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Sample records for antifungal susceptibility testing

  1. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  2. Evaluation of antifungal susceptibility testing in Candida isolates by Candifast and disk-diffusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhartha Giri; Anupma Jyoti Kindo

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in invasive fungal infections due to Candida species and resistance to antifungal therapy, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing is becoming an important part of clinical microbiology laboratories. Along with broth microdilution and disk diffusion method, various commercial methods are being increasingly used for antifungal susceptibility testing, especially in the developed world. In our study, we compared the antifungal susceptibility patterns of 39 isolates of Candid...

  3. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing with Etest for Candida Species Isolated from Patients with Oral Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, You Bum; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    Background The necessity of performing antifungal susceptibility tests is recently increasing because of frequent cases of oral candidiasis caused by antifungal-resistant Candida species. The Etest (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) is a rapid and easy-to-perform in vitro antifungal susceptibility test. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents by using the Etest for Candida species isolated from patients with oral...

  4. Potato Dextrose Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Testing for Yeasts and Molds: Evaluation of Phosphate Effect on Antifungal Activity of CMT-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Lorne M. Golub

    2002-01-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextros...

  5. In vitro susceptibility testing of Fonsecaea pedrosoi to antifungals

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    BEDOUT Catalina de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the difficulties experienced in the treatment of chromoblastomycosis, 12 primary human isolates of F. pedrosoi, were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to various antimycotics. We adapted the recommendations of the NCCLS for yeasts and followed the indications for mold testing from other authors in order to determine their MIC?s and the MLC?s. It was found that a significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to 3 of the 4 antimycotics tested, as revealed by high MIC values, as follows: 33% were resistant to amphotericin B (AMB, 58.3% to 5 fluocytosine (5 FC and 66.7% to fluconazole (FLU. Contrarywise, none of the isolates proved resistant to itraconazole (ITZ. Determination of the MLC?s revealed that a larger proportion of the isolates were not killed by AMB, 5 FC (91.7%, FLU (100% or even, ITZ (41.7%. These data indicate that it would be desirable to determine the susceptibility of F. pedrosoi before initiating therapy, in order to choose the more effective antifungal and avoid clinical failure

  6. Flow cytometry susceptibility testing for conventional antifungal drugs and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Macrodilution Test

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    M.J. Najafzadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last decade, the incidence of fungal infection has been increased in many countries. Because of the advent of resistant to antifungal agents, determination of an efficient strategic plan for treatment of fungal disease is an important issue in clinical mycology. Many methods have been introduced and developed for determination of invitro susceptibility tests. During the recent years, flow cytometry has developed to solving the problem and many papers have documented the usefulness of this technique. Materials and methods: As the first step, the invitro susceptibility of standard PTCC (Persian Type of Culture Collection strain and some clinical isolates of Candida consisting of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyer and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by macrodilution broth method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and flow cytometry susceptibility test. Results:  The data indicated that macro dilution broth methods and flow cytometry have the same results in determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole in C. albicans PTCC 5027 as well as clinical Candida isolates, such as C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, C.glabrata C.kefyr, and C.parapsilosis. Discussion: Comparing the results obtained by macrodilution broth and flow cytometry methods revealed that flow cytometry was faster. It is suggested that flow cytometry susceptibility test can be used as a powerful tool for determination of MIC and administration of the best antifungal drug in treatment of patients with Candida infections.

  7. Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole

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    E Takahagi-Nakaira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

  8. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163. ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  9. Genotyping and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Fusarium Isolates from Onychomycosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chhavi; Jongman, Marit; Das, Shukla; Snehaa, K; Bhattacharya, S N; Seyedmousavi, S; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2016-08-01

