of 5-6 months in the early detection of recurrent\\/metastatic breast cancer. It is unclear however, whether administering systemic therapy based on this lead-time improves patient outcome. Consequently, expert panels disagree on the utility of regularly measuring CA 15-3 in the postoperative surveillance of asymptomatic women following a diagnosis of breast cancer. The main limitation of CA 15-3 as a marker for breast cancer is that serum levels are rarely increased in patients with early or localized disease.

  10. Nomograms for Predicting the Prognostic Value of Pre-Therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA Serum Levels in TNBC Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Danian; Chen, Bo; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhiping; Xie, Xiaoming; Wei, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels are both independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. However, the utility of CEA and CA15-3 levels as conventional cancer biomarkers in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains controversial. The current study was performed to explore the predictive value of pre-therapeutic serum CEA and CA15-3 levels, and nomograms were developed including these serum cancer biomarkers to improve the prognostic evaluation of TNBC patients. Pre-therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA concentrations were measured in 247 patients with stage I-IV TNBC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that TNBC patients with high levels of both CEA and CA15-3 had shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates than those in the low-level groups (ppersonal forecasts of OS and DFS for patients with TNBC. These novel nomograms may help physicians to select the optimal treatment plans to ensure the best outcomes for TNBC patients. PMID:27561099

  11. CA15.3 Serum Concentrations in Older Women with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ruibal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3 ± 4.2; range: 71–88; median 76. A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8 ± 4.0; range: 55–70; median 63 was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL, and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041 tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age.

  12. Treatment of Ruptured Ovarian Endometrioma with Extremely High CA 125, Moderately High CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzeyyen Duran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, a ruptured ovarian endometrioma with a very high CA-125 level, moderately elevated CA 19-9, and CA 15-3 levels is presented. A 20 years old patient, complaining from pelvic pain, 5 cm adnexial mass was detected on left side. Biochemical examination was revealed very high CA-125 value (2556IU/ml, moderately elevated CA 19-9 (134IU/ml, and CA 15-3 (65IU/ml values. Laparoscopy was done and a ruptured ovarian endometrioma of 5 cm was seen during operation. After the total excision of the cyst, tumor markers fell rapidly. Very high CA-125 value, moderately elevated CA19-9, and CA 15-3 values can be seen in cases with ruptured endometrioma. In young patients, endometrioma must be considered firstly and laparoscopy should be applied instead of more invasive methods unless there was any finding or strong suspicion about malignancy.

  13. Sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and serum HER2 in the early detection of recurrence of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ann Christina; Sørensen, Patricia Diana; Jacobsen, Erik Hugger;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and HER2 in the early diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer.......The aim of this project was to investigate the sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and HER2 in the early diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer....

  14. Clinical value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA15-3 and SF in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined examination of serum CEA, CA15-3 and SF in lung cancer diagnosis. Methods: Serum concentrations of CEA, CA15-3 and SF were measured by chemiluminescent assay (CLA) in 99 patients with lung cancer and 25 patients with benign lung disease. Results: The positive rate of serum CEA, CA15-3 and SF in cases in lung cancer was 50.5%, 31.3% and 69.7%, respectively. Specificity of CEA, CA15-3 and SF measurements was 76%, 78% and 72%, respectively. In combined measurements, positive results of either two parameters revealed sensitivity and specificity of 82.8% and 92%, respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurements of CEA, CA15-3 and SF had evidently improved sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing lung cancer and thus were of good clinical value

  15. FDG PET/CT and CA 15-3 in the early diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most widely used tumour marker in the follow-up of breast cancer is CA 15-3. But its use is still in debate. There is general agreement that a progressive increase of CA 15-3 might be the early signal of tumour relapse, even when found in an asymptomatic patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of PET/CT with FDG in the detection of breast cancer recurrence in cases of isolated elevation of CA 15-3. Methods: Fourteen patients, previously treated for breast cancer, with no clinical evidence of recurrence, negative conventional radiological examination but with an increase of CA15-3 were studied. 18FDG-PET/CT was performed. Results were correlated with histology, other imaging methods and clinical follow-up. Results: PET/CT was positive for 7 patients. One patient presented a recurrence with negative PET/CT. With an overall sensitivity of 87,5%, this exam identified a recurrence for 50% of the patients with isolated CA 15-3 elevation. Conclusion: These results suggest that tumour marker-guided PET/CT with FDG is a useful technique for the early detection of breast cancer recurrence. Further studies, with a greater number of patients and a longer follow-up, are necessary to evaluate the red diagnostic and therapeutic impact of this association. (authors)

  16. Effects of distant metastasis and peripheral CA 15-3 on the induction of spontaneous T cell responses in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, Christoph; Schuetz, Florian; Sommerfeldt, Nora; Rom, Joachim; Scharf, Alexander; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Beckhove, Philipp

    2010-03-01

    Tumor-specific memory T cells are detectable in the bone marrow (BM) of a majority of breast cancer patients. In vitro they can be reactivated to IFN-gamma producing, cytotoxic effector cells and reject autologous, xenotransplanted tumors in NOD/SCID mice after specific restimulation with autologous dendritic cells (DC). In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific tumor-reactive BM memory T cells in altogether 56 out of 129 primarily operated breast cancer patients by short-term IFN-gamma EliSpot assays with unstimulated T cells and tumor antigen presenting, autologous DCs. We observed tumor-reactive BM memory T cells predominantly in patients with primarily metastatic disease (P = 0.011) or with increased concentrations of tumor marker CA 15-3 in the peripheral blood (P = 0.004), respectively. Memory T cell reactivity against HLA-A(*0201)-restricted peptides from the tumor-associated antigens MUC1, Hpa(16-24) and Hpa(183-191) was also detected particularly in patients with elevated peripheral CA 15-3 concentrations (P < 0.05). Altogether these data indicate that the systemic presence of tumor-derived antigens promotes an induction of tumor-specific cellular immune responses in the human BM. PMID:19957084

  17. Avaliação dos valores sérico e pleural dos marcadores tumorais CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3 em portadores de derrame pleural Evaluation of serum and pleural levels of the tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3 in patients with pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Coimbra Wagner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Dosar os marcadores tumorais antígeno carcinoembrionário (CEA, fragmento da citoqueratina 19 (CYFRA21-1 e antígeno glicosídico associado a tumor 15-3 (CA 15-3 em sangue e líquido pleural de portadores de derrames pleurais benignos e malignos, avaliando a sensibilidade de cada um deles nesses fluidos. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos prospectivamente 85 pacientes com derrame pleural. O estudo do líquido pleural obedeceu a critérios determinados pela literatura. A dosagem dos marcadores foi realizada por eletroquimioluminescência. A sensibilidade foi determinada sob a condição de que a especificidade fosse > 90%. RESULTADOS: Foram diagnosticados 36 casos malignos (42,4%, 30 benignos (35,3%; em 19 pacientes (22,3%, o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo. Nos casos malignos, os valores de CEA e CYFRA21-1 foram maiores no líquido pleural do que no sangue, fato não observado para o CA 15-3. Nos casos benignos, os valores do CYFRA21-1 foram maiores no líquido pleural do que no soro, enquanto que para o CEA e o CA 15-3, ocorreu o oposto. Todos os marcadores apresentaram diferença significativa entre os casos malignos e benignos, em líquido pleural e soro. Foi encontrada sensibilidade para CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3 no líquido pleural de 69,4%, 69,4% e 66,7%, respectivamente e quando associados, foi 80,6%. No soro, a sensibilidade foi 57,1, 71,4 e 48,6% para CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3, respectivamente, e quando associados, foi 77%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a utilização desses marcadores pode ser útil na diferenciação entre derrames pleurais malignos e benignos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1 and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3 in the blood and pleural fluid of patients with benign or malignant pleural effusion, evaluating the sensitivity of each marker in these fluids. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 85 patients with pleural effusion. The

  18. Serum concentrations of the biomarkers CA125, CA15-3, CA72-4, tPSA and PAPP-A in natural and stimulated ovarian cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melissa Stemp; Peter Roberts; Allison McClements; Vincent Chapple; Jay Natalwala; Michael Black; Phillip Matson

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Biomarkers associated with cancer screening (CA125, CA15‐3, CA72‐4, total prostate specific antigen [tPSA]) and the monitoring of pregnancy (pregnancy associated plasma protein‐A [PAPP‐A]) were measured during natural and stimulated ovarian cycles in disease‐free non-pregnant women to determine if they could reflect normal events relating to ovulation and/or endometrial changes. Methods: A total of 73 blood samples (10 women) collected throughout the natural menstrual cycle, and 64 blood samples (11 women) taken during stimulated ovarian cycles, were analysed on the Roche Cobas e411 automated analyser. Results:Detectable levels of tPSA were measured in at least one point in the cycle in 6/10 of women in the natural cycle and 10/11 of women in stimulated cycles, and CA72-4 was detected in only 12/21 women tested. Concentrations of CA125, tPSA, CA15‐3 and CA72‐4 showed no significant difference between the natural and stimulated ovarian cycle groups. On average the mean PAPP‐A of the natural group was (2.41±0.58) mIU/L higher than the stimulated group (t=4.10, P< 0.001). CA125 and CA15‐3 results were both significantly influenced by the stage of the cycle (P<0.0001), whereas tPSA and PAPP‐A concentrations revealed no significant changes (P≥0.65). CA72‐4 was not affected by the stage of the cycle nor ovarian stimulation. Conclusion:Ovarian stimulation reduced serum PAPP‐A levels, CA125 and CA15‐3 levels were generally unaffected by ovarian stimulation but displayed cyclical changes throughout both natural and stimulated cycles, whilst tPSA and CA72-4 were not affected by the stage of the cycle or ovarian stimulation.

  19. Evaluation of CA 15-3 tumor marker in the diagnosis of breast cancer. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single determinations of serum CA 15-3 levels were performed by sandwich immunoassay in 160 women: 77 patients with nonmalignant breast tumors (64 had fibrocystic disease, 11 had fibroadenoma, 2 had intra-ductal papillomas) and 83 patients with primary breast cancer prior to any treatment: the cut-off limit was established at 30 U/ml. The overall diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the CA 15-3 test was 19.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 80.0% and 52.1%. The mean CA 15-3 value was significantly lower in patients with benign breast tumors as compared with the breast cancer group: 16.8+-8.2 vs. 23.9+-20.9 U/ml (p<0.01) as well as percentage of positive results of the test: 5.2% vs. 19.3% (p<0.02). Serum CA 15-3 level in breast cancer patients correlated with: (1) clinical stage: a higher percentage of positive results was observed in patients with more advanced cancer: Stage I - 0%, Stage II - 10.6%, Stage III - 29.6%, and Stage IV - 100% according to UICC classification the comparison of breast cancer patients with early stage of disease (I+II) and those with more advanced cancer (III+IV) revealed statistically significant (p<0.01) difference in the mean serum CA 15-3 value (19.7+-12.8 vs. 31.5+-29.2 U/ml) as well as in the percentage of positive results (9.4% vs. 36.7%, p<0.01): (2) the histological goading according to Bloom and Richardson; 5.41% of positively was observed in low and intermediate grade cancers (I+II) vs. 66.7% in grade III(p,0.001). In conclusion, our data confirmed that the diagnostic sensitivity of CA 15-3 assay was low thus not suitable for diagnosis in early breast cancer and for differentiation between benign and malignant breast diseases. The CA 15-3 was directly related to the stage of breast cancer and the degree of malignancy which are highly correlated to prognosis. (author)

  20. Study on the status of breast and prostate cancers in Gazira State using (CA-15-3 and PSA) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in Algezira State in two environmentally and economically different areas. The people in these areas were divided into two groups in the study: group (A) people who live alongside the Blue Nile bank. Group people who live away how the Blue Nile, I e in midland between the Blue Nile and White Nile which is called (AI-Bajour). The aim of the study was to recognize the normal rate of breast cancer markers(Carbohydrate Antigen 15-3), which is one of the most common cancers, and the prostate cancer (Prostate Cancer Markers), as compared with the global normal rate, in order to early detect and treat these types of cancers. The study was conducted on 336 men and 304 women, who are different in ages, work and social status. The researcher used an experimental, descriptive and analytical method, and the SPSS program for analysis. The study showed that the results of normal rate as compared with previous studies are typical to the breast cancer markers (carbohydrate antigen 15-3, ranging between (0-40) ngm/ml, where as the normal rate of the prostate cancer markers (PSA) ranges between (0-4) ngm/ml, and according to the previous African and American studies. The studies also showed that the results are different according to the group are different according to the group involved. There is an increase in normal rates of group (A) in the PSA markers. From 177 men, 49 had rated of (4-10) ng/ml, 6 had very high rates (10-20)ng/ml and extremely high rates of 2 samples (>20)ng/ml. It was noticed that the abnormal increase rate is directly proportional to the age development. The study showed high results of breast cancer markers (Carbohydrate antigen 15-3), as compared with the global normal rate (0-40)ng/ml, 6 had very high rates (60-100)ng/ml and extremely high rates (>100)ng/ml. Two women of uterus cancer died. Again the abnormal increase in the rates is directly proportional to age development. The study showed that the results of group (B) is

  1. 血清CA15-3CA50、CA19-9和IL-8检测对女性乳腺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永旺; 蒋炳辰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical signficance of differences on serum CA15-3,CA50,CA19-9,IL-8 levels detection in patients with breast cancer. Methods:Serum CA15-3,CA50,CA19-9,IL-8 concentration from 34 patients (female) with breast cancer and 34 healthy normal controls (female) were determined by RIA and CLIA. Results:The serum CA15-3,CA50,IL-8 levels in patients with breast cancer were significant higher than those in controls. But the serum CA19-9 levels were no significant difference from those in controls.Conclusion:Detection of serum CA15-3,CA50,IL-8 levels might be of prognostic importance in patients with breast cancer.%目的:探讨血清CA15-3CA50、CA19-9和IL-8检测对乳腺癌患者诊断的临床意义。方法:应用放射免疫法和化学发光法对34例乳腺癌患者(均为女性)进行血清的CA15-3CA50、CA19-9和IL-8检测,并与34名正常人(均为女性)进行相关对比分析。结果:乳腺癌患者的CA15-3CA50和IL-8含量水平明显高于对照组(P<0.05),而CA19-9与正常人对照组无明显差异(P>0.05)。结论:血清CA15-3CA50和IL-8的检测对乳腺癌的发病、预防、诊断和治疗均有重要的临床价值。

  2. Evaluation of normal values of Ca-15-3 and PSA for the people of Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study blood samples were collected from 665 female from Northern State of Sudan, 606 of those females are married and only 59 females are singles. These samples were used to estimate the normal CA 15-3 which was found to be similar to the international one and that is ranged from zero to 35 mlu/ml. When the same techniques were used using samples collected from patients who have been clinically diagnosed as breast cancer, CA 15-3 levels were found to be higher in most of these samples and the other finding is that the risk of getting breast cancer is starting from age 25 years. On the other hand , 650 males were participated in this study to estimate normal value of PSA, of them 553 were married. And again the levels estimated for this marker was found to be the same as that used globally which is ranged from zero to four ng/ml. When blood samples from prostate patients were assayed for PSA, the results showed high levels of this marker in almost all the samples as expected but the important finding is that prostate cancer is age depend. At the end of the project, many recommendations highlighted to be considered in the near future.(Author)

  3. SF、CEA、CA15-3CA19-9、SCC及SF+CEA联检对肺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋清玲; 雷光文

    2011-01-01

    @@ 近年来的研究表明,血清铁蛋白(SF)在肿瘤细胞中含量丰富,SF增高可作为恶性肿瘤的辅助实验诊断指标.因此,SF的测定在临床的应用越来越受到重视.本文对肺癌患者进行血清SF、CEA、CA15-3CA19-9鳞状上皮细胞癌抗原(SCC)及SF+CEA联检,以探讨肺癌的早期诊断.

  4. New mucin-like cancer-associated antigens (CA M 26, CA M 29 and CA 549) and a new proliferation marker (TPS) in patients with primary or advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, G J; Mader, R M; Braun, J; Sieder, A E; Marosi, C; Rainer, H; Jakesz, R; Steger, G G

    1995-01-01

    In patients with breast cancer no tumor markers giving satisfactory results have been found yet. The aim of our investigation was to compare the usefulness of newly developed tumor markers with the most common used carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen (CA) 15-3. We evaluated the concentrations of carcinoma-associated antigen (CA) 549, carcinoma-associated mucin antigen (CA M) 26 and CA M 29, and the proliferation markers tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in 84 breast cancer patients with disease progression and in 69 patients with no evidence of disease after surgery for breast cancer. Using receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) we were able to demonstrate increased sensitivity and specificity of all tested tumor markers in patients with metastatic disease compared with local disease. In our investigation TPA is superior to TPS in all disease states. In local disease, none of the tested markers shows satisfying results. In metastatic disease, the new mucin markers CA M 26 and CA M 29 show slightly better results than CA 15-3 although their ROC curves are nearly congruent. CA 549 is exceeded by the other mucin markers. The best results in this investigation were obtained with CA M 29. The overall results concerning the detection of small tumor masses (i.e. local disease) were unsatisfactory.

  5. Assessment of bone metastasis of breast cancer by radionuclide bone scan combined with CA15-3,CA50 and IL-8 on%放射性核素骨显像联合血清CA15-3CA50、IL-8评价乳腺癌骨转移的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋炳辰; 张雪辉; 高永旺; 陈方旎; 肖国有; 姚少红

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价血清CA15-3CA50、IL-8联合放射性核素骨显像对乳腺癌患者骨转移诊断的临床意义.方法 利用SPECT/CT对乳腺癌患者进行骨骼放射性核素骨显像,应用化学发光法和放射免疫法对84例乳腺癌患者(均为女性)进行血清CA15-3CA50、IL-8含量检测,并与34名正常人(均为女性)进行相关对比分析.结果 乳腺癌患者骨转移的血清CA15-3CA50、IL-8含量水平明显高于正常人组(P<0.01),乳腺癌骨转移组灶数>2个的肿瘤标志物水平明显高于灶数≤2个的肿瘤标志物水平(P<0.01).结论 在进行放射性SPECT/CT显像同时,进行血清CA15-3CA50和IL-8的检测,能够尽早发现乳腺癌骨转移.

  6. Diagnostic Value of CYFRA 21-1, CEA, CA 19-9, CA 15-3,and CA 125 Assays in Pleural Effusions: Analysis of 116 Cases and Review of the Literature%CYFRA 21-1、CEA、CA 19-9,CA 15-3CA 125在胸水中的诊断价值:116例分析及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯著法

    2007-01-01

    目的 评估CYFRA 21-1、CEA、CA 19-9,CA 15-3CA 125在胸水中的诊断价值.方法 收集116例患者胸水,测定CYFRA 21-1、CEA、CA 19-9,CA 15-3CA 125在其胸水中的含量;在美国MEDLINE系统中检索近15年相关文献.结果 所有肿瘤标记物在恶性胸水中的含量均高于良性胸水.CEA的准确度最高,达85.3%;CA 15-3、CYFRA 21-1和CA19-9的准确度相似,分别为71.5%,72.4%,71.5%;CA125准确度最低,仅40.5%.联合检测其准确度不高于单一指标CEA.Logistic回归分析显示对恶性胸水的预测最有统计学意义的指标是CA 15-和CYFRA 21-1.文献复习显示CEA,CA 15-3和CYFRA 21-1诊断价值最佳.结论 胸水CEA检测具有最高的准确度,其他肿瘤标记物,特别是CA 15-3和CYFRA 21-1可作为备选标记物.

  7. The importance of preoperative elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 in patients with breast cancer in predicting its histological type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Słonina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not known whether in patients with breast cancer the occurrence of elevated serum tumour markers depends on its histological type. The aim of the study was to assess relationship between breast cancer histological type and the presence of increased serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3. The study population was 428 patients (all women, mean age 52.5 years, treated at The Department of Surgery of Wroclaw Medical University from 2005 to 2008 due to breast cancer. All of them had their preoperative CA 15-3 and CEA serum concentrations measured. According to the TNM system, 21% of patients were in stage I, 32.5% in stage II, 46.5% in stage III of the disease. In patients with ductal type of the cancer the elevated serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 were observed in 48.7% and 42.2%, in lobular type in 42.4% and 52.5%, and in non-ductal/tubular types in 48.1% and 40.4% (p=N/S. Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that ductal breast cancer is related to elevated CEA and normal CA 15-3 serum levels. The histological types of breast cancer are not significantly related to elevated serum levels of CEA and/or CA 15-3.

  8. Concordance of Hypermethylated DNA and the Tumor Markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA in Serum during Monitoring of Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Høgh Hansen, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    The serological protein tumor markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA are frequently used to monitor tumor burden among metastatic breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is associated with global DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation of some promoter regions. No monitoring study has yet investigated the ...

  9. 化學發光法血清CEA、CA15-3和SF聯合測定對肺癌的診斷價值%Clinical value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA15 3 and SF in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周愛清; 王雪芹; 吴建國

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of combined examination of serum CEA, CA15 3 and SF in lung cancer diagnosis. Methods Serum concentrations of CEA, CA153 and SF were measured by chemiluminescent assay (CLA) in 99 patients with lung cancer and 25 patients with benign lung diseases. Results The positive rate of serum CEA, CA15-3 and SF in cases of lung cancer was 50. 5%, 31. 3% and 69. 7%, respectively. Specificity of CEA, CA153 and SF measurements was 76%, 78% and 72%, respectively. In combined measurements, positive results of either two parameters revealed sensitivity and specificity of 82. 8% and 92%, respectively. Conclusion Combined measurements of CEA, CA15 3 and SF had evidently improved sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing lung cancer and thus were of good clinical value.

  10. The Expression Leuel of CA15-3 and TPS of Patient with Mamumary Cancer and its Clinical Value%乳腺癌患者血清CA15~3和TPS表达水平及其临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉珍; 李军; 苗爱莲; 魏曙亚; 候蓉; 原荣; 张俊

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical value for breast cancer by combining testing the serumexpression levels of CA15-3and Tissue polypeptide specific antigen(TPS).Methods CA15-3 and TPS inserum sample of 92 cases of patients with breast cancer were analysed by using ELISA in two weeks beforeand after treatment of operation and drugs. Results The values of CA15 ~ 3 and TPS in serum were highersignificanec in patients with breast cancer than those in the control group of healthy subjects and breastbenign diseases goup(P < 0.01). Expression levels of CA15~3 in serum were significance increased with TNM staging and TPS with clinical one to two stage. The serum levels of CA15- 3 and TPS in the breastcancer patients with treatment of surgery were markly decreased in two weeks after operation(P < 0.01 )and no changed in the patients without operation whose condition was stable and it was significantly in-creased the patients with progressive and relapse especially TPS. Conelusion CA15 ~ 3 and TPS can beused as useful tumor markers of breast cancer in diagnosis of early stage, evaluating of therapeutic effect,assessing the prognosis of the disease, and it is highly usefulin monitoring recurrences of breast cancer, es-pecially dynamic detection.

  11. Isolated metastasis of breast cancer: CA 15-3 dose value and 18-FDG mapping; Metastase isolada de cancer da mama: valor da dosagem do CA 15-3 e do mapeamento com 18-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirandeli, Julia M. B.; Oliveira Filho, Juvenal Antunes [Centro Medico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. Clinica Medica; Oncocamp - Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cazone, Alejandro Enzo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Setor de Tumores Musculo-Esqueleticos; Hanaoka, Nilton Massaki [Grupo Dimen, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Alvarenga, Marcelo [Instituto de Patologia de Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: oncocamp@hawk.com.br

    2003-07-01

    A case of breast cancer with progressive increase of the tumor marker C A 15-3 is presented, with exhaustive investigation of the possible metastasis. After the fluorine-18-FDG tomography was performed, an area of increased tracer uptake was demonstrated in the sternal manubrium. The computerized tomography demonstrated a small lytic area and subsequent biopsy confirmed the solitary bone metastasis. The objective of this case report is to call attention for the need to pursue the diagnosis of a relapsing lesion when there is an increase of a tumor marker and the possible benefit of the fluorine-18-FDG tomography for the early detection. (author)

  12. Significance of CEA, CA15-3 and biochemical markers of bone turnover in the diagnosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of tumor markers CEA and CA15-3, and biochemical markers of bone turnover (total procollagen type Ⅰ amino-terminal propeptide (TP Ⅰ NP), β-isomerized carboxyterminal propeptide (β-CTx), ALP and PTH) in the diagnosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer. Methods: A total of 78 patients (all females) with mean age (56.72 ± 10.76) years, who were diagnosed with breast cancer, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups based on radionuclide bone imaging: with bone metastasis (n=32) and without bone metastasis (n=46). The serum concentrations of CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH, ALP were measured. Gleason scores were evaluated. The diagnostic value was evaluated by ROC curve.The two groups were compared using two-sample t test. The correlations between bone metastasis and tumor markers, bone metastasis and biochemical markers of bone turnover were analyzed with Pearson correlation and logistic analysis. Results: The serum levels of CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH and ALP were significantly higher in the group with bone metastasis than those in the group without bone metastasis (t: 4.16-7.56, all P<0.05). For the diagnosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer, the AUC of CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, [β-CTx, PTH and ALP was 0.815, 0.887, 0.869, 0.852, 0.844, 0.731, respectively. Using the cut-off values of 4.18 μg/L for CEA, 0.04 U/L for CA15-3, 49.70 μg/L for TP Ⅰ NP, 0.47 pg/L for β-CTx,54.90 ng/L for PTH and 49.90 U/L for ALP, the sensitivities were 56.3% (18/32), 75.0% (24/32), 78.1% (25/32), 81.3% (26/32), 78.1% (25/32), 68.8% (22/32) and the specificities were 80.4% (37/46), 84.8% (39/46), 76.1% (35/46), 78.3% (36/46), 69.6% (32/46), 58.7% (27/46), respectively. CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH, ALP and Gleason score were positively correlated with the presence of bone metastasis (r: 0.267-0.636, all P<0.05). CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH and Gleason score were independent

  13. The immunoradiometric assay for carbohydrate antigen CA-242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 125I-labelled monoclonal antibody (C242) against carbohydrate antigen CA-242, the sandwich immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed. In preliminary clinical application of this method, the results of serum CA-242 measurements were 2.5 ± 4.5 U/ml for 77 normal individuals, 3.5 ± 7.0 U/ml for 128 cases of benign diseases, and 56.0 ± 91.3 U/ml for 210 cases of malignant tumors. The CA-242 values of patients with malignant tumors were significantly higher than that of patients with benign diseases. Taking 12 U/ml as normal upper limit, the positive detective rates of pancreatic and colorectal cancers were 86.6% and 62.0% respectively, while the false positive rate for normal individuals was 4%

  14. 血清CA15-3、IL-8水平与乳腺癌骨转移关系的探讨%Study on the Relationship Between Serum CA15 -3, IL-8, Levels and Bone Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭维琴; 杨士军; 鲍艳梅

    2007-01-01

    目的:为探讨乳腺癌患者血清CA15-3、IL-8水平与骨转移的关系.方法:对83例乳腺癌手术后患者分别检测血清CA15-3、白介素8(IL-8)和行99mTc-MDP全身骨显像,进行对比分析.结果:乳腺癌无骨转移组血清CA15-3、IL-8水平与正常对照组比较无明显差异(P>0.05);乳腺癌伴骨转移组患者血清CA15-3、IL-8水平明显升高,与乳腺癌无骨转移组及对照组比较均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:CA15-3对于预测乳腺癌骨转移、筛选行全身骨显像病人和降低骨显像的误诊具有重要意义;IL-8参与乳腺癌骨转移的发生和发展过程,检测IL-8等细胞因子水平对于乳腺癌骨转移的病理研究和预防、治疗可能具有重要价值.

  15. Tissue expression of the tumour associated antigen CA242 in benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. A comparison with CA 50 and CA 19-9.

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund, C.; Lindgren, J.; Roberts, P. J.; Kuusela, P.; Nordling, S.

    1989-01-01

    The expression of a novel tumour associated antigen CA 242, defined by the monoclonal antibody C 242, was studied by immunoperoxidase staining in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from normal pancreata, pancreata with pancreatitis and benign and malignant pancreatic neoplasms. The antigenic determinant of the C 242 antibody is a sialylated carbohydrate structure, related but chemically different from tumour marker antigens CA 19-9 and CA 50. Thirty-eight of 41 (93%) well to mo...

  16. Avaliação dos valores sérico e pleural dos marcadores tumorais CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3 em portadores de derrame pleural Evaluation of serum and pleural levels of the tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3 in patients with pleural effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Coimbra Wagner; Murilo José de Barros Guimarães; Lilian Karine Neves da Silva; Francisco Montenegro de Melo; Maria Tereza Cartaxo Muniz

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Dosar os marcadores tumorais antígeno carcinoembrionário (CEA), fragmento da citoqueratina 19 (CYFRA21-1) e antígeno glicosídico associado a tumor 15-3 (CA 15-3) em sangue e líquido pleural de portadores de derrames pleurais benignos e malignos, avaliando a sensibilidade de cada um deles nesses fluidos. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos prospectivamente 85 pacientes com derrame pleural. O estudo do líquido pleural obedeceu a critérios determinados pela literatura. A dosagem dos marcadores foi real...

  17. Basophil response to antigen and anti-IgE 3. Ca(2+) influx and histamine release

    OpenAIRE

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro; Kitani,Hikaru; Okazaki, Morihiro; Mifune, Takashi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Kimura,Ikuro

    1992-01-01

    The release mechanism of chemical mediators from basophils and mast cells was discussed when these cells were stimulated by different antigens and anti-IgE. 1. Ca(2+) influx into mast cells increased after stimulation by antigen. The increased Ca(2+) uptake by mast cells was inhibited by antiallergic agents, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and tranilast, and calcium antagonists, nifedipine and nicardipine. 2. The dose-response curve of histamine release by antigen was different from that by anti...

  18. 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with breast cancer and rising Ca 15-3 with negative conventional imaging: A multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women in Europe and North America. The mortality of this disease can be reduced with effective therapy and regular follow up to detect early recurrence. Tumor markers are sensitive in detecting recurrent or residual disease but imaging is required to customize the therapeutic option. Rising tumor markers and negative conventional imaging (US, X-mammography, CT and MR) poses a management problem. Our aim is to assess the role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the management of post-therapy patients with rising markers but negative conventional imaging. Materials and methods: In the period from January 2008 to September 2009, 89 female patients with breast cancer who developed post-therapy rising markers (serum Ca 15-3 levels = 64.8 ± 16.3 U/mL) but negative clinical examination and conventional imaging were investigated with 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Results: Tumor deposits were detected in 40/89 patients in chest wall, internal mammary nodes, lungs, liver and skeleton. The mean SUVmax value calculated in these lesions was 6.6 ± 1.7 (range 3.1–12.8). In 23/40 patients solitary small lesion were amenable to radical therapy. In 7 out of these 23 patients a complete disease remission lasting more than 1 year was observed. Conclusions: 18F-FDG-PET/CT may have a potential role in asymptomatic patients with rising markers and negative conventional imaging. Our findings agree with other studies in promoting regular investigations such as tumor markers and 18F-FDG-PET/CT rather than awaiting the developments of physical symptoms as suggested by current guidelines since the timely detection of early recurrence may have a major impact on therapy and survival.

  19. Distribution of the Ca (Oxford) antigen in lung neoplasms and non-neoplastic lung tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradinas, F. J.; Boxer, G.; Bagshawe, K D

    1984-01-01

    The Ca (Oxford) antigen was originally isolated from a malignant neoplasm and with few exceptions was reported to discriminate between malignant and non-malignant neoplasms or normal tissues. Using the Ca 1 antibody we have studied the Ca distribution in 54 lung neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. Staining of tumours was very focal and the proportion of positive cells varied from about 50% for adenocarcinomas to less than 1% for oat cell carcinomas, which were often negative. F...

  20. 乳腺癌患者手术治疗前后血浆leptin和血清CA15-3、IL-8、hs-CRP检测的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Determination of Changes of Plasma Leptin and Serum CA15-3, IL-8,hs-CRP Levels Both Before and After Operation in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大林; 南云广; 刘敬西; 顾丹; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺癌患者手术治疗前后血浆leptin和血清CA15-3、IL-8、hs-CRP水平的变化及临床意义.方法 应用放射免疫分析和免疫比浊法对31例乳腺癌患者进行了手术治疗前后血浆leptin和血清CA15-3、IL-8、hs-CRP检测,并与35名正常人作比较.结果 乳腺癌患者在手术治疗前血浆leptin和血清CA15-3、IL-8、hs-CRP水平非常显著地高于正常人组(P0.05).结论 血浆leptin和血清CA15-3、IL-8、hs-CRP水平的变化在乳腺癌的发生和发展中相互作用,观察其浓度的变化对探讨乳腺癌的发病机理、预防和治疗均有重要的临床价值.%Objective To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum CA15-3, IL-8, hs-CRP levels after operation in patients with breast cancer. Methods Plasma leptin and serum IL-8 ,CA15-3(with RIA) serum hs-CRP(with immu-noturbility method)levels were measured in 33 patients with breast cancer both before and after operation as well as in 35 normal con-trols. Results Before operation, plasma leptin and serum CA15-3,IL-8,hs-CRP levels were signifuMntiy higher than those in controls (P0.05). Conclusion These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and monitoring the serum levels might be helpful to the prevention management of such malignancies.

  1. CA 19-9 (Cancer Antigen 19-9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a tumor marker : To help differentiate between cancer of the pancreas and other conditions, such as pancreatitis To monitor ... levels of CA 19-9 are seen in cancer of the exocrine pancreas. This cancer arises in the tissues that produce ...

  2. Comparison between tissue and serum content of CA 125, CA 19-9, and carcinoembryonic antigen in ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G; Neunteufel, W; Bieglmayer, C; Kölbl, H; Schieder, K

    1989-01-01

    Tumor markers CA 125, CA 19-9, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded tissue samples obtained from two different locations in 35 ovarian tumors. In addition, serum concentrations of these tumor markers were measured before cytoreductive surgery. The staining reaction was heterogeneous in different parts of the tumor as well as within the parenchyma. Of the marker positive tumors, a staining reaction was observed in both tissue samples in only 10 of 22 cases for CA 125, in eight of 13 cases for CEA, and in three of eight cases for CA 19-9. Eighty-one percent of the patients whose tumor was positive for CA 125 also showed elevated serum levels of this marker. A poor correlation was found between tissue and circulating CA 19-9 levels. CEA was detected in 28% of the tumors and seemed to be valuable only for monitoring in rare cases of ovarian cancer. For purposes of selecting a marker for monitoring of patients with ovarian carcinoma, immunohistochemistry has a predictive value for CA 125 only. In order to better define the marker expressed in a tumor, it is necessary to examine at least two samples of different parts of the malignant tissue.

  3. Difference in motility of basophilic, granulocytes from atopic subjects following antigen- and Ca inophore A23187-stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro; Kitani,Hikaru; Mifune, Takashi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Ochi, Koji; Harada, Hideo; Nakagawa, Saburo; Soda, Ryo; Takahashi,Kiyoshi; Kimura,Ikuro

    1993-01-01

    We examined histamine release and morphological changes in basophilic granulocytes from atopic subjects, in response to stimulation with antigen and Ca ionophore A23187. 1. Histamine release and a reduction in the rumber of basophils were more rapid and greater in extent at an early stage of antigen stimulation compared with Ca ionophore A23187 stimulation. 2. Morphological changes in basophils, represented by increased motility, in terms of an increased ratio of short to long axis diameter (...

  4. Independent prognostic value of preoperative serum markers CA 242, specific tissue polypeptide antigen and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta, but not of carcinoembryonic antigen or tissue polypeptide antigen in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpelan-Holmström, M; Haglund, C.; Lundin, J; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U H; Roberts, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The prognostic value of preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), specific tissue polypeptide antigen (TPS) and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (hCG beta) in 251 patients with colorectal cancer (39 Dukes' A, 98 Dukes' B, 56 Dukes' C and 58 Dukes' D) was investigated. When using the cut-off levels recommended for diagnostic purposes, there was a significantly longer overall survival in patients with low tumour marker level...

  5. Specificity and affinity of 26 monoclonal antibodies against the CA 125 antigen : First report from the ISOBM TD-1 workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nustad, K; Bast, RC; OBrien, TJ; Nilsson, O; Seguin, P; Suresh, MR; Saga, T; Nozawa, S; Bormer, OP; deBruijn, HWA; Vitali, A; Gadnell, M; Clark, J; Shigemasa, K; Karlsson, B; Kreutz, FT; Jette, D; Sakahara, H; Endo, K; Paus, E; Warren, D; Hammarstrom, S; Kenemans, P; Hilgers, J

    1996-01-01

    The specificity of 26 monoclonal antibodies against the CA 125 antigen was investigated in two phases of the ISOBM TD-1 workshop. The binding specificity was studied using CA 125 immunoextracted by specific antibodies immobilized on various solid phases, or on the surface of human cell lines. Immuno

  6. Tumour associated antigen CA-50, CA-242 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in genitourinary malignancy and gastrointestinal carcinoma early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour markers CA-50 and CA-242 were measured by immunometric assay (IRMA) to investigate their usefulness in the diagnosis of cancer of the pancreas, biliary tract, liver, breast, lung, gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. The cutoff points, derived from studies on normal subjects and those with proven benign disease, were 20 u/ml and 12 u/ml for CA-50 and CA-242 respectively. Both markers were found to be generally useful with significant differences between malignant and non malignant disease. The highest positive rates, were found in cancers of the pancreas and gall bladder. The overall rate of false positives was low. It is concluded that measurements of CA-50 and CA-242 are useful in the detection of malignancy, particularly of the pancreas and biliary tract. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. A comparative study of mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen (MCA), CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA in patients with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelbl, H; Schieder, K; Neunteufel, W; Bieglmayer, C

    1989-01-01

    A mucin-like carcinoma associated antigen (MCA), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody b-12, was found to be elevated in sera of breast cancer patients. Since an immunohistochemical reaction of the monoclonal antibody b-12 was found in epithelial tumors of the ovary we investigated MCA serum levels in 50 patients with ovarian cancer (mean age 59 years, range 31-81 years). In addition, CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA were determined to compare sensitivity, specificity and the predictive value of the positive test of each parameter used in this study. Blood samples were obtained in 20 patients with progressive disease and in 30 patients during disease free intervals. The MCA serum levels of patients with progressive ovarian cancer (mean +/- SD: 14.7 +/- 14.6 U/ml) did not differ significantly from those of patients in remission (mean +/- SD: 8.2 +/- 5.3 U/ml) or from values of a healthy control group (mean +/- SD: 7.7 +/- 3.8 U/ml, n = 70). Women with progressive disease displayed significantly higher CA 125 (p less than 0.0001) and CEA (p less than 0.0063) serum levels than patients in remission. No significant difference was found for CA 19-9 in patients with ovarian cancer, irrespective of the clinical status. Considering marker surge and tumor progression, the highest sensitivity was found for CA 125 (75%). Sensitivities of the other markers were significantly lower and reached only 25-35%. The predictive value of elevated marker levels as well as specificity of the marker substances were similar. Sensitivity could be extended to 90% if elevation of CA 125, CA 19-9, CEA and MCA were taken into consideration, however specificity was lowered by using this marker combination.

  8. Comparison of a new tumour marker CA 242 with CA 19-9, CA 50 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in digestive tract diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, P.; Haglund, C.; Roberts, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The levels of CA 242, a new tumour marker of carbohydrate nature, were measured in sera of 185 patients with malignancies of the digestive tract and of 123 patients with benign digestive tract diseases. High percentages of elevated CA 242 levels (greater than 20 U ml-1) were recorded in patients with pancreatic and biliary cancers (68%). The sensitivity was somewhat lower than that of CA 19-9 (76%) and CA 50 (73%). On the other hand, in benign pancreatic and biliary tract diseases the CA 242 ...

  9. Diagnostic Difficulties in Woman with Crohn’s Disease, Ascites, and Elevated Value of Serum CA125 Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kłopocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variety of symptoms and atypical clinical course of Crohn’s disease (CD often create the need for additional diagnostic procedures. In the described case of woman with CD, there was a suspicion of coexistence of ovarian cancer. This issue is particularly important in patients treated with immunosuppressants and biological agents. The discussion focused on the usefulness of CA125 (cancer antigen 125, mucin 16 serum level estimation in clinical practice and draws attention to the possible reasons for the increase of its value which is not associated to ovarian cancer.

  10. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  11. Utility of endoscopic ultrasound, cytology and fluid carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 levels in pancreatic cystic lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), fluid tumor markers and cytology in distinguishing benign from (pre)malignant pancreatic cystic lesions.METHODS: 46 consecutive patients, referred to a gastroenterologist and surgeon for a symptomatic or incidental pancreatic cyst, were reviewed. EUS, cytology,and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) levels were compared with the final diagnosis, based on surgical pathology and/or imaging follow-up of at least 12 mo. Cysts were classified as benign (pseudocyst, serous cystadenoma) or malignant/pre-malignant (mucinous cystic neoplasm). Receiveroperator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed.RESULTS: The mean age was 56 years; 29% were male and median cyst diameter was 3 cm. Final outcome was obtained in 41 (89%) patients. Twenty-three (56%) of these 41 had surgical pathology. Twenty-three (56%)had benign lesions and 18 (44%) had malignant/premalignant lesions. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value of EUS alone to distinguish benign from malignant/premalignant pancreatic cystic lesions were 50%, 56%, 36% and 54% and for cytology were 71%, 96%, 92% and 85%, respectively. The corresponding values for the ROC-derived ideal cutoffs were 75%, 90%, 75%, 90% for CA 19-9 (> 37 U/mL)and 70%, 85%, 79% and 78% for CEA (> 3.1 ng/mL).Subgroup analysis of those with surgical pathology yielded almost identical performance and cutoffs.CONCLUSION: Cytology and cyst fluid tumor marker analysis is a very useful tool in distinguishing benign from (pre)malignant pancreatic cystic lesions.

  12. Activation of Cdc42 is necessary for sustained oscillations of Ca2+ and PIP2 stimulated by antigen in RBL mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus M. Wilkes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antigen stimulation of mast cells via FcεRI, the high-affinity receptor for IgE, triggers a signaling cascade that requires Ca2+ mobilization for exocytosis of secretory granules during the allergic response. To characterize the role of Rho GTPases in FcεRI signaling, we utilized a mutant RBL cell line, B6A4C1, that is deficient in antigen-stimulated Cdc42 activation important for these processes. Recently the importance of stimulated intracellular oscillations has emerged, and we find that B6A4C1 cells exhibit severely attenuated Ca2+ oscillations in response to antigen, which are restored to wild-type RBL-2H3 levels by expression of constitutively active Cdc42 G12V or by a GEF for Cdc42, DOCK7, but not when the C-terminal di-arginine motif of active Cdc42 is mutated to di-glutamine. We found that antigen-stimulated FcεRI endocytosis, which occurs independently of Ca2+ mobilization, is also defective in B6A4C1 cells, and Cdc42 G12V reconstitutes this response as well. Thus, activation of Cdc42 occurs prior to and is critical for antigen-stimulated pathways leading separately to both Ca2+ mobilization and receptor endocytosis. Accounting for these downstream functional consequences, we show that Cdc42 G12V reconstitutes antigen-stimulated oscillations of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 at the plasma membrane in mutant B6A4C1 cells, pointing to Cdc42 participation in the regulation of stimulated PIP2 synthesis.

  13. 46 CFR 151.15-3 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 151.15-3 Section 151.15-3 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-3 Construction. This section lists the requirements for construction of the types of cargo tanks defined in § 151.15-1. (a) Gravity type tanks. Gravity type...

  14. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 15.3 Section 15.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Application and Coverage § 15.3 Communications. Unless... Secretary of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and sent either by mail to the U.S. Nuclear...

  15. 血清CA125、CEA水平与宫颈癌相关性分析%Association of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 125 with cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡跃华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association of serum carcinoembryonic antigen ( CEA )and carbohydrate antigen 125 ( CA125 ) with cervical cancer.Methods 100 patients with cervical cancer who had been treated in our hospital during the period of February 2007 to March 2011 were enrolled into a study group.Serum levels of CEA and CA125 were detected and their assoication with cervical cancer was analyzed; and the levels of these markers were compared with those from 60 non-cervical cancer patients ( control group ).Results Serum levels of CEA and CA125 were higher in the study group than in the control group,with a significant difference between 2 groups ( P< 0.05 ) except for stage Ⅰ cervical cancer.The correlation between CA125 and stages of cervical cancer was greater than that between CEA and cervical cancer ( P< 0.05 ).Conclusions Serum levels of CEA and CA125 are associated with cervical cancer at some degree.CA125 has more diagnostic values than CEA.%目的 分析研究血清CA125(糖链抗原125)、CEA(癌胚抗原)水平与宫颈癌的相关性.方法 将我院从2007年2月至2011年3月收治的100例宫颈癌病患设为实验组,进行血清CA125、CEA水平检测,并与宫颈癌分期相分析,将同期收治的60例非宫颈癌病患设为对照组,对比两组血清CA125、CEA水平.结果 实验组血清CA125、CEA水平均高于对照组,除Ⅰ期宫颈癌数据外,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);血清CA125与宫颈癌分期的相关性高于血清CEA,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05 ).结论 血清CA125、CEA水平与宫颈癌有一定相关性,检测简单方便,且血清CA125比血清CEA更具诊断价值.

  16. The value of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) during treatment and follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruijn, HWA; vanderZee, AGJ; Aalders, JG

    1997-01-01

    Although the nature of the cancer antigen 125 leaves many questions unanswered, the use of serum measurements as a means to assess the response to surgery and chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is now well documented. Good prognostic significance is attributed to a rapid decline in cancer antigen 125 le

  17. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of the p27-CA protein of HERV-K(HML-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Oliver; Mostafa, Saeed; Norley, Stephen; Bannert, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The detection or quantification of retroviruses is often achieved using an antigen-capture ELISA (AC-ELISA) that targets the Gag capsid (CA) protein. We report here the development of an AC-ELISA specific for the p27-CA protein of HERV-K(HML-2). A monoclonal p27-specific antibody is used for capture and a polyclonal anti-p27-CA immune serum generated in rabbits serves for detection. The assay was shown to be specific for HERV-K(HML-2), showing no evidence of cross reactivity with the human retroviruses HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1 or with XMRV (as a model non-human gammaretrovirus). Using purified recombinant antigen, the limit of detection was shown to be 130pg/ml. The AC-ELISA can be used to quantify HERV-K(HML-2) expression in teratocarcinoma cell lines and to normalize HERV particles generated by transfecting HEK 293T cells with full-length molecular clones. This novel AC-ELISA also proved useful in studies of virus regulation, for example in demonstrating that HERV-K(HML-2) expression is dramatically enhanced by overexpression of Staufen-1, a binding partner of the HERV-K(HML-2) Rec protein. This specific and sensitive HERV-K(HML-2) AC-ELISA will be a useful tool for investigating many aspects of endogenous retroviruses, from basic research to the role they may play in human diseases or as a surrogate marker for particular diseases.