    Onychomycosis refers to fungal infection of the nail and is commonly caused by dermatophytes, while yeasts and non-dermatophytic molds (NDM) are increasingly recognized as pathogens in nail infections. The present study was done to delineate molecular epidemiology of Fusarium onychomycosis in India. Five hundred nail samples of Indian patients clinically suspected of onychomycosis were subjected to direct microscopy and fungal culture. Representative Fusarium isolates were further identified to species level by multi-locus sequencing for internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1-α) and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) regions (primer pairs: ITS1/ITS4, EF1/EF2, 5f2/7cr, respectively). These representative strains were also tested for in vitro antifungal susceptibility by the broth microdilution method. Members of the genus Fusarium proved to be the most common NDM responsible for onychomycosis. The Fusarium spp. responsible for onychomycosis belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (F. keratoplasticum and F. falciforme) and Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (F. proliferatum, F. acutatum and F. sacchari). Antifungal susceptibility results indicated that amphotericin B was the most effective antifungal across all isolates (MIC ranging 0.5-2 mg/L), followed by voriconazole (MIC ranging 1-8 µg/ml). However, a large variation was shown in susceptibility to posaconazole (MIC ranging 0.5 to >16 µg/ml). To conclude, we identified different Fusarium spp. responsible for onychomycosis in India with variation within species in susceptibility to antifungal agents, showing that fusariosis requires correct and prompt diagnosis as well as antifungal susceptibility testing. PMID:27138574

  10. Multilaboratory Evaluation of In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes for ME1111.

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    Ghannoum, M; Chaturvedi, V; Diekema, D; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Rennie, R; Walsh, T; Wengenack, N; Fothergill, A; Wiederhold, N

    2016-03-01

    ME1111 is a novel small molecule antifungal agent under development for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Standardization of the susceptibility testing method for this candidate antifungal is needed. Toward this end, 8 independent laboratories determined the interlaboratory reproducibility of ME1111 susceptibility testing. In addition, we subsequently identified 2 strains as quality control (QC) isolates for the method. In the reproducibility study, 5 blinded clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were tested, while the QC study tested 6 blinded T. rubrum or T. mentagrophytes ATCC strains. Testing was performed in frozen microtiter panels according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 methodology. In the reproducibility study, 9 of 15 clinical strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90% at the 80% inhibition endpoint, with a range of agreement of 76.2% to 100%. In the QC study, 4 of the 6 ATCC strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90%. ME1111 demonstrated excellent interlaboratory agreement when tested against dermatophytes. Based on this data, the CLSI Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Tests approved the susceptibility testing of ME1111 against dermatophytes according to M38-A2 methodology, which stipulates RPMI 1640 as the test medium, an inoculum size of 1 to 3 × 10(3) CFU/ml, and an incubation time and temperature of 96 h at 35°C. The MIC endpoint should be 80% inhibition compared with the growth control. T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 28185 were selected as QC isolates, with an acceptable range of 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for the two strains. PMID:26719434

  11. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

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    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  12. Use of the Sensititre Colorimetric Microdilution Panel for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol, I.; Capilla, J.; Fernández-Torres, B.; Ortoneda, M.; Guarro, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel was used to test 49 dermatophytes belonging to the species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The MICs of four antifungals obtained with the Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel were compared with those obtained by the reference NCCLS microdilution method. The levels of agreement between the two methods (≤2 dilutions) were 81.6% with amphoterici...

  13. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing to Determine MIC of Amphotericine B, Fluconazole and Ketoconazole against Ocular Fungal Infection

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    Mitesh H. Patel, Avani M. Patel, Sachin M. Patel, Govind L Ninama, Kamlesh R. Patel, Bharti C. Lavingia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To standardize In-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing by agar dilution method to find out minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Amphotericine B, fluconazole and ketoconazole against ocular fungal isolates. Methods: A total of 90 isolates (25 yeast & 65 filamentous fungi were included. The drugs were added in serial double dilution in medium containing yeast nitrogen base. The MIC was determined by inhibition of visible growth on lowest concentration of drug containing media as comparing with visible growth on drug free media. Results: Out of 25 yeast isolate, all are sensitive to Amphotericine B, 8 % & 12 % are resistant to Fluconazole & ketoconazole respectively. Out of 65 Filamentous fungi, 3 %, 20 % & 28 % are resistant to Amphotericin B, Fluconazole & Ketoconazole respectively. Conclusion: The methodology used in study is user’s friendly, reliable & cost effective.