  18. Rapid detection and quantification of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) using a superparamagnetic immunochromatographic strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanrong; Wang, Kan; Liu, Zongrui; Sun, Rongjin; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    Rapid and quantitative detection of biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity has become a common practice in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Herein, a quantitative lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) was developed for detection of carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) in human serum. This direct and rapid method did not involve any sample preparation and was accomplished using a test strip in which a sandwich reaction was performed. Probes on the conjugate pad were prepared by coupling monoclonal antibody CC49 specific to CA72-4 onto SPMNPs. Coupled monoclonal antibody B72.3 and goat anti-mouse IgG were loaded onto a nitrocellulose (NC) membrane, serving as the test and control lines, respectively. Initially, results were evaluated by macroscopic observation. Afterwards, the magnetic signal strength of the reaction area was quantified using a magnetic assay reader (MAR). Several parameters that may influence the detection sensitivity were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method was capable of detecting as low as 0.38 IU/mL of CA72-4 in 20 min and had a wide detection linearity range (0-100 IU/mL). We evaluated 100 clinical samples (70 positive and 30 negative) to assess the validity of these test strips, which exhibited high sensitivity (99 %) and specificity (97 %). The results indicated a high rate of accuracy (98.4-102 %) and a low relative standard deviation according to the average recovery test. In conclusion, the test strips based on SPMNP probes are a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative method for the detection of CA72-4 and possess great potential in point-of-care testing (POCT). Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of the strategy for CA72-4 detection and quantification using a superparamagnetic immunochromatographic strip. PMID:26825343

  19. Immunohistochemical characterization of 22 monoclonal antibodies against the CA125 antigen : 2nd report from the ISOBM TD-1 workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitali, A; Nustad, K; Bast, RC; OBrien, TJ; Nilsson, O; Seguin, P; Suresh, MR; Bormer, OP; Saga, T; deBruijn, HWA; Nozawa, S; Kreutz, FT; Jette, D; Sakahara, H; Gadnell, M; Endo, K; Barlow, EH; Warren, D; Paus, E; Hammarstrom, S; Kenemans, P; Hilgers, J

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the immunohistological (IH) characteristics of 22 different antibodies that were submitted for study in the frame of the TD-1 ISOBM Workshop on monoclonal antibodies against CA125. Information on relative affinities and epitope similarities was obtained from a parallel immunochemical st

  20. Teratoma during Pregnancy with Positive Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors and Elevated Ca19-9 Antigen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Kanlioglu Kuman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 27-year-old female patient admitted with an anterior mediastinal mass. She complained of chest discomfort and hemoptysis which began seven months prior. She had given birth five months prior. Thoracic X-ray showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Thorax computed tomography (CT confirmed a well-defined anterior mediastinal mass with  cm diameter, extending to the right hemithorax. It was composed of cystic spaces and discrete areas like soft tissue and fat. Serum Ca 19-9 level was elevated. CT features were consistent with a mature teratoma. During median sternotomy, the tumor revealed adhesions to the right lung and the right subclavian artery. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a mature teratoma. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were detected to be positive in the resected tissue. We conclude that alterations in hormone levels during pregnancy might be the cause of rapid tumor growth which leads to hemoptysis.

  1. Levels of estrogen, carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen of breast in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the period from february 2004 to July 2004; with the objective of measuring the levels of estrogen (E2), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen of breast (CA-15.3) so as to facilitate the early diagnosis of breast cancer and determine the involvement of these parameters as risk factors for breast cancer. Ninety blood samples were collected from Sudanese females, divided into two groups; control group and patient groups. The patients group was sixty Sudanese females visiting the Radio Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and they were confirmed as breast cancer patient by histopathology. The levels of the above mentioned parameters were determined by using radioimmunoassay technique. The results showed that, no significant (p=0.05) difference between the levels of the estrogen in patients compared to the control, on the other hand there was non significant (p>0.05) elevation in CEA levels in the patients with breast cancer compared to the control. The level of CA15.3 was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the breast cancer patients compared to the control.(Author)

  2. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  3. 46 CFR 63.15-3 - Fuel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 63.05-1) meet the requirements of this section. ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel system. 63.15-3 Section 63.15-3 Shipping COAST... General Requirements § 63.15-3 Fuel system. (a) Firing of an automatic auxiliary boiler by natural gas...

  4. Study on the Serum Levels of Relevant Cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and Tumor Markers CEA, CA15-3, PRL in Breast Cancer Patients with Bone Metastatic Lesions Shown on SPECT Radio-nuclide Bone Scan%SPECT放射性核素骨显像与血清相关指标协同评价乳腺癌骨转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宝

    2009-01-01

    目的:评价乳腺癌患者放射性核素骨显像与血清肿瘤指标和细胞因子水平测定的价值.方法:随机选择乳腺浸润性导管癌骨显像示骨转移瘤与骨显像正常患者各20 例,乳腺良性病患者30例及健康体检者35例,分别测定其血清中CEA、CA15-3及PRL; IL-1β、IL-6和IL-8的含量.结果:本文结果显示,乳腺癌无骨转移组CEA、CA15-3及PRL三项肿瘤相关标志物水平与对照组比较略有升高,但统计学差异皆无显著性(P均>0.05);有骨转移组上述三项指标水平则升高均非常显著(P均<0.01);乳腺良性病组三项指标水平与对照组比较均无显著差异(P均>0.05).同时>2个骨转移灶组三项指标水平较≤2个转移灶的患者三项肿瘤相关指标升高均非常显著(P均<0.01).三项白介素水平测定结果显示,无骨转移组三项白介素水平与对照组比较差异均无显著性(P均>0.05);而有骨转移组则与对照组比较升高均有显著性(P均<0.05).结论:血清三项肿瘤标志物及IL-1β、IL-6和IL-8水平的变化与骨转移发生有一定关系.其检测将有助于乳腺癌骨转移瘤的动态监测.

  5. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  6. 检测胃癌血清和腹水中CA72-4抗原水平的临床意义%Clinical significance of CA72-4 antigen levels In serum and peritoneal washing for gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍; 盛家和; 王征帆

    2012-01-01

    目的:对胃癌患者进行CA72-4含量的检测,分析血清和腹水中的CA72-4水平与胃癌的相关性,预期判定腹膜复发的可能性.方法:研究了48例胃癌患者血清和腹水中的CA72-4水平、损伤部位及根除和淋巴结转移的数量.结果:淋巴结转移的胃癌患者与血清和腹水中的高水平CA72-4含量显著相关.浆膜浸润胃癌与血清中的CA72-4水平含量无显著统计学相关性,然而,与腹水中的CA72-4水平含量显著相关.尽管血清中的CA72-4水平含量与晚期胃癌无显著相关性,但腹水中的CA72-4水平含量与晚期胃癌呈显著相关.结论:腹水中的CA72-4高水平含量与淋巴结转移和浆膜浸润胃癌显著相关.血清中的CA72-4水平含量仅与淋巴结转移相关,与浆膜浸润胃癌无显著相关.%Objective To detect the content of CA72-4 antigen in ascites of gastric carcinoma patients, CA72-4 levels in serum and ascitic fluid were detected, the relationship between gastric cancer and CA72-4 levels was determined, the possibility of of recurrence in peritoneum was evaluated. Method CA72-4 levels in serum and ascites in 48 cases with gastric cancer were detected, injury site and the number of eradicated metastatic lymph node were documented. Result High content of CA72-4 in serum and ascites of patients was associated with lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer. No significance statistically was found between serum CA72-4 level and serosal invasion of gastric cancer, however, the level of CA72-4 in ascites was associated with serosal invasion of gastric cancer. Although serum CA72-4 level in serum was not correlated with advanced gastric cancer, CA72-4 level of in ascites of patients was not correlated with advanced gastric cancer. Conclusions CA72-4 high level in ascites were correlated with serosal invasion and lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer. Serum CA72-4 level was only associated with lymph node metastasis, but was not associated with serosal

  7. Increased serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in relapsed ductal breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Vassilios; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Koutsikos, John; Ptohis, Nikolaos; Lazaris, Dimitrios; Zerva, Cherry

    2006-01-01

    Increased serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a quite uncommon manifestation of breast cancer both on early disease and on relapse. A 53-year-old woman with invasive ductal breast carcinoma underwent left-sided mastectomy. Two years later she palpated a subcutaneous mass at the mastectomy scar, arousing suspicion of local relapse. Surgery and histopathology revealed infiltration by breast adenocarcinoma and she was treated with chemotherapy. At that time serum tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 15-3 were within normal range. Over the next six months she displayed an increase of serum CEA while serum CA 15-3 remained within normal range. In an attempt to search for a second neoplasm possibly of gastrointestinal (GI) origin, abdominal computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP), endoscopy of the upper GI tract and colonoscopy were performed, as well as measurement of serum CA 19-9. While no indication of a GI neoplasm was detected, she displayed an over 10-fold increase of serum CA 19-9. The patient had also an X-ray mammography and technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) scintimammography (SM). Whilst mammography was negative for contralateral disease recurrence, SM was suggestive of axillary lymph node involvement. Axillary lymph node dissection confirmed an extensive metastatic infiltration of these nodes by breast adenocarcinoma. Three months later serum CA 19-9 and CEA became normal. The interest of this case lies on the unexpected high serum CA 19-9 values found in a breast relapsed adenocarcinoma and in the important contribution of SM in diagnosing the axillary lymph node metastatic infiltration. PMID:16617392

  8. 基于IgY的ELISA用于囊尾蚴循环抗原的检测%Detecting the circulating antigen(CA) of Taenia solium cysticercosis with specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) by sandwich ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉; 王元伦; 唐雨德

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a sensitive and specific double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect circulating antigen (CA) of Taeniasoliumcysticercosis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin antibodies (IgY).Methods Hens were subcutaneously immunized with CA and the crude IgY was extracted from egg yolk by water dilution method.A sandwich ELISA had been developed by purified IgY antibodies as capture antibody and monoclonal antibodies labeled with peroxidase as detecting antibody.The detection limits of CA were analyzed.The sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients,the sera of healthy people,sick pigs and healthy pigs were detected in parallel by the established ELISA methods.It's sensitivity and specificity were evaluated by comparison with ELISA based monoclonal antibodies.Results The minimal detectable concentration of CA was 8.3 and 13.9 μg/ml by sandwich ELISA based IgY and monoclonal antibodies,respectively.The positive rates of samples from 139 patients,19 cerebrospinal fluid of patients and 222 sick pigs were 100% (139/139),89.5% (17/19) and 100% (222/222) by sandwich ELISA based IgY respectively.The negative rates of samples from 50 healthy people and 20 healthy pigs were 100%.Conclusion The novel double-antibody sandwich ELISA using anti-CA IgY appears to be sensitive and specific for detection the CA of Taenia solium cysticercosis.It is the promising assay for immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.%目的 建立基于IgY的双抗体夹心ELISA用于囊尾蚴病的诊断.方法 制备并纯化抗囊尾蚴循环抗原(CA)卵黄抗体(IgY),建立以抗CA的IgY为捕获抗体,酶标记抗CA的单克隆抗体1A5为检测抗体的双抗体夹心ELISA法,共检测样品450份,并与捕获抗体和检测抗体均为单克隆抗体的ELISA法比较,验证方法的敏感性、特异性与实用性.结果 成功制备并鉴定了特异性IgY抗体,建立了基于Igy的双抗体夹心ELISA检测体系.IgY-ELISA和双单

  9. A prospective study of serum tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigens 50 and 242, tissue polypeptide antigen and tissue polypeptide specific antigen in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer with special reference to multivariate diagnostic score.

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, P. A.; Eskelinen, M.; Partanen, K.; Pikkarainen, P; Penttilä, I.; Alhava, E

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess by a stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis the value of four current serum tumour markers - carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA) 50 and CA 242 and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) - and a new serum tumour marker, tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The serum values were measured in a prospective series of patients with jaundice, with unjaundiced cholestasis and with a suspicion of chro...

  10. Antigen-induced and non-antigen-induced histamine release from rat mast cells sensitized with mouse antiserum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurose,Masao

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Marked IgE-mediated histamine release from rat mast cells sensitized in vitro with mouse antiserum occurs in the presence of added Ca++ and phosphatidylserine (PS, although a considerable degree of antigen-induced histamine release which may utilize intracellular or cell-bound calcium is also observed. The decay in the responsiveness to Ca++ of the sensitized cells stimulated by antigen in Ca++-free medium in the presence of PS is relatively slow, and maximum release is produced by Ca++ added 1 min after antigen. Histamine release also occurs when Ca++ is added after PS in the absence of antigen to the sensitized cells suspended in Ca++-free medium. Unlike the antigen-induced release, the intensity of this non-antigen-induced release varies depending on both mast-cell and antiserum pools. A heat-labile factor(s, which is different from antigen-specific IgE antibody and is also contained in normal mouse serum, is involved in this reaction. In the antigen-nondependent (PS + Ca++-induced release, no decay in the responsiveness to Ca++ is observed after PS addition. Both the antigen-induced and non-antigen-induced release are completed fairly rapidly and are dependent of temperature, pH and energy.

  11. X-15 #3 with test pilot Bill Dana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana is seen here next to the X-15 #3 (56-6672) rocket-powered aircraft after a flight. William H. Dana is Chief Engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Formerly an aerospace research pilot at Dryden, Dana flew the F-15 HIDEC research aircraft and the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16 aircraft. Dana flew the famed X-15 research airplane 16 times, reaching a top speed of 3,897 miles per hour and a peak altitude of 306,900 feet (over 58 miles high). The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable horizontal stabilizers to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a

  12. Diagnostic value of alpha fetoprotein (AFP),α-L-fucosidase(AFU) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199)combined detection in early stage orimary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC)%AFP、AFU、CA199联合检测对早期原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓爱红; 彭燕华; 周少雄; 沈永坚; 肖海萍; 何彩云; 林经良

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、糖类抗原199(CA199)对早期原发性肝癌(primary carcinoma of the liver,PHC)联合检测的诊断价值。方法:选取2013年1月到2014年5月佛山市第二人民医院肝科门诊初诊患者,通过病史、症状和查体拟诊为疑似PHC患者,再采用诊断金标准将疑似患者(研究对象)确诊分为PHC(48例)和非PHC(76例),所有研究对象均检测血清AFP、AFU和CA199,检测AFP和CA199采用化学发光法,检测AFU采用全自动生化仪器法,采用循证检验医学的方法统计各诊断价值性能指标。结果:PHC组患者AFP、AFU和CA199水平较非PHC组非常显著升高(P<0.01)。单一指标AFP、AFU和CA199检测PHC的诊断灵敏度分别为74.3%、51.4%、51.4%。单一指标AFP、AFU和CA199检测PHC的诊断特异性分别为82.4%、94.1%、94.1%。3指标并联灵敏度最高,为86.4%,其漏检率为13.6%。3指标串联和AFU/CA199串联特异性最高,约为96.5%,其误诊率为3.5%。结论:3指标并联是最佳PHC筛查联合指标,AFU和CA199串联是最佳PHC确诊联合指标。%Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of the alpha fetoprotein (AFP), α-L- fucosidase(AFU), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) and their combinations in Early Stage Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma (PHC). Methods:Selected the Hepatological outpatients at their first visit to the second people’s hospital of Foshan from January,2013 to May,2014.Suspicious PHC patients were diagnosed by medical history, symptoms and physical check,and suspicious PHC patients were classified into PHC patients(n=48) and non-PHC patients(n=76) following the diagnosed gold criteria.The concentration of AFP and CA199 was determined by Chemiluminescence method.The concentration of AFU were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument.The assessed parameters of diagnostic value were measured using the evidence-based laboratory

  13. Computed tomography of pulmonary changes in rheumatoid arthritis: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a marker of airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Milene Caroline; Pereira, Ivânio Alves; Nobre, Luiz Felipe Souza; Neves, Fabricio Souza

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) classically affects the joints, but can present extra-articular manifestations, including pulmonary disease. The present study aimed to identify possible risk factors or laboratory markers for lung involvement in RA, particularly the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA), and tumor markers, by correlating them with changes observed on chest high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT). This cross-sectional study involved RA patients who were examined and questioned by a specialist physician and later subjected to chest HRCT and blood collection for measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), ACPA (anti-vimentin and/or anti-CCP3), and the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, CA 15-3, and CA 19-9. A total of 96 patients underwent chest HRCT. The most frequent findings were bronchial thickening (27/28.1 %) and bronchiectasis (25/26 %). RF was present in 63.2 % of patients (55/87), and ACPA (anti-vimentin or anti-CCP3) was present in 72.7 % of patients (64/88). CEA levels were high in 14 non-smokers (37.8 %) and 23 smokers (62.2 %). CA-19-9 levels were high in 6 of 86 patients (7.0 %), CA 15-3 levels were high in 3 of 85 patients (3.5 %), and CA 125 levels were high in 4 of 75 patients (5.3 %). Multivariate analysis indicated a statistically significant association between high CEA levels and the presence of airway changes in patients with RA (p = 0.048). CEA can serve as a predictor of lung disease in RA and can help identify individuals who require more detailed examination for the presence of respiratory disorders.

  14. Combined detection of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 improve prognostic prediction of surgically treated colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingtao; Xiao WANG; Yu, Fudong; Chen, Jian; Zhao, Senlin; Zhang, Dongyuan; YU, Yang; Liu, Xisheng; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prognostic significance of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242) levels in surgically treated colorectal cancer patients. The relationship of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 levels with disease characteristics was investigated in 310 patients. Correlation between tumor markers was investigated using Pearson correlation test. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were used to s...

  15. Breed differences in the frequency of bovine lymphocyte antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stear, M J; Brown, S C; Dimmock, C K; Dufty, J H; Hetzel, D J; Mackie, J T; Nicholas, F W; Tierney, T J; Wetherall, J D

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 1,564 cattle of 18 breeds and cross-bred groups in Australia were tested for major histocompatibility system class 1 antigens. Gene frequencies were calculated for the Angus, Belmont Red, Brahman, Hereford and Holstein-Friesian breeds. There were substantial differences among these breeds in antigen and gene frequency. There were striking differences among all 18 breeds in the presence or absence of certain antigens. Two antigens, CA13 and CA36, were strongly associated in Hereford cattle but occurred independently of each other in the other breeds. PMID:3273412

  16. Prediction and Simulation of Microstructure of Ti-15-3 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Kemin XUE; Yan LU; Jianrong TAN

    2003-01-01

    Ti-15-3 alloy is a new metastableβ-type titanium. The influence of hot deformation parameters on the microstructureof Ti-15-3 alloy after solution treatment has been studied by isothermal compression tests as well as quantitativemetallographic analysis.

  17. Influence and prediction of hot deformation parameters on microstructure of Ti-15-3 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 薛克敏; 吕炎; 谭建荣

    2002-01-01

    The effect of hot processing parameters on the microstructure of Ti-15-3 alloy after solution treatment was studied by isothermal compression test and metallurgical analysis. Predicting models for the relations between equivalent grain size and recrystallized grain volume percent with strain,strain rate and temperature have been developed with an artificial neural network method. The coincidence of predicted results with measured ones shows that the neural network can predict the influence of hot deformation parameters on the microstructure of Ti-15-3 alloy after solution treatment successfully. These studies are significant for determining hot-forging processing parameters of Ti-15-3 alloy.

  18. Microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 72-4 in human serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hui; WANG Xu; XIN TianBing; GAO Peng; LIN JinMing; LIANG ShuXuan

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was de-veloped for the quantitative evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) in human serum, using luminol-H2O2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the chemiluminescence system. The sim-ple and quick determination was accomplished through a sandwich reaction mode. Several physico-chemical parameters of the immunoreaction, including incubation conditions, antibody coating condi-tions, dilution ratio of anti-CA72-4-HRP conjugate, and chemiluminescence reaction time, were studied and optimized. The proposed method exhibited a linear range of 0-200 U/mL with correlation coeffi-cient and detection limit of 0.9995 and 0.18 U/mL, respectively. The inter-assay and intra-assay coeffi-cients of variation (CV) were both less than 10%. The average recovery of two clinical sera with low and high concentration CA72-4 was 99.3% and 98.7%, respectively. Normal tumor markers, including AFP, CEA, CA2.4-2, CA19-9 and CA15-3, did not cross-react with each other. The method's stability was evaluated by assessing its analytical performance after storing the immunoreagents at 4℃ and 37℃ for 7 days. Little difference was found, indicating satisfactory stability of the method. The present method has been successfully applied to the detection of CA72-4 human serum, and showed a good correlation with the commercially available ELISA kit (r2=0.9383). This method showed great potential in the fabrication of diagnostic kit for CA72-4, and could be well used in diagnosis of cancer in clinical practice.

  19. Throughput Limits of IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.3

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Islam, S M Riazul; Nessa, Ahasanun; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.1109/WiCom.2008.731

    2009-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.3 are wireless standards originally designed for wireless local area network (WLAN) and wireless personal area network (WPAN). This paper studies MAC throughput analysis of both standards. We present a comparative analysis of both standards in terms of MAC throughput and bandwidth efficiency. Numerical results show that the performance of IEEE 802.15.3 transcends IEEE 802.11 in all cases.

  20. Component Evaporation of Ti-15-3 Melt during ISM Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    How to control melt composition is the key for getting high quality alloy melt. The paper made the following efforts: (1) The activity coefficients in Ti-15-3 melt have been calculated. (2)Taking advantage of the activity coefficients, the evaporation losses of components in Ti-15-3melt during ISM process have been studied. The calculated results show that there is a critical vacuum degree (about 1.33 Pa) during melting process.

  1. Comparative study of CA242 and CA19-9 in chronic pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya, N; Kawa, S; Hasebe, O.; Tokoo, M.; Mukawa, K.; Maejima, S.; Oguchi, H.

    1996-01-01

    CA242 has been proved to be useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanisms contributing to the high specificity of CA242 as compared with CA19-9 resulting from scarce serum elevation of this antigen in patients with chronic pancreatitis by correlating serum levels and endoscopic retrograde choledocho-pancreatography (ERCP) findings and by immunohistochemical analysis. Serum CA19-9 levels were significantly elevated in patients with cal...

  2. 血清CA125水平与先兆流产预后的关系%The relationship between the serum carbohydrate antigen 125 level and the prognosis of the threatened abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支佩颖; 王雪舟; 林素云; 张雷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of serum CA125 in prediction of the first-trimester threatened abortion.Methods The serum CA125 level of 78 patients with threatened abortionand( miscarriage success group and failure group) and 40 normal early pregnant women before treatment and after 1 ~ 4 weeks were tested by chemiluminescent immunoassay(CLIA) methods and the results were compared.Results The serum CA125 level of the failure group was significantly higher than that of the miscarriage success group[ (28.52 ± 19.12) x 103 U/L] and normal early pregnant women group [ (20.45 ± 9.55) × 103 U/L] ( t =- 1.28,- 1.24,all P < 0.05 ),and it increased by degree and by time,and the sensitivity and specificity of detection was 93.1% and 87.85% respectively.Conclusion Monitoring of serum CA125 had highly clinical value in predicting the prognosis of threatened abortion.%目的 探讨血清CA125水平在预测早期先兆流产妊娠预后的价值.方法 对78例早期先兆流产(保胎失败组和保胎成功组)及40例正常早孕妇女治疗前及治疗后1~4周的血清CA125进行测定并比较.结果 保胎失败组妇女血清CA125水平为(28.52±19.12)×103U/L,显著高于保胎成功组的(28.52±19.12)×103 U/L、正常孕妇组的(20.45±9.55)×103 U/L(t=- 1.28,-1.24,均P<0.05),且随着时间的推移而递增,检测敏感性为93.10%,特异性为87.85%.结论 血清CA125水平的监测对早孕先兆流产的预后判断具有较高的临床应用价值.

  3. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  4. Prediction of flow stress of Ti-15-3 alloy with artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hot compression experiments were conducted on Ti-15-3 alloy specimens using Gleeble-1500 Thermal Simulator.These tests were focused to obtain the flow stress data under various conditions of strain,strain rate and temperature. On the basis of these data, the predicting model for the nonlinear relation between flow stress and deformation strain,strain rate and temperature for Ti-15-3 alloy was developed with a back-propagation artificial neural network method. Results show that the neural network can reproduce the flow stress in the sampled data and predict the nonsampled data well. Thus the neural network method has been verified to be used to tackle hot deformation problems of Ti-15-3 alloy.

  5. Mechanical tensile testing of titanium 15-3-3-3 and Kevlar 49 at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, B. L.; Martinez, R. M.; Shirron, P.; Tuttle, J.; Galassi, N. M.; McGuinness, D. S.; Puckett, D.; Francis, J. J.; Flom, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Titanium 15-3-3-3 and Kevlar 49 are highly desired materials for structural components in cryogenic applications due to their low thermal conductivity at low temperatures. Previous tests have indicated that titanium 15-3-3-3 becomes increasingly brittle as the temperature decreases. Furthermore, little is known regarding the mechanical properties of Kevlar 49 at low temperatures, most specifically its Young's modulus. This testing investigates the mechanical properties of both materials at cryogenic temperatures through cryogenic mechanical tensile testing to failure. The elongation, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and break strength of both materials are provided and analyzed here.

  6. 46 CFR 97.15-3 - Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-3 Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication. (a) On all vessels making a voyage of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, and the means of communication between the bridge or pilothouse and the engineroom shall...

  7. 46 CFR 196.15-3 - Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-3 Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication. (a) On all vessels making a voyage of more than 48 hours duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, and the means of communication between the bridge or pilothouse and engineroom shall be...

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS DURING ISM PROCESS OF Ti-15-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the direct finite difference method, a numerical model for simulating the temperature field in the charge during Induction Skull Melting (ISM) process has been developed. By use of the simulation program, the temperature field in the charge of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al(Ti-15-3) has been calculated under the condition of various melting powers and charge weights. Furthermore, the relationship between the ultimate temperature in the melt and the melting power, charge weight has been set up. On the basis of the relationship, the parameters during the ISM process of Ti-15-3 (the principle is adaptable to other titanium alloys) would be optimized, consequently, much man-power and finance would be saved and the quality of the melt would be improved.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength as-cast Ti-15-3 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宏升; 周建中; 贾均; 郭景杰; 苏彦庆; 傅恒志

    2002-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment and solidification cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti-15-3 alloy prepared by induction skull melting method were investigated. Results show that the microstructure of as-cast Ti-15-3 alloy changes from the features of simplified and larger size of beta grains to finer grain size with increasing solidification cooling rate. After solution treatment and different ageing treatment, alpha phase precipitates in grains interior as well as in grain boundaries. Due to the modification of the precipitate phase, the tensile strength and elongation of the alloy are improved simultaneously. A good combination of the values of 1.406GPa of σb and 4.5% of δ was obtained, which will be satisfied the use of this kind of alloy in critical areas.

  10. Fatigue crack growth study of SCS6/Ti-15-3 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, P.; Telesman, J.

    1990-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior and the associated fatigue damage processes in a (0)8- and (90)8-oriented SCS6/Ti-15-3 composite. Companion testing was also done on identically processed Ti-15-3 unreinforced material. The active fatigue crack growth failure processes were very similar for both composite orientations tested. For both orientations, fatigue crack growth was along the fiber direction. It was found that the composite constituent most susceptible to fatigue damage was the interface region and, in particular, the carbon coating surrounding the fiber. The failure of the interface region led to crack initiation and also strongly influenced the FCG behavior in this composite. The failure of the interface region was apparently driven by normal stresses perpendicular to the fiber direction. The FCG rates were considerably higher for the (90)8-oriented CT specimens in comparison to the unreinforced material.

  11. Cross-reactive Legionella antigens and the antibody response during infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G; Pearlman, E;

    1991-01-01

    In order to define cross-reactive Legionella antigens suitable for diagnostic purposes, we investigated sonicate antigens from two Legionella species, including two serogroups of L. pneumophila. The antigens were reacted with heterologous and homologous rabbit antisera in Western blot. Sera from...... seven patients with culture-verified L. pneumophila infection and nine patients with serologically confirmed L. micdadei infection were also investigated for reactivity with the corresponding antigens. Among the cross-reactive Legionella antigens defined, non-specific reactivity in patients' sera...... with the 58-kDa common antigen (CA) was noted. Specific reactions were observed with the Legionella flagellum antigen and with the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein; with both antigens, however, the reactive sera were too few to suggest the use of a single antigen in a diagnostic test....

  12. Matrix fatigue crack development in a notched continuous fiber SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillberry, B. M.; Johnson, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    In this study the extensive matrix fatigue cracking that has been observed in notched SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites is investigated. Away from the notch a uniform spacing of the fatigue cracks develops. Closer to the notch, fiber-matrix debonding which occurs increases the crack spacing. Crack spacing and debond length determined from shear-lag cylinder models compare favorably with experimental observations. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractography showed that the principal fatigue crack initiation occurred around the zero degree fibers. Interface failure in the 90 degree plies does not lead to the development of the primary fatigue cracking.

  13. CARCINOMA-ASSOCIATED MUCIN SERUM MARKERS CA-M26 AND CA-M29 - EFFICACY IN DETECTING AND MONITORING PATIENTS WITH CANCER OF THE BREAST, COLON, OVARY, ENDOMETRIUM AND CERVIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YEDEMA, KA; KENEMANS, P; WOBBES, T; VANKAMP, GJ; DEBRUIJN, HW; THOMAS, CM; MASSUGER, LF; SCHIJF, CP; BON, GG; VERMORKEN, JB; VOORHORST, F; HILGERS, J

    1991-01-01

    Two recently developed monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based anti-mucin assays, CA M26 and CA M29, were studied in 250 cancer patients and compared to 3 well-established marker tests, viz., CA 125, CA 15.3 and SCC, in order to assess their clinical usefulness as serum tumor markers. Pre-treatment sera wer

  14. Notched Tensile and Impact Fracture of Ti-15-3 Laser Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Leu-Wen; Wu, Yan-Jie; Chen, Chun

    2011-12-01

    The notched tensile strength (NTS) and impact toughness of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al ( β-type titanium alloy Ti-15-3) laser welds aged at temperatures ranging from 590 K to 866 K (317 °C to 593 °C) were determined, and the results were compared to those of unwelded Ti-15-3 plates aged at the same temperature. At a given aging temperature, α precipitates in welded specimens were finer and exhibited higher hardness than those in unwelded specimens. Among the tested specimens, the weld aged at 644 K (371 °C) was most susceptible to notch sensitivity. In those welds aged at or above 755 K (482 °C), the coarse columnar structure was prone to interdendritic fracture during notched tensile tests, which reduced the NTS of the weld relative to that of the unwelded plate aged at an equivalent temperature. Of the tested specimens, the weld that was not subjected to the postweld aging treatment possessed the highest impact toughness among the specimens.

  15. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50(CA50)expression in colorectal carcinoma.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa.Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa,cancer distant mucosa,cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa,and there were significant differences among them(P<0.05).The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the deg...

  16. Modification of alpha phase precipitation by cold work of the Ti-15-3 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the mechanical property changes in the Ti-15-3 alloy resulting from different degrees of cold work (10% to 50% cold reduction) and heat treatments at various temperatures (480 C to 565 C), and to study the underlying microstructures in selected cases, so that method of developing suitable microstructures for structural applications can be established. The dislocation structures and vacancies produced by cold work results in faster and uniform nucleation and growth of precipitates. Higher strength can be obtained in a shorter time without appreciable loss of ductility. A cold work of 10% was found to be too small to produce uniformity in deformation

  17. Fractal Characteristics and Prediction of Ti-15-3 Alloy Recrystallized Microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Qing ZHANG; Kemin XUE

    2008-01-01

    Grain shape of the hot deforming alloy is an important index to character the microstructure and performance of material.The fractal theory was applied to analyze the recrystallized microstructure of Ti-15-3 alloy after hot deformation and solution treatment.The fractal dimensions of recrystallized grains were calculated by slit island method.The influence of processing parameters on fractal dimension and grain size was studied.It has been shown that the shapes of recrystallized grain boundaries are self-similar,and the fractal dimension varies from 1 to 2.With increasing deformation degree and strain rate or decreasing deformation temperature,the fractal dimension of grain boundaries increased and the grain size decreased.So the fractal dimension could characterize the grain shape and size.A neural network model was trained to predict the fractal dimension of recrystallized microstructure and the result is in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Measurements of thermal residual stresses in SiC/Ti-15-3 composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobet, J.-L.; Masuda, C. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Residual stresses present in an as received and thermally cycled SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite (MMC) have been approached via X-ray diffraction (sin{sup 2}{psi}) experiments. Determination of stress profiles have been achieved by successive removal of the matrix from the composite surface by electropolishing. Axial and hoop stresses in the matrix were tensile (higher on the surface) and those measured in the fiber were compressive (about -500 to -600 MPa). A stress gradient normal to the surface of the composite was found. Measurement of residual stress levels in the composite subjected to thermal cycling from 400degC to 800degC in an inert atmosphere or in vacuum revealed a huge stress relaxation after only 200 cycles. (author)

  19. Signaling between intracellular Ca2+ stores and depletion-activated Ca2+ channels generates [Ca2+]i oscillations in T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Stimulation through the antigen receptor (TCR) of T lymphocytes triggers cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) oscillations that are critically dependent on Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane. We have investigated the roles of Ca2+ influx and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores in the oscillation mechanism, using single-cell Ca2+ imaging techniques and agents that deplete the stores. Thapsigargin (TG; 5-25 nM), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 5-20 microM), and tert- butylhydroquinone (tBHQ; 80-200 micro...

  20. Prognostic value of increased carbohydrate antigen in patients with heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, Ana B; Ordoñez-Llanos, Jordi; Ferrero, Andreu; Noguero, Mariana; Mir, Teresa; Mora, Josefina; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Mirabet, Sònia; Cinca, Juan; Roig, Eulàlia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) and whether it adds prognostic information to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in stable heart failure (HF) patients.

  1. A Role For Mitochondria In Antigen Processing And Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Lc; Cervantes-Silva, Mp; Ontiveros-Dotor, E; López-Villegas, Eo; Sánchez-García, Fj

    2014-09-23

    Immune synapse formation is critical for T lymphocyte activation, and mitochondria have a role in this process, by localizing close to the immune synapse, regulating intracellular calcium concentration, and providing locally required ATP. The interaction between antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes is a two-way signaling process. However, the role of mitochondria in antigen presenting cells during this process remains unknown. For APCs to be able to activate T lymphocytes, they must first engage in an antigen-uptake, -processing, and -presentation process. Here we show that HEL-loaded B lymphocytes, as a type of APCs, undergo a small but significant mitochondrial depolarization by 1-2 h following antigen exposure thus suggesting an increase in their metabolic demands. Inhibition of ATP synthase (oligomycin) or mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) (Ruthenium red) had no effect on antigen uptake. Therefore, antigen processing and antigen presentation were further analyzed. Oligomycin treatment reduced the amount of specific MHC-peptide complexes but not total MHC II on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes which correlated with a decrease in antigen presentation. However, oligomycin also reduced antigen presentation by B lymphocytes that endogenously express HEL and by B lymphocytes loaded with the HEL48-62 peptide, although to a lesser extent. ATP synthase inhibition and MCU inhibition had a clear inhibitory effect on antigen processing (DQ-OVA). Taking together these results suggest that ATP synthase and MCU are relevant for antigen processing and presentation. Finally, APCs mitochondria were found to re-organize towards the APC-T immune synapse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Time allocation scheme in IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; DAI Qiong-hai; WU Qiu-feng

    2006-01-01

    In network with a shared channel in TDMA mechanism, it is a core issue to effectively allocate channel time to provide service guarantees for flows with QoS requirements. This paper proposes a simple and efficient time allocation scheme called MES-ESRPT (MCTA at the End of Superframe-Enhanced Shortest Remaining Processing Time) for delay-sensitive VBR traffic in accordance with IEEE 802.15.3 standard. In this algorithm, PNC (piconet coordinator) allocates one MCTA (Management Channel Time Allocation) for each stream which is the process of communication at the end of superframe. During the MCTA period, each transmitter should report current fragments number of the first MSDU (MAC Service Data Unit) and the fragments number of the remainder MSDUs to PNC. In the next superframe, PNC firstly allocates part CTAs (Channel Time Allocation) for each stream based on the remainder fragments number of the first MSDU by SRPT rule, then allocates remainder CTAs for each stream based on all fragments number of remainder MSDUs by the same SRPT rule. Simulation results showed that our proposed MES-ESRPT method achieves significantly better performance in QoS for multimedia streams compared to the existing schemes.

  3. Low energy 40Ca + 40Ca collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the classical microscopic study of 40Ca + 40Ca collisions. Fusion cross-sections (σsub(CF)) for various incident energies, energy variations with time, shape deformation and the life time of resonance scattering (T) have been studied. Comparison of 40Ca + 40Ca results with those of 16O + 16O have also been made. (author)

  4. Is tissue CA125 expression in epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma heterogenic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, Morten H; Høgdall, Claus K; Nedergaard, Lotte;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if heterogeneity of tissue cancer antigen 125 (CA125) expression is present in epithelial serous adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, to investigate whether there is a correlation between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade. A total of 10 patients...... diagnosed with serous ovarian adenocarcinomas were included. Preoperative blood samples were collected to determine serum CA125 levels. Tumor tissue from primary surgery was collected and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. CA125 was expressed in varying degrees in tumor tissues from all patients....... Mean tissue CA125 expression for each patient ranged from 36% to 98%. Intrapatient variations in tissue expression ranged from 10% to 90% point. No significant correlations between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade were found. We found that the tissue expression...

  5. File list: ALL.Prs.20.AllAg.DuCaP [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.20.AllAg.DuCaP hg19 All antigens Prostate DuCaP SRX1090891,SRX1090890,SRX10...90893,SRX1090892 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Prs.20.AllAg.DuCaP.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.DuCaP [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.DuCaP hg19 All antigens Prostate DuCaP SRX1090891,SRX1090890,SRX10...90893,SRX1090892 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.DuCaP.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Prs.10.AllAg.DuCaP [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.10.AllAg.DuCaP hg19 All antigens Prostate DuCaP SRX1090890,SRX1090893,SRX10...90892,SRX1090891 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Prs.10.AllAg.DuCaP.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Prs.50.AllAg.DuCaP [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.50.AllAg.DuCaP hg19 All antigens Prostate DuCaP SRX1090891,SRX1090890,SRX10...90892,SRX1090893 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Prs.50.AllAg.DuCaP.bed ...

  9. Murine antigen-induced arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; Joosten, L.A.B.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Antigen induced arthritis is a unilateral T-cell driven model caused by direct injection of an antigen into the knee joint of a FCA preimmunized animal. The chronicity is determined by antigen retention in avascular structures of the joint through charge mediated binding or antibody mediated trappin

  10. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the tumour markers CEA, CA 50 and CA 242 in pancreatic cancer; results from a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, P. A.; Eskelinen, M.; Partanen, K.; Pikkarainen, P; Penttilä, I.; Alhava, E

    1993-01-01

    The serum values of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer-associated carboanhydrate antigens CA 50 and CA 242 were evaluated in 193 patients with hepatopancreato-biliary diseases by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in order to compare their diagnostic accuracy in pancreatic cancer (n = 26), and to define optimal cut-off levels for the serum values of these tumour markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The ROC analysis showed that all marker te...

  11. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  12. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  13. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  14. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  15. Characterization of a common antigen of colorectal and mucinous ovarian tumors, COTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, K D; Zamora, P O; Rhodes, B A; Sachatello, C R; Hagihara, P F; Griffen, W O; van Nagell, J R; Fulks, R; Ram, M D

    1984-01-01

    A new colon cancer antigen is reported. It is designated as COTA, Colon-Ovarian Tumor Antigen, because it is found in mucins produced by both tissues during malignancy. The new antigen was identified by making antibodies against human colon cancer tissue in goats. The antisera were exhaustively absorbed with lyophilized extracts of normal colon, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, plasma, and the well-known colon tumor antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The new antigen was identified by immunodiffusion. Studies of 28 malignant tissue extracts, 10 ovarian adenocarcinoma cyst fluids, 43 normal tissues, and 5 plasma samples revealed that this antigen is found only in colon tumors and mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas. The antigen was not detected in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovaries, extracts of adenocarcinoma of lung, breast, kidney or stomach nor in the extracts of normal tissues. Other tests show that this antigen is not CEA, Ca 19-9, or CSAp. It is stable to heating at 65 degrees for 5 minutes; it elutes from an ion exchange matrix (DEAE) with 0.3-0.5M NaCl; it migrates to the alpha-2 region on immunoelectrophoresis; and its size, by exclusion chromatography on Sepharose 4B, is 3-15 million daltons. Anti-COTA stains colon cancer tissue sections indicating that COTA is present in goblet-cell mucin.

  16. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  17. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  18. CA19-9 as a Potential Target for Radiolabeled Antibody-Based Positron Emission Tomography of Pancreas Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Girgis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sensitive and specific imaging of pancreas cancer are necessary for accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment. The vast majority of pancreas cancers express the carbohydrate tumor antigen CA19-9. The goal of this study was to determine the potential to target CA19-9 with a radiolabeled anti-CA19-9 antibody for imaging pancreas cancer. Methods. CA19-9 was quantified using flow cytometry on human pancreas cancer cell lines. An intact murine anti-CA19-9 monoclonal antibody was labeled with a positron emitting radionuclide (Iodine-124 and injected into mice harboring antigen positive and negative xenografts. MicroPET/CT were performed at successive time intervals (72 hours, 96 hours, 120 hours after injection. Radioactivity was measured in blood and tumor to provide objective confirmation of the images. Results. Antigen expression by flow cytometry revealed approximately 1.3×106 CA19-9 antigens for the positive cell line and no expression in the negative cell line. Pancreas xenograft imaging with Iodine-124-labeled anti-CA19-9 mAb demonstrated an average tumor to blood ratio of 5 and positive to negative tumor ratio of 20. Conclusion. We show in vivo targeting of our antigen positive xenograft with a radiolabeled anti-CA19-9 antibody. These data demonstrate the potential to achieve anti-CA19-9 antibody based positron emission tomography of pancreas cancer.

  19. CA-125 IN SERUM AND TUMOR FROM PATIENTS WITH UTERINE SARCOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUK, JM; BOUMA, J; BURGER, GTN; DEBRUIJN, HWA

    1994-01-01

    Serial serum samples of 33 patients with primary sarcoma of the uterus were analyzed for CA 125 and frozen tissue sections of tumor from 23 patients were tested for this antigen. Before treatment, 12 of 30 evaluable patients showed serum CA 125 levels >16 Uml-1 (40%). There was no relationship betwe

  20. Differential diagnosis of tuberculosis and lung cancer pleural effusion by CEA, CA125,CA50%CEA、CA125、CA50在结核及肺癌性胸水鉴别中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯金栋; 赵卫国; 保鹏涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the significance of differential diagnosis of pleural effusion by detection of carci-noembryonic antigen (CEA) ,carbohydrate antigen (CA125) and carbohydrate antigen (CA50). Methods: A total of 126 specimens from pleural effusion diagnosed as TB in 70 cases and lung cancer in 56 cases were collected. CEA, CA125,CA50 in the pleural effusion were analyzed. ResuItS:The expression level and sensitivity of CEA and CA50 in pleural effusion of lung cancer was significantly higher than that in tuberculous (P 0.05). The specificity was only 5.71%. Combining CEA with CA125 to diagnose pleural effusion resulted fom lung cancer, the sensitivity was 92. 11% and combining CA125 with CA50 the sensitivity was 95. 24% . When the concetration of CEA was more than 10ng/ml or the concetration of CA125 was more than 2000U/ml,pleural effusion of lung cancer should be highly suspected. Conclusion;The use of CEA.CA125 and CA50 separately,or in combination is helpful to differential diagnosis of pleural effusion resulted from tuberculosis and lung cancer.%目的:探讨癌胚抗原(CEA)、糖类抗原(CA125)、糖类抗原(CA50)在胸水鉴别诊断中的意义.方法:收集已明确胸水性质的标本126例(结核性70例、癌性56例),检测胸水中CEA、CA125、CA50的数值,进行统计分析.结果:肺癌性胸水中CEA、CA50表达水平及敏感度明显高于结核性胸腔积液(P<0.05),特异性分别为95.71%和98.57%.同样CA125在肺癌性胸水中高表达(P<0.05),但两组敏感度无差异(P>0.05),特异性仅为5.71%;CEA和CA125联合诊断肺癌性胸水的敏感度为92.11%,CA125和CA50联合诊断敏感度为95.24%.CEA> 10ng/ml或CA125> 2000U/ml,可初步定为肺癌性胸水.结论:CEA、CA125、CA50单独或联合检测对鉴别诊断结核及肺癌性胸水有重要临床指导意义.

  1. Clinical evaluation of serum tumour marker CA 242 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol, J L; Cooper, E H; Lehmann, M.; Purves, D. A.; Dan-Aouta, M.; Midander, J.; Godard, P.; Michel, F B

    1993-01-01

    CA 242, a novel tumour carbohydrate antigen present in serum (upper limit of normal values: 20.0 U ml-1), has been measured in a group of 102 pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer patients. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify any relationship between pre-treatment serum CA 242 level and different features of lung cancer including prognosis. Serum CA 242 was measured using the delayed europium lanthanide fluoroimmunometric assay. Sensitivity and specificity w...

  2. Fully Coupled Micro/Macro Deformation, Damage, and Failure Prediction for SiC/Ti-15-3 Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Lerch, Brad A.

    2001-01-01

    The deformation, failure, and low cycle fatigue life of SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites are predicted using a coupled deformation and damage approach in the context of the analytical generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics model. The local effects of inelastic deformation, fiber breakage, fiber-matrix interfacial debonding, and fatigue damage are included as sub-models that operate on the micro scale for the individual composite phases. For the laminate analysis, lamination theory is employed as the global or structural scale model, while GMC is embedded to operate on the meso scale to simulate the behavior of the composite material within each laminate layer. While the analysis approach is quite complex and multifaceted, it is shown, through comparison with experimental data, to be quite accurate and realistic while remaining extremely efficient.