  14. Susceptibility of Clinical Candida Species Isolates to Antifungal Agents by E-Test, Southern Iran: A Five Year Study

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    A Alborzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The incidence of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has increased in recent years. This study was designed to identify Candida species and determine antifungal susceptibility patterns of 595 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens.Material and Methods: Identification of the isolates were determined by the API 20 C AUX kit and antifungal susceptibilities of the species to fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were determined by the agar-based E-test method.Results: Candida albicans (48% was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida kruzei (16.1%, Candida glabrata (13.5%, Candida kefyr (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis (4.8%, Candida tropicalis (1.7% and other species (8.5%. Resistance varies depending on the species and the respective antifungal agents. Comparing the MIC90 for all the strains, the lower MIC90 was observed for caspofungin (0.5 μg/ml. The MIC90 for all Candida species were 64 μg/ml for fluconazole, 0.75 μg/ml for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml for ketoconazole, 4 μg/ml for itraconazole, and 2 μg/ml for voriconazole.Conclusions: Species definition and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns are advised for the proper management and treatment of patients at risk for systemic candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial fungal infections.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of FUNGITEST and Broth Microdilution Methods for Antifungal Drug Susceptibility Testing of Candida Species and Cryptococcus neoformans

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, Kate G.; Holmes, Ann D.; Elizabeth M. Johnson; Szekely, Adrien; Warnock, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The FUNGITEST method (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Paris, France) is a microplate-based procedure for the breakpoint testing of six antifungal agents (amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole). We compared the FUNGITEST method with a broth microdilution test, performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-A guidelines, for determining the in vitro susceptibilities of 180 isolates of Candida spp. (50 C. albica...

  16. Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples at Sohag University Hospital in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mona Fattouh Mohamed; El-din, Asmaa Nasr; El-Hamd, Mohammed Abu

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and explore the in-vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of dermatophytes isolated from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis (tinea infections) attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. Methods This study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital from December 2014 to December 2015. Clinical samples (e.g., skin scrapings and hair stumps) were collected under aseptic precautions. The identification of dermatophytes was performed through microscopic examination using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) with 40% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) mounts and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and on Dermasel agar base media, both supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. All dermatophytes isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing using the agar-based disk diffusion (ABDD) method against Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Fluconazole, and Griseofulvin. Data were analyzed via SPSS 16, using Chi square and a screening test (cross-tabulation method). Results A total of 110 patients of dermatophytosis were studied. The patients were clinically diagnosed and mycologically confirmed as having tinea capitis (49), tinea corporis (30), tinea pedis (16), tinea cruris (9), or tinea barbae (6). The dermatophytes isolates belonged to 4 species: Microsporum canis 58 (52.7%), Microsporum gypseum 23 (20.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18 (16.4%), and Microsporum audouinii 11 (10%). The most effective antifungal drugs tested were Clotrimazole, followed by Miconazole (95.5% and 84.5% of isolates were susceptible, respectively). Conclusion Every patient with a tinea infection should be properly studied for a mycological examination and should be treated accordingly. Dermasel agar is more useful as an identification medium in the isolation of dermatophytes. The ABDD method appears to be a simple, cost-effective, and promising method for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes. PMID

  17. Role of Antifungal Susceptibility Testing in Non-Aspergillus Invasive Mold Infections.

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    Lamoth, Frédéric; Damonti, Lauro; Alexander, Barbara D

    2016-06-01

    No clinical breakpoints are available to delineate antifungal drug efficacy in non-Aspergillus invasive mold infections (NAIMIs). In this analysis of 39 NAIMI episodes, the MIC of the first-line antifungal drug was the most important predictor of therapeutic response. For amphotericin B, an MIC of ≤0.5 μg/ml was significantly associated with better 6-week outcomes. PMID:27008871

  18. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species complex in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

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    Esther Manso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Aspergillus spp. infection can be encountered in the antifungal drug-exposed patient due to selection of intrinsically resistant species or isolates with acquired resistance belonging to species that are normally susceptible. Resistance to triazoles is not common in Aspergillus spp., however, triazole resistance in A. fumigatus appears to be increasing in several European countries in recent years and can be clinically relevant. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Aspergillus spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important.