  3. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  4. Combined detection of CEA, CA19-9 and CA125 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites%联合检测CEA、CA19-9和CA125对鉴别良恶性腹水的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢冰贤; 周云英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨检测CEA(癌胚抗原)、CA19-9(糖类抗原19-9)和CA125(糖类抗原125)对鉴别良、恶性腹水的临床价值. 方法 化学发光法检测120例患者腹水CEA、CA19-9和CA125的含量. 结果 化学发光法检测恶性腹水中的CEA、CA19-9和CA125分别为(37±16) ng/ml、(236±78) U/ml和(602士211)U/ml,良性腹水分别为(13±2)ng/ml、(34士3)U/ml和(32±3)U/ml,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).同时,3种抗原检测的敏感性和特异性各有特点,需要联合检测. 结论 联合检测良、恶性腹水中CEA、CA19-9和CA125水平对鉴别诊断有一定临床意义.%Objective To explore the clinical value of detecting CEA (cancer embryo antigen), CA19-9 (sugar 19-9 antigen), and CA125 (sugar antigen 125) to differentiate benign and malignant ascites. Methods CA19-9, CEA, and CA125 levels were determined by chemiluminescence detection in 120 patients with ascites. Results Chemiluminescence of patients with malignant ascites revealed a CEA level of (37± 16) ng/ml, a CA19-9 level of (236±78) U/ml, and a CA125 level of (602 + 211) U/ml while chemiluminescence of patients with benign ascites revealed a CEA level of (13± 2) ng/ml, a CA19-9 level of (34±3) U/ml and a CA125 level of (32 ± 3) U/ml. Differences were statistically significant (P<0. 05). Testing with 3 different antigens revealed a particular sensitivity and specificity, and combined testing was required. Conclusion Combined testing of CA19-9, CEA, and CA125 levels has some clinical significance in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites.

  5. Chromosome r(10(p15.3q26.12 in a newborn child: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonasson Jon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ring chromosome 10 is a rare cytogenetic finding. Of the less than 10 reported cases we have found in the literature, none was characterized using high-resolution microarray analysis. Ring chromosomes are frequently unstable due to sister chromatid exchanges and mitotic failures. When mosaicism is present, the interpretation of genotype-phenotype correlations becomes extremely difficult. Results We report on a newborn girl with growth retardation, microcephaly, congenital heart defects, dysmorphic features and psychomotor retardation. Karyotyping revealed a non-mosaic apparently stable ring chromosome 10 replacing one of the normal homologues in all analyzed metaphases. High-resolution oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed a de novo approximately 12.5 Mb terminal deletion 10q26.12 -> qter and a corresponding 285 kb terminal deletion of 10pter -> p15.3. Conclusion This case demonstrates that an increased nuchal translucency thickness detected by early ultrasonography should preferably lead to not only QF-PCR for the diagnosis of Down syndrome but also karyotyping. In the future, microarray analysis, which needs further evaluation, might become the method of choice. The clinical phenotype of our patient was in agreement with that of patients with a terminal 10q deletion. For the purpose of genotype-phenotype analysis, there seems to be no need for a "ring syndrome" concept.

  6. Evaluation of tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 19 fragment and cancer-associated antigen 72-4 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine effusions differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    L.V Teixeira; T.A. Guerra; F.O. Conrado; S.R. Terra; D.G. Gerardi; González, F.H.D.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of tumor markers in body fluids can be used for diagnosis and prognosis of patients. This study aimed to investigate the performance of tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1), cancer-associated antigen 72-4 (CA 72-4) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine effusions. In thirty-two neoplastic (n=16) and non-neoplastic (n=16) samples of canine thoracic or abdominal effusions, tumor markers were measured. Significant statistica...

  7. Cloning and expression of the Legionella micdadei "common antigen" in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Collins, M T; Høiby, N;

    1989-01-01

    To study individual Legionella antigens, a Legionella micdadei genomic library in Escherichia coli SC181 was established. Partially Sau3A digested L. micdadei DNA fragments (15-25 kilobase pairs (kb] were cloned into the tetracycline resistance gene of the cosmid vector pHC79. Four thousand...... ampicillin resistant recombinants were obtained; seven hundred were screened for expression of Legionella antigens in Western blot analysis with a polyspecific E. coli-absorbed anti-L. micdadei rabbit antibody. One of the positive clones expressed a 60 kilodalton (K) antigen, which reacted strongly...... will provide important information with respect to genetic vs. antigenic relatedness among Legionellae and other Gram-negative species, as well as to CA structure and possible function....

  8. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  9. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    /testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...

  10. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Value of CA72-4 Compared with CEA and CA19-9 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ychou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and CA 19-9 are both widely used in the follow up of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. More recently another tumor marker, named CA 72-4 has been identified and characterized using two different monoclonal antibodies B72.3 and CC49. Several reports evaluated CA 72-4 as a serum tumor marker for gastric cancer and compared its clinical utility with that of CEA or CA 19-9; few reports concerned its prognostic value. In the present study, CA 72-4 is evaluated and compared with CEA and CA 19-9 in various populations of patients with gastric cancer and benign disease; for 52 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 57 patients without neoplastic disease CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 were evaluated before treatment. Sensitivity of the tumor markers CA 72-4, CA 19-9 and CEA at the recommended cut-off level in all 52 patients were 58%, 50% the sensitivity increased to 75%. of these markers, for non metastatic patients, multivariate analyses indicated that none of the markers were significant, when adjusted for gender and age (which were indicators of poor prognosis; patients with abnormal values of CA72-4 tended to have shorter survival than patients with normal values (p < 0.07. In the metastatic population, only high values of CA19-9 (p < 0.02 and gender (women (p < 0.03 were indicators of poor prognosis in univariate analysis; multivariate analysis revealed that both CA72-4 (p = 0.034 and CA19-9 p = 0.009, adjusted for gender were independent prognostic factors. However, CA72-4 lost significance (p = 0.41 when adjusted for CA19-9 and gender, indicating that CA19-9 provides more prognostic information than CA72-4.

  11. The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin/CaMKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic CaMshaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the Ca(2+)/CaMK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.

  12. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  13. Genome Scale Identification of Treponema pallidum Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    McKevitt, Matthew; Brinkman, Mary Beth; McLoughlin, Melanie; Perez, Carla; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Weinstock, George M.; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Antibody responses for 882 of the 1,039 proteins in the proteome of Treponema pallidum were examined. Sera collected from infected rabbits were used to systematically identify 106 antigenic proteins, including 22 previously identified antigens and 84 novel antigens. Additionally, sera collected from rabbits throughout the course of infection demonstrated a progression in the breadth and intensity of humoral immunoreactivity against a representative panel of T. pallidum antigens.

  14. Teale CA. Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  15. Stem Cell Physics. Laser Manipulation of Blood Types: Laser-Stripping-Away of Red Blood Cell Surface Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-03-01

    A novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine[2] is proposed. The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multilaser beams with the flowing blood thin films can lead to a conversion of blood types A, B, and AB into O type.[3] The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation),[4] upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, La Jolla, CA.

  16. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion.

  17. Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, Michaela; Duffy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite that causes most malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in humans with over 500,000 deaths annually. The disease symptoms are associated with repeated cycles of invasion and asexual multiplication inside red blood cells of the parasite. Partial, non-sterile immunity to P. falciparum malaria develops only after repeated infections and continuous exposure. The successful evasion of the human immune system relies on the large repertoire of antigenically diverse parasite proteins displayed on the red blood cell surface and on the merozoite membrane where they are exposed to the human immune system. Expression switching of these polymorphic proteins between asexual parasite generations provides an efficient mechanism to adapt to the changing environment in the host and to maintain chronic infection. This chapter discusses antigenic diversity and variation in the malaria parasite and our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that direct the expression of these proteins. PMID:26537377

  18. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  19. Stable solid-phase Rh antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, M A; Moise, K J; Rodkey, L S

    1997-12-01

    Numerous investigators have attempted to isolate the Rh antigens in a stable, immunologically reactive form since the discovery of the Rh system over 56 years ago. We report here a successful and reproducible approach to solubilizing and adsorbing the human Rh antigen(s) to a solid-phase matrix in an antigenically active form. Similar results were obtained with rabbit A/D/F red blood cell antigens. The antigen preparation was made by dissolution of the red blood cell membrane lipid followed by fragmentation of the residual cytoskeleton in an EDTA solution at low ionic strength. The antigenic activity of the soluble preparations was labile in standard buffers but was stable in zwitterionic buffers for extended periods of time. Further studies showed that the antigenic activity of these preparations was enhanced, as was their affinity for plastic surfaces, in the presence of acidic zwitterionic buffers. Adherence to plastic surfaces at low pH maintained antigenic reactivity and specificity for antibody was retained. The data show that this approach yields a stable form of antigenically active human Rh D antigen that could be used in a red blood cell-free assay for quantitative analysis of Rh D antibody and for Rh D antibody immunoadsorption and purification.

  20. The Clinical Relevance of Rising CA-125 Levels Within the Normal Range in Patients With Uterine Papillary Serous Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Frimer, Marina; Hou, June Y.; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Gary L. Goldberg; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2013-01-01

    The utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels as an adjunct method of monitoring patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) or endometrial serous carcinoma after surgery and adjuvant treatment has been reported. Our goal was to determine the significance of rising CA-125 levels within the normal range in these patients in the posttreatment surveillance setting. All patients with UPSC who underwent surgical staging and had preoperative CA-125 measurement from...

  1. Rational application of tumor marker CA 125 in gynecological oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Srđan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction CA 125 determination started in 1981, when Bast et al. discovered monoclonal antibody OC-125 belonging to immunoglobulin G class (IgG1 using Köhler and Milstein's technique of hybridization. CA 125 antigen is produced in amniotic cells of the 7 week-old embryo, while in adults it can be detected in epithelium of most organs which originate from Müller ducts. The upper level of referent values for CA 125 in serum is 35 U/mL and can be seen in about 99% of healthy people. Application of tumor marker CA 125 in gynecological oncology More than 83% of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma have elevated values of CA 125 higher than 35 U/mL at the moment of diagnosing the disease. In cases of ovarian carcinoma, preoperatively determined values of CA 125 in serum are correlated with the extent of the expansion of the disease , histological type of tumor and degree of differentiation of malignant cells. Elevated values up to 65 U/mL in serum can also be found in other malignant tumors (pancreas, breast, colon, bladder, lungs, liver and in different benign diseases. The level of serum CA 125 after the surgery can indicate regression or progression of ovarian carcinoma in more than 90% of the patients who had had elevated values of CA125 prior to the surgery. Postoperative levels of CA 125 >35 U/mL in patients with no residual tumor and values >65 U/mL in those with residual tumor implants represent a separate prognostic factor in further course of the disease. Conclusion The importance of continuous determination of CA 125 tumor marker has to be adjusted to each single case.

  2. Cleft Lip/Palate, Short Stature, and Developmental Delay in a Boy with a 5.6-Mb Interstitial Deletion Involving 10p15.3p14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Bruno F.; Rosenberg, Carla; Costa, Silvia; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Ribeiro-Bicudo, Lucilene A.

    2015-01-01

    The chromosome interval 10p15.3p14 harbors about a dozen genes. This region has been implicated in a few well-known human phenotypes, namely HDR syndrome (hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal dysplasia) and DGS2 (DiGeorge syndrome 2), but a number of variable phenotypes have also been reported. Cleft lip/palate seems to be a very unusual finding within the clinical spectrum of patients with this deletion. Here, we report a male child born with short stature, cleft lip/palate, and feeding problems who was found to have a 5.6-Mb deletion at 10p15.3p14. PMID:25852446

  3. Immunochemical characterization of and isolation of the gene for a Borrelia burgdorferi immunodominant 60-kilodalton antigen common to a wide range of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Fjordvang, H;

    1988-01-01

    . burgdorferi CA was localized on a 2.3-kilobase fragment of the plasmid pKH1. CA may have pathogenetic implications in Lyme borreliosis, since the CA of mycobacteria recently has been shown to play a role in the etiology of experimental autoimmune arthritis. The extensive cross-reactivity of this antigen may...... account for the low diagnostic specificity of the currently used serological tests in Lyme borreliosis....

  4. 有关CA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 什么是CA? CA(Certificaton Authority)是认证机构的国际通称,是指对数字证书的申请者发放、管理、取消数字证书的机构.CA的作用是检查证书持有者身份的合法性,并签发证书(在证书上签字),以防证书被伪造或篡改.

  5. Role for Na/sup +/, H/sup +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/ during (/sup 3/H)-serotonin release from rat basophilic leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stump, R.F.; Oliver, J.M.; Deanin, G.G.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have investigated the roles of Na/sup +/, pH, and Ca/sup 2 +/ in the release of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin from RBL-2H3 cells. The importance of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ for antigen-induced mediator release is well known. The authors report that mediator release also depends on extracellular Na/sup +/ and that the Na/sup +/ ionophore, monensin, like the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophores A23187 and ionomycin, mimics antigen in causing release. Amiloride suppresses serotonin release, indicating that antigen activates the Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiport. Antigen-stimulated Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange (and/or the resulting cytoplasmic alkalinization) may affect mediator release in part by controlling cytoplasmic free Ca/sup 2 +/ levels. The authors report that antigen normally causes a spike followed by a plateau of Ca/sup 2 +/-Quin 2 fluorescence. Only the spike occurs when cells are incubated with antigen in low Na/sup +/ medium. Conversely, monensin produces a Ca/sup 2 +/ plateau without a spike phase. In addition, cytoplasmic alkalinization due to increased Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange may directly cause secretion. Both NH/sub 4/Cl and monensin cause mediator release in Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium: these reagents increase pH by about 0.1 units as measured by the fluorescent dye, BCECF. TPA that stimulates Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange in other cells does not cause release directly but it potentiates both antigen and Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore-induced release in RBL-2h3 cells. This further suggests synergistic roles for Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange and Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in the control of mediator release.

  6. Gastric Cancer with a Very High Serum CA 19-9 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 is a sensitive marker for pancreatic and hepatobiliary malignancies. The highest frequency of elevated serum CA 19-9 levels is found among patients with pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 has recently been demonstrated to be a marker of digestive tract malignancies. We report the case of a patient with a gastric cancer and a very high serum CA 19-9 level. During laparotomy, a large mass was found in the antrum. A distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection of the lymph nodes was performed. Histological examination, including immunohistochemistry, revealed an adenocarcinoma of the stomach producing CA 19-9. To the best of our knowledge, no patient with an extremely high serum CA 19-9 level resulting from a gastric adenocarcinoma has been reported previously.

  7. Gastric Cancer with a Very High Serum CA 19-9 Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuya; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Kawakami, Takako; Nagase, Atsushi; Matsuda, Minoru; Onodea, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Higuchi, Mineko; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a sensitive marker for pancreatic and hepatobiliary malignancies. The highest frequency of elevated serum CA 19-9 levels is found among patients with pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 has recently been demonstrated to be a marker of digestive tract malignancies. We report the case of a patient with a gastric cancer and a very high serum CA 19-9 level. During laparotomy, a large mass was found in the antrum. A distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection of the lymph nodes was performed. Histological examination, including immunohistochemistry, revealed an adenocarcinoma of the stomach producing CA 19-9. To the best of our knowledge, no patient with an extremely high serum CA 19-9 level resulting from a gastric adenocarcinoma has been reported previously. PMID:21577374

  8. Electrodeposition of Ca Metal in CaCl2-CaO Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jun-kang; WANG; Chang-shui; CAO; Long-hao; OUYANG; Ying-gen

    2013-01-01

    To realize the continuouscalciothermic reduction in molten salts,the electrodeposition behavior of Ca metal in CaCl2-CaO molten salt was investigated by cylic voltammetry.The cyclic voltammograms at the scan rate of 100 mV/s are shown in Fig.1.As is shown,the electrodeposition potential of Ca deviated from-1.66 V to-0.97 V after CaO was added to molten CaCl2 and the decomposition of CaO

  9. Antigen Incorporation on Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Entrala Emilio; Sbihi Younes; Sánchez-Moreno Manuel; Mascaró Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are the infective stages responsible for transmission and survival of the organism in the environment. In the present work we show that the oocyst wall, far from being a static structure, is able to incorporate antigens by a mechanism involving vesicle fusion with the wall, and the incorporation of the antigen to the outer oocyst wall. Using immunoelectron microscopy we show that the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody used for diagnosis of cryptosporidi...

  10. Histocompatibility antigens in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Soutar, C A; Coutts, I.; Parkes, W R; Dodi, I. A.; Gauld, S; Castro, J E; Turner-Warwick, M

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five histocompatibility antigens have been measured in 100 coal miners with pneumoconiosis attending a pneumoconiosis medical panel and the results compared with a panel of 200 normal volunteers not exposed to dust. Chest radiographs were read independently by three readers according to the ILO U/C classification. On a combined score, 40 men were thought to have simple pneumoconiosis and 60 men complicated pneumoconiosis. The number of antigens tested and associations between antigens ...

  11. Changes in CA125 release and surface expression caused by drugs in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Sakahara, Harumi; Shirato, Makoto; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hosono, Makoto; Saga, Tsuneo; Konishi, Junji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Endo, Keigo; Sakamoto, Masaru

    1993-08-01

    The effect of drugs on the release of CA125 antigen and the binding of anti-CA125 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to malignant cells was evaluated in vitro. TMCC-1, uterine cervical adenocarcinoma cells, were exposed to dexamethasone (DEX), sodium n-butyrate (NaB), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), retinoic acid (RA), calcitriol (VD3), and interferon-[gamma] (IFN-[gamma]). NaB, RA and VD3 increased CA125 release per cell and [sup 125]I-labeled anti-CA125 MoAb binding to the cells. DEX also increased the [sup 125]I-labeled anti-CA125 MoAb binding to the cells, and CA125 antigen release per cell was also slightly increased. IFN-[gamma] suppressed both CA125 release and [sup 125]I-labeled MoAb binding. A combination of DEX, VD3 and RA and increased the binding of MoAb to TMCC-1 cells, but the amount of bound MoAb was not significantly different from that obtained by single drug treatment. DbcAMP had no significant effect on enhancing MoAb binding. Drugs can increase the binding of anti-CA125 MoAb to malignant cells and they may be applied to increase the tumor uptake of radiolabeled MoAbs in vivo. (author).

  12. Mucosal vaccine delivery of antigens tightly bound to an adjuvant particle made from food-grade bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roosmalen, ML; Kanninga, R; El Khattabi, M; Neef, J; Audouy, S; Bosma, T; Kuipers, A; Post, E; Steen, A; Kok, J; Buist, G; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K

    2006-01-01

    Mucosal immunization with subunit vaccines requires new types of antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants for optimal immune responses. We have developed a non-living and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial delivery particle (GEM) that has built-in adjuvant activity and a high loading ca

  13. ラット腹腔肥満細胞の(45)Ca uptakeおよびヒスタミン遊離に関する研究 第2編 各種抗アレルギー剤の抑制効果の検討

    OpenAIRE

    大谷, 純

    1987-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of DSCG, tranilast, ketotifen, azelastine, antiallergic agents, and nicardipine, a calcium ion antagonist, on (45)Ca uptake and histamine release by rat peritoneal mast cells were examined when the cells were stimulated with antigen and com. 48/80. All of these agents inhibited both (45)Ca uptake and histamine release by mast cells stimulated with antigen in a dose-dependent manner. When the cells were stimulated with both antigen and phosphatidylserine (PS), inhibitory eff...

  14. A carcinoembryonic antigen-secreting adenocarcinoma arising in tailgut cyst: clinical implications of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lim, Beom Jin; Kang, Sang Ook; Sohn, Ju Hyuk; Roh, Jae Kyung; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Sung Ai; Park, Se Eun

    2005-08-31

    Tailgut cysts (TGCs) are rare congenital cysts that occur in the retrorectal or presacral spaces. Although most tailgut cysts have been reported as benign, there have been at least 9 cases associated with malignant change. We report herein on an unusual case of a 40-year-old woman with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing adenocarcinoma arising within a TGC who underwent surgical resection and local radiation therapy. Despite the complete resection, metastatic adenocarcinoma developed five months after surgery. CEA-producing adenocarcinoma from a TGC is extremely rare and only two cases, including this case, have been reported in the English medical literature. Besides CEA, the serum levels of CA 19-9 became markedly elevated in this patient. Given that the serum CEA level decreased to the normal range after complete resection of tumor and that the tumor recurrence was associated with a rebound of the CEA serum level, our case shows that serial measurements of serum CEA can be used for treatment planning and for assessing the patient's treatment response for this rare disease. PMID:16127782

  15. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Cai

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses and reference antisera (antibodies. Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS. In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses, we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  16. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-10-07

    Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses) and reference antisera (antibodies). Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS). In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses), we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  17. C.A. Nothardbiblioteek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Swart

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available As instructed by the Central Board of the South African Nursing Association during 1985, an investigation was launched into the function of the C.A. Not hard Library, namely to provide optimal information to members. The underlying philosophy concerned with the establishment of the library was to provide a service which is not available elsewhere. The investigation revealed however, that various training institutions in the country meet this need. As a result of the findings, as presented in the article, the C.A. Northard Library was closed on 1 December 1985 as a lending library. A unique Nursing reference library is being established in its place, with the emphasis in the future on the S. A. Nursing Association’s role in the promotion of Nursing research.

  18. Carbohydrate Antigen Sialyl Lewis a – Its Pathophysiological ignificance and Induction Mechanism in Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Reiji Kannagi

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a (CA19-9) is the mostfrequently applied serum tumor marker for diagnosis of cancersin the digestive organs. Recent progress disclosed thepresence of a normal counterpart of the determinant, namelydisialyl Lewis a, which is predominantly expressed in nonmalignantepithelial cells of the digestive organs, while sialylLewis a is preferentially expressed in cancers. The disialylLewis a determinant carries one extra sialic residue attachedthrough a 2 6 linkage to ...

  19. Sulfide capacities of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Simeon; Sakai, Toshihiko; Maeda, Masafumi

    1992-06-01

    The sulfide capacityC_{s^{2 - } } = ({text{pct S}}^{{text{2 - }}} )(p_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } /p_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } )^{1/2} ) of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 slag was determined at temperatures from 1000 °C to 1300 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2-Ar gas mixture. The sulfide capacity increases with replacing CaCl2 by CaF2 in slags of constant CaO contents. The sulfide capacity also increases with increasing temperature as well as with increasing CaO content at a constant ratio of CaF2/CaCl2 of unity. A linear relationship between the sulfide capacity and carbonate capacity in literature was observed on a logarithmic scale.

  20. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination agains

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and CA 19-9 levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively investigate serum CA 19-9 levels in type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with age- and gender-matched control subjects. METHODS: We recorded duration of diabetes and examined fasting glucose levels, HbA1c levels and serum CA 19-9 levels in 76 type 2 diabetic patients and 76 controls. Abdominal CT was performed in order to eliminate abdominal malignancy in the diabetic and control groups. RESULTS: The average CA 19-9 level was 46.0 ± 22.4 U/mL for diabetic patients whereas it was 9.97 ± 7.1 U/mL for the control group (P < 0.001 ). Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between diabetes and CA 19-9 independent from age, gender, glucose level and HbA1c level (t = 8.8, P < 001 ). Two of the diabetic patients were excluded from the study because of abdominal malignancy shown by CT at the initial evaluation. For all patients, abdominal CT showed no pancreatic abnormalities. CONCLUSION: CA 19-9 is a tumor-associated antigen, which is elevated in pancreatic, upper gastrointestinal tract, ovarian hepatocellular, and colorectal cancers, as well as in inflammatory conditions of the hepatobiliary system, biliary obstruction and in thyroid diseases. Diabetes has been claimed to be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, which is increasing its incidence and has one of the lowest survival rates of all cancers. CA 19-9 is used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer but is also a marker of pancreatic tissue damage that might be caused by diabetes. We propose that a higher cutoff value of CA 19-9 should be used in diabetics to differentiate benign and malignant pancreatic disease, and subtle elevations of CA 19-9 in diabetics should be considered as the indication of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.

  2. The clinical significance of CA-125 in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, JungHan; Lim, Hyo-Jeong; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Hoil; Lee, JaeHo; Lee, Choon-Taek; Park, Jong Sun

    2013-03-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is usually elevated in ovarian cancer. However, there are several reports that serum CA-125 is elevated in tuberculosis. This study investigated the clinical significance of serum CA-125 measurements in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Between September 2008 and March 2011, Serum CA-125 was measured in patients with active pulmonary TB before treatment (baseline), and 6 and 12 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. Patients with pulmonary TB confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB-PCR) were included. The study enrolled 100 patients. The mean serum CA-125 was 38.9 ± 41.4 U/ml (reference value, lesions on chest X-ray (p = 0.004). Elevated CA-125 was independently associated with female gender (OR = 12.5, 95% CI: 3.4-45.2), positive acid-fast staining of sputum (OR = 6.0, 95% CI: 1.8-19.7), cavitary lung lesion (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.2-12.9), and involvement of more than one lung on chest X-ray (OR = 9.4, 95% CI: 2.2-40.1). The CA-125 level decreased with anti-TB treatment (p = 0.001). Serum CA-125 was related to the activity and severity of pulmonary TB, and it may be useful in the monitoring of therapeutic responses in certain cases of active pulmonary TB, especially in female patients of active pulmonary TB. PMID:23414674

  3. Protein antigen delivery by gene gun-mediated epidermal antigen incorporation (EAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Ritter, Uwe; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The gene gun technology can not only be employed for efficient transfer of gene vaccines into upper layers of the skin, but also for application of protein antigens. As a tissue rich in professional antigen presenting cells, the skin represents an attractive target for immunizations. In this chapter we present a method for delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin into the skin of mice termed epidermal antigen incorporation and describe in detail how antigen-specific proliferation in draining lymph nodes can be followed by flow cytometry.

  4. Microstructure and tensile creep resistance of Mg-5.5%Zn-(0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%, 7.5%)Y alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 张艳斌; 夏伟军; 陈鼎

    2015-01-01

    The tensile creep resistance of Mg-5.5%Zn-(0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%, 7.5%)Y(mass fraction, %) gravity-casting alloys was investigated systematically. The corresponding physical models were established for analyzing the microstructure evolution and creep mechanism. The results show that four second phases are found in Mg-5.5%Zn-(0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%, 7.5%)Y alloys, including Mg3 Zn Y, Mg3Zn6 Y, Mg3Zn3Y2 and Mg7Zn3, where the rare earth rich phase(Mg3Zn Y, Mg3Zn6 Y, Mg3Zn3Y2) with high melting point can more effectively improve the creep resistance properties of alloys than Mg7Zn3. With the increasing of Y content, the creep resistance of alloys is improved correspondingly. The alloys with(1.5%, 3.5%)Y addition exhibit high creep resistance at temperatures from 175 °C to 200 °C and load from 55 MPa to 70 MPa. The 7.5%Y added alloy presents excellent creep resistance even at 275 °C and 55 MPa. The second phase which shows discontinuous distribution at the grain boundary of(0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%)Y added alloys has preferred orientation and clogs in triple junctions of grain boundary. Simultaneously, the arrangement of second phase particles along tensile direction and the formation of denuded zones are observed during the creep process. Moreover, the crack initiates in these areas and propagates along grain boundary. Compared with discontinuous second phase, the continuous skeleton-like second phase of 7.5%Y added alloy at grain boundary has a better effect on improving the creep resistance properties of alloys.

  5. Microstructure and tensile creep resistance of Mg-5.5%Zn-(0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%, 7.5%)Y alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 张艳斌; 夏伟军; 陈鼎

    2015-01-01

    The tensile creep resistance of Mg-5.5%Zn-(0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%, 7.5%)Y (mass fraction, %) gravity-casting alloys was investigated systematically. The corresponding physical models were established for analyzing the microstructure evolution and creep mechanism. The results show that four second phases are found in Mg-5.5%Zn-(0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%, 7.5%)Y alloys, including Mg3ZnY, Mg3Zn6Y, Mg3Zn3Y2 and Mg7Zn3, where the rare earth rich phase (Mg3ZnY, Mg3Zn6Y, Mg3Zn3Y2) with high melting point can more effectively improve the creep resistance properties of alloys than Mg7Zn3. With the increasing of Y content, the creep resistance of alloys is improved correspondingly. The alloys with (1.5%, 3.5%)Y addition exhibit high creep resistance at temperatures from 175 °C to 200 °C and load from 55 MPa to 70 MPa. The 7.5%Y added alloy presents excellent creep resistance even at 275 °C and 55 MPa. The second phase which shows discontinuous distribution at the grain boundary of (0.7%, 1.5%, 3.5%)Y added alloys has preferred orientation and clogs in triple junctions of grain boundary. Simultaneously, the arrangement of second phase particles along tensile direction and the formation of denuded zones are observed during the creep process. Moreover, the crack initiates in these areas and propagates along grain boundary. Compared with discontinuous second phase, the continuous skeleton-like second phase of 7.5%Y added alloy at grain boundary has a better effect on improving the creep resistance properties of alloys.

  6. Decline in CA19-9 during chemotherapy predicts survival in four independent cohorts of patients with inoperable bile duct cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Mie; Christensen, Ib J; Lassen, Ulrik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate associated antigen (CA19-9) has been approved by the FDA as a biomarker for monitoring treatment effect in pancreatic cancer. However, the value of serum CA19-9 as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy in bile duct cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to determi...

  7. Performance of calibration standards for antigen quantitation with flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkei, R; Gratama, J W; Rothe, G; Schmitz, G; D'hautcourt, J L; Arekrans, A; Mandy, F; Marti, G

    1998-10-01

    In the frame of the activities initiated by the Task Force for Antigen Quantitation of the European Working Group on Clinical Cell Analysis (EWGCCA), an experiment was conducted to evaluate microbead standards used for quantitative flow cytometry (QFCM). An unified window of analysis (UWA) was established on three different instruments (EPICS XL [Coulter Corporation, Miami, FL], FACScan and FACS Calibur [Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA]) with QC3 microbeads (FCSC, PR). By using this defined fluorescence intensity scale, the performance of several monoclonal antibodies directed to CD3, CD4, and CD8 (conjugated and unconjugated), from three manufacturers (BDIS, Coulter [Immunotech], and DAKO) was tested. In addition, the QIFI system (DAKO) and QuantiBRITE (BDIS), and a method of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, method of Giorgi), were compared. mAbs reacting with three more antigens, CD16, CD19, and CD38 were tested on the FACScan instrument. Quantitation was carried out using a single batch of cryopreserved peripheral blood leukocytes, and all tests were performed as single color analyses. Significant correlations were observed between the antibody-binding capacity (ABC) values of the same CD antigen measured with various calibrators and with antibodies differing in respect to vendor, labeling and possible epitope recognition. Despite the significant correlations, the ABC values of most monoclonal antibodies differed by 20-40% when determined by the different fluorochrome conjugates and different calibrators. The results of this study indicate that, at the present stage of QFCM consistent ABC values may be attained between laboratories provided that a specific calibration system is used including specific calibrators, reagents, and protocols.

  8. The effect of dwell time on dialysate cancer antigen 125 appearance rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Sema; van Westrhenen, Roos; De Waart, Dirk R; Hiralall, Johan K; Zweers, Machteld M; Krediet, Raymond T

    2003-01-01

    The dialysate concentration of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) can be considered a reflection of mesothelial cell mass or turnover in stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. The effect of dwell times exceeding 4 hours on CA125 appearance rate (CA125AR) is not known. Therefore, our objective in the present study was to analyze the effect of dwell time on CA125AR in stable CAPD patients. In 43 stable CAPD patients, we analyzed standard peritoneal permeability analyses (SPAs) performed with a 3.86% glucose dialysate, and night-dwell effluents from the night dwell prior to the SPA. Dialysate CA125 concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA II: Fujirebio Diagnostics, Malvern, PA, U.S.A.). Night-dwell CA125 correlated with the duration of the dwell (r = 0.32, p = 0.04) and with the CA125 concentration in the 4-hour dwell (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). The mean CA125AR in the SPA effluent was 97.8 +/- 46.3 U/min; in the overnight effluent, it was 108.8 +/- 73.7 U/min (nonsignificant). A good correlation was present between the CA125AR in the 4-hour dwells and in the overnight dwells (r = 0.82, p < 0.001). We conclude that using night dwells to regularly assess dialysate CA125--for instance, at every out-patient visit--is possible in CAPD patients, provided that appearance rate is calculated.

  9. Further characterization of filarial antigens by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Dissanayake, S.; Galahitiyawa, S. C.; Ismail, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of an antigen isolated from sera of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected patients and Setaria digitata antigen SD2-4 is reported. Both antigens showed carbohydrate (glycoprotein) staining. The W. bancrofti antigen had an apparent relative molecular mass of 35 000 while the S. digitata antigen SD2-4 migrated at the marker dye position on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SDS treatment of these antigens did not abolish the precipita...

  10. RHAMM (CD168 Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian M. Gust

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Localized prostate cancer (CaP can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID, which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidate antigens were screened by DNA microarrays. Genes were then validated at the protein level by tissue microarrays, representing various stages of CaP disease. Of 43 targets identified by CID, 10 showed an overexpression on the complementary DNA array in CaP metastases. The RHAMM (CD168 gene, earlier identified by our group as an immunogenic antigen in acute and chronic leukemia, also showed highly significant overexpression in CaP metastases compared with localized disease and benign prostatic hyperplasia. At the protein level, RHAMM was highest in metastatic tissue samples and significantly higher in neoplastic localized disease compared with benign tissue. High RHAMM expression was associated with clinical parameters known to be linked to better clinical outcome. Patients with high RHAMM expression in the primaries had a significantly lower risk of biochemical failure. The number of viable cells in cell cultures was reduced in blocking experiments using hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive metastatic CaP cell lines. Acknowledging the proven immunogenic effects of RHAMM in leukemia, this antigen is intriguing as a therapeutic target in far-advanced CaP.

  11. Meningococcal vaccine antigen diversity in global databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehony, Carina; Hill, Dorothea M; Lucidarme, Jay; Borrow, Ray; Maiden, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    The lack of an anti-capsular vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease has necessitated the exploration of alternative vaccine candidates, mostly proteins exhibiting varying degrees of antigenic variation. Analysis of variants of antigen-encoding genes is facilitated by publicly accessible online sequence repositories, such as the Neisseria PubMLST database and the associated Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL). We investigated six proposed meningococcal vaccine formulations by deducing the prevalence of their components in the isolates represented in these repositories. Despite high diversity, a limited number of antigenic variants of each of the vaccine antigens were prevalent, with strong associations of particular variant combinations with given serogroups and genotypes. In the MRF-MGL and globally, the highest levels of identical sequences were observed with multicomponent/multivariant vaccines. Our analyses further demonstrated that certain combinations of antigen variants were prevalent over periods of decades in widely differing locations, indicating that vaccine formulations containing a judicious choice of antigen variants have potential for long-term protection across geographic regions. The data further indicated that formulations with multiple variants would be especially relevant at times of low disease incidence, as relative diversity was higher. Continued surveillance is required to monitor the changing prevalence of these vaccine antigens. PMID:26676305

  12. Antigen incorporation on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entrala Emilio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are the infective stages responsible for transmission and survival of the organism in the environment. In the present work we show that the oocyst wall, far from being a static structure, is able to incorporate antigens by a mechanism involving vesicle fusion with the wall, and the incorporation of the antigen to the outer oocyst wall. Using immunoelectron microscopy we show that the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody used for diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis (Merifluor®, Meridian Diagnostic Inc. could be found associated with vesicles in the space between the sporozoites and the oocysts wall, and incorporated to the outer oocyst wall by an unknown mechanism.

  13. Diagnostic sensitivity of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in esophageal carcinoma (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bagaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal carcinomas are very lethal disease relatively unresponsive to therapy. The continued development of new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens offers hope that in the future, this carcinoma may be amenable to either more effective palliative treatment or possibly increased cure. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the marker with best diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG levels were assessed in healthy subjects (n = 50 and patients (n = 50 initially diagnosed of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic examination and biopsy before receiving any therapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 10.0 (SPSS Inc. USA and MedCalc to estimate mean ± standard deviation, the significance of the observed differences (P value, for calculating sensitivity and for plotting receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, AFP, and β-HCG detected in esophagus cancer was 38%, 18%, 10%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion: From the above studied markers, CEA has the highest sensitivity followed by β-HCG, CA19-9 and AFP. Although the sensitivity of tumor markers in esophagus cancer is low, they may be useful additional parameter in the prediction of neoplasms involved at the early stage of tumor growth.

  14. BOTANyCA

    OpenAIRE

    Armenta, Almudena; Guerrero, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Esta publicación se realiza con motivo de la exposición titulada BOTANyCA celebrada en el Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid del 10 al 21 de octubre de 2012. Dicha exposición fue llevada a cabo por el Grupo de Investigación, Arte, Ciencia y Naturaleza de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid en colaboración con el Real Jardín Botánico. Comisariado de la exposición: Almudena Armenta y Teresa Guerrero. Coordinación técnica: Esther García Guillén y Marga Juárez Canga. Artistas participantes: Almudena...

  15. Cancer antigen 125 after delivery in women with a normal pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Andersen, Malene R; Bjørngaard, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    , Denmark. POPULATION: Eight hundred and one women with expected normal pregnancies were investigated. Of these, 640 delivered vaginally, 82 by emergency cesarean section, and 79 by elective cesarean section; 720 women had uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: Samples were collected at gestational weeks 13...... gestational period and around delivery. RESULTS: CA-125 was fairly stable below 35 U/mL during pregnancy but increased markedly during vaginal delivery, to a minor degree during emergency cesarean section, and only slightly during elective cesarean section. In the early postpartum period, CA-125 decreased......OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in women with expected normal pregnancy, delivery, and early postpartum period. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Obstetrics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte...

  16. 15.3.Glomerular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920147 The distribution of immunoglobu-lin light chain deposition in glomerular dis-rases.ZHOU Xijing (周希静),et al.1st Affil Hosp,Chin Med Univ.Chin J Nephrol 1991; 7 (4):214-215.Eighty-eight renal biopsies from various types

  17. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... PSA testing is an important tool for detecting prostate cancer, but it is not foolproof. Other conditions can cause a rise in PSA, including: A larger prostate ...

  18. Mapping Epitopes on a Protein Antigen by the Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmerson, Ronald; Paterson, Yvonne

    1986-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody bound to a protein antigen decreases the rate of proteolytic cleavage of the antigen, having the greatest effect on those regions involved in antibody contact. Thus, an epitope can be identified by the ability of the antibody to protect one region of the antigen more than others from proteolysis. By means of this approach, two distinct epitopes, both conformationally well-ordered, were characterized on horse cytochrome c.

  19. Tales of Antigen Evasion from CAR Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Both T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors and tumor-specific antibodies can successfully target some malignancies, but antigen escape can lead to relapse. Two articles in this issue of Cancer Immunology Research explore what effective countermeasures may prevent it. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 473-473. ©2016 AACRSee articles by Zah et al., p. 498, and Rufener et al., p. 509. PMID:27252092

  20. Characterization of an antigenically distinct porcine rotavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, J C; Clarke, I. N.; McCrae, M A

    1982-01-01

    A porcine virus with rotavirus morphology, which was antigenically unrelated to previously described rotaviruses, is described. Particles with an outer capsid layer measured 75 nm and those lacking the outer layer were 63 nm in diameter. Particles which resembled cores were also identified. The virus was shown to be antigenically distinct from other rotaviruses as judged by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy, and it failed to protect piglets from challenge with porcine rotaviru...

  1. Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Perdikaris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe or antigens (HBsAg in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg. The observed response was rapid (45 sec and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed.

  2. [Determination of a Candida albicans antigen using an amperometric immunoenzyme sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyreva, M P; Mediantseva, E P; Khaldeeva, E V; Glushko, N I; Budnikov, G K

    1998-01-01

    Determination new variant enzyme immunoassay with amperometric enzyme immunosensor, including the immobilizing enzyme-choline esterase and antibodies against Candida albicans (CA) in biosensitivity part of sensor, for diagnose disease of CA. The method for determination of CA based on combination immunochemical reactions and voltammetric indication of analytical signal was developed. Amperometric enzyme immunosensor developed has been used as detector. Differences dilutions of antibody (Ab) against antigen (Ag) of CA immobilizing in common with choline esterase (CE). The method of immobilization developed allows to receive the sensor with including the immobilized CE and Ab in common. The method of determination of CA based on combination the reaction of forming immune complex tAb-AgI with enzyme immunosensor for its detection. The dynamic range of concentrations determined of Ag depends on degree of dilution of Ab used for manufactory biosensitivity part of sensor. The data indicate that the [Ab-Ag] immune complexes are stable. This is also confirmed by the values of [Ab-Ag] binding constants, obtained in Scatchard coordinates. This method of determination doesn't require special preparation of a sample. Selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and quickness are characterize of this method which could be used for manufacturing test-sistem for determination CA in blood.

  3. [Determination of a Candida albicans antigen using an amperometric immunoenzyme sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyreva, M P; Mediantseva, E P; Khaldeeva, E V; Glushko, N I; Budnikov, G K

    1998-01-01

    Determination new variant enzyme immunoassay with amperometric enzyme immunosensor, including the immobilizing enzyme-choline esterase and antibodies against Candida albicans (CA) in biosensitivity part of sensor, for diagnose disease of CA. The method for determination of CA based on combination immunochemical reactions and voltammetric indication of analytical signal was developed. Amperometric enzyme immunosensor developed has been used as detector. Differences dilutions of antibody (Ab) against antigen (Ag) of CA immobilizing in common with choline esterase (CE). The method of immobilization developed allows to receive the sensor with including the immobilized CE and Ab in common. The method of determination of CA based on combination the reaction of forming immune complex tAb-AgI with enzyme immunosensor for its detection. The dynamic range of concentrations determined of Ag depends on degree of dilution of Ab used for manufactory biosensitivity part of sensor. The data indicate that the [Ab-Ag] immune complexes are stable. This is also confirmed by the values of [Ab-Ag] binding constants, obtained in Scatchard coordinates. This method of determination doesn't require special preparation of a sample. Selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and quickness are characterize of this method which could be used for manufacturing test-sistem for determination CA in blood. PMID:9634720

  4. Metastatic prostate cancer with elevated serum levels of CEA and CA19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dar Juang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is well known as a specific tumor marker for prostate cancer, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA- and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9-elevating adenocarcinomas originating in the prostate gland are rare. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 in a 78-year-old man in whom prostate cancer (T3N1M1 had been diagnosed 2 years ago and who was treated with androgen deprivation therapy. He visited the emergency department because of a loss of appetite and abdominal pain. The serum CEA and CA19-9 levels were increased to 218.9 ng/mL (normal, <5 ng/mL and 212 ng/mL (normal, <27 ng/mL, respectively. The serum PSA level was slightly elevated (4.41 ng/mL. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple liver metastases, para-aortic lymph node enlargement, and lung metastases. A liver biopsy was performed and the specimen showed high-grade adenocarcinoma with focal positive staining for PSA. Despite chemotherapy with docetaxel, the patient died 3 months after treatment. Based on this case and a review of the literature, an aggressive variant of prostatic carcinoma with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 and a low PSA level was shown to progress rapidly with a poor prognosis.

  5. Accessing the nuclear symmetry energy in Ca+Ca collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbihi A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of the analysis of the INDRA-VAMOS experiement performed at GANIL, using the reactions 40,48Ca+40,48Ca reactions at 35AMeV, are presented. Isotopic distributions of fragments produced in multifragmentation events provide information on the importance of the surface term contribution in the symmetry energy by comparison to AMD predictions.

  6. Tresyl-Based Conjugation of Protein Antigen to Lipid Nanoparticles Increases Antigen Immunogencity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anekant; Yan, Weili; Miller, Keith R.; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the engineering of NPs with protein-conjugated-surfactant at their surface. In order to increase the immunogenicity of a protein antigen, Brij 78 was functionalized by tresyl chloride and then further reacted with the primary amine of the model proteins ovalbumin (OVA) or horseradish peroxide (HRP). The reaction yielded Brij 78-OVA and Brij 78-HRP conjugates which were then used directly to form NP-OVA or NP-HRP using a one-step warm oil-in-water microemulsion precursor method with emulsifying wax as the oil phase, and Brij 78 and the Brij 78-OVA or Brij 78-HRP conjugate as surfactants. Similarly, Brij 700 was conjugated to HIV p24 antigen to yield Brij 700-p24 conjugate. The utility of these NPs for enhancing the immune responses to protein-based vaccines was evaluated in vivo using ovalbumin (OVA) as model protein and p24 as a relevant HIV antigen. In separate in vivo studies, female BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection with NP-OVA and NP-p24 formulations along with several control formulations. These results suggested that with multiple antigens, covalent attachment of the antigen to the NP significantly enhanced antigen-specific immune responses. This facile covalent conjugation and incorporation method may be utilized to further incorporate other protein antigens, even multiple antigens, into an enhanced vaccine delivery system. PMID:20837122

  7. Tresyl-based conjugation of protein antigen to lipid nanoparticles increases antigen immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anekant; Yan, Weili; Miller, Keith R; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G; Mumper, Russell J

    2010-11-30

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the engineering of NPs with protein-conjugated-surfactant at their surface. In order to increase the immunogenicity of a protein antigen, Brij 78 was functionalized by tresyl chloride and then further reacted with the primary amine of the model proteins ovalbumin (OVA) or horseradish peroxide (HRP). The reaction yielded Brij 78-OVA and Brij 78-HRP conjugates which were then used directly to form NP-OVA or NP-HRP using a one-step warm oil-in-water microemulsion precursor method with emulsifying wax as the oil phase, and Brij 78 and the Brij 78-OVA or Brij 78-HRP conjugate as surfactants. Similarly, Brij 700 was conjugated to HIV p24 antigen to yield Brij 700-p24 conjugate. The utility of these NPs for enhancing the immune responses to protein-based vaccines was evaluated in vivo using ovalbumin (OVA) as model protein and p24 as a relevant HIV antigen. In separate in vivo studies, female BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection with NP-OVA and NP-p24 formulations along with several control formulations. These results suggested that with multiple antigens, covalent attachment of the antigen to the NP significantly enhanced antigen-specific immune responses. This facile covalent conjugation and incorporation method may be utilized to further incorporate other protein antigens, even multiple antigens, into an enhanced vaccine delivery system. PMID:20837122

  8. Acute Cholecystitis with Significantly Elevated Levels of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Akimoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, a marker of malignant tumors, is generally slightly elevated in benign conditions. We report a case of acute cholecystitis with a significantly elevated level of serum CA 19-9 based on positron emission tomography (PET-computed tomography (CT findings. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and fever. A CT image revealed an enlarged gallbladder without tumor shadows. The C-reactive protein (CRP level was elevated to 7.66 mg/dl. Moreover, the serum CA 19-9 level was significantly elevated to 19,392 U/ml. We started antibiotic treatment, because we suspected acute cholecystitis, but still, we could not ignore the possible presence of malignant tumors. After 11 days of antibiotic treatment, serum CRP and CA 19-9 levels decreased to 0.11 mg/dl and 1,049 U/ml, respectively. There was an accumulation of fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (maximum standardized uptake value, 9.3 without tumor shadows in the liver, near the gallbladder, on the PET-CT examination. We considered the possibility that the inflammation had spread from the gallbladder to the liver, made a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and performed a cholecystectomy 33 days after treatment initiation. The serum CA 19-9 level decreased to 45 U/ml after the surgery. One year after the surgery, the patient was alive, and the serum CA 19-9 level was 34 U/ml. Acute cholecystitis with a significantly high elevation of the serum CA 19-9 level is rare. In such cases, it is important to confirm the change in the serum CA 19-9 level over time after antibiotic treatment and perform imaging studies to distinguish between inflammation and malignancy.

  9. 2048 QAM (66 Gbit/s) single-carrier coherent optical transmission over 150 km with a potential SE of 15.3 bit/s/Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Shohei; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2015-02-23

    We describe a 2048 QAM single-carrier coherent optical transmission over 150 km in detail. The OSNR at the transmitter was increased by 5 dB and the phase noise at the receiver was reduced from 0.35 to 0.17 degrees compared with a previous 1024 QAM transmission. Furthermore, we employed an A/D converter with a higher ENOB (7 bit) to guarantee the SNR of the digital QAM data, and introduced a polarization-demultiplexing algorithm to fast track the polarization state transition. As a result, a 66 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed 2048 QAM signal was successfully transmitted within an optical bandwidth of 3.6 GHz including a pilot tone, and a potential SE of 15.3 bit/s/Hz under a 20% FEC overhead was achieved. PMID:25836531

  10. Experimental study and computer modelling of the β → α + β phase transformation in Ti15-3 alloy under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveen, M. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Santhosh, R. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Geetha, M. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Nageswara Rao, M., E-mail: m.nageswararao@vit.ac.in [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Phase equilibria in Ti15-3 over the range 200–600 °C were studied using Thermo-Calc. • XRD used for estimation of volume fraction of α phase precipitated at 500 °C. • Validity of approach demonstrated by volume fraction measurements using FESEM. • Kinetics of α phase precipitation can be modelled in the frame work of JMA theory. • Mechanism of β → α + β is shown to be diffusion controlled growth of fine α plates. - Abstract: The kinetics of the β → α + β phase transformation in Ti–15V–3Cr–3Al–3Sn (Ti15-3) alloy was studied at 500 °C. A method is proposed and used to estimate the volume fraction of α phase as a function of aging time based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). The method uses the results of calculations of phase equilibria at 500 °C performed using Thermo-Calc. The present work also reports results of calculations of phase equilibria over the temperature range 200–600 °C. In order to validate XRD based approach, select measurements of the quantity of α phase precipitation were done by the use of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results obtained were in reasonable agreement with those obtained using XRD. The kinetics of the β → α + β phase transformation was modelled in the theoretical framework of the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) theory and a mechanism based on slow diffusion controlled growth of very fine α plates is proposed. Using the derived JMA kinetic parameters, fraction of transformed α was calculated as a function of aging time; the calculated and experimentally measured values were found to be in good agreement.

  11. Post-embedding Mammalian Tissue for Immunoelectron Microscopy: A Standardized Procedure Based on Heat-Induced Antigen Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    We describe a standardized method of fixation, antigen retrieval, and image contrasting for post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Tissues are fixed with formaldehyde solutions containing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions at pH 7.4 and then at pH 8.5. After dehydration with dimethylformamide, the specimens are embedded in LR-White resin. For antigen retrieval, ultrathin sections are heated in 0.5 M Tris-HCl, pH 9.0, for 1-2 h at 95 °C. After immunogold labeling, the sections are treated with a mixture of tannic acid and glutaraldehyde, with OsO4 solution, and then double-stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The standardized method yields strong and reproducible immunoreactions for many antigens showing excellent image contrast without destruction of fine structures. PMID:27515088

  12. Characterization of crystals of an antibody-recognition fragment of the cancer differentiation antigen mesothelin in complex with the therapeutic antibody MORAb-009

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jichun; Tang, Wai Kwan; Esser, Lothar; Pastan, Ira; Xia, Di

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic antibody MORAb-009 disrupts the interaction of mesothelin and the ovarian cancer antigen CA-125. Crystals have been grown of the Fab fragment derived from MORAb-009 and of its complex with an N-terminal fragment of mesothelin.

  13. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  14. Antigen sampling in the fish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkka, Guro; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2016-11-01

    Antigen uptake in the gastrointestinal tract may induce tolerance, lead to an immune response and also to infection. In mammals, most pathogens gain access to the host though the gastrointestinal tract, and in fish as well, this route seems to be of significant importance. The epithelial surface faces a considerable challenge, functioning both as a barrier towards the external milieu but simultaneously being the site of absorption of nutrients and fluids. The mechanisms allowing antigen uptake over the epithelial barrier play a central role for maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and regulate appropriate immune responses. Such uptake has been widely studied in mammals, but also in fish, a number of experiments have been reported, seeking to reveal cells and mechanisms involved in antigen sampling. In this paper, we review these studies in addition to addressing our current knowledge of the intestinal barrier in fish and its anatomical construction. PMID:26872546

  15. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbase-DeLima, M; Pereira-Santos, A; Sesso, R; Temin, J; Aragão, E S; Ajzen, H

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin) with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P < 0.05). In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease. PMID:9698788

  16. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerbase-DeLima

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

  17. Properties of glycolipid-enriched membrane rafts in antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, William; Smith, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of antigen to T cells represents one of the central events in the engagement of the immune system toward the defense of the host against pathogens. Accordingly, understanding the mechanisms by which antigen presentation occurs is critical toward our understanding the properties of host defense against foreign antigen, as well as insight into other features of the immune system, such as autoimmune disease. The entire antigen-presentation event is complex, and many features of it remain poorly understood. However, recent studies have provided evidence showing that glycolipid-enriched membrane rafts are important for efficient antigen presentation; the studies suggest that one such function of rafts is trafficking of antigen-MHC II complexes to the presentation site on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell. Here, we present a critical discussion of rafts and their proposed functions in antigen presentation. Emerging topics of rafts and antigen presentation that warrant further investigation are also highlighted.

  18. Evaluation of tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 19 fragment and cancer-associated antigen 72-4 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine effusions differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of tumor markers in body fluids can be used for diagnosis and prognosis of patients. This study aimed to investigate the performance of tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1, cancer-associated antigen 72-4 (CA 72-4 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in the neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine effusions. In thirty-two neoplastic (n=16 and non-neoplastic (n=16 samples of canine thoracic or abdominal effusions, tumor markers were measured. Significant statistical difference was found only for the CYFRA 21-1 marker. The levels were significantly higher for the neoplastic group. The lack of significance between groups for markers CA 72-4 and CEA can be explained by the presence of other diseases in the non-neoplastic group, causing elevated levels of these markers. This study concludes that CYFRA 21-1 performed well, showing good sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of neoplastic effusions in dogs. However, further investigations are necessary in patients with malignancy as those with benign effusions.

  19. RHAMM (CD168) Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian M. Gust; Hofer, Matthias D; Sven R. Perner; Robert Kim; Arul M. Chinnaiyan; Sooryanarayana Varambally; Peter Moller; Ludwig Rinnab; Rubin, Mark A; Jochen Greiner; Michael Schmitt; Rainer Kuefer; Mark Ringhoffer

    2009-01-01

    Localized prostate cancer (CaP) can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID), which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidat...

  20. Differences in genetic variation in antigen-processing machinery components and association with cervical carcinoma risk in two Indonesian populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Akash M.; Spaans, Vivian M.; Mahendra, Nyoman Bayu; Osse, Elisabeth M.; Vet, Jessica N. I.; Purwoto, Gatot; Surya, I G D; Cornian, Santoso; Peters, Alexander A.; Fleuren, Gert J.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation of antigen-processing machinery (APM) components has been shown to be associated with cervical carcinoma risk and outcome in a genetically homogeneous Dutch population. However, the role of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetically heterogeneous populations with different distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes remains unclear. Eleven non-synonymous, coding SNPs in the TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, LMP7 and ERAP1 genes were genotyped in cervical ca...

  1. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  2. Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb): a compendium of antigen-antibody interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Raskar-Renuse, Snehal; Natekar-Kalantre, Girija; Saxena, Smita A

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb) is an immunoinformatics resource developed at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune, and is available online at http://bioinfo.net.in/AgAbDb.htm. Antigen-antibody interactions are a special class of protein-protein interactions that are characterized by high affinity and strict specificity of antibodies towards their antigens. Several co-crystal structures of antigen-antibody complexes have been solved and are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). AgAbDb is a derived knowledgebase developed with an objective to compile, curate, and analyze determinants of interactions between the respective antigen-antibody molecules. AgAbDb lists not only the residues of binding sites of antigens and antibodies, but also interacting residue pairs. It also helps in the identification of interacting residues and buried residues that constitute antibody-binding sites of protein and peptide antigens. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction Finder (AAIF), a program developed in-house, is used to compile the molecular interactions, viz. van der Waals interactions, salt bridges, and hydrogen bonds. A module for curating water-mediated interactions has also been developed. In addition, various residue-level features, viz. accessible surface area, data on epitope segment, and secondary structural state of binding site residues, are also compiled. Apart from the PDB numbering, Wu-Kabat numbering and explicit definitions of complementarity-determining regions are provided for residues of antibodies. The molecular interactions can be visualized using the program Jmol. AgAbDb can be used as a benchmark dataset to validate algorithms for prediction of B-cell epitopes. It can as well be used to improve accuracy of existing algorithms and to design new algorithms. AgAbDb can also be used to design mimotopes representing antigens as well as aid in designing processes leading to humanization of antibodies. PMID:25048123

  3. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled Lateral Flow Strips for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Gastric Cancer Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinyu; Wang, Kan; Lu, Wenting; Qin, Weijian; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is an important biomarker associated closely with diagnosis and prognosis of early gastric cancer. How to realize quick, sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of CA72-4 in clinical specimens has become a great requirement. Herein, we reported a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow test strip combined with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based reader was developed for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of CA72-4. Two mouse monoclonal an...

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROSTATIC SPECIFIC ANTIGEN DENSITY AND ITS CORRELATED HISTOPATHOLOGY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF BENIGN AND MALIGNANT PROSTATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Carcinoma of prostate gland is the most common malignancy above 65 yrs of age in men. Most patients with early - stage Ca prostate are asymptomatic. The presence of symptoms often suggests locally advanced or metastatic disease. It is important to detect Ca prostate at an early stage so that mortality due to this malignancy can be minimized. The specific threshold for prostate - specific antigen (PSA to delineate patients who are at the highest risk has been controversial. It is wiser to refine PSA by its derivative parameter like PSAD (PSA/Vol . which can be used as a better diagnostic tool in early detection of Ca Prostate.

  5. Sonoma County, CA, 2013 Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...

  6. CaPTC Biennial Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaPTC hosts the 'Biennial Science of Global Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men' conference to address the growing global public health problem of prostate cancer among Black men in industrialized and developing countries.

  7. CaWave user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CaWave User's Guide explains how to use the CaWave functions which were specifically written in PV-WAVE command language and C language for EPICS users. CaWave consists of a special set of external channel access functions which provides the PV-WAVE users with easy and flexible access of channel information across the IOC networks. It also provides a complete set of process variable event monitoring functions. This document also gives examples how a PV-WAVE user can interface to channel access devices. It is assumed that the user is already familiar with using PV-WAVE. Few simple example modules of using PV-WAVE command language with CaWave functions are also given in this document

  8. Release of Paramecium immobilization antigen to the non-nutrient medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E

    1980-01-01

    The instability of Paramecium aurelia surface components has been shown: after 60 min incubation of dense cell suspension ((1-2 . 10(6) cells per ml) in Tris-Ca buffer at 4 degrees C or 23 degrees C the surface coat was partially stripped off and the proteins were released to the medium. The electrophoretic analysis of the released proteins shows one major band of mol. wt. 280,000--300,000 and some minor bands. The major released protein is the immobilization antigen as proved using immunodiffusion test and antibody precipitation technique.

  9. CA 242, a new tumour marker for pancreatic cancer: a comparison with CA 19-9, CA 50 and CEA.

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund, C.; Lundin, J; Kuusela, P.; Roberts, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The serum expression of a novel tumour marker, CA 242, defined by monoclonal antibody C 242, was studied in 179 patients with pancreatic cancer. The results were compared with CA 19-9, CA 50 and CEA. CA 242 is a carbohydrate closely related, but not identical, to CA 19-9 and CA 50. The overall sensitivity of the CA 242 assay was 74%: 55% in stage I, 83% in stage II-III and 78% in stage IV disease. The specificity calculated from 112 patients with benign diseases was 91%. CA 19-9 had a higher ...

  10. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  11. HLA antigens and asthma in Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, J; Toumbis, M; Konstantopoulos, K; Kamaroulias, D; Anagnostakis, J; Georgoulias, V; Fessas, P; Zervas, J

    1996-04-01

    HLA-A and -B antigens were determined in a group of 76 Greek asthmatic patients: 35 children (1.5-15 years) and 41 adults (18-73 years). The results were compared to those of 400 healthy unrelated controls from the same population. The standard NIH lymphocytotoxicity test was applied. When all 76 patients were compared to the controls, a statistically significant lower frequency of HLA-B5 and -B35 antigens was noted. When adults were analysed alone, an increased frequency of HLA-B8 was found. On the other hand, in the asthmatic children sub-group, the HLA-A10 antigen was significantly higher and the HLA-B5 was significantly lower than in the controls. These data imply that different HLA antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of several clinical forms of asthma and that, in order to study the role of immunogenetic factor(s) in the pathogenesis of this disease, more adequate grouping criteria are needed.

  12. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  13. Circulating filarial antigen detection in brugian filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Praveen Kumar; Mahajan, Ramesh Chander; Malla, Nancy; Mewara, Abhishek; Bhattacharya, Shailja Misra; Shenoy, Ranganatha Krishna; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of disability globally. The success of global elimination programmes for LF depends upon effectiveness of tools for diagnosis and treatment. In this study on stage-specific antigen detection in brugian filariasis, L3, adult worm (AW) and microfilarial antigenaemia were detected in around 90-95% of microfilariae carriers (MF group), 50-70% of adenolymphangitis (ADL) patients, 10-25% of chronic pathology (CP) patients and 10-15% of endemic normal (EN) controls. The sensitivity of the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detection in serum samples from MF group was up to 95%. In sera from ADL patients, unexpectedly, less antigen reactivity was observed. In CP group all the CFA positive individuals were from CP grade I and II only and none from grade III or IV, suggesting that with chronicity the AWs lose fecundity and start to disintegrate and die. Amongst EN subject, 10-15% had CFA indicating that few of them harbour filarial AWs, thus they might not be truly immune as has been conventionally believed. The specificity for antigen detection was 100% when tested with sera from various other protozoan and non-filarial helminthic infections.

  14. Wegener's granulomatosis and autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, D R; Maxwell, A. P.; Watt, L

    1988-01-01

    We report five cases of Wegener's granulomatosis all of whom had clinical and histological evidence of disease activity at presentation and in whom autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens were detected. This test may prove useful for the diagnosis of this serious condition and help to monitor disease activity during treatment.

  15. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  16. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  17. Emerging antigenic variants at the antigenic site Sb in pandemic A(H1N12009 influenza virus in Japan detected by a human monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Yasugi

    Full Text Available The swine-origin pandemic A(H1N12009 virus, A(H1N1pdm09, is still circulating in parts of the human population. To monitor variants that may escape from vaccination specificity, antigenic characterization of circulating viruses is important. In this study, a hybridoma clone producing human monoclonal antibody against A(H1N1pdm09, designated 5E4, was prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from a vaccinated volunteer. The 5E4 showed viral neutralization activity and inhibited hemagglutination. 5E4 escape mutants harbored amino acid substitutions (A189T and D190E in the hemagglutinin (HA protein, suggesting that 5E4 recognized the antigenic site Sb in the HA protein. To study the diversity of Sb in A(H1N1pdm09, 58 viral isolates were obtained during the 2009/10 and 2010/11 winter seasons in Osaka, Japan. Hemagglutination-inhibition titers were significantly reduced against 5E4 in the 2010/11 compared with the 2009/10 samples. Viral neutralizing titers were also significantly decreased in the 2010/11 samples. By contrast, isolated samples reacted well to ferret anti-A(H1N1pdm09 serum from both seasons. Nonsynonymous substitution rates revealed that the variant Sb and Ca2 sequences were being positively selected between 2009/10 and 2010/11. In 7,415 HA protein sequences derived from GenBank, variants in the antigenic sites Sa and Sb increased significantly worldwide from 2009 to 2013. These results indicate that the antigenic variants in Sb are likely to be in global circulation currently.

  18. 糖类抗原检测在非小细胞肺癌诊疗中的应用%Application of the carbohydrate antigen detection for diagnosis and treatment in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小进; 米燕燕; 胡安康; 王伟; 桑纯利; 冯苏梅; 殷咏梅; 鄂云祥

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨糖类抗原检测用于非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)诊疗的临床意义.方法 采用血清糖类抗原多肿瘤标志物蛋白芯片检测系统对已确诊的60例NSCLC患者的血清CA19-9、CA242、CA125和CA153水平进行检测,并与肺良性病变对照组和健康对照组进行比较.结果 肺癌组血清CA19-9、CA242、CA125和CA153的阳性检出率高于肺良性病变对照组和健康对照组,且3组血清CA19-9、CA125和CA153的差异尤为显著(P<0.05).肺腺癌患者血清CA19-9和CA125的阳性检出率高于肺鳞癌患者(P<0.05).NSCLC患者分期越晚,4种糖类抗原的阳性检出率越高,其中CA125和CA153在Ⅰ~Ⅱ期的阳性检出率分别为38.5%和30.8%,高于CA19-9和CA242的7.7%和7.7%(P<0.05).结论 糖类抗原检测在NSCLC诊疗方面具有较好的临床应用价值,可以作为诊断、分期及病程监测等方面常规检测方法的辅助手段.%Objective To explore the clinical significance of the carbohydrate antigen detection for diagnosis and treatment in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Methods The levels of serum CA19-9, CA242, CA125 and CA153 of 60 confirmed patients with NSCLC were measured by multiple tumor marker protein chip detection system and were compared with benign lung lesions control group and the healthy control group. Results The positive rate of serum CA19-9, CA242, CA125 and CA153 in the lung cancer group were higher than benign lung lesions control group and healthy control group, but there was particularly apparent difference in serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA153( P <0. 05). The positive rates of serum CA19-9 and CA125 in the patients with lung adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those in patients with squamous cell carcinoma ( P <0. 05) . The positive rates of 4 carbohydrate antigens raised with clinical stages. The positive rates of CA125 and CA153 in stage I -II were 38. 5% and 30. 8% , which were higher than those of CA19-9 and CA242, with significant

  19. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p interaction, p < 0.05). The standardised duodenal digestibility (SDD), standardised ileal digestibility (SID) and standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca were not different if calcium carbonate was the source of dietary Ca. However, the STTD of Ca in L. calcareum Ca was greater (p < 0.05) than the SID and SDD of Ca. The SDD, SID and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate were greater (p < 0.05) than those of L. calcareum Ca. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, standardised digestibility of Ca is not affected by the level of phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum. PMID:24646151

  20. Cysteine proteases as potential antigens in antiparasitic DNA vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner.......En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner....

  1. Dengue viruses cluster antigenically but not as discrete serotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Katzelnick (Leah); J.M. Fonville (Judith); G.D. Gromowski (Gregory D.); J.B. Arriaga (Jose Bustos); A. Green (Angela); S.L. James (Sarah ); L. Lau (Louis); M. Montoya (Magelda); C. Wang (Chunling); L.A. Van Blargan (Laura A.); C.A. Russell (Colin); H.M. Thu (Hlaing Myat); T.C. Pierson (Theodore C.); P. Buchy (Philippe); J.G. Aaskov (John G.); J.L. Muñoz-Jordán (Jorge L.); N. Vasilakis (Nikos); R.V. Gibbons (Robert V.); R.B. Tesh (Robert B.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A. Durbin (Anna); C.P. Simmons (Cameron P.); E.C. Holmes (Edward C.); E. Harris (Eva); S.S. Whitehead (Stephen S.); D.R. Smith (Derek Richard)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe four genetically divergent dengue virus (DENV) types are traditionally classified as serotypes. Antigenic and genetic differences among the DENV types influence disease outcome, vaccine-induced protection, epidemic magnitude, and viral evolution.We scharacterized antigenic diversity

  2. Comparison of E and NS1 antigens capture ELISA to detect dengue viral antigens from mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day-Yu Chao

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: With the future potential of antigen capture ELISA to be used in the resource deprived regions, the study showed that E-ELISA has similar sensitivity and antigen stability as NS1 Ag kit to complement the current established virological surveillance in human. The improvement of the sensitivity in detecting DENV-3/4 will be needed to incorporate this method into routine mosquito surveillance system.

  3. [Identification of serological antigens in excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuegui; He, Lifang; Yuan, Shishan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Objective To isolate and identify serological antigens in the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by the combination of co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric technology. Methods The serum IgG of New Zealand rabbits infected with Trichinella spiralis was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Muscle larvaes were isolated from the infected muscle, and then purified and cultured to collect excretory-secretory antigens. Serological antigens in excretory-secretory antigens were isolated by co-immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE, and analyzed by Western blotting. Moreover, the protein bands in New Zealand rabbit sera infected with Trichinella spiralis were identified by mass spectrometric technology. Results Indirect ELISA showed that the titer of serum antibody of New Zealand rabbits infected with Trichinella spiralis was 1:6400. The rabbit serum IgG was effectively isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A total of four clear protein bands of the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis were obtained by electrophoresis. Among them, three clear protein bands with relative molecular mass (Mr) being 40 kDa, 50 kDa and 83 kDa were recognized by the rabbit sera infected with Trichinella spiralis but not recognized by the normal rabbit sera. The obtained four protein molecules were confirmed as serine protease, specific serine protease of muscle larvae, 43 kDa secreted glycoprotein and 53 kDa excretory-secretory antigen. Conclusion Four proteins were obtained from the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by combination of co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric technique analysis, which provided new sources and insights for the diagnosis and vaccine candidates of Trichinellosis. PMID:27126943

  4. Carbohydrate-functionalized nanovaccines preserve HIV-1 antigen stability and activate antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Ramirez, J E; Roychoudhury, R; Habte, H H; Cho, M W; Pohl, N L B; Narasimhan, B

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with ligands that target specific receptors on immune cells offers the opportunity to tailor adjuvant properties by conferring pathogen mimicking attributes to the particles. Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine adjuvants with desirable characteristics such as immunomodulation, sustained antigen release, activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stabilization of protein antigens. These capabilities can be exploited to design nanovaccines against viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, due to the important role of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in viral spread. In this work, an optimized process was developed for carbohydrate functionalization of HIV-1 antigen-loaded polyanhydride nanoparticles. The carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles preserved antigenic properties upon release and also enabled sustained antigen release kinetics. Particle internalization was observed to be chemistry-dependent with positively charged nanoparticles being taken up more efficiently by DCs. Up-regulation of the activation makers CD40 and CD206 was demonstrated with carboxymethyl-α-d-mannopyranosyl-(1,2)-d-mannopyranoside functionalized nanoparticles. The secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was shown to be chemistry-dependent upon stimulation with carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles. These results offer important new insights upon the interactions between carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles and APCs and provide foundational information for the rational design of targeted nanovaccines against HIV-1. PMID:25068589

  5. Antigenic community between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata: on the search of candidate antigens for vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chacón

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously confirmed the presence of common antigens between Schistosoma mansoni and its vector, Biomphalaria glabrata. Cross-reactive antigens may be important as possible candidates for vaccine and diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Sera from outbred mice immunized with a soluble Biomphalaria glabrata antigen (SBgA of non-infected B. glabrata snails recognized molecules of SBgA itself and S. mansoni AWA by Western blot. Recognition of several molecules of the SBgA were inhibited by pre-incubation with AWA (16, 30, 36, 60 and 155 kDa. The only specific molecule of AWA, inhibited by SBgA, was a 120 kDa protein. In order to determine which epitopes of SBgA were glycoproteins, the antigen was treated with sodium metaperiodate and compared with non-treated antigen. Molecules of 140, 60 and 24 kDa in the SBgA appear to be glycoproteins. Possible protective effects of the SBgA were evaluated immunizing outbred mice in two different experiments using Freund's Adjuvant. In the first one (12 mice/group, we obtained a significant level of protection (46% in the total worm load, with a high variability in worm recovery. In the second experiment (22 mice/group, no significant protection was observed, neither in worm load nor in egg production per female. Our results suggest that SBgA constitutes a rich source of candidate antigens for diagnosis and prophylactic studies.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3402 - Plasmodium species antigen detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. 866... Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. (a) Identification. A Plasmodium species antigen detection assay... malaria caused by the four malaria species capable of infecting humans: Plasmodium falciparum,...

  7. Antigen-specific active immunotherapy for ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffers, N.; Daemen, T.; Helfrich, W.; Boezen, H. M.; Cohlen, B. J.; Melief, Cornelis; Nijman, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in chemotherapy, prognosis of ovarian cancer remains poor. Antigen-specific active immunotherapy aims to induce a tumour-antigen-specific anti-tumour immune responses as an alternative treatment for ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess feasibility of antigen-specific ac

  8. Immunity to intracellular Salmonella depends on surface-associated antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somedutta Barat

    Full Text Available Invasive Salmonella infection is an important health problem that is worsening because of rising antimicrobial resistance and changing Salmonella serovar spectrum. Novel vaccines with broad serovar coverage are needed, but suitable protective antigens remain largely unknown. Here, we tested 37 broadly conserved Salmonella antigens in a mouse typhoid fever model, and identified antigen candidates that conferred partial protection against lethal disease. Antigen properties such as high in vivo abundance or immunodominance in convalescent individuals were not required for protectivity, but all promising antigen candidates were associated with the Salmonella surface. Surprisingly, this was not due to superior immunogenicity of surface antigens compared to internal antigens as had been suggested by previous studies and novel findings for CD4 T cell responses to model antigens. Confocal microscopy of infected tissues revealed that many live Salmonella resided alone in infected host macrophages with no damaged Salmonella releasing internal antigens in their vicinity. In the absence of accessible internal antigens, detection of these infected cells might require CD4 T cell recognition of Salmonella surface-associated antigens that could be processed and presented even from intact Salmonella. In conclusion, our findings might pave the way for development of an efficacious Salmonella vaccine with broad serovar coverage, and suggest a similar crucial role of surface antigens for immunity to both extracellular and intracellular pathogens.

  9. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section 660.40...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this...

  10. Mapping epitopes and antigenicity by site-directed masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, Didrik; Winter, Greg

    2006-06-01

    Here we describe a method for mapping the binding of antibodies to the surface of a folded antigen. We first created a panel of mutant antigens (-lactamase) in which single surface-exposed residues were mutated to cysteine. We then chemically tethered the cysteine residues to a solid phase, thereby masking a surface patch centered on each cysteine residue and blocking the binding of antibodies to this region of the surface. By these means we mapped the epitopes of several mAbs directed to -lactamase. Furthermore, by depleting samples of polyclonal antisera to the masked antigens and measuring the binding of each depleted sample of antisera to unmasked antigen, we mapped the antigenicity of 23 different epitopes. After immunization of mice and rabbits with -lactamase in Freund's adjuvant, we found that the antisera reacted with both native and denatured antigen and that the antibody response was mainly directed to an exposed and flexible loop region of the native antigen. By contrast, after immunization in PBS, we found that the antisera reacted only weakly with denatured antigen and that the antibody response was more evenly distributed over the antigenic surface. We suggest that denatured antigen (created during emulsification in Freund's adjuvant) elicits antibodies that bind mainly to the flexible regions of the native protein and that this explains the correlation between antigenicity and backbone flexibility. Denaturation of antigen during vaccination or natural infections would therefore be expected to focus the antibody response to the flexible loops. backbone flexibility | Freund's adjuvant | conformational epitope | antisera

  11. New tumor-associated antigen SC6 in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Pei Liu; Xiao-Zhong Guo; Jian-Hua Xu; Di Wang; Hong-Yu Li; Zhong-Min Cui; Jia-Jun Zhao; Li-Nan Ren

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the concentration of a new antigen SC6 (SC6-Ag) recognized by monoclonal antibody (MAb)in patients with pancreatic cancer and other malignant or benign diseases and to understand whether SC6-Ag has any clinical significance in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from other gastrointestinal diseases.METHODS: Six hundred and ninety-five serum specimens obtained from 115 patients with pancreatic cancer, 154 patients with digestive cancer and 95patients with non-digestive cancer were used and classified in this study. Serum specimens obtained from 140 patients with benign digestive disease and 89 patients with non-benign digestive disease served as controls. Ascites was tapped from 16 pancreatic cancer patients, 19 hepatic cancer patients, 16 colonic cancer patients, 10 gastric cancer and 6 severe necrotic pancreatitis patients. The samples were quantitated by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. The cut-off values (CV)of 41, 80, and 118 U/mL were used.RESULTS: The average intra- and interassay CV detected by immunoradiometric assay of SC6-Ag was 5.4% and 8.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 73.0% and 90.9% respectively. The levels in most malignant and benign cases were within the normal upper limit. Among the 16 pancreatic cancer cases, the concentration of SC6-Ag in ascites was over the normal range in 93.8% patients. There was no significant difference in the concentration of SC6-Ag.Decreased expression of SC6-Ag in sera was significantly related to tumor differentiation. The concentration of SC6-Ag was higher in patients before surgery than after surgery. The specificity of SC6-Ag and CA19-9 was significantly higher than that of ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) in pancreatic cancer patients. Higher positive predictive values were indicated in 92.3% SC6-Ag and 88.5% CA19-9, but lower in 73.8% ultrasound and 76.2% CT.CONCLUSION: The combined test of SC6-Ag and CA19-9 may improve the diagnostic rate of primary cancer. The detection of

  12. CaWingz user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document assumes that you have read and understood the Wingz user's manuals. CaWingz is an external Wingz program which, when combined with a set of script files, provides easy-to-use EPICS channel access interface functions for Wingz users. The external function run allows Wingz user to invoke any Unix processor within caWingz. Few additional functions for accessing static database field and monitoring of value change event is available for EPICS users after release 3.11. The functions, script files, and usage are briefly described in this document. The script files supplied here serve as examples only. Users are responsible for generating their own spreadsheet and script files. CaWingz communicates with IOC through channel access function calls

  13. Photounbinding of calmodulin from a family of CaM binding peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G Neumüller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that fluorescently labeled antibodies can be dissociated from their antigen by illumination with laser light. The mechanism responsible for the photounbinding effect, however, remains elusive. Here, we give important insights into the mechanism of photounbinding and show that the effect is not restricted to antibody/antigen binding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present studies of the photounbinding of labeled calmodulin (CaM from a set of CaM-binding peptides with different affinities to CaM after one- and two-photon excitation. We found that the photounbinding effect becomes stronger with increasing binding affinity. Our observation that photounbinding can be influenced by using free radical scavengers, that it does not occur with either unlabeled protein or non-fluorescent quencher dyes, and that it becomes evident shortly after or with photobleaching suggest that photounbinding and photobleaching are closely linked. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental results exclude surface effects, or heating by laser irradiation as potential causes of photounbinding. Our data suggest that free radicals formed through photobleaching may cause a conformational change of the CaM which lowers their binding affinity with the peptide or its respective binding partner.

  14. MHC class I is functionally associated with antigen receptors in human T and B lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Jacoby, B F; Skov, S;

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the antibody-induced effect of cross-linking the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in human T leukemic cells (Jurkat) and human B lymphoma cells (Solubo, Burkitts lymphoma) on intracellular [Ca2+]i levels. The increase in [Ca2+]i after MHC-I cross-linking in Jurkat...... lines the increase in [Ca2+]i after MHC-I cross-linking caused upregulation of CD69, an early marker of activation. When studying the effect of MHC-I cross-linking on the TCR- and B cell antigen receptor (BCR)- mediated increase in [Ca2+]i, respectively, we observed that MHC-I had a costimulatory effect......, respectively, were positively correlated with the level of MHC-I expressed on the cell surface. These observations suggest two different roles in signal transduction for the MHC-I molecules in the T and B cells studied. First, by themselves MHC-I complexes are able to induce activation of intracellular second...

  15. Antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CBA/N mice have an X-linked immunodeficiency that includes a deficient humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). In order to study the cellular mechanisms of this deficiency we have examined helper T cell function to SRBC in an adoptive transfer system by using 2 different sources of helper T cells. When thymocytes were used as the source of helper T cell precursors in an adoptive transfer system, CBA/N thymocytes were as effective as CBA/Ca thymocytes in inducing CBA/Ca bone marrow cells to develop into both direct and indirect anti-SRBC plaque-forming cells (PFC). However, when SRBC-primed, irradiated recipient mice were used as the source of helper T cells, primed and irradiated CBA/N recipiets developed significantly fewer direct and indirect anti-SRBC PFC than similarly treated CBA/CA recipients when reconstituted with CBA/Ca bone marrow cells and challenged with SRBC. We conclude that antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive. Possible reasons for this are evaluated and discussed

  16. Classification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Claesson, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new antigenic peptides, derived from infectious agents or cancer cells, which bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules, is of importance for the development of new effective vaccines capable of activating the cellular arm of the immune response. However, the...... barrier to the development of peptide-based vaccines with maximum population coverage is that the restricting HLA genes are extremely polymorphic resulting in a vast diversity of peptide-binding HLA specificities and a low population coverage for any given peptide-HLA specificity. One way to reduce this...... complexity is to group thousands of different HLA molecules into several so-called HLA supertypes: a classification that refers to a group of HLA alleles with largely overlapping peptide binding specificities. In this chapter, we focus on the state-of-the-art classification of HLA supertypes including HLA...

  17. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  18. Routes of Ca2+ Shuttling during Ca2+ Oscillations: FOCUS ON THE ROLE OF MITOCHONDRIAL Ca2+ HANDLING AND CYTOSOLIC Ca2+ BUFFERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Schwaller, Beat

    2015-11-20

    In some cell types, Ca(2+) oscillations are strictly dependent on Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane, whereas in others, oscillations also persist in the absence of Ca(2+) influx. We observed that, in primary mesothelial cells, the plasmalemmal Ca(2+) influx played a pivotal role. However, when the Ca(2+) transport across the plasma membrane by the "lanthanum insulation method" was blocked prior to the induction of the serum-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport was found to be able to substitute for the plasmalemmal Ca(2+) exchange function, thus rendering the oscillations independent of extracellular Ca(2+). However, in a physiological situation, the Ca(2+)-buffering capacity of mitochondria was found not to be essential for Ca(2+) oscillations. Moreover, brief spontaneous Ca(2+) changes were observed in the mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration without apparent changes in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, indicating the presence of a mitochondrial autonomous Ca(2+) signaling mechanism. In the presence of calretinin, a Ca(2+)-buffering protein, the amplitude of cytosolic spikes during oscillations was decreased, and the amount of Ca(2+) ions taken up by mitochondria was reduced. Thus, the increased calretinin expression observed in mesothelioma cells and in certain colon cancer might be correlated to the increased resistance of these tumor cells to proapoptotic/pronecrotic signals. We identified and characterized (experimentally and by modeling) three Ca(2+) shuttling pathways in primary mesothelial cells during Ca(2+) oscillations: Ca(2+) shuttled between (i) the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, (ii) the ER and the extracellular space, and (iii) the ER and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) buffers.

  19. CA on CD评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀会

    2007-01-01

    结合作者使用 CA On CD 的经验和体会,全面而具体地分析了 CA on CD 的使用功能,明确了其优点及不足之处,同时,针对这些不足之处进行了探索和尝试,提出了利用检索技巧解决这些不足之处的方法。并结合实例详细说明。

  20. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  1. The diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Da-Peng; Han Lei; Liu Zhen-Xian; Yang He; Zhang Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma.Methods:A total of 35 patients with cholangiocarcinoma who received surgical resection in our hospital were selected as malignant group, 30 patients with cholelithiasis who received surgical resection in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign group, serum samples were collected before surgery to determine CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 content, and cholangiocarcinoma tissue and normal bile duct tissue were collected after surgery to determine the content of proliferation and invasion molecules. Results:Serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels of malignant group were significantly higher than those of control group; PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels in cholangiocarcinoma tissue were higher than those in benign bile duct tissue, and E-cadherin level was lower than that in benign bile duct tissue; serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels were positively correlated with PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels, and negatively correlated with E-cadherin level.Conclusion:Joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 can not only provide reference for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma, but can also provide basis for the evaluation of proliferation, invasion and other malignant biological behaviors.

  2. Class II HLA antigens in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D H; Hornabrook, R W; Dagger, J; Fong, R

    1989-01-01

    HLA typing in Wellington revealed a stronger association of multiple sclerosis with DR2 than with DQw1. The association with DQw1 appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium of this antigen with DR2. These results, when considered in conjunction with other studies, are most easily explained by the hypothesis that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is influenced by multiple risk factors, with DR2 being an important risk factor in Caucasoid populations. PMID:2732726

  3. Yeast retrotransposon particles as antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsman, A J; Burns, N R; Layton, G T; Adams, S E

    1995-05-31

    The development of technologies to produce recombinant proteins for use in the pharmaceutical industry has made substantial advances, in particular in the area of generating antigens containing multiple copies of important immunological regions. One such antigen-carrier system is based on the ability of a protein encoded by the yeast retrotransposon, Ty, to self-assemble into virus-like particles. Ty-fusion proteins retain this ability to form particles, and a range of hybrid VLPs carrying a variety of heterologous antigens have been produced and shown to induce potent immune responses. In particular, hybrid VLPs carrying the core protein p24 of HIV (p24-VLPs) have been shown to induce antibody and T-cell proliferative responses in both experimental animals and human volunteers, and immunization of rabbits with VLPs carrying the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV (V3-VLPs) resulted in the induction of neutralizing antibody responses and T-cell proliferation. Further studies with V3-VLPs have shown that this particulate antigen stimulates enhanced V3-specific lymphoproliferative responses as compared to whole recombinant gp120 or to V3 peptide conjugated to albumin. The V3-VLPs also induce potent CTL responses following immunization of mice in the absence of adjuvant. These responses are MHC class I restricted and are mediated by CD8-positive cells. These observations therefore demonstrate that hybrid Ty-VLPs induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against HIV and suggest that these immunogens may be important in combatting AIDS and other infections. PMID:7625653

  4. Antigenicity of low molecular weight surfactant species.

    OpenAIRE

    Strayer, D. S.; Merritt, T A; Makunike, C.; Hallman, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors tested the antigenicity of human lung surfactant isolated from amniotic fluid. Mice and rabbits were immunized. Rabbit polyclonal antisera to these surfactant preparations were absorbed with normal human plasma proteins. Polyclonal antisera reacted with both high molecular weight (35 kd) surfactant apoprotein and to lower molecular weight species, both 18 kd and 9 kd. Mice were used to generate monoclonal antibodies to surfactant. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay was used to iden...

  5. Rationalisation of Legionella Urinary Antigen Testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Breda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legionnaires’ is a severe pneumonia, the diagnosis of which can be confirmed by a positive Legionella Urinary Antigen (LUA) test. The British Thoracic Society has specific guidelines for its use. Incorrect LUA test requests can result in false-positive results while accumulating costs. Aims and Objectives: The aim is the rationalisation of LUA testing. The first objective is to educate clinicians on indications for testing reducing unnecessary orders. The second is to develop...

  6. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobac ter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Methods: Serum soluble antigen of H. p ylor i was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H. pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test ( RUT ), histo logi c examination and serology. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive pred ictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46%, 91.07%, 91.67% a nd 76.12 %, respectively. The prevalence rate of serum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergoing endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT met hods ( P>0.05 ). Conclusions: The detection of serum H. pylori solub le antigen( HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate, and convenie nt, not affected by the memorizing reaction of serum antibody; is more sensitive , m ore specific and suitable for clinical diagnosis, and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H. pylori as well as for detection in children and pre gnant women.

  7. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective:to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) infection.Methods:Serum soluble antigen of H.pylori was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H.pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test(RUT).histologic examination and serology,Results:The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46% ,91.07%,91.67% and 76.12%,respectively.The prevalence rate of werum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergong endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT methods(P>0.05).Conclusions:The detection of serum H.pylori soluble antigen(HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate,and convenient,not affected by the memorizing raction of serum antibody;is more sensitive,more specific and suitable for dinical diagriosis,and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H.pylori as well as for detection in children and pregnant women.

  8. Persistent High Level of Urinary Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Prenatally Diagnosed Dysplastic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khorramirouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 level has gained clinical significance in gastrointestinal malignancies and in various solid and cystic diseases. Dysplastic kidney is a congenital abnormality resulting from atresia of the ureteral bud during the embryogenesis which can be unilateral or bilateral. We report unilateral dysplastic kidney with extremely large cyst diagnosed by routine ultrasonography in the 32nd week of gestational age with high levels of CA 19-9 in cystic and amniotic fluid, as well as persistent high urinary levels of this tumor marker during the 1-year follow-up. Persistent high urinary CA 19-9 level even after cyst aspiration may be attributable to remained function of dysplastic kidney due to remained epithelial lining.

  9. Isotopic Effects on Stereodynamics for Ca+HCI, Ca+DCI, and Ca+TClReactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-zhi Wang; Chuan-lu Yang; Jing-juan Liang; Jing Xiao; Qing-gang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The vector correlations in Ca+HC1,Ca+DCI,and Ca+TCI reactions have been investigated by means of the quasi-classical trajectory calculations on PES constructed by means of multireference configuration interaction.The distributions of P(θr),P(Φr) and the PDDCSs of (2π/σ)(dσ00/dωt),(2π/σ)(dσ20/dωt),(2π/σ)(dσ22+/dωt),(2π/σ)(dσ21-/dωt) have been calculated based on the surface.The remarkable isotopic effects in the reactions are observed,and the mechanism which may be ascribed to different mass factors is discussed.

  10. Conformational dynamics and antigenicity in the disordered malaria antigen merozoite surface protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A MacRaild

    Full Text Available Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2 of Plasmodium falciparum is an abundant, intrinsically disordered protein that is GPI-anchored to the surface of the invasive blood stage of the malaria parasite. Recombinant MSP2 has been trialled as a component of a malaria vaccine, and is one of several disordered proteins that are candidates for inclusion in vaccines for malaria and other diseases. Nonetheless, little is known about the implications of protein disorder for the development of an effective antibody response. We have therefore undertaken a detailed analysis of the conformational dynamics of the two allelic forms of MSP2 (3D7 and FC27 using NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shifts and NMR relaxation data indicate that conformational and dynamic properties of the N- and C-terminal conserved regions in the two forms of MSP2 are essentially identical, but significant variation exists between and within the central variable regions. We observe a strong relationship between the conformational dynamics and the antigenicity of MSP2, as assessed with antisera to recombinant MSP2. Regions of increased conformational order in MSP2, including those in the conserved regions, are more strongly antigenic, while the most flexible regions are minimally antigenic. This suggests that modifications that increase conformational order may offer a means to tune the antigenicity of MSP2 and other disordered antigens, with implications for vaccine design.

  11. Conformational Dynamics and Antigenicity in the Disordered Malaria Antigen Merozoite Surface Protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Dean; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Nováček, Jiří; Žídek, Lukáš; Sklenář, Vladimír; Richards, Jack S.; Beeson, James G.; Anders, Robin F.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2015-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) of Plasmodium falciparum is an abundant, intrinsically disordered protein that is GPI-anchored to the surface of the invasive blood stage of the malaria parasite. Recombinant MSP2 has been trialled as a component of a malaria vaccine, and is one of several disordered proteins that are candidates for inclusion in vaccines for malaria and other diseases. Nonetheless, little is known about the implications of protein disorder for the development of an effective antibody response. We have therefore undertaken a detailed analysis of the conformational dynamics of the two allelic forms of MSP2 (3D7 and FC27) using NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shifts and NMR relaxation data indicate that conformational and dynamic properties of the N- and C-terminal conserved regions in the two forms of MSP2 are essentially identical, but significant variation exists between and within the central variable regions. We observe a strong relationship between the conformational dynamics and the antigenicity of MSP2, as assessed with antisera to recombinant MSP2. Regions of increased conformational order in MSP2, including those in the conserved regions, are more strongly antigenic, while the most flexible regions are minimally antigenic. This suggests that modifications that increase conformational order may offer a means to tune the antigenicity of MSP2 and other disordered antigens, with implications for vaccine design. PMID:25742002

  12. EMRE Is a Matrix Ca(2+) Sensor that Governs Gatekeeping of the Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vais, Horia; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Mak, Don-On Daniel; Hoff, Henry; Payne, Riley; Tanis, Jessica E; Foskett, J Kevin

    2016-01-26

    The mitochondrial uniporter (MCU) is an ion channel that mediates Ca(2+) uptake into the matrix to regulate metabolism, cell death, and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signaling. Matrix Ca(2+) concentration is similar to that in cytoplasm, despite an enormous driving force for entry, but the mechanisms that prevent mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload are unclear. Here, we show that MCU channel activity is governed by matrix Ca(2+) concentration through EMRE. Deletion or charge neutralization of its matrix-localized acidic C terminus abolishes matrix Ca(2+) inhibition of MCU Ca(2+) currents, resulting in MCU channel activation, enhanced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, and constitutively elevated matrix Ca(2+) concentration. EMRE-dependent regulation of MCU channel activity requires intermembrane space-localized MICU1, MICU2, and cytoplasmic Ca(2+). Thus, mitochondria are protected from Ca(2+) depletion and Ca(2+) overload by a unique molecular complex that involves Ca(2+) sensors on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane, coupled through EMRE.

  13. Use of CA 125 monoclonal antibody to monitor patients with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, S; Schieder, K; Kölbl, H; Neunteufel, W; Nowotny, C; Breitenecker, G; Biegelmayer, G; Vetterlein, M; Fürlinger, B; Micksche, M

    1989-12-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) OC 125 reacts with an antigen on human ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) cells that is also shed into the body fluids and can be detected in patients' sera and/or ascites with a radioimmunometric assay. For the present study, serum CA 125 levels of patients (n = 36) with different stages of OVCA were investigated. Serum levels seem to correlate with tumor burden. In stages I and II (n = 12), 33% of patients were CA 125 positive, whereas 70% of stage III and IV patients (n = 24) were CA 125 positive. Mean serum levels were in 93 U/ml (stages I, II) and 279 U/ml (stages III, IV). CA 125 levels in ascites and in pleural effusions were manyfold higher than serum levels of the same patients (P less than 0.0001). Immunohistochemical investigations of CA 125 in different ovarian tumors (n = 91) revealed that 85% of malignant and 75% of borderline serous cystadenocarcinomas had detectable CA 125 surface expression. Furthermore, 71% of benign tumors showed the CA 125 epitope, whereas mucinous tumors were negative for this marker. One of six ovarian cancer cell lines was CA 125 positive, whereas in 6 of 11 patients, ascites-derived ovarian cancer cells (fresh and gradient isolated) were positive for this marker. The proportion of positive cells ranged from 10 to 90% in these samples. Intraperitoneal recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) therapy resulted in an increase in the number of cells reacting with CA 125. The results of monitoring in patients receiving different therapeutic regimens and/or agents demonstrate the usefulness of this marker.