  19. EUCAST technical note on isavuconazole breakpoints for Aspergillus, itraconazole breakpoints for Candida and updates for the antifungal susceptibility testing method documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, M C; Meletiadis, J; Mouton, J W; Guinea, J; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Lagrou, K; Howard, S J

    2016-06-01

    The Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing (AFST) of the ESCMID European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) has determined breakpoints for isavuconazole and Aspergillus and for itraconazole and Candida spp., released a new document summarizing existing and new minimum inhibitory concentration ranges for quality control strains and revised the method documents for yeast and mould susceptibility testing. This technical note is based on the EUCAST isavuconazole and itraconazole rationale documents, version 1.0 of the routine and extended internal quality control for antifungal susceptibility testing as recommended by EUCAST, and the E.Def 7.3, E.Def 9.2 and E.Def 9.3 method documents (http://www.eucast.org). PMID:26851656

  20. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes: Establishing a Medium for Inducing Conidial Growth and Evaluation of Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, C. J.; Warner, J.; Isham, N.; Hasan, I.; Ghannoum, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    A standardized reference method for dermatophyte in vitro susceptibility testing is lacking. In a previous study, Norris et al. (H. A. Norris, B. E. Elewski, and M. A. Ghannoum, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40(6, part 2):S9–S13) established the optimal medium and other growth variables. However, the earlier study did not address two issues: (i) selection of an optimal medium for conidial formation by dermatophytes and (ii) validation of the method with a large number of dermatophytes. The present s...

  1. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  2. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

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    Esther Manso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the management of fungaemia have occurred in the last decade with increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis, of empirical treatment and of echinocandins as first-line agents for documented disease. The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Candida may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug naïve patient The variation in resistance rates between centers emphasizes that it is essential to have knowledge of the local Candida species distribution and antifungal resistance rates to guide initial therapy for Candida BSI. Moreover, all Candida isolates from blood and normally sterile sites should be identified to the species level. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Candida spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important. Vitek 2®, Etest® and Sensititre YeastOne® provided a high degree of essential agreement and comparable sensitivity and specificity to BMD-RPMI for identifying resistance to azole and echinocandins in Candida spp.

  3. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. PMID:26658315

  4. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections Teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais

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    Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte Mascaro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 µg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 µg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.OBJETIVO: Relatar resultados e avaliar a aplicabilidade do teste de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais oculares. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se teste de suscetibilidade pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, padronizado pelo NCCLS-EUA, em 15 amostras de leveduras de infecções corneanas a anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol e ketoconazol. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos episódios de infecção corneal foi causada por Candida albicans. As drogas antifúngicas testadas exibiram valores de concentra

  5. Standardization of Antifungal Susceptibility Variables for a Semiautomated Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Díaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Mellado, Emilia

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the methodology that will serve as a basis of the standard for antifungal susceptibility testing of fermentative yeasts of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing has been described. This procedure employs a spectrophotometric method for both inoculum adjustment and endpoint determination. However, the utilization of a spectrophotometer requires studies for standardization. The present work analyzes the following parameters: (i) accuracy of inoculum preparation, ...

  6. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans

    OpenAIRE

    Archibald, Lennox K.; Tuohy, Marion J.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Kazembe, Peter N.; Tansuphasawadikul, Somsit; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Chaovavanich, Achara; Reller, L. Barth; Jarvis, William R.; Hall, Gerri S.; Procop, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibility profiles of medically important fungi in less-developed countries remain uncharacterized. We measured the MICs of amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole for Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from Thailand, Malawi, and the United States and found no evidence of resistance or MIC profile differences among the countries.

  7. Optimization and Isolation of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing By Disc Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amodkumar Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available India is a large subcontinent with remarkably varied topography, situated within the tropical and subtropical belts of the world. In the study patients with Tinea infections were examined clinically by dermatologist. Isolation, confirmatory test were done as per the standard procedure, and Antifungal Susceptibility test was done by Disc diffusion method.Other conditions such as seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, alopecia areata, folliculitis and pseudopelade may mimic ringworm of head and other tinea must be identified. A total of sixty six patients of dermatophytosis were studied. Males were predominantly affected 51 (77% cases as compared to females15 (23% cases. Male to female ratio was 3.4:1. Most common age group affected was 21-30 years with 20 cases (23%. Least common age group affected was 61-70 years with 3 cases (4%.Tinea corporis was more common in the age group 21-30 years with 13 cases (37.14% and in males with 29 cases (82.85% than females with 6 cases (17.15%.Tinea unguium was more common in the age group of 31-40 years with 6 cases (37.5% and in males with 10 cases (62.5% than females with 6 cases (37.5%.Tinea cruris was more common in the age group 51-60 years with 2 cases (40% and was more common in males with 5 cases (100%.In tinea pedis, one case was seen in the age group of 11-20 years and the other in the age group of 41-50 and 51-60 years, and was more common in males with 3 cases (100%.Tinea barbae was more common in the age group 21-30 years with 2 cases (66.66% .Tinea capitis was more common in the age group of 31-40 years with 2 cases (66.66% and was more common in females with 3 cases (100%. Tinea manuum was more common in the age group of 31-40 years and in males with 1 case (100%. In males, commonest infection was T. corporis while in female commonest infection was T.corporis.rate of direct microscopy and culture (78.79%. About 89.47% of the dermatophytes grew faster in DTM with compare to SDA, so the growth rate of

  8. Sporothrix schenckii complex in Iran: Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Shahram; Zaini, Farideh; Kordbacheh, Parivash; Safara, Mahin; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a global subcutaneous fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Sporotrichosis is an uncommon infection in Iran, and there have been no phenotypic, molecular typing or antifungal susceptibility studies of Sporothrix species. This study aimed to identify nine Iranian isolates of the S. schenckii complex to the species level using colony morphology, carbohydrate assimilation tests, and PCR-sequencing of the calmodulin gene. The antifungal susceptibilities of these Sporothrix isolates to five antifungal agents (amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VRC), itraconazole (ITC), fluconazole (FLC), and terbinafine (TRB)) were also evaluated according to the M27-A3 and M38-A2 protocols of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for yeast and mycelial phases, respectively. Five of seven clinical isolates were identified as S. schenckii, and two clinical and two environmental isolates were identified as S. globosa. This is the first report of S. globosa in Iran. There was significant agreement (73%) between the results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. TRB and ITC were the most effective antifungals against the Sporothrix isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of TRB for the yeast and mycelial phases of S. schenckii differed significantly. There was also a significant difference in the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of AMB and TRB for the two phases. Considering the low efficacy of VRC and FLC and the wide MIC ranges of AMB (1-16 μg/ml and 1-8 μg/ml for yeast and mycelial forms, respectively) observed in the present study, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed to determine appropriate therapeutic regimens. PMID:26933207

  9. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.;

    2013-01-01

    set of Rasamsonia argillacea strains, including 28 clinical strains, was studied, and antifungal susceptibility profiles were generated. Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial _-tubulin and calmodulin sequences revealed...... recently reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole...

  10. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

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    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  11. Diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Norwegian Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kari-Mette; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Ingebretsen, André; Vikholt, Katharina Johnsen; Örtengren, Ulf Thore; Olsen, Ingar; Enersen, Morten; Gaustad, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients have resulted in greater incidence of invasive fungal infections with high mortality. Candida albicans infections dominate, but during the last decade, Candida glabrata has become the second highest cause of candidemia in the United States and Northern Europe. Reliable and early diagnosis, together with appropriate choice of antifungal treatment, is needed to combat these challenging infections. Objectives To confirm the identity of 183 Candida glabrata isolates from different human body sites using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and VITEK®2, and to analyze isolate protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven antifungal drugs was determined for the isolates to elucidate susceptibility. Design A total of 183 C. glabrata isolates obtained between 2002 and 2012 from Norwegian health-care units were analyzed. For species verification and differentiation, biochemical characterization (VITEK®2) and mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF) were used. MIC determination for seven antifungal drugs was undertaken using E-tests®. Results Using VITEK®2, 92.9% of isolates were identified as C. glabrata, while all isolates (100%) were identified as C. glabrata using MALDI-TOF. Variation in protein spectra occurred for all identified C. glabrata isolates. The majority of isolates had low MICs to amphotericin B (≤1 mg/L for 99.5%) and anidulafungin (≤0.06 mg/L for 98.9%). For fluconazole, 18% of isolates had MICs >32 mg/L and 82% had MICs in the range ≥0.016 mg/L to ≤32 mg/L. Conclusions Protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility characteristics of the C. glabrata isolates were diverse. Clustering of protein profiles indicated that many azole resistant isolates were closely related. In most cases, isolates had highest susceptibility to amphotericin B and anidulafungin. The results confirmed previous observations of high