  14. IgE myeloma with elevated level of serum CA125

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-ling WANG; Qiang HUANG; Tian-xin YANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore clinical and laboratory features and significance of detecting serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in immunoglobulin E (IgE) multiple myeloma. Methods: We reported the clinical findings of a male patient with IgE myeloma and elevated level of serum CA125 and reviewed the literature. Results: Laboratory tests of this patient on admission showed extremely high serum IgE and CA125, a bone marrow aspirate revealed abnormal plasma cells (38.4% of nucleated cells: 16.4% mature and 22% atypical), and in bone marrow biopsy, immunoperoxidase staining showed positive cytoplasmic staining for IgE and κ light chain within the vast majority of plasma cells. Computed tomography (CT) bone scans indicated wedge shape change and compressive fracture of thoracic vertebrae, and emission computed tomography (ECT) discovered multiple punctiform aggregation of radiation in both cervical ribs and spine. The serum IgE and CA125 gradually decreased to normal limits after eight cycles of chemotherapy. This patient is alive well with an 18-month complete remission. Conclusion: We reported the first case of IgE myeloma with elevated level of serum CA125. To further evaluate clinical characteristics and significance of CA125 in IgE myeloma, more cases are needed.

  15. Relationship between serum calcium and CA 19-9 levels in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Fuszek; Peter Lakatos; Adam Tabak; Janos Papp; Zsolt Nagy; Istvan Takacs; Henrik Csaba Horvath; Peter Laszlo Lakatos; Gabor Speer

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the calcium metabolism of colorectal cancer(CRC) in patients with colorectal cancer and control patients.METHODS: Seventy newly diagnosed CRC patients were included. The healthy control group was age and gender matched (n=32). Particular attention was devoted to the relationship between serum calcium of patients, and levels of AFP, CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) (that could be considered as prognostic factors). Furthermore, the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene A986S polymorphism was investigated in these patients, as well as the relationship between different CaSR genotypes and the data stated above.RESULTS: A lower level of ionized calcium (also corrected for albumin) was found in the serum of CRC patients with normal 25(OH) vitamin D levels. The ionized calcium concentration was inversely correlated with the serum level of CA 19-9. There was no difference in the distribution of CaSR genotypes, between CRC patients and general population. The genotypes did not correlate with other data examined.CONCLUSION: Based on these results, lower levels of serum calcium might be a pathogenic and prognostic factor in colorectal cancer.

  16. Modulation of antigenicity of mycelial antigens during developmental cycle of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, G; Kumar, A; Singh, A; Garg, G K

    2000-05-01

    Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed using polyclonal antibodies against soluble cytoplasmic (SCA) and insoluble cell wall antigens (ICWA) for monitoring modulation of mycelial antigens during growth cycle of T. indica. With SCA, continuous decrease in ELISA reactivity was observed in maturing fungus cultures, suggesting that SCA were expressed predominantly during early vegetative phase and their decreasing role was apparent as the fungus matures possibly towards sporogenous mycelium. In case of ICWA, the reaction profile showed an increase up to exponential phase of growth probably due to increase in the cell division and branching of mycelium. But later, ICWA antibody reactivity was decreased which may be due to conversion of mycelial phase to sporogenous phase, a quiescent stage of growth. Characterization of changes in antigenic configuration during developmental cycle of Tilletia indica by these antibodies could prove to be useful in identification of developmentally related and virulence marker(s).

  17. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patters, M.R.; Landsberg, R.L.; Johansson, L.A.; Trummel, C.L.; Robertson, P.R. (Department of Periodontology, University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.)

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated /sup 45/Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis.

  18. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. PMID:26342828

  19. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  20. Raman spectroscopy of HIV-1 antigen and antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Hu, Ningjie; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Yu, Qigui; Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2011-05-01

    Raman spectra of anti-HIV-1 antibody, HIV-1 antigen (p24), and HIV-1 antibody-antigen complex have been measured in near-infrared and UV regions: 785 nm; 830 nm; and 244 nm laser excitations. The spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen was excited with an infrared laser and contains numerous Raman peaks. The most prominent peaks are broad bands at 1343, 1449, 1609 and 1655 cm-1, which are characteristic of the Raman spectra of biological cells. The UV Raman spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen has a completely different structure. It has two strong peaks at 1613 cm-1 and 1173 cm-1. The peak at 1613 cm-1 is associated with vibrations of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Try). The second strongest peak at 1173 cm-1 is associated with the vibration of Tyr. The Raman peak pattern of the HIV-1 antigen-antibody complex is very similar to that of the HIV-1 antigen. The only difference is that the peak at 1007 cm-1 of the Raman spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen-antibody complex is slightly enhanced compared to that of the HIV-1 antigen. This indicates that the peaks of the HIV-1 antigen dominate the Raman spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen-antibody complex.

  1. Protamine-based nanoparticles as new antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Peleteiro Olmedo, Mercedes; González-Fernández, África; Alonso Fernández, María José; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2015-11-01

    The use of biodegradable nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles is an attractive approach to overcome the problems associated with the use of Alum-based classical adjuvants. Herein we report, the design and development of protamine-based nanoparticles as novel antigen delivery systems, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen as a model viral antigen. The nanoparticles, composed of protamine and a polysaccharide (hyaluronic acid or alginate), were obtained using a mild ionic cross-linking technique. The size and surface charge of the nanoparticles could be modulated by adjusting the ratio of the components. Prototypes with optimal physicochemical characteristics and satisfactory colloidal stability were selected for the assessment of their antigen loading capacity, antigen stability during storage and in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept studies. In vitro studies showed that antigen-loaded nanoparticles induced the secretion of cytokines by macrophages more efficiently than the antigen in solution, thus indicating a potential adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. Finally, in vivo studies showed the capacity of these systems to trigger efficient immune responses against the hepatitis B antigen following intramuscular administration, suggesting the potential interest of protamine-polysaccharide nanoparticles as antigen delivery systems.

  2. Human leukocyte antigen-DO regulates surface presentation of human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted antigens on B cell malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.N.; Meijden, E.D. van der; Honders, M.W.; Pont, M.J.; Goeman, J.J.; Falkenburg, J.H.F.; Griffioen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hematological malignancies often express surface HLA class II, making them attractive targets for CD4+ T cell therapy. We previously demonstrated that HLA class II ligands can be divided into DM-resistant and DM-sensitive antigens. In contrast to presentation of DM-resistant antigens, presentation o

  3. The prognostic value of pretreatment CA-125 levels and CA-125 normalization in ovarian clear cell carcinoma: a two-academic-institute study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huimin; Sha, Guisha; Xiao, Meizhu; Gao, Huiqiao; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the clinical implications of pretreatment carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) levels and CA-125 normalization in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), and it provides useful information for the improvement of monitoring strategies for this lethal disease. Methods The medical records of patients with ovarian CCC who had undergone primary staging surgery or cytoreductive surgery followed by systemic chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. A range of clinico-pathological parameters were collected and examined. Results A total of 375 women were included in the analysis. FIGO stage (p < 0.001) was identified as the only significant prognostic factor for relapse. Residual tumor and advanced stage (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) were identified as independent adverse factors for survival. The potential risk factors associated with elevated pretreatment CA-125 levels included advanced-stage disease, positive residual tumors and negative endometriosis (p < 0.001, p = 0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). Pretreatment CA-125 levels were not associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS) (p = 0.060 and p = 0.176, respectively). CA-125 normalization after chemotherapy exhibited a positive linear correlation with advanced stage (r = 0.97, p = 0.001) and residual tumor (r = 0.81, p = 0.027) and a negative relationship with 5-year RFS (r = −0.97, p = 0.002) and 5-year OS (r = −0.97, p= 0.001). Patients with CA-125 levels that normalized before cycle 2 of chemotherapy had a similar prognosis as patients whose CA-125 levels normalized prior to chemotherapy (RFS: p = 0.327; OS: p = 0.654). By contrast, patients with CA-125 levels that normalized after cycle 2 of chemotherapy or never normalized were significantly more likely to experience disease progression. Conclusions Pretreatment CA-125 levels are not very useful for predicting clinical outcome. CA-125 levels following treatment are a valid

  4. Extraordinary elevated CA19-9 in patient with common bile duct stones and cholangitis Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mokhtarifar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Serum Carbohydrate Antigen, CA19-9, is a carbohydrate antigen whose usage -as a tumor marker- in pancreatic and bile ducts malignancies is commonly increasing. Sensitivity and specificity of this antigen in the diagnosis of malignancies is 70-90% and 68-91%, respectively. CA19-9 can also rise in other disorders and in few of benign conditions including cholangitis, due to other causes, e.g. choledocholithiasis. However, in such cases the increase is not significant and it is usually below 1000 u/ml. Values more than 10000 u/ml are limited to few case reports in articles. The case under study was a 66 year old man hospitalized because of epigastric and right upper quadrant pain, fever, jaundice, acholic stool, weight loss of about 6 kg, and hyperchromic urine. Physical examination revealed that the case was icteric and febrile with a mild RUQ tenderness on percussion. Laboratory tests showed marked elevation of bilirubin and CA19-9 (Total bilirubin: 36 mg/dl, Direct: 19.5 mg/dl CA19-9 :44777u/ml, Normal: 0-40 u/ml, but the enzymes of the liver and alkaline phosphatase only increased to two times the normal level. Sonography showed dilated common bile duct with four stones within it. Four weeks after stones extraction and renewal of bile current CA19-9 fell to 60 u/ml and returned to normal range (0-40 2 months later and during this period the patient was totally asymptomatic. As a result, in patients with biliary obstruction, a diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made solely on the basis of increased concentration of CA19-9, even in case of high clinical suspicion and the interpretation of this increase must be done with more caution and after lab follow-up following removal of the obstruction.

  5. Comparison of circulating MMP-9, TIMP-1 and CA19-9 in the detection of pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Brünner, Nils; De Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky

    2010-01-01

    adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patients had symptoms of pancreatic cancer. The discriminative strength of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were compared to that of CA19-9 using receiver operating characteristics curves, area under the curves (AUC), specificity and sensitivity. RESULTS: The sensitivities of MMP-9......Background/Aim: The performance of the circulating tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were evaluated separately and in combination for their potential value in detecting pancreatic ductal......, TIMP-1 and CA19-9 in detecting pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were 58.82%, 47.1% and 86%, respectively, with specificities of 34.6%, 69.2% and 73%. The AUCs of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and CA19-9 were 0.50, 0.64 and 0.84, respectively. Combining the three markers did not significantly improve detection...

  6. Enhancing the recognition of tumor associated antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Irvine, Kari R.; Minev, Boris R.; Taggarse, Akash S.; McFariand, Barbra J.; Wang, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Activated CD8+ T cells (TCD8+) can directly recognize malignant cells because processed fragments of tumor associated antigens (TAA), 8-10 amino acids in length and complexed with MHC class I molecules, are displayed on tumor cell surfaces. Tumor cells have been genetically modified in a variety of ways in efforts to enhance the immune recognition of TAA. An alternative strategy is the expression of TAA in recombinant or synthetic form. This has been made possible by the recent cloning of TAA...

  7. Measurement of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, cytokeratin-19 fragment and matrix metalloproteinase-7 for detecting cholangiocarcinoma: a preliminary case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, Franco; Lo Re, Giovanni; Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Facomer, Flavio; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

    2014-11-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the liver arising from the bile duct epithelium, accounting for 10-25% of all primary hepatic cancers. The clinical presentation of this tumor is not specific and the diagnosis of early cholangiocarcinoma is difficult, especially in patients with other biliary diseases. Measurement of serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are commonly used to monitor response to therapy, but are also useful for confirming the presence of a cholangiocarcinoma. In this setting, other biomarkers have been previously tested, including cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) and the matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7). The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical usefulness of the assay of serum CEA, CA 19-9, CYFRA 21-1 and MMP7, individually and together, as tumor markers for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-four patients (14 men, 10 women, 62.6±8.2 years of age) with histologically-confirmed cholangiocarcinoma (cases) and 25 age- and sex-matched patients with benign liver disease (controls) underwent measurement of these biomarkers. The mean values of all serum markers of patients with cholangiocarcinoma were significantly higher (pCYFRA 21-1: 76%, 79% and 78%; MMP7: 78%, 77% and 80%, respectively. The combination of all serum markers afforded 92.0% sensitivity and 96% specificity in detecting cholangiocarcinoma, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (94%). In conclusion, our preliminary results suggest that the measurement of all four biomarkers together can help in the early detection of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25368272

  8. The clinical relevance of rising CA-125 levels within the normal range in patients with uterine papillary serous cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Marina; Hou, June Y; McAndrew, Thomas C; Goldberg, Gary L; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2013-04-01

    The utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels as an adjunct method of monitoring patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) or endometrial serous carcinoma after surgery and adjuvant treatment has been reported. Our goal was to determine the significance of rising CA-125 levels within the normal range in these patients in the posttreatment surveillance setting. All patients with UPSC who underwent surgical staging and had preoperative CA-125 measurement from 1999 to 2008 were included in this analysis. Information was extracted from records to assess the changes in CA-125 values with clinical and/or radiographic detection of recurrence. Of the 56 evaluable patients, 23 (41%) recurred. Of the 23 patients that recurred, 11 had serial CA-125 levels measured in remission. Elevated CA-125 levels at diagnosis were significantly associated with disease recurrence and advanced stage (P = .01, P = .001, respectively). The rise in CA-125 by 10 U/mL in the normal range and ≥ 15 U/mL were associated with disease recurrence (P UPSC after remission, surveillance of CA-125 levels may have a role in disease surveillance and management. PMID:22995987

  9. Lattice Dynamics of fcc Ca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;;

    1983-01-01

    A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... bear a striking resemblance to those of FCC Yb, which is also a divalent metal with an electronic band structure similar to that of Ca. In particular, the shear moduli c44 and (c11-c 12)/2 differ by a factor of 3.4, which implies that FCC Ca (like FCC Yb) is very anisotropic with regard...... to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion...

  10. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J;

    1994-01-01

    , on the other hand, expressed A, H, and inconstantly sialosyl-T, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn antigens in major salivary glands, whereas serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands expressed H exclusively, Tn and sialosyl-T antigens inconstantly, but never sialosyl-Tn and A antigens. The difference may be related...... to a more simple cytodifferentiation of serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands as compared with major salivary glands. Duct cells in major salivary glands expressed A, H, and inconstantly T, sialosyl-T, and Tn antigens, whereas minor (labial) salivary glands ducts exclusively expressed H, T...... and sialosyl-T antigens, differences that may be related to dissimilarities in the duct system. Myoepithelial cells and basal cells exclusively expressed T and sialosyl-T antigens, which may prove useful in studies of salivary gland tumors, since these cells are known to play a key role in the histological...

  11. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...... carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue...

  12. Monoclonal antibody-defined human pancreatic cancer-associated antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegel, W H; Kalthoff, H; Arndt, R; Gieseking, J; Greten, H; Klöppel, G; Kreiker, C; Ladak, A; Lampe, V; Ulrich, S

    1985-03-01

    Three pancreatic cancer-associated antigens were characterized by use of monoclonal antibodies in immunobinding studies with various cellular and soluble target antigens, in immunoprecipitation, and in immunoperoxidase staining. C54-0 represents a tumor-associated Mr 122,000 antigen, which appears to be widely distributed on various epithelial tumors and to a lower extent on normal tissue. C1-N3 antigen exhibited a more restricted distribution, reacting with pancreatic and various gastrointestinal tract tumors as well as with chronically inflamed pancreatic tissue. The most specific antigen expression was observed for C1-P83 antigen, found on all exocrine tumors of the pancreas, but not on normal or chronically inflamed pancreatic tissue.

  13. Formaldehyde scavengers function as novel antigen retrieval agents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig T. Vollert; Moree, Wilna J; Steven Gregory; Bark, Steven J.; Eriksen, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen retrieval agents improve the detection of formaldehyde-fixed proteins, but how they work is not well understood. We demonstrate that formaldehyde scavenging represents a key characteristic associated with effective antigen retrieval; under controlled temperature and pH conditions, scavenging improves the typical antigen retrieval process through reversal of formaldehyde-protein adduct formation. This approach provides a rational framework for the identification and development of more...

  14. T-cell recognition of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in erythrocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii: inhibition of parasitemia by this antigen(s).

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, B.; Engels, A; Camus, D; Haque, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the presence of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in the erythrocyte stage from Plasmodium yoelii (265 BY strain) and Plasmodium falciparum through recognition by T cells primed in vivo with antigens from each of these parasites. BALB/c mice are naturally resistant to P. falciparum but are susceptible to P. yoelii infection. Mice that had recovered from P. yoelii primary infection became resistant to a second infection. A higher in vitro proliferative response ...

  15. Novel selective inhibitors of aminopeptidases that generate antigenic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Saveanu, Loredana; Stratikos, Efstratios; Vourloumis, Dionisios

    2013-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases, ERAP1 and ERAP2, as well as Insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) play key roles in antigen processing, and have recently emerged as biologically important targets for manipulation of antigen presentation. Taking advantage of the available structural and substrate-selectivity data for these enzymes, we have rationally designed a new series of inhibitors that display low micromolar activity. The selectivity profile for these three highly homologous aminopeptidases provides a promising avenue for modulating intracellular antigen processing. PMID:23916253

  16. Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlendorf, Dorothea E.; Staege, Martin Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involv...

  17. Pneumocystis carinii antigen detection in rat serum and lung lavage.

    OpenAIRE

    McNabb, S J; Graves, D C; Kosanke, S.D.; Moyer, M J; Ivey, M H

    1988-01-01

    We developed a modified double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detected relatively low concentrations of known Pneumocystis carinii antigen added to buffer or rat sera. Artificial immunization-derived polyclonal rabbit anti-P. carinii antibody was used on the solid phase to capture the antigen. Infection-derived (after P. carinii pneumonia) polyclonal rat anti-P. carinii antibody or a mixture of five murine monoclonal antibodies was used as the antigen detecto...

  18. Fine tuning of cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Ca 2+ oscillations, a widespread mode of cell signaling, were reported in non-excitable cells for the first time more than 25 years ago. Their fundamental mechanism, based on the periodic Ca 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm, has been well characterized. However, how the kinetics of cytosolic Ca 2+ changes are related to the extent of a physiological response remains poorly understood. Here, we review data suggesting that the downstream targets of Ca 2+ are controlled not only by the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations but also by the detailed characteristics of the oscillations, such as their duration, shape, or baseline level. Involvement of non-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ stores, mainly mitochondria and the extracellular medium, participates in this fine tuning of Ca 2+ oscillations. The main characteristics of the Ca 2+ exchange fluxes with these compartments are also reviewed. PMID:27630768

  19. [Effect of polycarbophil Ca on IBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Tetsuya

    2006-08-01

    In this chapter, I mentioned the effect of polycarbophil Ca on IBS. IBS is classified into 3 types; diarrhea type, constipation type and combined type. Polycarbophil Ca is effective for all types of IBS.

  20. Antigen epitope of Helicobacter pylorivacuolating cytotoxin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Liu; Shu-Qin Li; Chun-Jie Liu; Hao-Xia Tao; Zhao-Shan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct and select antigen epitopes of vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) for nontoxic VacA vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection.METHODS: Eleven VacA epitopes were predicted according to VacA antigenic bioinformatics. Three candidates of VacA epitope were constructed through different combined epitopes. The candidate was linked with E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) by a linker of 7 amino acids, and cloned into plasmid pQE-60 in which fusion LTB-VacA epitope was efficiently expressed. To test the antigencity of the candidate, 6 BALB/c mice were treated with the fusion LTB-VacA epitope through intraperitoneal injection. To explore the ability of inhibiting the toxicity of VacA, cantiserum against the candidate was used to counteract VacA that induced HeLa cells to produce cell vacuoles in vitro.RESULTS: Serum IgG against the candidate was induced in the BALB/c mice. In vitro, the three antisera against the candidate efficiently counteracted the toxicity of VacA, and decreased the number of cell vacuoles by 14.17%, 20.20%and 30.41% respectively.CONCLUSION: Two of the three candidates, LZ-VacA1and LZ-VacA2, can be used to further study the mechanism of vacuolating toxicity of VacA, and to construct nontoxic VacA vaccine against H pylori infection.

  1. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. Peón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage and canids (in its adult stage that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.

  2. [Mucose associated lymphoid tissue. Antigen presenting cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Baptista, Mario J; Luzardo, José Rafael

    2013-12-01

    We studied samples of normal and abnormal human mucosae, including oral tissue and uterine cervix, using electron microscopy. Special attention was given to the functions and mechanisms of defense carried out by the epithelial (EC) and dendritic cells (DC). Activated epithelial cells posses the capacity to uptake and process antigens, in order to present them, subsequently, to the dendritic cells. The structures and elements of the cells intervening on this function are: micropinocytic vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes, phagosomes, clathrin-covered vesicles, dense granules covered by a unit membrane, granules with onion likes leaves, microbodies, and dense granules with acid phosphatase activity. When they first arrive within the epithelial layers, the DC are clear with long cytoplasmic projections, which later become short, and the density of their cytoplasm increases. They possess mycropinocytic vesicles, some clathrine-covered vesicles, lysososmes and Birbeck granules. At this moment, they are known as Langerhans cells. EC and DC present many surface folds rich in micropynocytic vesicles. Between EC and DC there are many contacts (close junctions or tight junctions), through which antigens, phagocitized and processed by the EC, are given to the DC. These cells join them to major histocompatibility complex molecules or to other molecules with similar functions (CD1). Then the Langerhans cells travel to the lymphatic node to activate T cells and continue the immunologic task. So, in this way, both the EC and the DC are a link between the natural and the acquired immunological mechanisms. PMID:24502183

  3. Delayed radiation-induced inflammation accompanying a marked carbohydrate antigen 19-9 elevation in a patient with resected pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Cardinal, Jon S.; Jacobson, Geraldine M.

    2016-01-01

    Although carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a useful tumor marker for pancreatic cancer, it can also become elevated from a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Herein we describe an unusual presentation of elevated CA 19-9 in an asymptomatic patient who had previously undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for resected early stage pancreatic cancer. The rise in CA 19-9 might be due to delayed radiation-induced inflammation related to previous intra-abdominal radiation therapy with or without radiation recall induced by gemcitabine. After treatment with corticosteroids the CA 19-9 level decreased to normal, and the patient has not developed any evidence of recurrent cancer to date. PMID:27306770

  4. Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antigen using immunofiltration and antigen-competition ELISA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, G Dhinakar; Rajanathan, T M C; Kumar, C Senthil; Ramathilagam, G; Hiremath, Geetha; Shaila, M S

    2008-06-22

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sheep and goats in India. An immunofiltration-based test has been developed using either mono-specific serum/monoclonal antibodies (mAb) prepared against a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus (RPV) cross-reactive with PPR virus. This method consists of coating ocular swab eluate from suspected animals onto a nitrocellulose membrane housed in a plastic module, which is allowed to react with suitable dilutions of a mAb or a mono-specific polyclonal antibody. The antigen-antibody complex formed on the membrane is then detected by protein A-colloidal gold conjugate, which forms a pink colour. In the immunofiltration test, concordant results were obtained using either PPRV mAb or mono-specific serum. Another test, an antigen-competition ELISA which relies on the competition between plate-coated recombinant truncated 'N' protein of RPV and the PPRV 'N' protein present in ocular swab eluates (sample) for binding to the mono-specific antibody against N protein of RPV (in liquid phase) was developed. The cut-off value for this test was established using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive and negative oculo-nasal swab samples. Linear correlation between percent inhibition (PI) values in antigen-competition ELISA and virus infectivity titres was 0.992. Comparison of the immunofiltration test with the antigen-competition ELISA yielded a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. These two tests can serve as a screening (immunofiltration) and confirmatory (antigen-competition ELISA) test, respectively, in the diagnosis of PPR in sheep or goats. PMID:18182256

  5. Antigen-Specific versus Non-Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorption in ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Thölking

    Full Text Available ABO-incompatible (ABOi renal transplantation (RTx from living donors is an established procedure to expand the donor pool for patients with end stage renal disease. Immunoadsorption (IA is a standard procedure for the removal of preformed antibodies against the allograft. In this study, antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific IA in ABOi RTx were compared.10 patients underwent antigen-specific IA (Glycosorb group and 13 patients non-antigen-specific IA (Immunosorba group. The effects of both procedures regarding antibody reduction, number of treatments, complications, costs, as well as the allograft function and patient survival were compared between both groups.Although the IgG levels were reduced equally by both procedures (p=0.82, the reduction of the IgM level was more effective in the Glycosorb group (p=0.0172. Patients in both groups required a median number of 6 IA before ABOi RTx. Allograft function at one year after AB0i RTx was similar in both groups (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 66 vs. 64 ml/min/1.73m² respectively, with a death-censored graft survival of 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. Complication rates did not differ between procedures. Due to the reuse of non-antigen-specific Immunosorba columns, costs were considerably lower in this group; however, the use of the Immunosorba-based IA was less time-efficient.Considering upcoming alternatives as simultaneous performance of dialysis and IA or a possible reuse of Glycosorb columns, this might become less relevant in the future.

  6. Identification of protective antigens for vaccination against systemic salmonellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent medical need for improved vaccines with broad serovar coverage and high efficacy against systemic salmonellosis. Subunit vaccines offer excellent safety profiles but require identification of protective antigens, which remains a challenging task. Here, I review crucial properties of Salmonella antigens that might help to narrow down the number of potential candidates from more than 4000 proteins encoded in Salmonella genomes, to a more manageable number of 50-200 most promising antigens. I also discuss complementary approaches for antigen identification and potential limitations of current pre-clinical vaccine testing.

  7. Cancer-germline antigen vaccines and epigenetic enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Burns, Jorge; Ditzel, Henrik Jorn

    2010-01-01

    can be achieved using epigenetic modifiers. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: We provide an overview of the potential of CG antigens as targets for cancer immunotherapy, including advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss the current state of development of CG antigen vaccines, and the potential...... synergistic effect of combining CG antigen immunotherapeutic strategies with epigenetic modifiers. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: The reader will gain an overview of the past, present and future role of CG antigens in cancer immunotherapy. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Chemoimmunotherapy using epigenetic drugs and CG...

  8. СAPSULAR ANTIGEN OF YERSINIA PESTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kadnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonosis caused by gram-negative bacteria Yersinia pestis, which, as a rule, is transmitted to humans from septicemic rodents by the bites of infected fleas. This microbe killed more people than all of the wars in the human history. Y. pestis circulation in the natural plague foci is ensured by the whole number of pathogenicity factors with differing functional orientation. This review is devoted to one of them, Y. pestis capsular antigen (F1 or Caf1. The history of its discovery and studying of its genetic control, biosynthesis, isolation and purification, and physicochemical properties are reviewed. Its roles in plague pathogenesis and its application as a main component of plague vaccines are also discussed. Y. pestis capsule under light microscopy is visually amorphous, while high-resolution electron microscopy displays the structure formed from separate fimbria-like cords up to 200 nm long, diverging from the bacterial surface in different directions. At 37°C Y. pestis produce 800–1000 times more capsular antigen than at 28°C. Genes coding for 17.6-kD Caf1 protein, which contains 170 amino acids, are located in caf1 operon of pFra plasmid. Analysis of caf1 operon nucleotide sequence testified its close phylogenetic relationship with the gene clusters coding for pilus adhesins that were secreted with the help of chaperone/usher systems in enterobacteria including six additional adhesins in Y. pestis. Y. pestis multiplication within macrophages is the obligatory stage of plague pathogenesis, and the plague pathogen virulence correlates not with resistance to phagocyte ingesting but with bacterial ability to survive and multiply within phagolysosomes of phagocytes due to neutralization of antibacterial functions of eukaryotic cells. The capsule formed out of the Caf1 aggregates protects Y. pestis from ingestion by naïve host’s phagocytes and prevents from initiation of the alternative pathway of the complement system

  9. CA-CA互操作研究%Research of CA-CA Interoperability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈士根; 叶培松; 陈宝明

    2005-01-01

    文章介绍了国际上CA-CA之间实现互操作的信任模式,然后根据中国目前的PKI实际情况,提出了以桥CA为全局模式,局部可采用严格层次信任模式来实现各CA之间的互操作.

  10. AFP、CEA、CA199联合检测在原发性肝癌疾病诊疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜敬学

    2016-01-01

    目的::分析探讨原发性肝癌应用联合甲胎蛋白(α-fetoprotein,AFP)、癌胚抗原( carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA)及糖类抗原199(carbohydrate antigen,CA199)检查的诊断价值。方法:以122例疑似原发性肝癌患者为观察对象,所有患者均接受AFP、CEA、CA199及病理学检查,以病理学检查结果作为原发性肝癌的确诊标准,分别对单纯AFP、CEA、CA199及联合AFP、CEA、CA199检查对原发性肝癌的诊断价值进行分析。结果:101例患者明确诊断为原发性肝癌,联合AFP、CEA、CA199检查的灵敏性及特异性均明显高于单纯AFP、CEA及CA199检查;且单纯AFP、CEA、CA199及联合AFP、CEA、CA199检查对于原发性肝癌均有着显著的诊断价值,但联合AFP、CEA、CA199检查诊断价值明显高于单纯AFP、CEA及CA199检查。结论:联合AFP、CEA及CA199检查对于原发性肝癌有着较高的诊断价值。

  11. Structures of CaV2 Ca2+/CaM-IQ Domain Complexes Reveal Binding Modes That Underlie Calcium-Dependent Inactivation And Facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium influx drives two opposing voltage-activated calcium channel (CaV) self-modulatory processes: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Specific Ca2+/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) lobes produce CDI and CDF through interactions with the CaVα1 subunit IQ domain. Curiously, Ca2+/CaM lobe modulation polarity appears inverted between CaV1s and CaV2s. Here, we present crystal structures of CaV2.1, CaV2.2, and CaV2.3 Ca2+/CaM-IQ domain complexes. All display binding orientations opposite to CaV1.2 with a physical reversal of the CaM lobe positions relative to the IQ α-helix. Titration calorimetry reveals lobe competition for a high-affinity site common to CaV1 and CaV2 IQ domains that is occupied by the CDI lobe in the structures. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that the N-terminal CaV2 Ca2+/C-lobe anchors affect CDF. Together, the data unveil the remarkable structural plasticity at the heart of CaV feedback modulation and indicate that CaV1 and CaV2 IQ domains bear a dedicated CDF site that exchanges Ca2+/CaM lobe occupants

  12. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer. Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively. Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  13. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI; Jokha Sultan ALGHARIBI; Amna Salim ALSHUKAILI; Ahmed Khalifa ALSHUKAILI

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer.Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively.Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  14. Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Recognize Epitopes of Protective Antigen following Vaccination with an Anthrax Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Laughlin, Elsa M.; Miller, Joseph D.; James, Eddie; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Mittler, Robert S.; Akondy, Rama; Kwok, William; Ahmed, Rafi; Nepom, Gerald,

    2007-01-01

    Detection of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is facilitated by the use of fluorescently labeled soluble peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimers which mirror the antigen specificity of T-cell receptor recognition. We have used soluble peptide-MHC class II tetramers containing peptides from the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis to detect circulating T cells in peripheral blood of subjects vaccinated with an anthrax vaccine. PA-specific HLA class II-restricted T lympho...

  15. Facts on the fragmentation of antigens in presenting cells, on the association of antigen fragments with MHC molecules in cell-free systems, and speculation on the cell biology of antigen processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, O; Mouritsen, S; Petersen, B L;

    1988-01-01

    The processing of a protein antigen is a multi-step event taking place in antigen-presenting cells. Processing is a prerequisite for the recognition of most antigens by T lymphocytes. The antigen is ingested by endocytosis, transported to an acid cellular compartment and subjected to proteolytic ...

  16. Use of antigenic cartography in vaccine seed strain selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchier, Ron A M; Smith, Derek J

    2010-03-01

    Human influenza A viruses are classic examples of antigenically variable pathogens that have a seemingly endless capacity to evade the host's immune response. The viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins are the main targets of our antibody response to combat infections. HA and NA continuously change to escape from humoral immunity, a process known as antigenic drift. As a result of antigenic drift, the human influenza vaccine is updated frequently. The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates a global influenza surveillance network that, by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, routinely characterizes the antigenic properties of circulating strains in order to select new seed viruses for such vaccine updates. To facilitate a quantitative interpretation and easy visualization of HI data, a new computational technique called "antigenic cartography" was developed. Since its development, antigenic cartography has been applied routinely to assist the WHO with influenza surveillance activities. Until recently, antigenic variation was not considered a serious issue with influenza vaccines for poultry. However, because of the diversification of the Asian H5N1 lineage since 1996 into multiple genetic clades and subclades, and because of the long-term use of poultry vaccines against H5 in some parts of the world, this issue needs to be re-addressed. The antigenic properties of panels of avian H5N1 viruses were characterized by HI assay, using mammalian or avian antisera, and analyzed using antigenic cartography methods. These analyses revealed antigenic differences between circulating H5N1 viruses and the H5 viruses used in poultry vaccines. Considerable antigenic variation was also observed within and between H5N1 clades. These observations have important implications for the efficacy and long-term use of poultry vaccines.

  17. RHAMM (CD168) Is Overexpressed at the Protein Level and May Constitute an Immunogenic Antigen in Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian M. Gust; Hofer, Matthias D; Sven R. Perner; Kim, Robert; Arul M. Chinnaiyan; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Moller, Peter; Rinnab, Ludwig; Rubin, Mark A; Greiner, Jochen; Schmitt, Michael; Kuefer, Rainer; Ringhoffer, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Localized prostate cancer (CaP) can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID), which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidat...

  18. Comparative study of CA242 and CA19-9 for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawa, S; Tokoo, M.; Hasebe, O.; Hayashi, K.; Imai, H; Oguchi, H.; Kiyosawa, K; Furuta, S; Homma, T

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of a new tumour marker, CA242, and CA19-9 was conducted with special reference to their diagnostic usefulness in pancreatic cancer. CA242 showed sensitivity similar to that of CA19-9 for overall cases and early cases (stage I tumour) of pancreatic cancer. For other malignancies, the positive rates of CA242 were lower than those of CA19-9 except for colorectal cancer. An important characteristics of CA242 was that it was only slightly and infrequently elevated in the sera o...

  19. Testing coral paleothermometers (B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca andδ18O) under impacts of large riverine runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tianran; YU Kefu; ZHAO Jianxin; YAN Hongqiang; SONG Yinxian; FENG Yuexing; CHEN Tegu

    2015-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) proxies including B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca andδ18O were analyzed in the skeleton of aPorites coral collected from the Zhujiang River (Pearl River) Estuary (ZRE). These geochemical proxies are influenced by river runoff and this area of the northern South China Sea is strongly affected by seasonal freshwater floods. We assessed the robustness of each SST proxy through comparison with the local instrumental SST. Coral Sr/Ca shows the highest correlation with SST variations (r2=0.59), suggesting Sr/Ca is the most robust SST proxy. In contrast, coralδ18O (r2=0.46), B/Ca (r2=0.43) and U/Ca (r2=0.41) ratios were only moderately correlated with SST variations, suggesting that they are disturbed by some other factors in addition to SST. The poor correlation (r2=0.27) between SST and Mg/Ca indicates that Mg/Ca in coral skeletons is not a simple function of SST variations. This may ultimately limit the use of Mg/Ca as a coral paleothermometer.

  20. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  1. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev;

    2011-01-01

    Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...... fusion at rest (clamping) and to promote fusion upon Ca(2+) activation. At least eight, often coexpressed, Ca(2+) sensors have been identified in mammals. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple Ca(2+) sensors interact, rather than work autonomously, to produce the complex secretory response...... observed in neurons and secretory cells. In this review, we present several working models to describe how different sensors might be arranged to mediate synchronous, asynchronous and spontaneous neurotransmitter release. We discuss the scenario that different Ca(2+) sensors typically act on one shared...

  2. Pneumocystis carinii from pigs and humans are antigenically distinct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Settnes, Osvald Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1996-01-01

    The antigens of Pneumocystis carinii cysts isolated from pigs and humans were compared by the Western immunoblotting technique. Convalescent pig serum reacted with two antigens (approximately 78 kDa and 32.5 kDa) of porcine P. carinii cysts, whereas convalescent serum from humans did not react wi...

  3. Protein antigen adsorption to the DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamborg, Mette; Jorgensen, Lene; Bojsen, Anders Riber;

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the nature of adjuvant-antigen interactions is important for the future design of efficient and safe subunit vaccines, but remains an analytical challenge. We studied the interactions between three model protein antigens and the clinically tested cationic liposomal adjuvant composed...

  4. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. A 2.5 ml sample of completed antigen shall be diluted with 2.5 ml of buffer solution formulated... with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution... tested against the antigens diluted 1:4 in buffer solution formulated in the same manner as the...

  5. Expression and immunoactivity of chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jie Yang; Ning-Shao Xia; Min Chen; Tong Cheng; Shui-Zhen He; Shao-Wei Li; Bao-Quan Guan; Zi-Heng Zhu; Ying Gu; Jun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To improve the immunogenicity of receptor binding site of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on preS1 antigen using HBV core antigen as an immuno-carrier.METHODS: One to 6 tandem copies of HBV preS1 (21-47)fragment were inserted into HBcAg at the sites of aa 78 and 82, and expressed in E. coli. ELISA, Western blot and animal immunization were used to analyze the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of purified particulate antigens. The ability to capture HBV by antibodies elicited by chimeric partides was detected with immuno-capture PCR.RESULTS: Recombinant antigens CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ carrying 1-3 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) individually could form viruslike particles (VLPs), similar to HBcAg in morphology. But recombinant antigens carrying 4-6 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) were poorly expressed in E.coli. Chimeric antigens were lacking of immunoreactivity with anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), but still reserved good immunoreactivity with anti-HBe McAbs. CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ could strongly react with anti-preS1 McAb, suggesting that preS1 (21-47) fragment was well exposed on the surface of chimeric VLPs. Three chimeric VLP antigens (CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ) could stimulate mice to produce high-level antibody responses, and their immunogenicity was stronger than non-particulate antigen 21-47*6, containing 6 copies of preS1 (21-47). Mouse antibodies to CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ were able to capture HBV virions in immuno-capture PCR assay in vitro.CONCLUSION: Chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of HBV can elicit strong antibody responses to preS1. They have a potential to be developed into prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection.

  6. CA153 in Breast Secretions as a Potential Molecular Marker for Diagnosing Breast Cancer: A Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Zhu, Shengbo; Yang, Renqi; Huang, Yiyong; Zhang, Hongyu; Xu, Hong; Yang, Jianqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many studies have reported that carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) in breast secretions (BS) can discriminate breast cancer (BC) patients from healthy individuals, indicating CA153 in BS as a potential index for BC. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the actual diagnostic value of CA153 in BS. Methods Related papers were obtained from Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Ovid, Sciverse, the Cochrane library, Chinese Biomedical literature Database (CBM), Technology of Chongqing (VIP), Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of CA153 in BS for BC diagnosis were analyzed with the random effect model. SROC and the area under the curve (AUC) were applied to assess overall diagnostic efficiency. Results This meta-analysis included five studies with a total of 329 BC patients and 381 healthy subjects. For CA153 in BS, the summary sensitivity, specificity, and DOR to diagnose BC were 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57∼0.68), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78∼0.86), and 9.18 (95% CI: 4.22∼19.95), respectively. Furthermore, the AUC of BS CA153 in the diagnosis of BC was 0.8614. Conclusions CA153 in BS is a valuable molecular marker in diagnosing BC and should be applied in standard clinical practices of BC screening upon confirmation of our findings in a larger prospective study. PMID:27636552

  7. A Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Secreting Adenocarcinoma Arising in Tailgut Cyst : Clinical Implications of Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lim, Beom Jin; Kang, Sang Ook; Sohn, Ju Hyuk; Roh, Jae Kyung; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Sung Ai; Park, Se Eun

    2005-01-01

    Tailgut cysts (TGCs) are rare congenital cysts that occur in the retrorectal or presacral spaces. Although most tailgut cysts have been reported as benign, there have been at least 9 cases associated with malignant change. We report herein on an unusual case of a 40-year-old woman with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing adenocarcinoma arising within a TGC who underwent surgical resection and local radiation therapy. Despite the complete resection, metastatic adenocarcinoma developed f...

  8. 好塩基球の反応性に関する研究 第2編 Ca. ionophore A23187刺激時の好塩基球の経時的形態的変化とヒスタミン遊離

    OpenAIRE

    中川, 三郎

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes in human basophils from 11 atopic asthmatics were observed in whole blood smears with respect to histamine release after the cells were challenged by Ca. ionophore A23187. A decreased number of basophils and granules in the cells as well as increase in cell diameters were observed upon histamine release after stimulation with Ca. ionophore A23187. Compared to cell reactions to antigen or anti-IgE, Ca. ionophore A23187 produced both more gradual morphological changes and ...

  9. [HLA and keloids: antigenic frequency and therapeutic response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Bozzi, M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty keloid subjects were typed for class 1 (HLA-A, B and C) and class 2 (HLA-DR and DQ) histocompatibility antigens. Their frequencies were compared to those found in control populations. Of all the antigens belonging to class 1, B 21 was more prevalent in patients. The findings regarding class 2 antigens were noteworthy: in keloid patients there was a significant prevalence of DR 5 (RR = 3.54 and 7.93 respectively for the two control groups) and DQw 3 (RR = 16.8). The patients typed for HLA-antigens were treated with corticosteroid infiltrations. The responses to the treatments were no related to the histocompatibility antigens. PMID:2628278

  10. Mosaic VSGs and the scale of Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P J Hall

    Full Text Available A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct 'mosaic' VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection.

  11. Methods for examination of antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To choose and establish the methods for examination of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin in order to offer the reference for evaluating the antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin against human. Methods: Antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin was examined for hypersensitivity, cell-mediated immunity reaction, humoral immunity reaction and cross-reaction of antigen. Results: The rabbit and guinea pig did not give rise to hypersensitivity. In immunized rabbits, the level of serum total IgG was normal, but the level of serum specific IgG was high. The examination of B lymphocytes showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with control. Cross-reaction of antigen proved that bovine hemoglobin had cross-reaction with human hemoglobin. Suggesting that they may be homologous, the level of the serum specific antibody is high in the immunized animal. According to the immunology theories, the polymerized hemoglobin has antigenicity. (authors)

  12. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky;

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential....... Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  13. Tumor Antigen-Derived Peptides Delivery for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenxue, Ma

    2014-02-05

    Tumor antigenic peptides therapeutics is a promising field for cancer immunotherapy. Benefits include the ease and rapid synthesis of antigenic peptides and capacity for modifications. In the past years, many peptide-based cancer vaccines have been tested in clinical trials with a limited success because of the difficulties associated with peptide stability and delivery approaches, consequently, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The development of suitable and efficient vaccine carrier systems still remains a major challenge. This article aims to describe a new delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides and rationales of dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccination. In order to elicit enhanced immune responses, poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the use of drug delivery, diagnostics and other applications of clinical and basic science research were employed for the formulation of making nanoparticles (NPs) while delivering tumor antigenic peptides.

  14. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Smith, Derek J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Paris, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation), in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera. Conclusions/Significance Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes. PMID:27248711

  15. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development.This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation, in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera.Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes.

  16. Cinacalcet inhibits neuroblastoma tumor growth and upregulates cancer-testis antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalà, Carla; Briansó, Ferran; Castrejón, Nerea; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Carcaboso, Angel M.; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; de Torres, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The calcium–sensing receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that exerts cell-type specific functions in numerous tissues and some cancers. We have previously reported that this receptor exhibits tumor suppressor properties in neuroblastoma. We have now assessed cinacalcet, an allosteric activator of the CaSR approved for clinical use, as targeted therapy for this developmental tumor using neuroblastoma cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) with different MYCN and TP53 status. In vitro, acute exposure to cinacalcet induced endoplasmic reticulum stress coupled to apoptosis via ATF4-CHOP-TRB3 in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells. Both phenotypes were partially abrogated by phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Prolonged in vitro treatment also promoted dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells and, irrespective of MYCN status, differentiation in surviving cells. Cinacalcet significantly inhibited tumor growth in MYCN-amplified xenografts and reduced that of MYCN-non amplified PDX. Morphology assessment showed fibrosis in MYCN-amplified xenografts exposed to the drug. Microarrays analyses revealed up-regulation of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) in cinacalcet-treated MYCN-amplified tumors. These were predominantly CTAs encoded by genes mapping on chromosome X, which are the most immunogenic. Other modulated genes upon prolonged exposure to cinacalcet were involved in differentiation, cell cycle exit, microenvironment remodeling and calcium signaling pathways. CTAs were up-regulated in PDX and in vitro models as well. Moreover, progressive increase of CaSR expression upon cinacalcet treatment was seen both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, cinacalcet reduces neuroblastoma tumor growth and up-regulates CTAs. This effect represents a therapeutic opportunity and provides surrogate circulating markers of neuroblastoma response to this treatment. PMID:26893368

  17. Measurements of natural 41Ca concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic mass spectroscopic examinations on 41Ca were carried out in the UNILAC accelerator. A sensitivity of about 10-15 was achieved. This would allow the measurement of present natural 41Ca concentrations as soon as the problem of the transmission determination is solved. In this respect suggestions were worked out and their feasibility discussed. The detection of 41Ca-ions is especially free of background when high UNILAC-energies are applied. An estimation showed a background level corresponding with a 41Ca concentration of less then 10-17 referred to 40Ca. Besides an independent concept for the electromagnetic concentration of 41Ca with variable concentration factors was developed. After being concentrated up to 50 respectively 25 times the initial concentration in the GSI mass separator, the 41Ca concentration of three recent deer bones found in the Odenwald was measured by atomic mass spectroscopy in the 14UD-Pelletron Tandem in Rehovot (Israel). The measured 41Ca concentrations ranged between 10-14 to 10-13 with consideration of the concentration factor. A theoretical study of the 41Ca production in the earth's surface based on cosmic radiation illustrates the influence of trace elements on the neutron flux and thus on the 41Ca production. This influence might be a possible explanation for the observed amplitude of variation of the 41Ca concentration in recent bones which are of decisive importance for the feasibility of 41Ca-related dating. In this work a method is suggested that does not depend on the amplitude of variation mentioned above and which would allow the determination of the erosion rate of rocks by its 41Ca concentrations. (orig./HP)

  18. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  19. Early decline in cancer antigen 125 as a surrogate for progression-free survival in recurrent ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chee K; Friedlander, Michael; Brown, Chris;

    2011-01-01

    [38.7%], P = .14) compared with CP patients. The PFS for CPLD patients did not change statistically significantly after adjustment for early decline (adjusted HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.94, P = .007). These findings are opposite to what would be expected if these markers were good surrogates......We used data from 886 patients from the CAELYX in Platinum Sensitive Ovarian Patients (CALYPSO) trial, recruited between April 2005 and September 2007, to examine the role of early decline in cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and early tumor response as prognostic factors and surrogates for superiority...... response as surrogates for CPLD treatment benefit compared with CP. All statistical tests were two-sided. Early decline (defined as rate of CA125 decrease of at least 50% per month) was associated with improved PFS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for progression = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 0...

  20. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G;

    1998-01-01

    We have screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis (TB) patients for proliferative reactivity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion against a panel of purified recombinant (r) and natural (n) culture filtrate (rESAT-6, nMPT59, nMPT64 and nMPB70) and somatic-derived (r....... tuberculosis, MT-CF and M. bovis BCG. We also observed that most of the high responders to complex antigens recognized all of the antigens tested (covariation), demonstrating that the repertoire of human T-cell specificities induced by natural infection is directed towards several unrelated culture filtrate...... as well as somatic-derived protein antigens. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that the cellular immune response in humans is directed against several important target antigens of M. tuberculosis and that some antigens, such as ESAT-6, are recognized by a high number of individuals...

  1. Recognition of antigen-specific B-cell receptors from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients by synthetic antigen surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-12-18

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe nonpeptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used to identify other classes of antigen surrogates.

  2. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SWINE LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN-6 GENE GENERATED FROM SPLEENTISSUE OF KOREAN NATIVE PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to search genetic variants, to investigate phylogenetic relationships between pig breeds and to provide basic genetic information of Korean Native Pigs (KNP using the variations of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen-6 (SLA-6 gene. Cloning of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA-6 gene in the MHC non-classical region was performed with spleen tissues of Korean Native Pigs (KNP. Sequencing analysis identified 10 genetic variants positioned at nucleotides 108 (T>C, 251 (G>A, 324 (C>A, 460 (T>C, 556 (T>C, 559 (A>G, 598 (G>A, 665 (T>C, 920 (G>A and 1,115 (G>A. The identified sequences were submitted into GenBank with accession numbers (DQ992502-10 and DQ976363 according to the specified locations of each SNP. Clustering analysis revealed that KNP was formed to a major group, showing close genetic relationships with SLA-6*0105, SLA-6*01w01 and SLA-6*w02sa01 alleles except DQ992503. KNP showed the low nucleotide diversity with significant differences of the ratio of ti/tv (transition/transversion compared with other breeds. The identified variants of the SLA-6 gene are useful information to differentiate phylogenetic relationships between KNP and other pig breeds. The unique results of the SLA-6 SNPs of KNP will serve as reference study for further analyses of gene fixations in evolution studies."

  3. Expression of an antigen homologous to the human CO17-1A/GA733 colon cancer antigen in animal tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloudik, J; Basak, S.; Nesbit, M.; Speicher, D W; Wunner, W H; Miller, E.; Ernst-Grotkowski, C.; Kennedy, R; Bergsagel, L. P.; Koido, T.; Herlyn, D

    1997-01-01

    The CO17-1A/GA733 antigen is associated with human carcinomas and some normal epithelial tissues. This antigen has shown promise as a target in approaches to passive and active immunotherapy of colorectal cancer. The relevance of animal models for studies of immunotherapy targeting this antigen in patients is dependent on the expression of the antigen on normal animal tissues. Immunohistoperoxidase staining with polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the human antigen revealed the human homologue on...

  4. Involvement of Ca2+/CaM in the signal transduction of acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It has been known that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exists in plants and is able to regulate the movement of stomata. In another aspect, Ca2+/CaM as the second messengers have a critical role of signal transduction in stomatal guard-cell. Here we showed that Ca2+/CaM were also involved in theACh regulated stomatal movement. In the medium containing Ca2+, the Ca2+ channel blockers (NIF and Ver) and CaM inhibitors (TFP and W7) could neutralize the ACh induced stomatal opening, however, they are ineffective in the medium containing K+. Those results indicated that Ca2+/CaM were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ACh regulating stomatal movement.

  5. Dissection of local Ca(2+) signals inside cytosol by ER-targeted Ca(2+) indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Fumihiro; Sakuragi, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Ayana; Takagi, Shin; Oda, Yoichi; Bannai, Hiroko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a versatile intracellular second messenger that operates in various signaling pathways leading to multiple biological outputs. The diversity of spatiotemporal patterns of Ca(2+) signals, generated by the coordination of Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space and Ca(2+) release from the intracellular Ca(2+) store the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is considered to underlie the diversity of biological outputs caused by a single signaling molecule. However, such Ca(2+) signaling diversity has not been well described because of technical limitations. Here, we describe a new method to report Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution. We report that OER-GCaMP6f, a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator (GECI) targeted to the outer ER membrane, can monitor Ca(2+) release from the ER at higher spatiotemporal resolution than conventional GCaMP6f. OER-GCaMP6f was used for in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of C. elegans. We also found that the spontaneous Ca(2+) elevation in cultured astrocytes reported by OER-GCaMP6f showed a distinct spatiotemporal pattern from that monitored by plasma membrane-targeted GCaMP6f (Lck-GCaMP6f); less frequent Ca(2+) signal was detected by OER-GCaMP6f, in spite of the fact that Ca(2+) release from the ER plays important roles in astrocytes. These findings suggest that targeting of GECIs to the ER outer membrane enables sensitive detection of Ca(2+) release from the ER at subcellular resolution, avoiding the diffusion of GECI and Ca(2+). Our results indicate that Ca(2+) imaging with OER-GCaMP6f in combination with Lck-GCaMP6f can contribute to describing the diversity of Ca(2+) signals, by enabling dissection of Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution.

  6. Antigenic variation with a twist--the Borrelia story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Steven J

    2006-06-01

    A common mechanism of immune evasion in pathogenic bacteria and protozoa is antigenic variation, in which genetic or epigenetic changes result in rapid, sequential shifts in a surface-exposed antigen. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Dai et al. provide the most complete description to date of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing fever spirochaete, Borrelia hermsii. This elaborate, plasmid-encoded system involves an expression site that can acquire either variable large protein (vlp) or variable small protein (vsp) surface lipoprotein genes from 59 different archival copies. The archival vlp and vsp genes are arranged in clusters on at least five different plasmids. Gene conversion occurs through recombination events at upstream homology sequences (UHS) found in each gene copy, and at downstream homology sequences (DHS) found periodically among the vlp/vsp archival genes. Previous studies have shown that antigenic variation in relapsing fever Borrelia not only permits the evasion of host antibody responses, but can also result in changes in neurotropism and other pathogenic properties. The vlsE antigenic variation locus of Lyme disease spirochaetes, although similar in sequence to the relapsing fever vlp genes, has evolved a completely different antigenic variation mechanism involving segmental recombination from a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes. These two systems thus appear to represent divergence from a common precursor followed by functional convergence to create two distinct antigenic variation processes. PMID:16796669

  7. A 2-Step Laemmli and Antigen Retrieval Method Improves Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Carla R; Gendusa, Rossella; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Detection by immunohistochemistry of antigens relies on reproducibly optimal preanalytical and analytical variables such as fixation conditions, antigen retrieval (AR), and the resolutive power of the detection system. There is a need to improve immunodetection on routinely fixed and embedded material, particularly for scarcely represented but relevant antigens. We devised a 2-step method and applied it to a panel of antigens of common use for diagnosis, prognosis, individualized therapy use, or research. The first step consists of a 10 minutes. Incubation at 95°C with a modified Laemmli extraction buffer. This was followed by a traditional AR method. Detection of the vast majority of antigens was improved over a simple AR with preservation of tissue integrity, as shown by quantitative image analysis. The mechanism underlying the improved detection may be controlled denaturation followed by heat-mediated retrieval, a method we dubbed "antigen relaxing" and which will improve routine detection of scarce antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. PMID:26067142

  8. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  9. Soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens contain carbohydrate moieties important for immune reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Jensen, J B;

    1987-01-01

    The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from ....... The results might have important implications for the strategy of developing a malaria vaccine.......The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from...

  10. Microglial MHC antigen expression after ischemic and kainic acid lesions of the adult rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, B.R.; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Diemer, Nils Henrik;

    1993-01-01

    Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology......Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology...

  11. Glutamate excitotoxicity and Ca(2+)-regulation of respiration: Role of the Ca(2+) activated mitochondrial transporters (CaMCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Carlos B; Llorente-Folch, Irene; Traba, Javier; Amigo, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Paloma; Contreras, Laura; Juaristi, Inés; Martinez-Valero, Paula; Pardo, Beatriz; Del Arco, Araceli; Satrustegui, Jorgina

    2016-08-01

    Glutamate elicits Ca(2+) signals and workloads that regulate neuronal fate both in physiological and pathological circumstances. Oxidative phosphorylation is required in order to respond to the metabolic challenge caused by glutamate. In response to physiological glutamate signals, cytosolic Ca(2+) activates respiration by stimulation of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle through Ca(2+)-binding to the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12), and by stimulation of adenine nucleotide uptake through Ca(2+) binding to the mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier (SCaMC-3/Slc25a23). In addition, after Ca(2+) entry into the matrix through the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), it activates mitochondrial dehydrogenases. In response to pathological glutamate stimulation during excitotoxicity, Ca(2+) overload, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and delayed Ca(2+) deregulation (DCD) lead to neuronal death. Glutamate-induced respiratory stimulation is rapidly inactivated through a mechanism involving Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation, consumption of cytosolic NAD(+), a decrease in matrix ATP and restricted substrate supply. Glutamate-induced Ca(2+)-activation of SCaMC-3 imports adenine nucleotides into mitochondria, counteracting the depletion of matrix ATP and the impaired respiration, while Aralar-dependent lactate metabolism prevents substrate exhaustion. A second mechanism induced by excitotoxic glutamate is permeability transition pore (PTP) opening, which critically depends on ROS production and matrix Ca(2+) entry through the MCU. By increasing matrix content of adenine nucleotides, SCaMC-3 activity protects against glutamate-induced PTP opening and lowers matrix free Ca(2+), resulting in protracted appearance of DCD and protection against excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, while the lack of lactate protection during in vivo excitotoxicity explains increased vulnerability to kainite-induced toxicity in Aralar

  12. Glutamate excitotoxicity and Ca2+-regulation of respiration: Role of the Ca2+ activated mitochondrial transporters (CaMCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Carlos B; Llorente-Folch, Irene; Traba, Javier; Amigo, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Paloma; Contreras, Laura; Juaristi, Inés; Martinez-Valero, Paula; Pardo, Beatriz; Del Arco, Araceli; Satrustegui, Jorgina

    2016-08-01

    Glutamate elicits Ca(2+) signals and workloads that regulate neuronal fate both in physiological and pathological circumstances. Oxidative phosphorylation is required in order to respond to the metabolic challenge caused by glutamate. In response to physiological glutamate signals, cytosolic Ca(2+) activates respiration by stimulation of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle through Ca(2+)-binding to the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12), and by stimulation of adenine nucleotide uptake through Ca(2+) binding to the mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier (SCaMC-3/Slc25a23). In addition, after Ca(2+) entry into the matrix through the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), it activates mitochondrial dehydrogenases. In response to pathological glutamate stimulation during excitotoxicity, Ca(2+) overload, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and delayed Ca(2+) deregulation (DCD) lead to neuronal death. Glutamate-induced respiratory stimulation is rapidly inactivated through a mechanism involving Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation, consumption of cytosolic NAD(+), a decrease in matrix ATP and restricted substrate supply. Glutamate-induced Ca(2+)-activation of SCaMC-3 imports adenine nucleotides into mitochondria, counteracting the depletion of matrix ATP and the impaired respiration, while Aralar-dependent lactate metabolism prevents substrate exhaustion. A second mechanism induced by excitotoxic glutamate is permeability transition pore (PTP) opening, which critically depends on ROS production and matrix Ca(2+) entry through the MCU. By increasing matrix content of adenine nucleotides, SCaMC-3 activity protects against glutamate-induced PTP opening and lowers matrix free Ca(2+), resulting in protracted appearance of DCD and protection against excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, while the lack of lactate protection during in vivo excitotoxicity explains increased vulnerability to kainite-induced toxicity in Aralar

  13. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  14. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in neutrophil fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Ohayon, Delphine

    2016-09-01

    The life span of a neutrophil is a tightly regulated process as extended survival is beneficial for pathogen elimination and cell death necessary to prevent cytotoxic content release from activated neutrophils at the inflammatory site. Therefore, the control between survival and death must be a dynamic process. We have previously described that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which is known as a nuclear protein pivotal in DNA synthesis, is a key element in controlling neutrophil survival through its association with procaspases. Contrary to the dogma which asserted that PCNA has a strictly nuclear function, in mature neutrophils, PCNA is present exclusively within the cytosol due to its nuclear export at the end of the granulocytic differentiation. More recent studies are consistent with the notion that the cytosolic scaffold of PCNA is aimed at modulating neutrophil fate rather than simply preventing death. Ultimately, targeting neutrophil survival might have important applications not just in the field of immunology and inflammation, but also in hematology and transfusion. The neutrophil emerges as a unique and powerful cellular model to unravel the basic mechanisms governing the cell cycle-independent functions of PCNA and should be considered as a leader of the pack. PMID:27558345

  15. EMRE Is a Matrix Ca2+ Sensor that Governs Gatekeeping of the Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Vais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial uniporter (MCU is an ion channel that mediates Ca2+ uptake into the matrix to regulate metabolism, cell death, and cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling. Matrix Ca2+ concentration is similar to that in cytoplasm, despite an enormous driving force for entry, but the mechanisms that prevent mitochondrial Ca2+ overload are unclear. Here, we show that MCU channel activity is governed by matrix Ca2+ concentration through EMRE. Deletion or charge neutralization of its matrix-localized acidic C terminus abolishes matrix Ca2+ inhibition of MCU Ca2+ currents, resulting in MCU channel activation, enhanced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, and constitutively elevated matrix Ca2+ concentration. EMRE-dependent regulation of MCU channel activity requires intermembrane space-localized MICU1, MICU2, and cytoplasmic Ca2+. Thus, mitochondria are protected from Ca2+ depletion and Ca2+ overload by a unique molecular complex that involves Ca2+ sensors on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane, coupled through EMRE.

  16. The Detection Value Analysis of Tumor Markers CEA,CA125 in Cervical Cancer%肿瘤标记物CEA、CA125在宫颈癌中的检测价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴伟萍

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨肿瘤标记物 CEA、CA125在宫颈癌中的检测的临床价值.方法:选取笔者所在医院2011年1月-2012年8月经临床确诊的100例宫颈癌患者(宫颈癌组)及40例进行健康体检的妇女(对照组)为研究对象,测定两组的血清肿瘤标记物癌胚抗原(CEA)、糖抗原(CA125).结果:宫颈癌组的血清 CEA、CA125含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05).在宫颈癌组中,随着临床分期的增加 CEA、CA125的阳性率逐渐增加,Ⅲ、Ⅳ期较Ⅰ、Ⅱ期显著增加(P<0.05).结论:肿瘤标记物 CEA、CA125在宫颈癌中有较高的诊断价值,可辅助判断宫颈癌的临床分期.%Objective:To investigate the clinical value of tumor markers CEA,CA125 detection in cervical cancer and the significance.Methods:100 cases of cervical cancer (the cervical cancer group )that was clinical diagnosis from January 2011 to August 2012 in author’s hospital and 40 cases of healthy women (the control group) were chosen as the research object,two groups were measured in serum tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),carbohydrate antigens (CA125).Results:Serum CEA,CA125 in the cervical cancer group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).In the cervical cancer group, CEA,CA125 positive rate increased gradually along with the clinical stagin,stage Ⅲ,Ⅳ were significantly than istage Ⅰ,Ⅱ (P<0.05).Conclusion:There is a high diagnostic value of the tumor markers CEA,CA125 in cervical carcinoma;they can help judge clinical cervical cancer staging.

  17. An Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Serum Based on Antibody Labeled Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Capture Probes and Graphene/CdTe Quantum Dot Bionanoconjugates as Signal Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ning; Zhou, Jing; Xiong, Ping; Li, Tianhua; Jiang, Shan; Cao, Yuting; Jiang, Qianli

    2013-01-01

    The CdTe quantum dots (QDs), graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G) and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O4) for enriching CA 19-9 were synthesized by immobilizing the CA 19-9’s first antibody (CA 19-9 Ab1) on magnetic nanoparticles (dextran-Fe3O4). Secondly, the signal probes (CA 19-9 Ab2/CdTe-G), which can emit an ECL signal, were formed by attaching the secondary CA 19-9 antibody (CA 19-9 Ab2) to the surface of the CdTe-G. Thirdly, the above two probes were used for conjugating with a serial of CA 19-9 concentrations. Graphene can immobilize dozens of CdTe QDs on their surface, which can emit stronger ECL intensity than CdTe QDs. Based on the amplified signal, ultrasensitive antigen detection can be realized. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL signal depended linearly on the logarithm of CA 19-9 concentration from 0.005 to 100 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 0.002 pg/mL. Finally, five samples of human serum were tested, and the results were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence assay (TRFA). The novel immunoassay provides a stable, specific and highly sensitive immunoassay protocol for tumor marker detection at very low levels, which can be applied in early diagnosis of tumor. PMID:23685872

  18. An Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Serum Based on Antibody Labeled Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Capture Probes and Graphene/CdTe Quantum Dot Bionanoconjugates as Signal Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The CdTe quantum dots (QDs, graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O4 for enriching CA 19-9 were synthesized by immobilizing the CA 19-9’s first antibody (CA 19-9 Ab1 on magnetic nanoparticles (dextran-Fe3O4. Secondly, the signal probes (CA 19-9 Ab2/CdTe-G, which can emit an ECL signal, were formed by attaching the secondary CA 19-9 antibody (CA 19-9 Ab2 to the surface of the CdTe-G. Thirdly, the above two probes were used for conjugating with a serial of CA 19-9 concentrations. Graphene can immobilize dozens of CdTe QDs on their surface, which can emit stronger ECL intensity than CdTe QDs. Based on the amplified signal, ultrasensitive antigen detection can be realized. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL signal depended linearly on the logarithm of CA 19-9 concentration from 0.005 to 100 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 0.002 pg/mL. Finally, five samples of human serum were tested, and the results were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence assay (TRFA. The novel immunoassay provides a stable, specific and highly sensitive immunoassay protocol for tumor marker detection at very low levels, which can be applied in early diagnosis of tumor.

  19. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  20. Radiolabelled parasite antigens as tools for diagnosis and identification of protective antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelling specific compartments and molecules of parasites provides a valuable tool for establishing parasite antigen-host response systems with utility and/or importance in protection, diagnosis and pathology. The combined immunological, biochemical and molecular biological expertise currently available forms a sufficient basis for a relatively logical and effective programme directed towards the ultimate eradication of tropical diseases. The organization of carefully selected and clinically well characterized sera and patients, representing the range of commonly occurring parasitic infections, would be of great practical value in the pursuance of this goal. (author)

  1. Tresyl-Based Conjugation of Protein Antigen to Lipid Nanoparticles Increases Antigen Immunogencity

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anekant; Yan, Weili; Keith R Miller; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G.; Russell J Mumper

    2010-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the engineering of NPs with protein-conjugated-surfactant at their surface. In order to increase the immunogenicity of a protein antigen, Brij 78 was functionalized by tresyl chloride and then further reacted with the primary amine of the model proteins ovalbumin (OVA) or horseradish peroxide (HRP). The reaction yielded Brij 78-OVA and Brij 78-HRP conjugates which were then used directly to form NP-OVA or NP-HRP using a one-step warm oil-in-wate...

  2. An ultra-sensitive impedimetric immunosensor for detection of the serum oncomarker CA-125 in ovarian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari-Ahar, M.; Rashidi, M. R.; Barar, J.; Aghaie, M.; Mohammadnejad, D.; Ramazani, A.; Karami, P.; Coukos, G.; Omidi, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Effective treatment of ovarian cancer depends upon the early detection of the malignancy. Here, we report on the development of a new nanostructured immunosensor for early detection of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). A gold electrode was modified with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), and then consecutively conjugated with silica coated gold nanoparticles (AuNP@SiO2), CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and anti-CA-125 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The engineered MPA|AuNP@SiO2|QD|mAb immunosensor was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Successive conjugation of AuNP@SiO2, CdSe QD and anti-CA-125 mAb onto the gold electrode resulted in sensitive detection of CA-125 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0016 U mL-1 and a linear detection range (LDR) of 0-0.1 U mL-1. Based on the high sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor, we propose this highly stable and reproducible biosensor for the early detection of CA-125.Effective treatment of ovarian cancer depends upon the early detection of the malignancy. Here, we report on the development of a new nanostructured immunosensor for early detection of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). A gold electrode was modified with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), and then consecutively conjugated with silica coated gold nanoparticles (AuNP@SiO2), CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and anti-CA-125 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The engineered MPA|AuNP@SiO2|QD|mAb immunosensor was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Successive conjugation of AuNP@SiO2, CdSe QD and anti-CA-125 mAb onto the gold electrode resulted in sensitive detection of CA-125 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0016 U mL-1 and a linear detection range (LDR) of 0-0.1 U mL-1. Based on the high sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor, we propose

  3. Structures of Ca(V) Ca**2+/CaM-IQ Domain Complexes Reveal Binding Modes That Underlie Calcium-Dependent Inactivation And Facilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.Y.; Rumpf, C.H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Cooley, E.S.; Petegem, F.Van; Minor, D.L., Jr.

    2009-05-20

    Calcium influx drives two opposing voltage-activated calcium channel (Ca{sub V}) self-modulatory processes: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Specific Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin (Ca{sup 2+}/CaM) lobes produce CDI and CDF through interactions with the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 1} subunit IQ domain. Curiously, Ca{sup 2+}/CaM lobe modulation polarity appears inverted between Ca{sub V}1s and Ca{sub V}2s. Here, we present crystal structures of Ca{sub V}2.1, Ca{sub V}2.2, and Ca{sub V}2.3 Ca{sup 2+}/CaM-IQ domain complexes. All display binding orientations opposite to Ca{sub V}1.2 with a physical reversal of the CaM lobe positions relative to the IQ {alpha}-helix. Titration calorimetry reveals lobe competition for a high-affinity site common to Ca{sub V}1 and Ca{sub V}2 IQ domains that is occupied by the CDI lobe in the structures. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that the N-terminal Ca{sub V}2 Ca{sup 2+}/C-lobe anchors affect CDF. Together, the data unveil the remarkable structural plasticity at the heart of Ca{sub V} feedback modulation and indicate that Ca{sub V}1 and Ca{sub V}2 IQ domains bear a dedicated CDF site that exchanges Ca{sup 2+}/CaM lobe occupants.

  4. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Fossil Point at longitude...

  5. 46 CFR 7.125 - Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. 7.125 Section 7.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.125 Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. (a) A line drawn from Redondo Beach East Jetty Light “2” to...

  6. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 and Ca@C94

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuliang Che; Hua Yang; Hongxiao Jin; Chunxin Lu; Ziyang Liu

    2009-05-01

    We report for the first time isolation of Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 by multi-stage highperformance liquid chromatography technique without recycling equipment. It is notable that higher metallofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 are also confirmed by LD-TOF mass spectrometry and characterrized by UV-Vis-NIR absorption measurements.

  7. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  8. The Synthesis of a Novel Phosphorus Containing Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Antigen 12, containing a phosphonyl peptide hapten with free C-terminal carboxylic group, was synthesized by 11 reaction steps. The design of the hapten was based on the transition state of peptide hydrolysis catalyzed by carboxypeptidase A.

  9. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    which represent secondary gene products. They are synthesized in a stepwise fashion from a precursor by the action of different glycosyltransferases. In non-keratinized oral mucosa, a sequential elongation of the carbohydrates is associated with differentiation of epithelial cells, resulting...... in expression of precursors on basal cells and A/B antigens on spinous cells. Reduction or complete deletion of A/B antigen expression in oral carcinomas has been reported, a phenotypic change that is correlated with invasive and metastatic potential of the tumours and with the mortality rates of the patients....... Disappearance of the antigens is ascribed to the absence of A or B transferase gene expression. Several studies have shown that loss of A and B antigen expression is associated with increased cell motility, invasion in matrigel, and tumourigenecity in syngenic animals. In vivo studies of human oral wound...

  10. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  11. Control of T cell antigen reactivity via programmed TCR downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Alena M; Xiong, Huizhong; Leiner, Ingrid M; Sušac, Bože; Glickman, Michael S; Pamer, Eric G; van Heijst, Jeroen W J

    2016-04-01

    The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is unique in that its affinity for ligand is unknown before encounter and can vary by orders of magnitude. How the immune system regulates individual T cells that display very different reactivity to antigen remains unclear. Here we found that activated CD4(+) T cells, at the peak of clonal expansion, persistently downregulated their TCR expression in proportion to the strength of the initial antigen recognition. This programmed response increased the threshold for cytokine production and recall proliferation in a clone-specific manner and ultimately excluded clones with the highest antigen reactivity. Thus, programmed downregulation of TCR expression represents a negative feedback mechanism for constraining T cell effector function with a suitable time delay to thereby allow pathogen control while avoiding excess inflammatory damage. PMID:26901151

  12. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit Alok; Srinivas C R; Balachandran C; Shenoi S D

    1995-01-01

    Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  13. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Alok

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  14. The Antigen Presenting Cells Instruct Plasma Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eXu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs, including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but nonspecific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells, which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only signal 1 (the antigen, but also signal 2 to directly instruct the differentiation process of plasma cells in a T cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  15. Use of Recombinant Antigens for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is a frequent and often fatal complication in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and a definitive diagnostic method. The detection of antibodies against different Candida antigens may help in the diagnosis. However, the methods traditionally used for the detection of antibodies have been based on crude antigenic fungal extracts, which usually show low-reproducibility and cross-reactivity problems. The development of molecular biology techniques has allowed the production of recombinant antigens which may help to solve these problems. In this review we will discuss the usefulness of recombinant antigens in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in female genital tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty cases of female genital tract infection were investigated for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay. Rabbit antiserum to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide was used in a card test. Anti rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to alkaline phosphatase with a chromogenic substrate 5 bromo-4 chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium were used for the enzymatic reaction. Chlamydial antigen could be detected in four out of thirty samples (13.3%. In contrast direct immunofluorescence detected 5 cases (16.6%. Although less sensitive, enzyme immunoassay can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in genital infections.

  17. Instability of induction cooker (electromagnetic stove) antigen retrieval in immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Zheng, Xiang-Yi

    2012-03-01

    An induction cooker is a modern electric cooker that takes electromagnetic induction principle to heat. As it has high efficiency, no open flame, and is safe and convenient, more and more laboratories use it as an antigen retrieval heating tool in immunohistochemistry. We found that there was still some instability with the induction cooker, because with certain antigens the power change influenced the results of immunohistochemistry staining, showing weaker staining intensity or decreased number of positive cells, but which were not entirely negative. For some antigens, it had no influence on results. The instability of this heating tool for antigen retrieval was caused partly by negligent operators, and which may influence the experimental results and the pathologic diagnosis.

  18. LATS refining ladle slag modifying with CaO-CaF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongming Wang; Guirong Li; Zhongming Ren; Bo Li; Xuejun Zhang; Guomin Shi

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the slag sticking onto the snorkel of the ladle during the ladle alloying treatment station (LATS) process, CaO-CaF2 (the mass ratio of CaO/CaF2 is 1:1) was employed as the modifier of the LATS refining ladle slag. The effect of CaO-CaF2 on the melting point, viscosity, and desulfurizing capability of the ladle slag was investigated. The melting point of the unmodified ladle slag is 1439°C. When adding 20wt% CaO-CaF2, the melting point is decreased to 1327°C. At 1500°C, the viscosity of the unmodified ladle slag is 6.5 Pa·s, which can be decreased lower than 2 Pa·s by adding more than 10wt% CaO-CaF2. The experimental results of desulfurization of the melts show that the desulfurizing power of the ladle slag can be enhanced by adding CaO-CaF2.

  19. By Regulating Mitochondrial Ca2+-Uptake UCP2 Modulates Intracellular Ca2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Jaroslaw Motloch

    Full Text Available The possible role of UCP2 in modulating mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake (mCa2+-uptake via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU is highly controversial.Thus, we analyzed mCa2+-uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria, MCU single-channel activity in cardiac mitoplasts, dual Ca2+-transients from mitochondrial ((Ca2+m and intracellular compartment ((Ca2+c in the whole-cell configuration in cardiomyocytes of wild-type (WT and UCP2-/- mice.Isolated mitochondria showed a Ru360 sensitive mCa2+-uptake, which was significantly decreased in UCP2-/- (229.4±30.8 FU vs. 146.3±23.4 FU, P0.05 and transsarcolemmal Ca2+-influx was inhibited suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Additionally, we observed an inhibitory effect of ATP on mCa2+-uptake in WT mitoplasts and (Ca2+m of cardiomyocytes leading to an increase of (Ca2+c while no ATP dependent effect was observed in UCP2-/-.Our results indicate regulatory effects of UCP2 on mCa2+-uptake. Furthermore, we propose, that previously described inhibitory effects on MCU by ATP may be mediated via UCP2 resulting in changes of excitation contraction coupling.

  20. Antigenic Challenge in the Etiology of Autoimmune Disease in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A M Rogers; Levine, Deborah A.; Blumberg, Neil; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Kabeto, Mohammed; Kenneth M. Langa

    2011-01-01

    Infection has long been implicated as a trigger for autoimmune disease. Other antigenic challenges include receipt of allogeneic tissue or blood resulting in immunomodulation. We investigated antigenic challenges as possible risk factors for autoimmune disease in women using the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal study, linked to Medicare files, years 1991–2007. The prevalence of autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, Graves’ disease,...

  1. Immunogenicity of transgenic plant-derived hepatitis B surface antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Thanavala, Y; Yang, Y. F.; Lyons, P; Mason, H S; Arntzen, C

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the Children's Vaccine Initiative is to encourage the discovery of technology that will make vaccines more readily available to developing countries. Our strategy has been to genetically engineer plants so that they can be used as inexpensive alternatives to fermentation systems for production of subunit antigens. In this paper we report on the immunological response elicited in vivo by using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) purified from transgenic tobacco leaves...

  2. Typing of murine cell-surface antigens by cellular radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labelled Protein A was used for detecting antigen-antibody complexes on gultaraldehyde fixed cells attached to microtiter plates. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for revealing H-2 private and public specificities as well as Ia and Lyt antigens. As plates may be kept for months, several reactivities can be tested in one step on a large panel rendering a regular supply of animals unnecessary. (Auth.)

  3. Modeling Influenza Antigenic Shift and Drift with LEGO Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of antigenic shift and drift could be found in almost every microbiology and virology syllabus, usually taught in the context of Influenza virus biology. They are central to understanding viral diversity and evolution and have direct application to anti-flu vaccine design and effectiveness. To aid student understanding of the concepts, I have developed an exercise to visualize the mechanistic aspects of antigenic shift and drift using LEGO bricks. This hands-on/minds-on exercise ...

  4. Antibody avidity in swine lymphocyte antigen-defined miniature pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, G D; Mallard, B A; Kennedy, B. W.; Wilkie, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    Antibody avidity to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was measured by thiocyanate ion elution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in swine lymphocyte antigen (SLA) defined miniature pigs. Serum antibody avidity was evaluated on day 14 and 30 after primary (day 0) and secondary (day 14) immunizations in eight to ten week old miniature pigs previously typed for swine lymphocyte antigen genotype. The effect of SLA genotype, litter, and gender on anti-HEWL antibody avidity was determined by lea...

  5. Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Łukasik; Kazimiera Waśniowska

    2016-01-01

    Duffy (Fy) blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1) and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fya and Fyb, encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B ...

  6. Antigen-specific immune reactions to ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier eUrra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain proteins are detected in the CSF and blood of stroke patients and their concentration is related to the extent of brain damage. Antibodies against brain antigens develop after stroke, suggesting a humoral immune response to the brain injury. Furthermore, induced immune tolerance is beneficial in animal models of cerebral ischemia. The presence of circulating T cells sensitized against brain antigens, and antigen presenting cells (APCs carrying brain antigens in draining lymphoid tissue of stroke patients support the notion that stroke might induce antigen-specific immune responses. After stroke, brain proteins that are normally hidden from the periphery, inflammatory mediators, and danger signals can exit the brain through several efflux routes. They can reach the blood after leaking out of the damaged blood-brain barrier or following the drainage of interstitial fluid to the dural venous sinus, or reach the cervical lymph nodes through the nasal lymphatics following CSF drainage along the arachnoid sheaths of nerves across the nasal submucosa. The route and mode of access of brain antigens to lymphoid tissue could influence the type of response. Central and peripheral tolerance prevents autoimmunity, but the actual mechanisms of tolerance to brain antigens released into the periphery in the presence of inflammation, danger signals, and APCs, are not fully characterized. Stroke does not systematically trigger autoimmunity, but under certain circumstances, such as pronounced systemic inflammation or infection, autoreactive T cells could escape the tolerance controls. Further investigation is needed to elucidate whether antigen-specific immune events could underlie neurological complications impairing stroke outcome.

  7. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-3

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda R Bitencourt; Elaine C Vicentin; Jimenez, Maria C.; Ricardo Ricci; Leite, Juliana A.; Fabio T Costa; Luis C Ferreira; Bruce Russell; François Nosten; Laurent Rénia; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

    2013-01-01

    A recent clinical trial in African children demonstrated the potential utility of merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3 as a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study evaluated the use of Plasmodium vivax MSP-3 (PvMSP-3) as a target antigen in vaccine formulations against malaria caused by P. vivax. Recombinant proteins representing MSP-3α and MSP-3β of P. vivax were expressed as soluble histidine-tagged bacterial fusions. Antigenicity during natural infection was evaluated...

  8. Partial purification of protective antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    The purification of antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, through their ability to provoke cellular proliferation of immune cells and through their recognition by antibodies, led to an antigenic preparation which was extracted from adult worms and which contained only two proteins (MW 14 and 43 Kd). Mice which were vaccinated by the oral route after the entrapment of these two proteins in liposomes were strongly protected.

  9. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi as an effective cancer antigen delivery vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Caroline; Santos, Luara I; Galvão-Filho, Bruno; Teixeira, Santuza M; Rodrigues, Flávia G; DaRocha, Wanderson D; Chiari, Egler; Jungbluth, Achim A; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Old, Lloyd J; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2011-12-01

    One of the main challenges in cancer research is the development of vaccines that induce effective and long-lived protective immunity against tumors. Significant progress has been made in identifying members of the cancer testis antigen family as potential vaccine candidates. However, an ideal form for antigen delivery that induces robust and sustainable antigen-specific T-cell responses, and in particular of CD8(+) T lymphocytes, remains to be developed. Here we report the use of a recombinant nonpathogenic clone of Trypanosoma cruzi as a vaccine vector to induce vigorous and long-term T cell-mediated immunity. The rationale for using the highly attenuated T. cruzi clone was (i) the ability of the parasite to persist in host tissues and therefore to induce a long-term antigen-specific immune response; (ii) the existence of intrinsic parasite agonists for Toll-like receptors and consequent induction of highly polarized T helper cell type 1 responses; and (iii) the parasite replication in the host cell cytoplasm, leading to direct antigen presentation through the endogenous pathway and consequent induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, we found that parasites expressing a cancer testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) were able to elicit human antigen-specific T-cell responses in vitro and solid protection against melanoma in a mouse model. Furthermore, in a therapeutic protocol, the parasites expressing NY-ESO-1 delayed the rate of tumor development in mice. We conclude that the T. cruzi vector is highly efficient in inducing T cell-mediated immunity and protection against cancer cells. More broadly, this strategy could be used to elicit a long-term T cell-mediated immunity and used for prophylaxis or therapy of chronic infectious diseases.

  11. Antigenic distinctiveness, heterogeneity, and relationships of Methanothrix spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E

    1987-01-01

    A detailed immunologic analysis of Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon (the type species of the genus), Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1, and Methanothrix concilii GP6 was performed. A variety of poly- and monoclonal antibody probes for a comprehensive panel of reference organisms were used to determine immunogenicity, antigenicity, and relationships. The three organisms are antigenically distinct but interrelated, forming an immunologically cohesive group, weakly related to methanosarcinae. A prom...

  12. Fibroblasts as Efficient Antigen-Presenting Cells in Lymphoid Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundig, Thomas M.; Bachmann, Martin F.; Dipaolo, Claudio; Simard, John J. L.; Battegay, Manuel; Lother, Heinz; Gessner, Andre; Kuhlcke, Klaus; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1995-06-01

    Only so-called "professional" antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of hematopoietic origin are believed capable of inducing T lymphocyte responses. However, fibroblasts transfected with viral proteins directly induced antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo, without involvement of host APCs. Fibroblasts induced T cells only in the milieu of lymphoid organs. Thus, antigen localization affects self-nonself discrimination and cell-based vaccine strategies.

  13. Duality of β-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kim Baert,1 Bruno G De Geest,2 Henri De Greve,3,4 Eric Cox,1,* Bert Devriendt1,* 1Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Ghent, Belgium; 3Structural Biology Research Centre, VIB, Brussels, Belgium; 4Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Designing efficient recombinant mucosal vaccines against enteric diseases is still a major challenge. Mucosal delivery of recombinant vaccines requires encapsulation in potent immunostimulatory particles to induce an efficient immune response. This paper evaluates the capacity of β-glucan microparticles (GPs as antigen vehicles and characterizes their immune-stimulatory effects. The relevant infectious antigen FedF was chosen to be loaded inside the microparticles. The incorporation of FedF inside the particles was highly efficient (roughly 85% and occurred without antigen degradation. In addition, these GPs have immunostimulatory effects as well, demonstrated by the strong reactive oxygen species (ROS production by porcine neutrophils upon their recognition. Although antigen-loaded GPs still induce ROS production, antigen loading decreases this production by neutrophils for reasons yet unknown. However, these antigen-loaded GPs are still able to bind their specific β-glucan receptor, demonstrated by blocking complement receptor 3, which is the major β-glucan receptor on porcine neutrophils. The dual character of these particles is confirmed by a T-cell proliferation assay. FedF-loaded particles induce a significantly higher FedF-specific T-cell proliferation than soluble FedF. Taken together, these results show that GPs are efficient antigen carriers with immune-stimulatory properties. Keywords: β-glucan microparticles, FedF, antigen delivery vehicle, immunostimulants

  14. Nonprostatic sources of prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, E P; Yu, H

    1997-05-01

    The name prostate-specific antigen has been given to a protein that now is known not to be prostate-specific; however, prostatic tissue does produces extremely high levels of PSA and secrets it into the seminal plasma. Seminal plasma contains about 1 million micrograms/L of PSA and is the richest source of PSA reported. The biologic fluid with the second highest PSA concentration, however, is nipple aspirate fluid from the female breast (up to about 5000 micrograms/L), and the third is milk from lactating women (up to 300 micrograms/L). Male serum PSA is usually less than 4 micrograms/L. In nonprostatic tissues, PSA exists mainly in its free molecular form, but PSA-ACT complex is also present in most of the fluids that contain PSA, such as breast secretions and amniotic fluid. The gene expression and protein production of PSA in nonprostatic tissues are under the regulation of steroid hormones via their receptors. Androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestins up-regulate the PSA gene expression, resulting in an increase of protein production. Estrogen by itself seems to have no effect on PSA regulation, but it can impair PSA production induced by androgen. It remains unknown whether PSA is enzymatically active and what is the physiologic role of PSA in nonprostatic tissues. It is speculated that PSA may be involved in the regulation of growth factors. Measuring PSA in breast cancer cytosol, breast-nipple aspirate fluid, and female serum may have potential clinical utilities, including breast cancer prognosis, breast cancer risk assessment, and evaluation of androgen excess. Further studies are needed to identify the exact function and regulation of PSA in nonprostatic tissues and to explore the clinical application of this protein. PMID:9126224

  15. Melanocyte antigen triggers autoimmunity in human psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Akiko; Siewert, Katherina; Stöhr, Julia; Besgen, Petra; Kim, Song-Min; Rühl, Geraldine; Nickel, Jens; Vollmer, Sigrid; Thomas, Peter; Krebs, Stefan; Pinkert, Stefan; Spannagl, Michael; Held, Kathrin; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Besch, Robert; Dornmair, Klaus; Prinz, Jörg C

    2015-12-14

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a common T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease with a suspected autoimmune pathogenesis. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I allele, HLA-C*06:02, is the main psoriasis risk gene. Epidermal CD8(+) T cells are essential for psoriasis development. Functional implications of HLA-C*06:02 and mechanisms of lesional T cell activation in psoriasis, however, remained elusive. Here we identify melanocytes as skin-specific target cells of an HLA-C*06:02-restricted psoriatic T cell response. We found that a Vα3S1/Vβ13S1 T cell receptor (TCR), which we had reconstituted from an epidermal CD8(+) T cell clone of an HLA-C*06:02-positive psoriasis patient specifically recognizes HLA-C*06:02-positive melanocytes. Through peptide library screening, we identified ADAMTS-like protein 5 (ADAMTSL5) as an HLA-C*06:02-presented melanocytic autoantigen of the Vα3S1/Vβ13S1 TCR. Consistent with the Vα3S1/Vβ13S1-TCR reactivity, we observed numerous CD8(+) T cells in psoriasis lesions attacking melanocytes, the only epidermal cells expressing ADAMTSL5. Furthermore, ADAMTSL5 stimulation induced the psoriasis signature cytokine, IL-17A, in CD8(+) T cells from psoriasis patients only, supporting a role as psoriatic autoantigen. This unbiased analysis of a TCR obtained directly from tissue-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells reveals that in psoriasis HLA-C*06:02 directs an autoimmune response against melanocytes through autoantigen presentation. We propose that HLA-C*06:02 may predispose to psoriasis via this newly identified autoimmune pathway.

  16. Ca-Dependent Folding of Human Calumenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Marco; Hussain, Rohanah; Sorensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Human calumenin (hCALU) is a six EF-hand protein belonging to the CREC family. As other members of the family, it is localized in the secretory pathway and regulates the activity of SERCA2a and of the ryanodine receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have studied the effects of Ca2+ binding to the protein and found it to attain a more compact structure upon ion binding. Circular Dichroism (CD) measurements suggest a major rearrangement of the protein secondary structure, which reversibly switches from disordered at low Ca2+ concentrations to predominantly alpha-helical when Ca2+ is added. SAXS experiments confirm the transition from an unfolded to a compact structure, which matches the structural prediction of a trilobal fold. Overall our experiments suggest that calumenin is a Ca2+ sensor, which folds into a compact structure, capable of interacting with its molecular partners, when Ca2+ concentration within the ER reaches the millimolar range. PMID:26991433

  17. Natural micropolymorphism in human leukocyte antigens provides a basis for genetic control of antigen recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archbold, Julia K.; Macdonald, Whitney A.; Gras, Stephanie; Ely, Lauren K.; Miles, John J.; Bell, Melissa J.; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Clements, Craig S.; Purcell, Anthony W.; McCluskey, James; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.); (Melbourne)

    2009-07-10

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene polymorphism plays a critical role in protective immunity, disease susceptibility, autoimmunity, and drug hypersensitivity, yet the basis of how HLA polymorphism influences T cell receptor (TCR) recognition is unclear. We examined how a natural micropolymorphism in HLA-B44, an important and large HLA allelic family, affected antigen recognition. T cell-mediated immunity to an Epstein-Barr virus determinant (EENLLDFVRF) is enhanced when HLA-B*4405 was the presenting allotype compared with HLA-B*4402 or HLA-B*4403, each of which differ by just one amino acid. The micropolymorphism in these HLA-B44 allotypes altered the mode of binding and dynamics of the bound viral epitope. The structure of the TCR-HLA-B*4405EENLLDFVRF complex revealed that peptide flexibility was a critical parameter in enabling preferential engagement with HLA-B*4405 in comparison to HLA-B*4402/03. Accordingly, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism can alter the dynamics of the peptide-MHC landscape, resulting in fine-tuning of T cell responses between closely related allotypes.

  18. Genetic analysis of a Treponema phagedenis locus encoding antigenic lipoproteins with potential for antigenic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mamoona; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Loftsdottir, Heidur; Pringle, Märit; Segerman, Bo; Zuerner, Richard; Rosander, Anna

    2016-06-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful and debilitating claw disease in cattle. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The occurrence of Treponema phagedenis in DD lesions, especially near the interface of healthy and diseased tissue, suggests that this species contributes to the development and/or progression of the lesions. In this study we characterized a genetic locus in T. phagedenis that contains coding regions for three antigenic proteins, PrrA, VpsA, and VpsB. Comparative analysis of homologous loci from fifteen strains suggests that prrA may be transposed into or out of this locus. Alterations in the copy number of TA repeats within the putative promoter region may regulate VpsA/B expression. The vpsA and prrA genes occur in allelic variants in different T. phagedenis isolates and may provide one explanation for the antigenic variation observed in T. phagedenis DD isolates. PMID:27259832

  19. Demonstration of two distinct antigenic determinants on hepatitis B e antigen by monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, M.; Nomura, M.; Gotanda, T.; Sano, T.; Tachibana, K.; Miyamoto, H.; Takahashi, K.; Toyama, S.; Miyakawa, Y.; Mayumi, M.

    1982-01-01

    Mice were immunized against hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) isolated from sera of asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus. Their spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma (NS-1) cells, and 5 clones of hybridoma cells secreting antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) were isolated. For the production of anti-HBe in large scale, cells were cultivated both in vitro and in the peritoneal cavity of ascitic mice. Although monoclonal antibodies produced by these clones showed a strong reactivity of anti-HBe in hemagglutination tests, individual monoclonal anti-HBe did not reveal any precipitin line in immunodiffusion. When 2 of the 5 monoclonal antibodies were mixed together, however, some combinations showed a precipitin line against HBeAg, whereas others did not. Utilizing solid-phase radioimmunoassay involving a number of combinations of monoclonal antibodies used for solid-phase and radiolabeling, the 5 antibodies were classified into 2 groups. Three of the anti-HBe antibodies were found to be directed to 1 determinant of HBeAg (determinant a); the remaining 2 to the other determinant (determinant b). Determinants a and b were detected on HBeAg in the serum, as well as on the polypeptide of 19,000 daltons (P19) derived from the nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus. Monoclonal anti-HBe antibodies with different specificities may provide useful tools in delineating the antigenic structure of HBeAg and also in evaluating immune responses of the host directed to its subdeterminants.