  12. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  13. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia furfur from bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatta, Roberta; Figueredo, Luciana A; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Fungaemia caused by Malassezia spp. in hospitalized patients requires prompt and appropriate therapy, but standard methods for the definition of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility have not been established yet. In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of Malassezia furfur from bloodstream infections (BSIs) to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (POS) and voriconazole (VRC) was assessed using the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) with different media such as modified Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), RPMI and Christensen's urea broth (CUB). Optimal broth media that allow sufficient growth of M. furfur, and produce reliable and reproducible MICs using the CLSI BMD protocol were assessed. Thirty-six M. furfur isolates collected from BSIs of patients before and during AMB therapy, and receiving FLC prophylaxis, were tested. A good growth of M. furfur was observed in RPMI, CUB and SDB at 32 °C for 48 and 72 h. No statistically significant differences were detected between the MIC values registered after 48 and 72 h incubation. ITC, POS and VRC displayed lower MICs than FLC and AMB. These last two antifungal drugs showed higher and lower MICs, respectively, when the isolates were tested in SDB. SDB is the only medium in which it is possible to detect isolates with high FLC MICs in patients receiving FLC prophylaxis. A large number of isolates showed high AMB MIC values regardless of the media used. In conclusion, SDB might be suitable to determine triazole susceptibility. However, the media, the drug formulation or the breakpoints herein applied might not be useful for assessing the AMB susceptibility of M. furfur from BSIs. PMID:25168965

  14. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of 108 clinical Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato and Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato isolates from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Hare Jensen, Rasmus; Meis, Jacques F; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by members of the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complexes. Here, we report the molecular characterisation and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Danish clinical cryptococcal isolates. Species, genotype, serotype and mating type were determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting and qPCR. EUCAST E.Def 7.2 MICs were determined for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole and isavuconazole. Most isolates were C. neoformans (serotype A; n = 66) and belonged to genotype AFLP1/VNI (n = 61) or AFLP1B/VNII (n = 5) followed by Cryptococcus deneoformans (serotype D; genotype AFLP2, n = 20), C. neoformans × C. deneoformans hybrids (serotype AD; genotype AFLP3, n = 13) and Cryptococcus curvatus (n = 2). Six isolates were C. gattii sensu lato, and one isolate was a C. deneoformans × C. gattii hybrid (genotype AFLP8). All isolates were amphotericin B susceptible. Flucytosine susceptibility was uniform MIC50 of 4-8 mg l(-1) except for C. curvatus (MICs >32 mg l(-1) ). Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato isolates were somewhat less susceptible to the azoles. MICs of fluconazole (>32 mg l(-1) ), voriconazole (≥0.5 mg l(-1) ) and isavuconazole (0.06 and 0.25 mg l(-1) respectively) were elevated compared to the wild-type population for 1/19 C. deneoformans and 1/2 C. curvatus isolates. Flucytosine MIC was elevated for 1/61 C. neoformans (>32 mg l(-1) ). Antifungal susceptibility revealed species-specific differential susceptibility, but suggested acquired resistance was an infrequent phenomenon. PMID:27061834

  15. 卢立康唑醇质体体外抗真菌活性研究%The antifungal susceptibility test in vitro of luliconazole ethosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建峰; 林碧雯; 李恒进

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study antifungal susceptibility of luliconazole ethosomes in vitro .Methods In vitro ,antifungal activity of luliconazole ethosome,liposome,hydroalcoholic solution:MICs were determined using the micro-broth dilution as-say.Results The MIC of the luliconazole ethosome was lower than that of liposome form or hydroalcoholic solution form.The MIC of luliconazole ethosome to Trichophyton spp.was lower than the sensitive degree to Candida spp.Conclusions In vitro ,the antifungal effect of luliconazole ethosome is better than luliconazole liposome or its hydroalcoholic solution.%目的:检测卢立康唑醇质体体外抗菌活性。方法采用微量液基稀释法检测卢立康唑醇质体、脂质体、45%水醇溶液对皮肤癣菌、念珠菌的体外抗菌活性。结果卢立康唑醇质体对皮肤癣菌及念珠菌的 MIC 值低于脂质体及水醇溶液,且对毛癣菌属较念珠菌属的 MIC 值更低。结论卢立康唑醇质体的体外抗菌性能优于脂质体及水醇溶液。

  16. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79 %). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4 %), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3 %), Candida tropicalis (3.2 %) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1 %). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (Ptreatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  17. Standardization of antifungal susceptibility variables for a semiautomated methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Díaz-Guerra, T M; Mellado, E

    2001-07-01

    Recently, the methodology that will serve as a basis of the standard for antifungal susceptibility testing of fermentative yeasts of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing has been described. This procedure employs a spectrophotometric method for both inoculum adjustment and endpoint determination. However, the utilization of a spectrophotometer requires studies for standardization. The present work analyzes the following parameters: (i) accuracy of inoculum preparation, (ii) correlation between optical density and CFU per milliliter, (iii) influence of the wavelength on the endpoint determination, and (iv) influence of the dimethyl sulfoxide concentration on the growth kinetics. The main results can be summarized as follows: (i) inoculum preparation following the methodology recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards is an exact procedure; (ii) the relationship between optical density and CFU per milliliter is linear (coefficient of determination, r(2) = 0.84); (iii) MICs obtained by means of spectrophotometric readings at different wavelengths are identical (for amphotericin B, an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.98 was obtained; for fluconazole, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 1); and (iv) a 2% concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide produces a significantly slower and lower growth curve of Candida spp. than other concentrations. PMID:11427562

  18. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of yeasts causing vulvovaginitis in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra, Soledad; Morano, Susana; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mancilla, Estefanía; Nardin, María Elena; de Los Angeles Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2014-10-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common mycosis. However, the information about antifungal susceptibilities of the yeasts causing this infection is scant. We studied 121 yeasts isolated from 118 patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular methods, including four phenotypic methods described to differentiate Candida albicans from C. dubliniensis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI documents M27A3 and M27S4 using the drugs available as treatment option in the hospital. Diabetes, any antibacterial and amoxicillin treatment were statistically linked with vulvovaginal candidiasis, while oral contraceptives were not considered a risk factor. Previous azole-based over-the-counter antifungal treatment was statistically associated with non-C.albicans yeasts infections. The most common isolated yeast species was C. albicans (85.2 %) followed by C. glabrata (5 %), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3.3 %), and C. dubliniensis (2.5 %). Fluconazole- and itraconazole-reduced susceptibility was observed in ten and in only one C. albicans strains, respectively. All the C. glabrata isolates showed low fluconazole MICs. Clotrimazole showed excellent potency against all but seven isolates (three C. glabrata, two S. cerevisiae, one C. albicans and one Picchia anomala). Any of the strains showed nystatin reduced susceptibility. On the other hand, terbinafine was the less potent drug. Antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon supporting the use of azole antifungals as empirical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:25005365

  19. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of clinically isolated dermatophytes in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Afshari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dermatophytes possess a wide array of virulence factors and various antifungal susceptibility patterns which influence their pathogenesis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal suscep- tibility and keratinase and proteinase activity of 49 dermatophyte strains from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton which were isolated from human cases of dermatophytosis.Materials and Methods: Forty-nine dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical samples were cultured on general and spe- cific culture media. Keratinase and proteinase activity was screened on solid mineral media and confirmed in liquid cultures. Drug susceptibility toward azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine was evaluated using disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined using microbroth dilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines.Results: Our results indicated that clinically isolated dermatophytes from 7 major species produced keratinase and protein- ase at different extents. The mean keratinase and proteinase activity was reported as 6.69 ± 0.31 (U/ml and 2.10 ± 0.22 (U/ ml respectively. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution (MIC results of antifungal susceptibility testing showed that ke- toconazole was the most effective drug against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, itraconazole against T. rubrum and E. floccosum, and griseofulvin and terbinafine against Trichophyton verrucosum. Our results showed that all dermatophyte isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Overall, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most effective drugs for all dermatophyte species tested.Conclusion: Our results showed that antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need to select drugs of choice for treatment of different types of dermatophytosis and