  20. Urine antigen detection for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yesenia; Rodriguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Brandt, Jef; Van Hul, Anke; Silva, Maria; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Portocarrero, Mylagritos; Melendez, D Paolo; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of seizures and epilepsy. Diagnosis is based on brain imaging, supported by immunodiagnosis in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lumbar puncture is invasive and painful. Blood sampling is slightly painful and poorly accepted. Urine antigen detection has been used for other parasites and tried in NCC with suboptimal performance. We used a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to detect Taenia solium antigens in urine from 87 Peruvian neurocysticercosis patients (viable cysts, N = 34; subarachnoid cysticercosis, N = 10; degenerating parasites, N = 7; calcified lesions, N = 36) and 32 volunteers from a non-endemic area of Peru. Overall sensitivity of urine antigen detection for viable parasites was 92%, which decreased to 62.5% in patients with a single cyst. Most patients (30/36, 83%) with only calcified cysticercosis were urine antigen negative. Antigen levels in paired serum/urine samples (evaluated in 19 patients) were strongly correlated. Non-invasive urine testing for T. solium antigens provides a useful alternative for NCC diagnosis.

  1. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  2. Double-antibody radioimmunoassay for factor VIII-related antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma protein required for the support of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was isolated from antihemophilic factor concentrate and radiolabeled with 125I. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed, with use of specific rabbit anti-VIII related antigen serum and goat anti-rabbit globulin. The assay is sensitive, reproducible, and technically simple to perform. Values obtained in normal subjects ranged from 0.65 to 1.53 units, similar to our normal range for VIII coagulant activity (0.67 to 1.43 units). However, normal or increased values of VIII-related antigen were observed in VIII coagulant-deficient hemophiliacs. Also, concentrations of VIII-related antigen significantly exceeded coagulant concentrations in several patients with liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation, or both. Of a broad selection of congenital coagulation disorders examined, only patients with von Willebrand's disease had decreased VIII-related antigen concentrations, and these corresponded to the lowered concentration of ristocetin cofactor in the patients. In three transfused patients, VIII-related antigen values correlated with the concentration of the cofactor. Our results suggest that the radioimmunoassay of VIII-related antigen is a simple and valuable adjunct in the study of patients with clotting abnormalities

  3. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled Lateral Flow Strips for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Gastric Cancer Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinyu; Wang, Kan; Lu, Wenting; Qin, Weijian; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is an important biomarker associated closely with diagnosis and prognosis of early gastric cancer. How to realize quick, sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of CA72-4 in clinical specimens has become a great requirement. Herein, we reported a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow test strip combined with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based reader was developed for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of CA72-4. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CA72-4 were employed. One of them was coated as a test line, while another mAb was labeled with quantum dots and coated onto conjugate pad. The goat anti-mouse IgG was immobilized as a control line. After sample was added, a sandwich structure was formed with CA72-4 and these two mAbs. The fluorescent signal from quantum dots (QD)-labeled mAb in sandwich structure was related to the amount of detected CA72-4. A CCD-based reader was used to realize quantitative detection of CA72-4. Results showed that developed QD-labeled lateral flow strips to detect CA72-4 biomarker with the sensitivity of 2 IU/mL and 10 min detection time. One hundred sera samples from clinical patients with gastric cancer and healthy people were used to confirm specificity of this strip method; results showed that established strip method own 100 % reproducibility and 100 % specificity compared with Roche electrochemiluminescence assay results. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for detection of CA72-4 could realize rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of clinical samples and could own great potential in clinical translation in near future.

  4. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled Lateral Flow Strips for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Gastric Cancer Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinyu; Wang, Kan; Lu, Wenting; Qin, Weijian; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2016-12-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is an important biomarker associated closely with diagnosis and prognosis of early gastric cancer. How to realize quick, sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of CA72-4 in clinical specimens has become a great requirement. Herein, we reported a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow test strip combined with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based reader was developed for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of CA72-4. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CA72-4 were employed. One of them was coated as a test line, while another mAb was labeled with quantum dots and coated onto conjugate pad. The goat anti-mouse IgG was immobilized as a control line. After sample was added, a sandwich structure was formed with CA72-4 and these two mAbs. The fluorescent signal from quantum dots (QD)-labeled mAb in sandwich structure was related to the amount of detected CA72-4. A CCD-based reader was used to realize quantitative detection of CA72-4. Results showed that developed QD-labeled lateral flow strips to detect CA72-4 biomarker with the sensitivity of 2 IU/mL and 10 min detection time. One hundred sera samples from clinical patients with gastric cancer and healthy people were used to confirm specificity of this strip method; results showed that established strip method own 100 % reproducibility and 100 % specificity compared with Roche electrochemiluminescence assay results. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for detection of CA72-4 could realize rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of clinical samples and could own great potential in clinical translation in near future. PMID:26969591

  5. Sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers at mid-latitudes: Simultaneous observations and implications for their formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Höffner

    Full Text Available We report on the observations of 188 sporadic layers of either Ca atoms and/or Ca ions that we have observed during 112 nights of lidar soundings of Ca, and 58 nights of Ca+ soundings, at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. The Ca+ soundings have been performed simultaneously and in a common volume with the Ca soundings by two separate lidars. Correlations between sporadic neutral and ionized metal layers are demonstrated through four case studies. A systematic study of the variations of occurrence of sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers reveals that neutral and ionized Ca layers are not as closely correlated as expected earlier: (a The altitude distribution shows the simultaneous occurrence of both sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers to be most likely only in the narrow altitude range between 90 and 95 km. Above that region, in the lower thermosphere, the sporadic ion layers are much more frequent than atom layers. Below 90 km only very few sporadic layers have been observed; (b The seasonal variation of sporadic Ca layers exhibits a minimum of occurrence in summer, while sporadic Ca+ layers do not show a significant seasonal variation (only the dense Ca+ layers appear to have a maximum in summer. At mid-latitudes sporadic Ca layers are more frequent than sporadic layers of other atmospheric metals like Na or K. For the explanation of our observations new formation mechanisms are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  6. A "new" primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) defined DP-antigen associated with a private HLA--DR antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P;

    1980-01-01

    We have recently described a "new" private HLA-DR antigen, DR"LTM", which has a frequency of approximately 0.6% in Danes. Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells directed towards DR"LTM"-associated determinants were generated in vitro by haplotype primings in two unrelated families with DR...... total agreement between the results obtained by HLA-DR typing with the antiserum "LTM" and by PLT-typing with these two haplotype primed PLT-cells. None of the DP"LTM"-positive individuals carried more than one of the antigens HLA-Dw/-DRw/DP1-8 and the local specificity D/DP"H". Accordingly, this "new......" PLT-defined antigen, DP"LTM", most probably belongs to the series of HLA-D/DR-associated DP-antigens previously described....

  7. Diagnostic value of combined determinations of serum CA19-9, CA242 and CA50 levels in patients with pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of combined determinations of serum CA19-9, CA242 and CA50 levels in patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: Serum CA19-9, CA242 and CA50 levels were determined with RIA in 120 patients with pancreatic cancer, 50 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 80 controls. Results: The serum levels of CA19-9, CA242 and CA50 in patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with pancreatitis and controls. With CA19-9, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic cnrcinoma was 82.0% and 78.6% respectively. With CA242, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic carcinoma was 78.5% and 81.6% respectively. With CA50, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic carcinoma was 52.7% and 74.6% respectively. With combined determinations of CA19-9, CA242 and CA50, the sensitivity and specificity was enhanced to 96.82% and 98.75% respectively. Conclusion: Combined detection of CA19-9, CA242 and CA50 is clinically useful for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (authors)

  8. 21 CFR 660.1 - Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.1... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.1 Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. The product...

  9. Distribution of primed T cells and antigen-loaded antigen presenting cells following intranasal immunization in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Ciabattini

    Full Text Available Priming of T cells is a key event in vaccination, since it bears a decisive influence on the type and magnitude of the immune response. T-cell priming after mucosal immunization via the nasal route was studied by investigating the distribution of antigen-loaded antigen presenting cells (APCs and primed antigen-specific T cells. Nasal immunization studies were conducted using the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant. Trafficking of antigen-specific primed T cells was analyzed in vivo after adoptive transfer of OVA-specific transgenic T cells in the presence or absence of fingolimod, a drug that causes lymphocytes sequestration within lymph nodes. Antigen-loaded APCs were observed in mediastinal lymph nodes, draining the respiratory tract, but not in distal lymph nodes. Antigen-specific proliferating T cells were first observed within draining lymph nodes, and later in distal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes and in the spleen. The presence at distal sites was due to migration of locally primed T cells as shown by fingolimod treatment that caused a drastic reduction of proliferated T cells in non-draining lymph nodes and an accumulation of extensively divided T cells within draining lymph nodes. Homing of nasally primed T cells in distal iliac lymph nodes was CD62L-dependent, while entry into mesenteric lymph nodes depended on both CD62L and α4β7, as shown by in vivo antibody-mediated inhibition of T-cell trafficking. These data, elucidating the trafficking of antigen-specific primed T cells to non-draining peripheral and mucosa-associated lymph nodes following nasal immunization, provide relevant insights for the design of vaccination strategies based on mucosal priming.

  10. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recruitment or recruitment advertising, employment, layoff or termination, upgrading, demotion, or transfer... the exercise of their rights as members or stockholders of the borrower. (ii) Direct senior...

  11. 47 CFR 15.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provisions of § 15.19(d). (bb) CPU board. A circuit board that contains a microprocessor, or frequency determining circuitry for the microprocessor, the primary function of which is to execute user-provided programming, but not including: (1) A circuit board that contains only a microprocessor intended to...

  12. 6 CFR 15.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs, cardiovascular; reproductive, digestive; genitourinary; hemic and lymphatic; skin; and endocrine; or (ii) Any mental or..., epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, mental...

  13. 50 CFR 15.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... private entity; or any officer, employee, agent, department, or instrumentality of the Federal Government.... Status means a qualitative measure of the vulnerability to extinction or extirpation of a population at...

  14. Transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated phosphatidylcholine modulating sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠亚平; 徐红; 杨福愉

    1995-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase was purified and reconstituted into the sealed phospholipids vesicles with or without transmembrane Ca2+ gradient. The role ofphospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), in the modulation of Ca2+-ATPase by transmembrane Ca2+ gradient was investigated. The results are as follows, (i) Incubated with phospholiplds, the enzyme activity of the delipidated Ca2+-ATPase is inhibited by Ca2+ and the highest inhibition is observed in the presence of PC. (ii) When there exists a transmembrane Ca2+ gradient (higher Ca2+ concentration inside vesicles, 1 000μmol/L:50μmol/L, similar to the physiological condition), the inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase by transmembrane Ca2+ gradient can be only observed in the vesicles containing PC:PE, but not in those containing PS:PE or PG:PE. The highest inhibition is obtained at a 50.50 molar ratio of PC:PE. (iii) By comparing the effects of PC differing in acyl chains, higher inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase is observed in vesicles containin

  15. The role of FcRn in antigen presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi eBaker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. The abundance specifically of the IgG subclass and the variety of signaling receptors to which it binds render this an important immunomodulatory molecule. In addition to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγR which bind IgG at the cell surface, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn is a lifelong resident of the endolysosomal system of most hematopoietic cells where it determines the intracellular fate of both IgG and IgG-containing immune complexes (IgG IC. Crosslinking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC initiates specific mechanisms which result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both MHC class I and II molecules. In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG-mediated antigen delivery system through which it operates. FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and

  16. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V;

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown previously that rat oral epithelia express antigens cross-reacting with antibodies against human blood group antigen B and its structural precursor, the H antigen (Type 2 chain). In the present study we investigated the expression of these antigens in malignant changes in the rat....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  17. Class II-targeted antigen is superior to CD40-targeted antigen at stimulating humoral responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frleta, D; Demian, D; Wade, W F

    2001-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of using monoclonal antibodies to target antigen (avidin) to different surface molecules expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC). In particular, we targeted CD40 to test whether the "adjuvant" properties of CD40 signaling combined with targeted antigen would result in enhanced serologic responses. We targeted avidin to class II as a positive control and to CD11c as a negative control. These surface proteins represent an ensemble of surface molecules that signal upon ligation and that are expressed on professional APC, in particular dendritic cells (DC). We observed that targeting class II molecules on APC was superior to targeting CD40, or CD11c. However, CD40 and CD11c could function as targets for antigen bound monoclonal antibodies under certain conditions. Interestingly, inclusion of anti-CD40 mAb with the targeting anti-class II-targeted antigens negatively affects humoral response, suggesting that CD40 signaling under certain conditions may suppress processing and/or presentation of targeted antigen. PMID:11360928

  18. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Domina

    Full Text Available There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  19. Original encounter with antigen determines antigen-presenting cell imprinting of the quality of the immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Abadie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining a certain multi-functionality of cellular immunity for the control of infectious diseases is a burning question in immunology and in vaccine design. Early events, including antigen shuttling to secondary lymphoid organs and recruitment of innate immune cells for adaptive immune response, determine host responsiveness to antigens. However, the sequence of these events and their impact on the quality of the immune response remain to be elucidated. Here, we chose to study Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA which is now replacing live Smallpox vaccines and is proposed as an attenuated vector for vaccination strategies against infectious diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vivo mechanisms triggered following intradermal (i.d. and intramuscular (i.m. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA administration. We demonstrated significant differences in the antigen shuttling to lymphoid organs by macrophages (MPhis, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs, and neutrophils (PMNs. MVA i.d. administration resulted in better antigen distribution and more sustained antigen-presenting cells (APCs recruitment into draining lymph nodes than with i.m. administration. These APCs, which comprise both DCs and MPhis, were differentially involved in T cell priming and shaped remarkably the quality of cytokine-producing virus-specific T cells according to the entry route of MVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms of antigen delivery and their consequences on the quality of immune responses and provides new insights for vaccine development.

  20. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    KAUST Repository

    Domina, Maria

    2014-12-04

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  1. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G;

    1998-01-01

    We have screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis (TB) patients for proliferative reactivity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion against a panel of purified recombinant (r) and natural (n) culture filtrate (rESAT-6, nMPT59, nMPT64 and nMPB70) and somatic-derived (r......GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well...... as the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). In addition, M. tuberculosis and MT-CF-induced T-cell lines were tested in the same assays against the panel of purified and complex antigens. The compiled data from PBMC and T-cell lines tested for antigen-induced proliferation and IFN...

  2. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  3. Comparative study of CEA and CA19-9 in esophageal, gastric and colon cancers individually and in combination (ROC curve analysis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhawna Bagaria; Sadhna Sood; Rameshwaram Sharma; Soniya Lalwani

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the clinical serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), individually and in combination, for the diagnosis of 50 healthy subjects and 150 cases of esophageal, gastric, and colon cancers. Methods:The sensitivities of the two markers were compared individually and in combination, with specificity set at 100%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Results:Serum CEA levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than in the control group. The sensitivity of CEA was determined:in esophageal cancer, sensitivity=28%, negative predictive value (NPV)=61.72%, and AUC=0.742 (SE=0.05), with a significance level of P Conclusion:CEA exhibited the highest sensitivity for colon cancer, and CA19-9 exhibited the highest sensitivity for gastric cancer. Combined analysis indicated an increase in diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal and gastric cancer compared with that in colon cancer.

  4. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  5. Pre-treatment prediction of chemoresistance in second-line chemotherapy of ovarian carcinoma: value of serological tumor marker determination (tetranectin, YKL-40, CASA, CA 125)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, B; Høgdall, E V S; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2006-01-01

    for the biochemical tumor markers tetranectin, YKL-40, CASA (cancer-associated serum antigen), and CA 125. The serum tumor marker levels at time of relapse were correlated with response status at landmark time after 4 cycles of second-line chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses...... (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0-3.3; p=0.045), and CASA (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7; p=0.007) had predictive value for second-line chemoresistance, whereas serum CA 125 had no predictive value. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, serum tetranectin and CASA both had independent predictive value...

  6. Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ glows in superior cervical ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun YAO; Cai-hong WU; Jie LIU; Zhuan ZHOU; He-ping CHENG; Gang WANG; Kun-fu OU-YANG; Chao-liang WEI; Xian-hua WANG; Shi-rong WANG; Wei YAO; Hong-ping HUANG; Jian-hong LUO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an integral component of neuronal Ca2+ signaling. The present study is to investigate properties of local Ca2+ release events in superior cervical ganglion (SCO) neurons. Methods: Primary cultured SCO neurons were prepared from neonatal rats (P3-P7). Low concentration of caffeine was used to induce Ca2+ release from the ER Ca2+ store, and intracellular Ca2+ was recorded by high-resolution line scan confocal imaging and the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4. Results: Two populations of local Ca2+ release events with distinct temporal characteristics were evoked by 1.5 mmol/L caffeine near the surface membrane in the soma and the neurites of SCG neurons. Brief events similar to classic Ca2+ sparks lasted a few hundreds of milliseconds, whereas long-lasting events displayed duration up to tens of seconds. Typical somatic and neurite sparks were of 0.3- and 0.52-fold increase in local Fluo-4 fluorescence, respectively. Typical Ca2+ glows were brighter (△F/F0 approximately 0.6), but were highly confined in space. The half maximum of full duration of neurite sparks was much longer than those in the soma (685 vs 381 ms). Conclusion: Co-existence of Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ glows in SCG neurons indicates distinctive local regulation of Ca2+ release kinetics. The local Ca2+ signals of variable, site-specific temporal length may bear important implications in encoding a "memory" of the trigger signal.

  7. Serum level of TSGF,CA242 and CA19-9 in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Ting Jiang; Chang-Ping Wu; Hai-Feng Deng; Ming-Yang Lu; Jun Wu; Hong-Yu Zhang; Wen-Hui Sun; Mei Ji

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a method to detect the expression of the tumor specific growth factor TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 in serum and evaluate their value in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: ELISA and Biochemical colorimetric assay were used to detect the serum content of TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 in 200 normal cases, 52 pancreatitis patients and 96 pancreatic cancer patients.RESULTS: The positive likelihood ratios of TSGF, CA242and CA19-9 were 5.4, 12.6 and 6.3, respectively, and their negative likelihood ratios were 0.10, 0.19 and 0.17,respectively. With single tumor marker diagnosed pancreatic cancer, the highest sensitivity and specificity of TSGF were 91.6% and 93.5%. In combined test with 3 markers, when all of them were positive, the sensitivity changed to 77.0%and the specificity and the positive predictive value were 100%. The levels of TSGF and CA242 were significantly higher in the patients with pancreatic cancer of head than those in the patients with pancreatic cancer of body, tail and whole pancreas, but the expression of CA19-9 had no correlation with the positions of the pancreatic cancer. The sensitivity of TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 was increased with the progress in stages of pancreatic cancer. In stage I, the sensitivity of TSGF was markedly higher than CA242 and CA19-9.CONCLUSION: The combined use of TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 expressions can elevate the specificity for pancreatic cancer diagnosis. And it shows that it plays an important role to differentiate positions and tissue typing. It is a forepart diagnosis for the pancreatic cancer by combination checking.There is very important correlation between the three markers and the pancreatic cancer.

  8. Identification of antigenic proteins of the nosocomial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hoppe

    Full Text Available The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL. After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens

  9. The Impacts of Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Positivity on Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Erkol Ižnal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to clarify the impacts of H. pylori infection on disease activity and clinical findings of AS. Material and Method: Forty-eight patients with AS were included in this study. The demographic data including age, sex, durations of the disease and medication of the patients were recorded. The laboratory analysis comprised Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and H. pylori antigen determination in gaita. The disease activity, functional disability and clinical status were assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI, The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional index (BASFI and The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI respectively. We divided patients according to H. pylori antigen positivity in gaita as H. pylori positive and negative patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 41.9 11.8. CRP levels were slightly but not significantly higher in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients without H. pylori antigen in gaita (p=0.08. There was no significant difference in terms of ESR levels, BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients with negative H. pylori antigen in gaita (p-values were >0.05 for all. In regression model BASDAI score was found to have no relationship with H. pylori antigen positivity, ESR and CRP levels (p-values were >0.05 for all. Discussion: H. pylori seemed to have probable impacts on the disease activity of AS. Studies with greater patient population and longer follow-up periods are warranted to enlighten this issue.

  10. O-antigen modulates infection-induced pain states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    Full Text Available The molecular initiators of infection-associated pain are not understood. We recently found that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC elicited acute pelvic pain in murine urinary tract infection (UTI. UTI pain was due to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS and its receptor, TLR4, but pain was not correlated with inflammation. LPS is known to drive inflammation by interactions between the acylated lipid A component and TLR4, but the function of the O-antigen polysaccharide in host responses is unknown. Here, we examined the role of O-antigen in pain using cutaneous hypersensitivity (allodynia to quantify pelvic pain behavior and using sacral spinal cord excitability to quantify central nervous system manifestations in murine UTI. A UPEC mutant defective for O-antigen biosynthesis induced chronic allodynia that persisted long after clearance of transient infections, but wild type UPEC evoked only acute pain. E. coli strains lacking O-antigen gene clusters had a chronic pain phenotype, and expressing cloned O-antigen gene clusters altered the pain phenotype in a predictable manner. Chronic allodynia was abrogated in TLR4-deficient mice, but inflammatory responses in wild type mice were similar among E. coli strains spanning a wide range of pain phenotypes, suggesting that O-antigen modulates pain independent of inflammation. Spinal cords of mice with chronic allodynia exhibited increased spontaneous firing and compromised short-term depression, consistent with centralized pain. Taken together, these findings suggest that O-antigen functions as a rheostat to modulate LPS-associated pain. These observations have implications for an infectious etiology of chronic pain and evolutionary modification of pathogens to alter host behaviors.

  11. Identification of Antigenic Proteins of the Nosocomial Pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F.; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens and their linear

  12. Advances in identification and application of tumor antigen inducing anti-cancer responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Tumor antigen is one of the important bases of tumor immunotherapy[1]. With the discovery of novel tumor antigens, interest in specific immunotherapy for treatment of malignancies has increased substantially. Nowadays more and more scientists paid close attention to various tumor antigens with their roles or/and applications in anti-cancer immune responses, immune tolerance, tumor markers, tumor immunotherapy and so on. Here we discussed the classification of tumor antigens and summarized the technologies of identification and application of tumor antigens.

  13. A rapid radioimmunoassay for determination of tumor antigens with reference to carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel experimental procedure for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by a solid phase microradioimmunoassay has been developed. Goat anti-CEA antibodies were immobilized by coupling to cyanogen bromide activated filter paper discs. The inhibition of binding of radioiodinated CEA to the discs was proportional to the amount of unlabelled CEA present in the test sample. The experimental procedure involved two steps: (i) the test material containing unlabelled CEA was allowed to react with the antibody coated discs at 37 deg C for 2 hrs., and (ii) a standard amount of 125I-CEA was added to the reaction mixture and incubated for 24 hours at 37 deg C or room temperature. The discs were then washed 4 times and the radioactivity of each disc was determined. The sensitivity of the test in its present state of development was 2.5 ng/ml. (author)

  14. Regulated release of Ca2+ from respiring mitochondria by Ca2+/2H+ antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Lehninger, A L

    1979-07-25

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and transmembrane transport of Ca2+, H+, and phosphate show that the efflux of Ca2+ from respiring tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria takes place by an electroneutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process that is ruthenium red-insensitive and that is regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. When mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides are kept in a reduced steady state, the efflux of Ca2+ is inhibited; when they are in an oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux is activated. These processes were demonstrated by allowing phosphate-depleted mitochondria respiring on succinate in the presence of rotenone to take up Ca2+ from the medium. Upon subsequent addition of ruthenium red to block Ca2+ transport via the electrophoretic influx pathway, and acetoacetate, to bring mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides into the oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux and H+ influx ensued. The observed H+ influx/Ca2+ efflux ratio was close to the value 2.0 predicted for the operation of an electrically neutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process.

  15. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission. PMID:26015575

  16. Regulated release of Ca2+ from respiring mitochondria by Ca2+/2H+ antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Lehninger, A L

    1979-07-25

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and transmembrane transport of Ca2+, H+, and phosphate show that the efflux of Ca2+ from respiring tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria takes place by an electroneutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process that is ruthenium red-insensitive and that is regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. When mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides are kept in a reduced steady state, the efflux of Ca2+ is inhibited; when they are in an oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux is activated. These processes were demonstrated by allowing phosphate-depleted mitochondria respiring on succinate in the presence of rotenone to take up Ca2+ from the medium. Upon subsequent addition of ruthenium red to block Ca2+ transport via the electrophoretic influx pathway, and acetoacetate, to bring mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides into the oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux and H+ influx ensued. The observed H+ influx/Ca2+ efflux ratio was close to the value 2.0 predicted for the operation of an electrically neutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process. PMID:36390

  17. Aging and CaMKII Alter Intracellular Ca2+ Transients and Heart Rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalla, Manuela; Valverde, Carlos A.; Harnichar, Ezequiel; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Aguilar-Fuentes, Javier; Mattiazzi, Alicia; Ferrero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated to disrupted contractility and rhythmicity, among other cardiovascular alterations. Drosophila melanogaster shows a pattern of aging similar to human beings and recapitulates the arrhythmogenic conditions found in the human heart. Moreover, the kinase CaMKII has been characterized as an important regulator of heart function and an arrhythmogenic molecule that participate in Ca2+ handling. Using a genetically engineered expressed Ca2+ indicator, we report changes in cardiac Ca2+ handling at two different ages. Aging prolonged relaxation, reduced spontaneous heart rate (HR) and increased the occurrence of arrhythmias, ectopic beats and asystoles. Alignment between Drosophila melanogaster and human CaMKII showed a high degree of conservation and indicates that relevant phosphorylation sites in humans are also present in the fruit fly. Inhibition of CaMKII by KN-93 (CaMKII-specific inhibitor), reduced HR without significant changes in other parameters. By contrast, overexpression of CaMKII increased HR and reduced arrhythmias. Moreover, it increased fluorescence amplitude, maximal rate of rise of fluorescence and reduced time to peak fluorescence. These results suggest that CaMKII in Drosophila melanogaster acts directly on heart function and that increasing CaMKII expression levels could be beneficial to improve contractility. PMID:25003749

  18. Prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Shen-Yu; Xu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma (GC) has been widely reported and is still under debate. Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with GC. 1692 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy were divided into the training (from January 2005 to December 2011, n = 1024) and the validation (from January 2012 to December 2013, n = 668) cohorts. Positive groups of CA125 (> 13.72 U/ml), CA19-9 (> 23.36 U/ml) and CEA (> 4.28 ng/ml) were significantly associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and worse outcomes than that of negative groups (all P < 0.01). In Cox regression analysis, tumor size (P < 0.001, P = 0.005), pTNM stage (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) and CA125 (P = 0.026, P = 0.005) were independent prognostic factors both in two cohorts. Nomograms of these two cohorts based on the number of positive serum tumor markers (NPTM) were more accurate in prognostic prediction than TNM stage alone. Our findings suggested that elevated preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA were associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and less favorable outcomes. In addition, CA125 as an independent prognostic factor should be further investigated. Nomogram based on NPTM could accurately predict the prognosis of GC patients. PMID:27097114

  19. Antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates enable co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant to dendritic cells in cis but only have partial targeting specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutz, M.; Giquel, B.; Hu, Q.; Abuknesha, R.; Uematsu, S.; Akira, S.; Nestle, F.O.; Diebold, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-antigen conjugates, which promote antigen-presentation by dendritic cells (DC) by means of targeted delivery of antigen to particular DC subsets, represent a powerful vaccination approach. To ensure immunity rather than tolerance induction the co-administration of a suitable adjuvant is par

  20. Calcium transport in bovine rumen epithelium as affected by luminal Ca concentrations and Ca sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja R; Ricken, Gundula E; Leonhard-Marek, Sabine; Fraser, David R; Breves, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    The quantitative role of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract for Ca absorption, the respective mechanisms, and their regulation are not fully identified for ruminants, that is, cattle. In different in vitro experiments the forestomach wall has been demonstrated to be a major site for active Ca absorption in sheep and goats. In order to further clarify the role of the bovine rumen for Ca transport with special attention to luminal Ca concentrations, its ionic form, and pH, electrophysiological and unidirectional flux rate measurements were performed with isolated bovine rumen epithelial tissues. For Ca flux studies (Jms, Jsm) in vitro Ussing chamber technique was applied. Standard RT-PCR method was used to characterize TRPV6 and PMCA1 as potential contributors to transepithelial active Ca transport. At Ca concentrations of 1.2 mmol L(-1) on both sides of the tissues, Jms were higher than Jsm resulting under some conditions in significant Ca net flux rates (Jnet), indicating the presence of active Ca transport. In the absence of an electrical gradient, Jnet could significantly be stimulated in the presence of luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Increasing the luminal Ca concentrations up to 11.2 mmol L(-1) resulted in significant increases in Jms without influencing Jsm. Providing Ca in its form as respective chloride, formate, or propionate salts there was no significant effect on Jms. No transcripts specific for Ca channel TRPV6 could be demonstrated. Our results indicate different mechanisms for Ca absorption in bovine rumen as compared with those usually described for the small intestines. PMID:26564067

  1. Motion of the Ca2+-pump captured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Masatoshi; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2011-09-01

    Studies of ion pumps, such as ATP synthetase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, have a long history. The crystal structures of several kinds of ion pump have been resolved, and provide static pictures of mechanisms of ion transport. In this study, using fast-scanning atomic force microscopy, we have visualized conformational changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) in real time at the single-molecule level. The analyses of individual SERCA molecules in the presence of both ATP and free Ca(2+) revealed up-down structural changes corresponding to the Albers-Post scheme. This fluctuation was strongly affected by the ATP and Ca(2+) concentrations, and was prevented by an inhibitor, thapsigargin. Interestingly, at a physiological ATP concentrations, the up-down motion disappeared completely. These results indicate that SERCA does not transit through the shortest structure, and has a catalytic pathway different from the ordinary Albers-Post scheme under physiological conditions. PMID:21707923

  2. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  3. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  4. Distribution of CA 125 in placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuith, L C; Müller-Holzner, E; Marth, C; Perkmann, E; Zeimet, A; Daxenbichler, G

    1989-01-01

    The presence of the tumor marker CA 125 was studied in different compartments of the human placenta. Levels of CA 125 in the cytosol of chorionic villi ranged from 27-17100 U/g (median 560 U/g). In the placental amnion and chorion concentrations ranged from 175-29000 U/g, median 1060 U/g and were not statistically different. In the umbilical cord values were significantly lower (range 44-7600 U/g; median 180 U/g). Maternal serum probes were above the upper limit of normal in all cases (range 48-500 U/ml; median 131 U/ml). Immunohistochemistry detected CA 125 exclusively within the amniotic cells of the placenta and the umbilical cord. This might be because CA 125 fixes more to insoluble structures in the amnion or because of contamination of chorionic villi with the underlying decidua.

  5. ONCOLYTIC VIRUS-MEDIATED REVERSAL OF IMPAIRED TUMOR ANTIGEN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Ashok Gujar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor immunity can eliminate existing cancer cells and also maintain a constant surveillance against possible relapse. Such an antigen-specific adaptive response begins when tumor-specific T cells become activated. T cell activation requires two signals on antigen presenting cells (APCs: antigen presentation through MHC molecules and co-stimulation. In the absence of one or both of these signals, T cells remain inactivated or can even become tolerized. Cancer cells and their associated microenvironment strategically hinder the processing and presentation of tumor antigens and consequently prevent the development of anti-tumor immunity. Many studies, however, demonstrate that interventions that overturn tumor-associated immune evasion mechanisms can establish anti-tumor immune responses of therapeutic potential. One such intervention is oncolytic virus (OV-based anti-cancer therapy. Here we discuss how OV-induced immunological events override tumor-associated antigen presentation impairment and promote appropriate T cell:APC interaction. Detailed understanding of this phenomenon is pivotal for devising the strategies that will enhance the efficacy of OV-based anti-cancer therapy by complementing its inherent oncolytic

  6. A new antigen retrieval technique for human brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alelú-Paz

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemical staining of tissues is a powerful tool used to delineate the presence or absence of an antigen. During the last 30 years, antigen visualization in human brain tissue has been significantly limited by the masking effect of fixatives. In the present study, we have used a new method for antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed human brain tissue and examined the effectiveness of this protocol to reveal masked antigens in tissues with both short and long formalin fixation times. This new method, which is based on the use of citraconic acid, has not been previously utilized in brain tissue although it has been employed in various other tissues such as tonsil, ovary, skin, lymph node, stomach, breast, colon, lung and thymus. Thus, we reported here a novel method to carry out immunohistochemical studies in free-floating human brain sections. Since fixation of brain tissue specimens in formaldehyde is a commonly method used in brain banks, this new antigen retrieval method could facilitate immunohistochemical studies of brains with prolonged formalin fixation times.

  7. Production of Trichophyton mentagrophytes antigens and their characterization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Venturini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The participation of dermatophytic antigens in the host-parasite balance is still poorly understood. One of the difficulties encountered by researchers is the lack of dominant and specific antigens that can be used in such studies. In order to contribute to a better understanding of this aspect of infection, the present study identifies antigen fractions obtained from exoantigen and cytoplasmic extracts of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of 13 proteins in the exoantigen extract, whose molecular weight ranged from 12.5 to 90 kDa. The cytoplasmic extract contained 18 protein fractions ranging from 11 to 110 kDa. Immunoblotting showed the presence of immunodominant antigens against IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. This affinity was observed in three proteins of the exoantigen extract and in three proteins of the cytoplasmic extract, with respective molecular weights of 33, 39 and 59, and 40, 55 and 82 kDa. These results are promising, especially when considering that these extracts contain antigenically distinct protein fractions which, once determined, may contribute to a better understanding of dermatophytoses, and may thus help in the development of alternative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  8. Pericyte antigens in angiomyolipoma and PEComa family tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A; Asatrian, Greg; Barnhill, Raymond; Lugassy, Claire; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W

    2015-08-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are an uncommon family of soft tissue tumors with dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. Although PEComa family tumors commonly demonstrate a perivascular growth pattern, pericyte antigen expression has not yet been examined among this unique tumor group. Previously, we demonstrated that a subset of perivascular soft tissue tumors exhibit a striking pericytic immunophenotype, with diffuse expression of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Here, we describe the presence of pericyte antigens across a diverse group of PEComa family tumors (n = 19 specimens). Results showed that pericyte antigens differed extensively by histological appearance. Typical angiomyolipoma (AML) specimens showed variable expression of pericyte antigens among both perivascular and myoid-appearing cells. In contrast, AML specimens with a predominant spindled morphology showed diffuse expression of pericyte markers, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. AML samples with predominant epithelioid morphology showed a marked reduction in or the absence of immunoreactivity for pericyte markers. Lymphangiomyoma samples showed more variable and partial pericyte marker expression. In summary, pericyte antigen expression is variable among PEComa family tumors and largely varies by tumor morphology. Pericytic marker expression in PEComa may represent a true pericytic cell of origin, or alternatively aberrant pericyte marker adoption. Markers of pericytic differentiation may be of future diagnostic utility for the evaluation of mesenchymal tumors, or identify actionable signaling pathways for future therapeutic intervention. PMID:26123600

  9. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719

  10. Prediction of antigenic determinants of trichosanthin by molecular modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEYONGNING; ZONGXIANGXIA; 等

    1996-01-01

    The antigenic determinants of trichosanthin were predicted by molecular modeling.First,the threedimensional structure model of the antigen-binding fragment of anti-trichosanthin immunoglobulin E was built on the basis of its amino-acid sequence and the known three-dimensional structure of an antibody with similar sequence.Secondly,the preferable antigen-antibody interactions were obtained based on the known three-dimensional structure of trichosanthin and of the hypervariable regions of anti-trichosanthin immunoglobulin E.Two regions in the molecular surface of trichosanthin were found to form extensive interactions with the hypervariable regions of the antibody and have been predicted to be the possible antigenic determinants:one is composed of two polypeptide segments,Ile201-Glu210 and Ile225-Asp229,which are close to each other in the three-dimensional structure;and the other is the segment Lys173-Thr178.The former region seems to be the more reasonable antigenic determinant than the latter one.

  11. Reassessing target antigens for adoptive T cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Christian S.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy can target and kill widespread malignant cells thereby inducing durable clinical responses in melanoma and selected other malignances. However, many commonly targeted tumor antigens are also expressed by healthy tissues, and T cells do not distinguish between benign and malignant tissues if both express the target antigen. As such, autoimmune toxicity from T-cell-mediated destruction of normal tissue has limited the development and adoption of this otherwise promising type of cancer therapy. A review of the unique biology of T-cell therapy and of recent clinical experience compels a reassessment of target antigens that traditionally have been viewed from the perspective of weaker immunotherapeutic modalities. In selecting target antigens for adoptive T-cell therapy, expression by tumors and not by essential healthy tissues is of paramount importance. The risk of autoimmune adverse events can be further mitigated by generating antigen receptors using strategies that reduce the chance of cross-reactivity against epitopes in unintended targets. In general, a circumspect approach to target selection and thoughtful preclinical and clinical studies are pivotal to the ongoing advancement of these promising treatments. PMID:24142051

  12. Up-regulation of HLA class-I antigen expression and antigen-specific CTL response in cervical cancer cells by the demethylating agent hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano-Soberón Marcela

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are epigenetic events that contribute to the absence or downregulated expression of different components of the tumor recognition complex. These events affect the processing and presentation of antigenic peptides to CTLs by HLA class-I molecules. In this work evaluated the effect of the DNA hypomethylating agent hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid, on the expression of HLA class-I molecules and on the antigen-specific immune recognition of cervical cancer cells. Methods Cell lines C33A (HPV-, CaSki (HPV-16+ and MS751 (HPV-18+ were treated with hydralazine and valproic acid to assess the expression of HLA class-I molecules by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Promoter methylation of HLA class-I -A, -B and C, was also evaluated by Methylation-Specific PCR. Primary cervical tumors of four HLA-A*0201 allele patients were typed for HPV and their CTL's stimulated in vitro with the T2 cell line previously loaded with 50 μM of the HPV peptides. Cytotoxicity of stimulated CTL's was assayed against Caski and MS751 cells pre-treated with hydralazine and valproic acid. Results Valproic acid and hydralazine/valproic acid up-regulated the constitutive HLA class-I expression as evaluated by flow cytometry and RT-PCR despite constitutive promoter demethylation at these loci. Hydralazine and valproic acid in combination but no IFN-gamma hyperacetylated histone H4 as evaluated by ChiP assay. The antigenic immune recognition of CaSki and MS751 cells by CTLs specific to HPV-16/18 E6 and E7-derived epitopes, was increased by VA and H/VA and the combination of H/VA/IFN-gamma. Conclusion These results support the potential use of hydralazine and valproic acid as an adjuvant for immune intervention in cervical cancer patients whenever clinical protocols based on tumor antigen recognition is desirable, like in those cases where the application of E6 and E7 based therapeutic vaccines

  13. YouthCaN 2001 / Sirje Janikson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Janikson, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    Aprillis 2001 toimus keskkonnateemaline õpilaskonverents YouthCaN 2001 Ameerika Loodusajaloo Muuseumis New Yorkìs. 35 seminarist ühe viis läbi Tartu Noorte Loodusmaja geoloogia ja keskkonnaringi esindus, tutvustati loodusmaja keskkonnaprojekte ja räägiti keskkonnaalaste veebilehtede koostamise kogemustest. YouthCaN (Youth Communicating and Networking) on rahvusvaheline noorte organisatsioon, mis vahendab kogemusi ja uusi ideid elukeskkonnast huvitatud noorte hulgas

  14. CA Investment Casting Process of Complex Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CA (Computer aided) investment casting technique used in superalloy castings of aerospace engine parts was presented. CA investment casting integrated computer application, RP (Rapid Prototyping) process, solidification simulation and investment casting process. It broke the bottle neck of making metal die. Solid model of complex parts were produced by UGII or other software, then translated into STL(Stereolithography) file, after RP process of SLS(Selective Laser Sintering), wax pattern used in investment ...

  15. NAADP-mediated Ca2+ signaling via type 1 ryanodine receptor in T cells revealed by a synthetic NAADP antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammermann, Werner; Zhang, Bo; Nebel, Merle; Cordiglieri, Chiara; Odoardi, Francesca; Kirchberger, Tanja; Kawakami, Naoto; Dowden, James; Schmid, Frederike; Dornmair, Klaus; Hohenegger, Martin; Flügel, Alexander; Guse, Andreas H.; Potter, Barry V. L.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleotide NAADP was recently discovered as a second messenger involved in the initiation and propagation of Ca2+ signaling in lymphoma T cells, but its impact on primary T cell function is still unknown. An optimized, synthetic, small molecule inhibitor of NAADP action, termed BZ194, was designed and synthesized. BZ194 neither interfered with Ca2+ mobilization by d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or cyclic ADP-ribose nor with capacitative Ca2+ entry. BZ194 specifically and effectively blocked NAADP-stimulated [3H]ryanodine binding to the purified type 1 ryanodine receptor. Further, in intact T cells, Ca2+ mobilization evoked by NAADP or by formation of the immunological synapse between primary effector T cells and astrocytes was inhibited by BZ194. Downstream events of Ca2+ mobilization, such as nuclear translocation of “nuclear factor of activated T cells” (NFAT), T cell receptor-driven interleukin-2 production, and proliferation in antigen-experienced CD4+ effector T cells, were attenuated by the NAADP antagonist. Taken together, specific inhibition of the NAADP signaling pathway constitutes a way to specifically and effectively modulate T-cell activation and has potential in the therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID:19541638

  16. Two new cases of anti-Ca (anti-ARHGAP26/GRAF autoantibody-associated cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarius Sven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, we discovered a novel serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF autoantibody (anti-Ca to Purkinje cells in a patient with autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA and identified the RhoGTPase-activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26; alternative designations include GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase pp125, GRAF, and oligophrenin-1-like protein, OPHN1L as the target antigen. Here, we report on two new cases of ARHGAP26 autoantibody-positive ACA that were first diagnosed after publication of the index case study. While the index patient developed ACA following an episode of respiratory infection with still no evidence for malignancy 52 months after onset, neurological symptoms heralded ovarian cancer in one of the patients described here. Our finding of anti-Ca/anti-ARHGAP26 antibodies in two additional patients supports a role of autoimmunity against ARHGAP26 in the pathogenesis of ACA. Moreover, the finding of ovarian cancer in one of our patients suggests that anti-Ca/anti-ARHGAP26-positive ACA might be of paraneoplastic aetiology in some cases. In conclusion, testing for anti-Ca/anti-ARHGAP26 should be included in the diagnostic work-up of patients with ACA, and an underlying tumour should be considered in patients presenting with anti-Ca/ARHGAP26 antibody-positive ACA.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of CA242 in gastro-intestinal cancer. A comparison with CEA, CA50 and CA 19-9.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, O; Johansson, C.; Glimelius, B.; Persson, B.; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Lindholm, L.

    1992-01-01

    A serological assay for the quantitative determination of the novel tumour-associated epitope CA242 was developed and used for determination of sensitivity and specificity of CA242 in gastrointestinal cancer. The CA242 assay showed a better tumour specificity than CA50 (and CA 19-9). This was most noticeable in benign hepatobiliary disease. The sensitivity at 90% specificity cut-off level was approximately three times higher for CA242 compared to CA50 in colo-rectal cancer Dukes A, B and C, w...

  18. PIK3CA in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gieri eCathomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PIK3CA, the catalytic subunit of PI3K, is mutated in many different tumours, including colorectal cancer. Mutations of PIK3CA have been reported in 10 – 20% of colorectal cancer, about 80% of mutations found in two hot spots in exon 9 and exon 20. In RAS wild-type colorectal cancers, PIK3CA mutations have been associated with a worse clinical outcome and with a negative prediction of a response to targeted therapy by anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, these findings have not been confirmed in all studies and subsequent more detailed analysis has revealed that these effects may be restricted to mutations in Exon 20. Finally, mutations in PIK3CA may be the long sought biomarker for successful adjuvant therapy with aspirin in patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, PIK3CA mutations appear to be a promising predictive biomarker; however, further data are needed to conclusively define the impact of somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene for the management of patients with colorectal cancer.

  19. A comparative study of four serological tumor markers for the detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Shawn R; Beason, Kevin L; Bryant, Sabrina; Johnson, James T; Jackson, Margaret; Wilson, Cynthia; Holifield, Kay; Vincent, Charlton; Hall, Margot

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer in the world. Circulating tumor antigens are often used as a minimally invasive tool for noting breast cancer progression. The objective of this study was to compare four tumor antigens (CA 15-3, CA 27.29, alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) for their diagnostic efficacy in breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that CA 15-3 would proved to be superior to CA 27.29, CEA, and AFP in assay performance. Tumor marker assays were performed according to the manufacturers' directions. Assays used in this study were CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 (Fujirebio Diagnostics/Centocor Inc.), AFP (Abbott Inc.), and CEA (Hybritech Inc.). A total of 554 patient samples were obtained from an area hospital, plus 200 healthy adult samples which were used for the determination of normal reference intervals. The patients included patients with no disease (184), with non-malignant disease (11), with breast cancer (87), and with other types of cancer (272). Diagnostic percent sensitivities for each marker were: CA 15-3 (63%), CA 27.29 (39%), CEA (22%), and AFP (22%). Diagnostic specificities for each marker were comparable, ranging from 80-88%. Analytical parameters were evaluated for the assays and compared favorably. We concluded that CA 15-3 was the best tumor antigen for use as a diagnostic aid and monitoring agent.

  20. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in skeletal muscle health and disease

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jingsong; Yi, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Muscle uses Ca2+ as a messenger to control contraction and relies on ATP to maintain the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Mitochondria are the major sub-cellular organelle of ATP production. With a negative inner membrane potential, mitochondria take up Ca2+ from their surroundings, a process called mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Under physiological conditions, Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria promotes ATP production. Excessive uptake causes mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, which activates downstream adverse responses leading to cell dysfunction. Moreover, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake could shape spatio-temporal patterns of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Malfunction of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is implicated in muscle degeneration. Unlike non-excitable cells, mitochondria in muscle cells experience dramatic changes of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Besides the sudden elevation of Ca2+ level induced by action potentials, Ca2+ transients in muscle cells can be as short as a few milliseconds during a single twitch or as long as min...

  1. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  2. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SO-CALLED SYPHILIS ANTIGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-01-01

    The liver tissues of man and certain animals (dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.) yield, upon alcoholic extraction, various substances which may be divided by their physical and chemical properties into several groups. While many substances are present in the alcoholic extract, the ones possessing antigenic properties are comparatively few. The latter are responsible for the antigenic properties exhibited by the whole alcoholic extract. The substances extracted with alcohol were fractionated into the following four groups. (a) Substances Insoluble in Ether and Hot Alcohol.-These are chiefly proteins and salts. The proteins are probably the minute particles of larger molecules held in apparent suspension in alcohol until all other substances are removed. The water extracted from the tissues and admixed with alcohol is also an essential factor in extracting these particles in an alcoholic solution. The salts present are the usual physiological constituents of the liver, notably, sodium chloride. The quantity of these substances extracted with alcohol varies greatly with different specimens. Biologically considered, they are neither markedly hemolytic nor anticomplementary and possess no antigenic property for the Wassermann reaction. It is important, however, to note that the proteins bind complement when mixed with certain active human sera. For this reason a preparation of antigen containing this group of substances is unsuitable for use in combination with an active serum, and should, therefore, be rejected. (b) Substances Insoluble in Ether and Soluble in Hot Alcohol.-This group contains soaps, cleavage products of proteins, and small amounts of the bile salts. Soaps and bile salts are very strongly hemolytic and are absolutely unfit for use as antigen. Moreover, their antigenic properties are very slight. It is best to eliminate this group of substances from the preparation of antigen. The quantity of the substances of this group extracted from different specimens

  3. Development of the Artificial Antigens for the Organophosphorus Insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guo-nian; WU Gang; WU Hui-ming

    2004-01-01

    This study reported that the hapten of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos,O,Odiethyl-O-[3,5-dichloro-6-(2-carboxyethyl)thio-2-pyridyl]phosphorothioate(named AR) was synthesized by using technical grade chlorpyrifos reacted with 3-marcapropanoic acid in hot alkaline solution.The hapten was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the modified active ester method to form artificial immune antigen.The ratio of AR:BSA was 39:1.The artificial coating antigen for chlorpyrifos was synthesized by conjugating AR to ovalbumin (OVA) with the mixed-anhydride method,and the ratio was 13:1.The anti-chlorpyrifos polyclonal antibodies were obtained by using the artificial immune antigen (AR-BSA) to immune in the rabbits.

  4. MHC Class Ⅰ Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Flutter; Bin Gao

    2004-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅰ molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class Ⅰ molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class Ⅰ complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class Ⅰ expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class Ⅰ presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  5. MHC Class I Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BarryFlutter; BinGao

    2004-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class I molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class I complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class I expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class I presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  6. Characterization of oligosaccharides from an antigenic mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M; Davies, M J; Bailey, D; Gradwell, M J; Smestad-Paulsen, B; Wold, J K; Barnes, R M; Hounsell, E F

    1998-08-01

    Mannans of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been implicated as containing the allergens to which bakers and brewers are sensitive and also the antigen recognized by patients with Crohn's disease. A fraction of S. cerevisiae mannan, Sc500, having high affinity for antibodies in Crohn's patients has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy followed by fragmentation using alkaline elimination, partial acid hydrolysis and acetolysis. The released oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration on a Biogel P4 column and analyzed by fluorescence labeling, HPLC and methylation analysis. The relationship between structure and antigen activity was measured by competitive ELISA. The antigenic activity of the original high molecular weight mannan could be ascribed to terminal Manalpha1-->3Manalpha1-->2 sequences which are rarely found in human glycoproteins but were over-represented in Sc500 compared to other yeast mannans.

  7. A neuronal antigen in the brains of Alzheimer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolozin, B L; Pruchnicki, A; Dickson, D W; Davies, P

    1986-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody was prepared against pooled homogenates of brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. This antibody recognizes an antigen present in much higher concentration in certain brain regions of Alzheimer patients than in normal brain. The antigen appears to be a protein present in neurons involved in the formation of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and in some morphologically normal neurons in sections from Alzheimer brains. Partial purification and Western blot analysis revealed the antigen from Alzheimer brain to be a single protein with a molecular weight of 68,000. Application of the same purification procedure to normal brain tissue results in the detection of small amounts of a protein of lower molecular weight. PMID:3083509

  8. COTA (colon-ovarian tumor antigen). An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, K D; Fenoglio-Preiser, C M; Berry, C O; Zamora, P O; Ram, M D; Fulks, R M; Rhodes, B A

    1986-07-01

    A goat anti-serum was prepared against mucinous ovarian cyst fluid and absorbed with normal colon and a variety of normal tissues until the only residual immunoreactivity was directed against colon cancer and ovarian tumor mucin. The set of antigenic determinants defined by this anti-serum has been called COTA, standing for colon-ovarian-tumor-antigen. This highly absorbed anti-serum (anti-COTA) was used for immunohistochemical staining of 42 different tissues in parallel with staining with a goat anti-CEA, which was also highly absorbed. The results suggest that COTA is a highly sensitive and specific antigen for colon carcinoma and may have potential for the early detection of malignant changes predictive of cancer of the colon.

  9. Artificial Loading of ASC Specks with Cytosolic Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Can Sahillioğlu

    Full Text Available Inflammasome complexes form upon interaction of Nod Like Receptor (NLR proteins with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAPMS inside the cytosol. Stimulation of a subset of inflammasome receptors including NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 triggers formation of the micrometer-sized spherical supramolecular complex called the ASC speck. The ASC speck is thought to be the platform of inflammasome activity, but the reason why a supramolecular complex is preferred against oligomeric platforms remains elusive. We observed that a set of cytosolic proteins, including the model antigen ovalbumin, tend to co-aggregate on the ASC speck. We suggest that co-aggregation of antigenic proteins on the ASC speck during intracellular infection might be instrumental in antigen presentation.

  10. Delayed type hypersensitivity to allogeneic mouse epidermal cell antigens, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low dose of ultraviolet B radiation impairs the effectiveness of epidermal cell antigens. We studied the effect of ultraviolet B radiation on the delayed type hypersensitivity induced by allogeneic epidermal cell antigen. The delayed type hypersensitivity response was assayed by footpad swelling in mice. When epidermal cells were exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (660 J/m2), their ability to induce T cells of delayed type hypersensitivity activation was markedly inhibited in any combination of recipient mice and allogeneic epidermal cells. The effect of ultraviolet B radiation on epidermal cells was observed before immunization and challenge. Ultraviolet B treated epidermal cells did not induce suppressor T cells in mice. These results indicate that ultraviolet B radiation destroys the antigenicity of epidermal cells. (author)

  11. Endothelin-1 induces intracellular [Ca2+] increase via Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel, Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and a pathway involving ETA receptors, PKC, PKA and AT1 receptors in cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG QingHua; LI XingTing; ZHONG GuoGan; ZHANG WenJie; SUN ChengWen

    2009-01-01

    Using fura-2-acetoxymethyl eater (AM) fluorescence imaging and patch clamp techniques, we found that endothelin-1 (ET-1) significantly elevated the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]1) in a dose-dependent manner and activated the L-type Ca2+ channel in cardiomyocytes isolated from rats.The effect of ET-1 on [Ca2+]1 elevation was abolished in the presence of the ETA receptor blocker BQ123,but was not affected by the ETa receptor blocker BQ788. ET-1-induced an increase in [Ca2+]1, which was inhibited 46.7% by pretreatment with a high concentration of ryanodine (10 μmol/L), a blocker of the ryanodine receptor. The ET-1-induced [Ca2+]i increase was also inhibited by the inhibltors of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor). We found that ET-1 induced an enhancement of the amplitude of the whole cell L-type Ca2+ channel current and an Increase of open-state probability (NPo) of an L-type single Ca2+ channel. BQ123 completely blocked the ET-1-induced increase in calcium channel open-state probability. In this study we demonstrated that ET-1 regulates calcium overload through a series of mechanisms that include L-type Ca2+ channel activation and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). ETa receptors, PKC, PKA and AT1 receptors may also contribute to this pathway.

  12. Endothelin-1 induces intracellular [Ca2+] increase via Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel, Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and a pathway involving ETA receptors, PKC, PKA and AT1 receptors in cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) fluorescence imaging and patch clamp techniques, we found that endothelin-1 (ET-1) significantly elevated the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner and activated the L-type Ca2+ channel in cardiomyocytes isolated from rats. The effect of ET-1 on [Ca2+]i elevation was abolished in the presence of the ETA receptor blocker BQ123, but was not affected by the ETB receptor blocker BQ788. ET-1-induced an increase in [Ca2+]i, which was inhibited 46.7% by pretreatment with a high concentration of ryanodine (10 μmol/L), a blocker of the ryanodine receptor. The ET-1-induced [Ca2+]i increase was also inhibited by the inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor). We found that ET-1 induced an enhancement of the amplitude of the whole cell L-type Ca2+ channel current and an increase of open-state probability (NPo) of an L-type single Ca2+ channel. BQ123 completely blocked the ET-1-induced increase in calcium channel open-state probability. In this study we demonstrated that ET-1 regulates calcium overload through a series of mechanisms that include L-type Ca2+ channel activation and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). ETA receptors, PKC, PKA and AT1 receptors may also contribute to this pathway.

  13. Release of Ca2+ from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Contributes to Ca2+ Signaling in Dictyostelium discoideum

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska, Zofia; Happle, Kathrin; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette; Schlatterer, Christina; Malchow, Dieter; Fisher, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Ca2+ responses to two chemoattractants, folate and cyclic AMP (cAMP), were assayed in Dictyostelium D. discoideum mutants deficient in one or both of two abundant Ca2+-binding proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), calreticulin and calnexin. Mutants deficient in either or both proteins exhibited enhanced cytosolic Ca2+ responses to both attractants. Not only were the mutant responses greater in amplitude, but they also exhibited earlier onsets, faster rise rates, earlier peaks, and faste...

  14. Localized Ca2+ uncaging induces Ca2+ release through IP3R in smooth muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WANG; Zheng CHEN; Yan XING; Xu ZHANG; Xian-zhi DONG; Guang-ju JI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Our previous study indicated that there are two types of Ca2+ release events seen in intact mouse bladder tissue. In this study our aim is to investigate the mechanism that underlies the phenomena of Ca2+ release in smooth muscle. Methods: Single cells were isolated and tissue segments were prepared by cutting the detrusor into 0.1 cm × O.5 cm strips running along the axis from the neck to the fundus. Single cells and intact tissue strips were co-loaded with the Ca2+ indicator and caged Ca2+ by incubation with 10 μmol/L Fluo-4 AM and DMNP-EDTA-AM. Fluo-4 AM fluorescence was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and local uncaging of DMNP-EGTA was achieved by brief exposure to the output of a diode-pumped, Ti:sapphire laser tuned to 730 nm. Results: Local uncaging of caged Ca2+ was able to trigger Ca2+ release events in both single cells and tissue strips from mouse bladder. The Ca2+ release events could not be blocked by ryanodine alone, but the property of the Ca2+ release was markedly altered. Surprisingly, in the presence of ryanodine, Xestospongin C completely inhibited the Ca2+ release events both in single cell and tissue experiments. Conclusion: (1) Two photon flash photolysis (TPFP) triggers Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release. This process involves release through type 2 ryanodine receptor channels; (2) TPFP results in the release of Ca2+ through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in the absence of phospholipase C activation.

  15. Internalization and presentation of myelin antigens by the brain endothelium guides antigen-specific T cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Pinheiro, Melissa A; Kamermans, Alwin; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van het Hof, Bert; Wierts, Laura; O'Toole, Tom; Boeve, Daniël; Verstege, Marleen; van der Pol, Susanne MA; van Kooyk, Yvette; de Vries, Helga E; Unger, Wendy WJ

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. Inflamed BECs internalized myelin, which was routed to endo-lysosomal compartment for processing in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. Furthermore, blocking the interaction between myelin/MHC-II complexes and myelin-reactive T-cells prevented T-cell transmigration. These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13149.001 PMID:27336724

  16. Comparing Enterovirus 71 with Coxsackievirus A16 by analyzing nucleotide sequences and antigenicity of recombinant proteins of VP1s and VP4s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16 are two major etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD. EV71 is associated with severe cases but not CA16. The mechanisms contributed to the different pathogenesis of these two viruses are unknown. VP1 and VP4 are two major structural proteins of these viruses, and should be paid close attention to. Results The sequences of vp1s from 14 EV71 and 14 CA16, and vp4s from 10 EV71 and 1 CA16 isolated in this study during 2007 to 2009 HFMD seasons were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences available in GenBank using DNAStar and MEGA 4.0. Phylogenetic analysis of complete vp1s or vp4s showed that EV71 isolated in Beijing belonged to C4 and CA16 belonged to lineage B2 (lineage C. VP1s and VP4s from 4 strains of viruses expressed in E. coli BL21 cells were used to detect IgM and IgG in human sera by Western Blot. The detection of IgM against VP1s of EV71 and CA16 showed consistent results with current infection, while none of the sera were positive against VP4s of EV71 and CA16. There was significant difference in the positive rates between EV71 VP1 and CA16 VP1 (χ2 = 5.02, P 2 = 15.30, P 2 = 26.47, P 2 = 16.78, P Conclusions EV71 and CA16 were highly diverse in the nucleotide sequences of vp1s and vp4s. The sera positive rates of VP1 and VP4 of EV71 were lower than those of CA16 respectively, which suggested a less exposure rate to EV71 than CA16 in Beijing population. Human serum antibodies detected by Western blot using VP1s and VP4s as antigen indicated that the immunological reaction to VP1 and VP4 of both EV71 and CA16 was different.

  17. Vaccination of sheep against haemonchosis with H11, a gut membrane-derived protective antigen from the adult parasite: prevention of the periparturient rise and colostral transfer of protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S J; Hole, N J; Munn, E A; Rolph, T P

    1995-07-01

    Pregnant ewes were immunised with a fraction highly enriched in the membrane glycoprotein antigen H11, isolated from the intestinal brush border of adult Haemonchus contortus. Immunity induced by immunisation was able to abolish almost completely (98-99%) the worm egg output from pregnant ewes challenged with ca. 10,000 infective larvae of H. contortus during the last trimester. Furthermore, lambs born and reared on vaccinated ewes had substantial antibody levels to H11 derived from maternal transfer. This antibody conferred moderate protection against a bolus challenge of ca. 3000 infective larvae of H. contortus in 5-week-old lambs.

  18. [Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Ewa; Waśniowska, Kazimiera

    2016-01-01

    Duffy (Fy) blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1) and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fy(a) and Fy(b), encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fy(a) and Fy(b) antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fy(a) and/or Fy(b) on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-), Fy(a-b+) and Fy(a+b+), identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-), frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fy(b) antigen. Fy(x) antigen differs from the native Fy(b) by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. PMID:26943312

  19. Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łukasik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Duffy (Fy blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1 and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fya and Fyb, encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fya and Fyb antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fya and/or Fyb on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-, Fy(a-b+ and Fy(a+b+, identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-, frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fyb antigen. Fyx antigen differs from the native Fyb by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. Tytuł główny Tak

  20. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  1. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU supports cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations, store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+-dependent gene expression in response to receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Krishna; Douglas, Sophie; Parekh, Anant B

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ flux into mitochondria is an important regulator of cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals, energy production and cell death pathways. Ca2+ uptake can occur through the recently discovered mitochondrial uniporter channel (MCU) but whether the MCU is involved in shaping Ca2+ signals and downstream responses to physiological levels of receptor stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that modest stimulation of leukotriene receptors with the pro-inflammatory signal LTC4 evokes a series of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations that are rapidly and faithfully propagated into mitochondrial matrix. Knockdown of MCU or mitochondrial depolarisation, to reduce the driving force for Ca2+ entry into the matrix, prevents the mitochondrial Ca2+ rise and accelerates run down of the oscillations. The loss of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations appeared to be a consequence of enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation of InsP3 receptors, which arose from the loss of mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering. Ca2+ dependent gene expression in response to leukotriene receptor activation was suppressed following knockdown of the MCU. In addition to buffering Ca2+ release, mitochondria also sequestrated Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels and this too was prevented following loss of MCU. MCU is therefore an important regulator of physiological pulses of cytoplasmic Ca2+.

  2. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU supports cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations, store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+-dependent gene expression in response to receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samanta

    Full Text Available Ca2+ flux into mitochondria is an important regulator of cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals, energy production and cell death pathways. Ca2+ uptake can occur through the recently discovered mitochondrial uniporter channel (MCU but whether the MCU is involved in shaping Ca2+ signals and downstream responses to physiological levels of receptor stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that modest stimulation of leukotriene receptors with the pro-inflammatory signal LTC4 evokes a series of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations that are rapidly and faithfully propagated into mitochondrial matrix. Knockdown of MCU or mitochondrial depolarisation, to reduce the driving force for Ca2+ entry into the matrix, prevents the mitochondrial Ca2+ rise and accelerates run down of the oscillations. The loss of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations appeared to be a consequence of enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation of InsP3 receptors, which arose from the loss of mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering. Ca2+ dependent gene expression in response to leukotriene receptor activation was suppressed following knockdown of the MCU. In addition to buffering Ca2+ release, mitochondria also sequestrated Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels and this too was prevented following loss of MCU. MCU is therefore an important regulator of physiological pulses of cytoplasmic Ca2+.

  3. Physical conditions in CaFe interstellar clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Gnacinski, P.; Krogulec, M.

    2007-01-01

    Interstellar clouds that exhibit strong Ca I and Fe I lines were called CaFe clouds. The ionisation equilibrium equations were used to model the column densities of Ca II, Ca I, K I, Na I, Fe I and Ti II in CaFe clouds. The chemical composition of CaFe clouds is that of the Solar System and no depletion of elements onto dust grains is seen. The CaFe clouds have high electron densities n=1 cm^-3 that leads to high column densities of neutral Ca and Fe.

  4. Relationship Between Ca2+-CaM and Ethylene-Induced PG Activity in Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; XI Yu-fang; GUAN Jun-feng; LI Guang-min

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was studied during ripening and senescence of postharvest tomatofruit at pink stage at low and normal temperature. The results showed that the PG activity increased, thendecreased during ripening and senescence of tomato. Low temperature inhibited but ethylene enhanced PGactivity. Ethylene also enhanced caimodulin content, which was dependent on Ca2+ concentration in cell.When EGTA(Ca2+ chelator), verapamil (Vp) and LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel blockers), trifluoperazine and chloro-promaize (two CaM antagonisms) were used to treat tomato fruit at green mature stage with ethylene, theycould reverse ethylene-induced increase in PG activity, but Vp, chloropromaize (CPZ), trifluoperazine(TFP) could not directly influence PG activity, which indirectly indicated that influx of Ca2+ from the ex-tracellular space including the cell wall via the Ca2+ channel localized in plasma membrane and CaM were re-quired for ethylene-induced PG activity increase and that ethylene signal transduction may be related to Ca2+- CaM messenger system.

  5. Heat and hyposmotic stimulation increase in [Ca2+]i by Ca2+ influx in rat synoviocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN WenWu; HU Fen; YANG WenXiu

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is marked by inflammatory synovitis, is a common, chronic autoimmune-disease, whose pathogenesis is complex and still unclear. In order to explore the effects of heat and hyposmotic stimuli on synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis, the changes of [Ca2+]i induced by heat, hyposmotic and 4α-PDD stimuli were observed in synoviocytes. [Ca2+]i elevation induced by heat ≥ 28℃, hyposmotic and 4α-PDD stimuli is found to be positively relative to increasing temperature, decreasing osmolality and rising concentration of 4α-PDD. Results show that there is reciprocity among these stimuli and desensitization, and that [Ca2+]i elevation depends on Ca2+ influx, but not necessarily links to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel in synoviocytes. The above characteristics of Ca2+ influx are similar to those of TRPV4. A probable mechanism has been suggested that heat and hyposmotic stimulation might increase the level of [Ca2+]i by activating the TRPV4-like channel and Ca2+ influx in the synoviocytes.

  6. Prognostic impact of prechemotherapy serum levels of HER2, CA125, and HE4 in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Brandslund, Ivan;

    2011-01-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has attracted a lot of interest as a relatively novel biomarker for ovarian carcinoma. Research focus has been directed at HE4 as a diagnostic tool with potential for better triage of women with adnexal masses but the prognostic aspect of HE4 in ovarian cancer...... patients remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of prechemotherapy serum HER2, cancer antigen 125 (CA125), and HE4 levels in ovarian cancer patients receiving standard combination chemotherapy....

  7. Relationship between Asthma and Allergic Antigens in Rural Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUEn-Chun; LIZhng-Min; 等

    1993-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most frequent and common diseases in China.It seriously threatens the health of the population.It is evident that mites present in rural houses may serve as an allergic antigen.In our survey,we have found several kindos of mites in farmers' houses in the northeastern part of China which have very close relation with asthmatic diseases.Investigations in rural houses further proved that the cause of asthma is certainly related with the allergic antigen of mites.The methods of prevention and contorl of mites are enumerated.

  8. Identification of a Carcinoembryonic Antigen Gene Family in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Kodelja, Vitam; Lucas, Kurt; Barnert, Sabine; Kleist, Sabine von; Thompson, John A.; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    The existence of a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like gene family in rat has been demonstrated through isolation and sequencing of the N- terminal domain exons of presumably five discrete genes (rnCGM1-5). This finding will allow for the first time the study of functional and clinical aspects of the tumor marker CEA and related antigens in an animal model. Sequence comparison with the corresponding regions of members of the human CEA gene family revealed a relatively low similarity at the am...

  9. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K;

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum concentr......Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  10. Cloning of a species-specific antigen of Mycobacterium bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, A J; Duffield, B J; Plackett, P

    1988-01-01

    A DNA library from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis was constructed in the expression vector lambda gt11, and the library was probed with antisera to M. bovis. Clones expressing M. bovis antigens were isolated and characterized by using M. bovis-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize a 22,000-molecular-weight protein (MPB70). MPB70 is a major protein antigen of the vaccine strain of M. bovis BCG and of virulent M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Of 32 clones ...

  11. HLA antigens in Japanese patients with myasthenia gravis.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuki, K; Juji, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Takamizawa, M; Maeda, H.; Soda, M; Nomura, Y; Segawa, M.

    1990-01-01

    HLA antigens in 104 Japanese patients and 41 families with myasthenia gravis (MG) were investigated. The frequencies of DR9 and DRw13 were significantly increased in the patients who developed MG before 3 yr of age. The DQw3 antigen was positive for all the patients that developed MG before 15 yr with only one exception. All the examined cases that developed MG before 3 yr (including this DQw3 negative patient) had the same DQA and DQB DNA restriction fragments. These HLA frequencies decrease...

  12. Mite antigen and allergen contents of house dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii,Akira

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen and allergen contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with enzyme-labelled anti-human IgE and anti-mite rabbit IgG antibodies. Antigen content was high in dust samples from homes of patients with allergy but not in samples from homes of patients with Kawasaki disease or of normal control subjects. Allergen content was high in dust samples from homes of Kawasaki disease patients. However, the values overlapped, and we considered these differences to be of little ecological significance, although the assay method itself is useful.

  13. Induction of Autoimmunity to Brain Antigens by Developmental Mercury Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yubin; Gao, Donghong; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Lawrence, David A.

    2010-01-01

    A.SW mice, which are known to be prone to mercury (Hg)-induced immune nephritis, were assessed for their ability to develop autoimmunity to brain antigens after developmental exposure to Hg. Maternal drinking water containing subclinical doses of 1.25μM methyl Hg (MeHg) or 50μM Hg chloride (HgCl2) were used to evaluate developmental (exposure from gestational day 8 to postnatal day 21) induction of immune responses to brain antigens. Only HgCl2 induced autoantibody production; the HgCl2-expos...

  14. State of the Art in Tumor Antigen and Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Chames

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of tumor immunology has resulted in multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer. However, a gap between research of new tumors markers and development of immunotherapy has been established and very few markers exist that can be used for treatment. The challenge is now to discover new targets for active and passive immunotherapy. This review aims at describing recent advances in biomarkers and tumor antigen discovery in terms of antigen nature and localization, and is highlighting the most recent approaches used for their discovery including “omics” technology.

  15. State of the Art in Tumor Antigen and Biomarker Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even-Desrumeaux, Klervi; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.chames@inserm.fr [INSERM U624, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-06-09

    Our knowledge of tumor immunology has resulted in multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer. However, a gap between research of new tumors markers and development of immunotherapy has been established and very few markers exist that can be used for treatment. The challenge is now to discover new targets for active and passive immunotherapy. This review aims at describing recent advances in biomarkers and tumor antigen discovery in terms of antigen nature and localization, and is highlighting the most recent approaches used for their discovery including “omics” technology.

  16. Regulation of antigen presentation by acidic pH

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The effect of pH on functional association of peptide antigens with APC membranes was investigated by using aldehyde-fixed B cells and class II- restricted T cell hybridomas to assess antigen/MHC complex formation. The results indicated that the rate and extent of functional peptide binding was markedly increased at pH 5.0 as compared with pH 7.3. The pH dependence of binding was preserved after pretreatment of fixed APC with pH 5.0 buffer, suggesting that pH had a direct effect on the intera...

  17. HLA-DP antigens in patients with alopecia areata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, N; Georgsen, J;

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of HLA-DP antigens were studied in 41 patients with alopecia areata (AA) and 188 ethnically matched controls. An increase of DR4 and possibly DR5 in 24 of these patients has previously been reported. HLA-DP typing for DPw1 through w6 and the local specificity, CDP HEI, was perfor......The distribution of HLA-DP antigens were studied in 41 patients with alopecia areata (AA) and 188 ethnically matched controls. An increase of DR4 and possibly DR5 in 24 of these patients has previously been reported. HLA-DP typing for DPw1 through w6 and the local specificity, CDP HEI...

  18. HLA ANTIGENS AND VOGT-KOYANAGI- HARADA'S DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    Thirty patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Haradas disease were typed for HLA-A and HLA-B antigenic determinants by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA-B22 antigen showed an increased frequency of 43.3% in the patient group(relative risk=8.69; exact P<0.0001; corrected P<0.0025) compared with normal control group(frequency=7.69%). This association suggests that immunogenetic factor may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease.

  19. Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keokhamphoui, C; Urwijitaroon, Y; Kongphaly, D; Thammavong, T

    2012-01-01

    Blood group antigens can be distributed differently within different nationalities. Therefore, information about the prevalence of blood group antigens in the Lao population will be useful for providing better blood transfusion services in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of blood group antigens in Lao blood donors. Blood samples from 464 Lao national volunteer blood donors were typed for antigens in various blood group systems including ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego. The results show similar antigen prevalence to that among Northeast Thais for ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems. In the ABO system, 0 was the highest at 37.72 percent,followed by 35.56 percent B, 19.83 percent A1, 6.47 percent A1B,and 0.43 percent A2B. The common phenotypes were D+C+E-ce+at 60.43 percent, M+N-S-s+ at 46.55 percent, Fy(a+b-) at 80.82 percent, Jk(a+b+) at 39.44 percent, and kk at 99.72 percent.Interestingly, Le(a-b-) was found at 50.43 percent, which was significantly higher than previous reports in Thais and Taiwanese.The P1 antigen was found in only 18.97 percent, which is much lower than in Whites and Blacks. Rare phenotypes were Fy(a-b+)and Jk(a-b-), found at 0.22 percent and 4.31 percent, respectively.In terms of negative antigens the study shows 0.22 percent Fy(a-), 35.34 percent Jk(a-), 29.53 percent Jk(b-), 3.04 percent C-, 2.39 percent e-, and 5.17 percent M-. The high prevalence of C, e, and Fy" and immunogenicity of these antigens may induce alloimmunization in transfusion-dependent patients, creating difficulties providing blood from Lao donors. The information obtained from this study will be useful for improving transfusion therapy in the country, especially for estimation of the availability of compatible blood for patients who have produced antibodies. PMID:23421543

  20. Ca2+ Alternans in a Cardiac Myocyte Model that Uses Moment Equations to Represent Heterogeneous Junctional SR Ca2+

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas, Marco A; Smith, Gregory D.; Györke, Sándor

    2010-01-01

    Multiscale whole-cell models that accurately represent local control of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac myocytes can reproduce high-gain Ca2+ release that is graded with changes in membrane potential. Using a recently introduced formalism that represents heterogeneous local Ca2+ using moment equations, we present a model of cardiac myocyte Ca2+ cycling that exhibits alternating sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release when periodically stimulated by depolarizing voltage pulses. The model...

  1. Screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen Western blot assay: evidence for a wide distribution among Old World primates and identification of four new divergent viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) belong to a genetically and antigenically diverse class of retroviruses that naturally infect a wide range of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and can also be transmitted to humans occupationally exposed to NHPs. Current serologic detection of SFV infection requires separate Western blot (WB) testing by using two different SFV antigens [SFVAGM (African green monkey) and SFVCPZ (chimpanzee)]. However, this method is labor intensive and validation is limited to only small numbers of NHPs. To facilitate serologic SFV testing, we developed a WB assay that combines antigens from both SFVAGM and SFVCPZ. The combined-antigen WB (CA-WB) assay was validated with 145 serum samples from 129 NHPs (32 African and Asian species) and 16 humans, all with known SFV infection status determined by PCR. Concordant CA-WB results were obtained for all 145 PCR-positive or -negative primate and human specimens, giving the assay a 100% sensitivity and specificity. In addition, no reactivity was observed in sera from persons positive for human immunodeficiency virus or human T cell lymphotropic virus (HIV/HTLV) (n = 25) or HIV/HTLV-negative U.S. blood donors (n = 100). Using the CA-WB assay, we screened 360 sera from 43 Old World primate species and found an SFV prevalence of about 68% in both African and Asian primates. We also isolated SFV from the blood of four seropositive primates (Allenopithecus nigroviridis, Trachypithecus francoisi, Hylobates pileatus, and H. leucogenys) not previously known to be infected with SFV. Phylogenetic analysis of integrase sequences from these isolates confirmed that all four SFVs represent new, distinct, and highly divergent lineages. These results demonstrate the ability of the CA-WB assay to detect infection in a large number of NHP species, including previously uncharacterized infections with divergent SFVs

  2. Molecular cloning of cDNA for the human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 and identification of related transmembrane antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szala, S.; Kasai, Yasushi; Steplewski, Z.; Rodeck, U.; Koprowski, H.; Linnenbach, A.J. (Wistar Inst. of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 is a monoclonal antibody-defined cell surface glycoprotein of 27-34 kDa. By using the high-efficiency COS cell expression system, a full-length cDNA clone for CO-029 was isolated. When transiently expressed in COS cells, the cDNA clone directed the synthesis of an antigen reactive to monoclonal antibody CO-029 in mixed hemadsorption and immunoblot assays. Sequence analysis revealed that CO-029 belongs to a family of cell surface antigens that includes the melanoma-associated antigen ME491, the leukocyte cell surface antigen CD37, and the Sm23 antigen of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. CO-029 and ME491 antigen expression and the effect of their corresponding monoclonal antibodies on cell growth were compared in human tumor cell lines of various histologic origins.

  3. Feasibility and constraints of particle targeting using the antigen-antibody interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokárová, Viola; Pittermannová, Anna; Král, Vlastimil; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Štěpánek, František

    2013-11-01

    This work is concerned with the surface modification of fluorescent silica nanoparticles by a monoclonal antibody (M75) and the specific bioadhesion of such particles to surfaces containing the PG domain of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), which is a trans-membrane protein specifically expressed on the surfaces of several tumor cell lines. The adhesion strength of antibody-bearing silica nanoparticles to antigen-bearing surfaces was investigated under laminar flow conditions in a microfluidic cell and compared to the adhesion of unmodified silica nanoparticles and nanoparticles coupled with an unspecific antibody. Adhesion to cancer cells using flow cytometry was also investigated and in all cases the adhesion strength of M75-modified nanoparticles was significantly stronger than for the unmodified or unspecific nanoparticles, up to several orders of magnitude in some cases. The specific modification of nano- and microparticles by an antibody-like protein therefore appears to be a feasible approach for the targeting of tumor cells.This work is concerned with the surface modification of fluorescent silica nanoparticles by a monoclonal antibody (M75) and the specific bioadhesion of such particles to surfaces containing the PG domain of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), which is a trans-membrane protein specifically expressed on the surfaces of several tumor cell lines. The adhesion strength of antibody-bearing silica nanoparticles to antigen-bearing surfaces was investigated under laminar flow conditions in a microfluidic cell and compared to the adhesion of unmodified silica nanoparticles and nanoparticles coupled with an unspecific antibody. Adhesion to cancer cells using flow cytometry was also investigated and in all cases the adhesion strength of M75-modified nanoparticles was significantly stronger than for the unmodified or unspecific nanoparticles, up to several orders of magnitude in some cases. The specific modification of nano- and microparticles by an antibody

  4. Expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. Methods mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1. Results MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20. In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41 and 36.6% (15/41, while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41 and 14.6% (6/41. In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7 and 14.3% (1/7. The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P P Conclusion Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. These genes can be used as one of the important indicators for early diagnosis, efficacy evaluation and prognostic determination of ovarian cancer.

  5. Multiplex FISH telomere integrity assay identifies an unbalanced cryptic translocation der(5)t(3;5)(q27;p15.3) in a family with three mentally retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, M; Popp, S; Keller, M; Holtgreve-Grez, H; Brough, M; Schoell, B; Rauterberg-Ruland, I; Hager, H D; Tariverdian, G; Jauch, A

    2000-07-01

    Cryptic rearrangements involving the terminal regions of chromosomes are suspected to be the cause of idiopathic mental retardation in a significant number of cases. This finding highlights the necessity of a primary screening test for such chromosome aberrations. Here we present a multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization telomere integrity assay which allows the detection of submicroscopic aberrations in the telomeric regions of all chromosomes. This novel approach identified an unbalanced cryptic translocation der(5)t(3;5)(q27;p15.3) in a family with three cases of unexplained mental retardation and dysmorphic features. The symptoms of the patients represent neither the classical dup(3q)- nor cri du chat syndrome, although all affected individuals demonstrate several features of both syndromes. The identification of two balanced translocation carriers emphasizes the significance of the telomere integrity assay for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:10982035

  6. Localization of human cell cycle regulatory genes CDC25C to 5q31 and WEE1 to 11p15. 3-11p15. 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taviaux, S.A.; Demaille, J.G. (CRBM-CNRS and U 249 INSERM, Montpellier (France))

    1993-01-01

    The cell cycle control genes are highly conserved during evolution since they play a key role in the regulation of cell division. We have localized CDC25C and WEE1 respectively at 5q31 and 11p15.3-11p15.1 using fluorescent in situ hybridization of cDNA probes on human chromosomes. This shows that genes acting through a regulatory phosphorylation cascade are not clustered on the same chromosome. Furthermore, they appear to map on chromosomal regions involved in tumorigenesis. The 5q23-q31 region of chromosome 5 is deleted in some hematologic disorders, and the p15 region of chromosome 11 is involved in development of embryonic tumors. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Gliadin peptides induce tissue transglutaminase activation and ER-stress through Ca2+ mobilization in Caco-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Caputo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD is an intestinal inflammatory condition that develops in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to dietary wheat gliadin. The role of post-translational modifications of gliadin catalyzed by tissue transglutaminase (tTG seems to play a crucial role in CD. However, it remains to be established how and where tTG is activated in vivo. We have investigated whether gliadin peptides modulate intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis and tTG activity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied Ca(2+ homeostasis in Caco-2 cells by single cell microfluorimetry. Under our conditions, A-gliadin peptides 31-43 and 57-68 rapidly mobilized Ca(2+ from intracellular stores. Specifically, peptide 31-43 mobilized Ca(2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria, whereas peptide 57-68 mobilized Ca(2+ only from mitochondria. We also found that gliadin peptide-induced Ca(2+ mobilization activates the enzymatic function of intracellular tTG as revealed by in situ tTG activity using the tTG substrate pentylamine-biotin. Moreover, we demonstrate that peptide 31-43, but not peptide 57-68, induces an increase of tTG expression. Finally, we monitored the expression of glucose-regulated protein-78 and of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-homologous protein, which are two biochemical markers of ER-stress, by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. We found that chronic administration of peptide 31-43, but not of peptide 57-68, induces the expression of both genes. CONCLUSIONS: By inducing Ca(2+ mobilization from the ER, peptide 31-43 could promote an ER-stress pathway that may be relevant in CD pathogenesis. Furthermore, peptides 31-43 and 57-68, by activating intracellular tTG, could alter inflammatory key regulators, and induce deamidation of immunogenic peptides and gliadin-tTG crosslinking in enterocytes and specialized antigen-presenting cells.

  8. Immune complexes that contain HIV antigens activate peripheral blood T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolevskaya, L B; Shmagel, K V; Saidakova, E V; Shmagel, N G; Chereshnev, V A

    2016-07-01

    Uninfected donor T cells were treated in vitro by model immune complexes that contained either HIV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens. Unlike HCV antigen-containing complexes, the immune complexes that contained HIV antigens have been shown to activate peripheral blood T cells of uninfected donors under in vitro conditions. Both the antiviral antibodies and HIV antigen were involved in the activation process. The unique properties of the immune complexes formed by HIV antigens and antiviral antibodies are believed to result from the virus-specific antibody properties and molecular conformation of the antigen-antibody complex. PMID:27595830

  9. Swelling-activated Ca2+ channels trigger Ca2+ signals in Merkel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Haeberle

    Full Text Available Merkel cell-neurite complexes are highly sensitive touch receptors comprising epidermal Merkel cells and sensory afferents. Based on morphological and molecular studies, Merkel cells are proposed to be mechanosensory cells that signal afferents via neurotransmission; however, functional studies testing this hypothesis in intact skin have produced conflicting results. To test this model in a simplified system, we asked whether purified Merkel cells are directly activated by mechanical stimulation. Cell shape was manipulated with anisotonic solution changes and responses were monitored by Ca2+ imaging with fura-2. We found that hypotonic-induced cell swelling, but not hypertonic solutions, triggered cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients. Several lines of evidence indicate that these signals arise from swelling-activated Ca2+-permeable ion channels. First, transients were reversibly abolished by chelating extracellular Ca2+, demonstrating a requirement for Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Second, Ca2+ transients were initially observed near the plasma membrane in cytoplasmic processes. Third, voltage-activated Ca2+ channel (VACC antagonists reduced transients by half, suggesting that swelling-activated channels depolarize plasma membranes to activate VACCs. Finally, emptying internal Ca2+ stores attenuated transients by 80%, suggesting Ca2+ release from stores augments swelling-activated Ca2+ signals. To identify candidate mechanotransduction channels, we used RT-PCR to amplify ion-channel transcripts whose pharmacological profiles matched those of hypotonic-evoked Ca2+ signals in Merkel cells. We found 11 amplicons, including PKD1, PKD2, and TRPC1, channels previously implicated in mechanotransduction in other cells. Collectively, these results directly demonstrate that Merkel cells are activated by hypotonic-evoked swelling, identify cellular signaling mechanisms that mediate these responses, and support the hypothesis that Merkel cells contribute

  10. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  11. Identification of a highly antigenic linear B cell epitope within Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Lacerda Bueno

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1 is considered to be a major candidate antigen for a malaria vaccine. Previous immunoepidemiological studies of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1 have shown a higher prevalence of specific antibodies to domain II (DII of AMA-1. In the present study, we confirmed that specific antibody responses from naturally infected individuals were highly reactive to both full-length AMA-1 and DII. Also, we demonstrated a strong association between AMA-1 and DII IgG and IgG subclass responses. We analyzed the primary sequence of PvAMA-1 for B cell linear epitopes co-occurring with intrinsically unstructured/disordered regions (IURs. The B cell epitope comprising the amino acid sequence 290-307 of PvAMA-1 (SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK, with the highest prediction scores, was identified in domain II and further selected for chemical synthesis and immunological testing. The antigenicity of the synthetic peptide was identified by serological analysis using sera from P. vivax-infected individuals who were knowingly reactive to the PvAMA-1 ectodomain only, domain II only, or reactive to both antigens. Although the synthetic peptide was recognized by all serum samples specific to domain II, serum with reactivity only to the full-length protein presented 58.3% positivity. Moreover, IgG reactivity against PvAMA-1 and domain II after depletion of specific synthetic peptide antibodies was reduced by 18% and 33% (P = 0.0001 for both, respectively. These results suggest that the linear epitope SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK is highly antigenic during natural human infections and is an important antigenic region of the domain II of PvAMA-1, suggesting its possible future use in pre-clinical studies.

  12. Rationally designed inhibitor targeting antigen-trimming aminopeptidases enhances antigen presentation and cytotoxic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervoudi, Efthalia; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Birtley, James R; Seregin, Sergey S; Reeves, Emma; Kokkala, Paraskevi; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Amalfitano, Andrea; Mavridis, Irene M; James, Edward; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2013-12-01

    Intracellular aminopeptidases endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2), and as well as insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) process antigenic epitope precursors for loading onto MHC class I molecules and regulate the adaptive immune response. Their activity greatly affects the antigenic peptide repertoire presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and as a result can regulate cytotoxic cellular responses contributing to autoimmunity or immune evasion by viruses and cancer cells. Therefore, pharmacological regulation of their activity is a promising avenue for modulating the adaptive immune response with possible applications in controlling autoimmunity, in boosting immune responses to pathogens, and in cancer immunotherapy. In this study we exploited recent structural and biochemical analysis of ERAP1 and ERAP2 to design and develop phosphinic pseudopeptide transition state analogs that can inhibit this family of enzymes with nM affinity. X-ray crystallographic analysis of one such inhibitor in complex with ERAP2 validated our design, revealing a canonical mode of binding in the active site of the enzyme, and highlighted the importance of the S2' pocket for achieving inhibitor potency. Antigen processing and presentation assays in HeLa and murine colon carcinoma (CT26) cells showed that these inhibitors induce increased cell-surface antigen presentation of transfected and endogenous antigens and enhance cytotoxic T-cell responses, indicating that these enzymes primarily destroy epitopes in those systems. This class of inhibitors constitutes a promising tool for controlling the cellular adaptive immune response in humans by modulating the antigen processing and presentation pathway. PMID:24248368

  13. Modeling the contributions of Ca2+ flows to spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and cortical spreading depression-triggered Ca2+ waves in astrocyte networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    Full Text Available Astrocytes participate in brain functions through Ca(2+ signals, including Ca(2+ waves and Ca(2+ oscillations. Currently the mechanisms of Ca(2+ signals in astrocytes are not fully clear. Here, we present a computational model to specify the relative contributions of different Ca(2+ flows between the extracellular space, the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum of astrocytes to the generation of spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillations (CASs and cortical spreading depression (CSD-triggered Ca(2+ waves (CSDCWs in a one-dimensional astrocyte network. This model shows that CASs depend primarily on Ca(2+ released from internal stores of astrocytes, and CSDCWs depend mainly on voltage-gated Ca(2+ influx. It predicts that voltage-gated Ca(2+ influx is able to generate Ca(2+ waves during the process of CSD even after depleting internal Ca(2+ stores. Furthermore, the model investigates the interactions between CASs and CSDCWs and shows that the pass of CSDCWs suppresses CASs, whereas CASs do not prevent the generation of CSDCWs. This work quantitatively analyzes the generation of astrocytic Ca(2+ signals and indicates different mechanisms underlying CSDCWs and non-CSDCWs. Research on the different types of Ca(2+ signals might help to understand the ways by which astrocytes participate in information processing in brain functions.

  14. Stability relations in the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, Jürgen

    1980-10-01

    In the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6 extensive miscibility gaps between pyroxenoids and clinopyroxenes are observed. The miscibility gap between Mn-bustamite and Mn-wollastonite has been determined experimentally by a hydrothermal technique between 400° and 1200° C at P f= 2 kbar. Further experiments have been performed at P f=9 kbar, which revealed a shifting of the miscibility gap towards more Ca-rich compositions. The bustamite phase is stabilized by high pressures and the wollastonite structure is the stable phase at high temperatures. Similar phase relations as along the join CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6 exist along the join CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 but with a more extensive two-phase field of bustamite-clinopyroxene. Possible phase relations along the joins CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6, CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 and CaFeSi2O6-CaMnSi2O6 are given in temperature-composition diagrams for low pressures, based on natural and experimental data.

  15. Examination of Serum Class I Antigen in Allograft Recipient Rats : Origin and control of serum class I antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Sumimoto, Ryo; Fukuda, Yasuhiko; Shinomiya, Takahisa; Asahara, Toshimasa; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    We examined the appearance of DA type (RT1Aa) class I antigen in the serum of rats that had received isogeneic or allogeneic liver grafts (DA into DA, DA into LEW, PVG into DA, PVG into F1 hybrid (DAxPVG). Recipient LEW rats were given either one injection of the anti-CD8 mAb, OX-8, following thymectomy or anti-CD4 mAb (cocktail of OX-35 and OX-38) following thymectomy 3 days prior to liver grafting. We also tested the serum RT1Aa antigen titer of F1 (DAxPVG) recipients after PVG spleen trans...

  16. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  17. Clinical significance of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and its relationship with blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武秀玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) .Methods Totally 784 T2DM patients and 197 healthy controls were enrolled in this study.Age,duration,body mass index (BMI) ,systolic blood pressure (SBP) ,diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ,levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) ,postprandial blood glucose (PBG) ,hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride (TG) ,

  18. Sulfide capacity of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Katsujiro; Maeda, Masafumi; Sano, Nobuo

    1990-02-01

    The sulfide capacity C S 2- = (pct S2-) · ( P O 2/ P S 2)1/2) of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags saturated with CaO, 3CaO · SiO2 or 2CaOSiO2 was determined at 1200 °C, 1250 °C, 1300 °C, and 1350 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2 gas mixtures. Higher sulfide capacities were obtained for CaO-saturated slags. A drastic decrease was observed in those values when the ratio pct CaO/pct SiO2 is less than 2. The sulfur partition between carbon-saturated iron melts and presently investigated slags was calculated by using the sulfide capacities obtained and the activity coefficient of sulfur in carbon-saturated iron, which was also experimentally determined. For slags saturated with CaO, partitions of sulfur as high as 10,000 were obtained at 1300 °C and 1350 °C. Correlations between the sulfide capacity and other basicity indexes such as carbonate capacity and theoretical optical basicity were also discussed.

  19. (Meta)stable CaC{sub 2}; (Meta)stabiles CaC{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, J.; Dill, S.; Marzini, M.; Mayer, H.A.; Meyer, H.J. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2001-05-01

    One out of four modifications of CaC{sub 2} is the so-called metastable calcium carbide, CaC{sub 2}-III, which was synthesized as pure material. It forms by heating monoclinic CaC{sub 2}-II (C2/c) above 150 C and remains stable after cooling down to room temperature. The structure was refined from X-ray powder patterns (C2/m, Z = 4, a = 722.6(1) pm, b = 385.26(7) pm, c = 737.6(1) pm, {beta} = 107.345(2) ). After grinding CaC{sub 2}-III transforms back into CaC{sub 2}-II. Heating CaC{sub 2}-III induces a reversible phase transition into the cubic modification (CaC{sub 2}-IV) at 460 C. Differences between the three different structures of CaC{sub 2} I-III, being stable at ambient conditions are also shown by {sup 13}C-MAS-NMR measurements, especially the presence of two distinct types of carbon atoms in the structure of the title compound. (orig.)

  20. Phosphorylation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grässer, F A; Göttel, S; Haiss, P;

    1992-01-01

    A major in vivo phosphorylation site of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) was found to be localized at the C-terminus of the protein. In vitro phosphorylation studies using casein kinase 1 (CK-1) and casein kinase 2 (CK-2) revealed that EBNA-2 is a substrate for CK-2, but not for CK...