  20. OTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SP ISOLATED FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudramurthy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ACT: Candida , a yeast like ubiquitous fungus , is an endogenous species which produces commonest fungal infection; Candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial candidiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various types of specimens we re collected from the c linically suspected cases of candidiasis. Isolation and characterization of candida sp . was done by standard procedures. Antifungal susceptibility was done by disc diffusion method. RESULT: The candida was isolated from various clinical specimens , vaginal swab (24.66% , skin scraping (13.33% oral swabs (12.66% , ear swabs ( 11.33% , nail scraping (10% , and pus from diabetes foot ulcer and post - operative wound infection ( 8% , sputum ( 6% , urine (4.66% , stool ( 4% , blood ( 2.66% , and eye swabs ( 2.66%. Amon g different species of candida isolated C.albicans was the predominant species (79.33% followed by C tropicalis (19.33% and C.Guilliermondii (1.33%. Antifungal resistance of different species of candida was higher to fluconazole . The least resistance wa s seen with amphotericin - B (1.33%. CONCLUSION: The increased isolation of candida species and development of resistance to commonly used antifungal drugs requires careful interpretation and the in vitro susceptibility testing. This facilitates better pat ient care.

  1. TESTING ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME ESSENTIAL OILS USING FLOW CYTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Saviuc

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural antifungal compounds has become a viable alternative for fighting fungal infections since high rates of resistance to synthetic antifungal compounds has emerged. Classical techniques aimed to routinely investigate fungal susceptibility are often limited when using natural essential oils, because of their instability and great volatility that may lead to false results. In this study, we report the results obtained by classical antimicrobial susceptibility testing techniques and flow cytometry regarding the effect of some volatile oils on different Candida clinical isolates. The obtained results revealed that flow cytometry is a very useful and precise technique in investigating the influence of essential oils on the fungal cells, surpassing the disadvantage of their volatility and thus reducing false results often obtained by using the classical methods.

  2. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Dai; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Wu, Wen-Xiang; Bai, Hui-Hui; Dong, Han-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life. The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with VVC over 8 years. Methods: Species which isolated from patients with VVC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media. Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document. SPSS software (version 14.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis, involving statistical description and Chi-square test. Results: The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans, 80.5% (n = 1775) followed by C. glabrata, 18.1% (n = 400). Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (treatment of VVC at present. The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time. PMID:27174323

  3. Comparison of susceptibility and transcription profile of the new antifungal hassallidin A with caspofungin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is First report on the antifungal effects of the new glycolipopeptide hassallidin A. Due to related molecular structure moieties between hassallidin A and the established antifungal drug caspofungin we assumed parallels in the effects on cell viability. Therefore we compared hassallidin A with caspofungin by antifungal susceptibility testing and by analysing the genome-wide transcriptional profile of Candida albicans. Furthermore, we examined modifications in ultracellular structure due to hassallidin A treatment by electron microscopy. Hassallidin A was found to be fungicidal against all tested Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. MICs ranged from 4 to 8 μg/ml, independently from the species. Electron microscopy revealed noticeable ultrastructural changes in C. albicans cells exposed to hassallidin A. Comparing the transcriptional profile of C. albicans cells treated with hassallidin A to that of cells exposed to caspofungin, only 20 genes were found to be similarly up- or down-regulated in both assays, while 227 genes were up- or down-regulated induced by hassallidin A specifically. Genes up-regulated in cells exposed to hassallidin A included metabolic and mitotic genes, while genes involved in DNA repair, vesicle docking, and membrane fusion were down-regulated. In summary, our data suggest that, although hassallidin A and caspofungin have similar structures, however, the effects on susceptibility and transcriptional response to yeasts seem to be different

  4. In vitro susceptibility testing of Candida and Aspergillus spp. to voriconazole and other antifungal agents using Etest: results of a French multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallié, M; Bastide, J M; Blancard, A; Bonnin, A; Bretagne, S; Cambon, M; Chandenier, J; Chauveau, V; Couprie, B; Datry, A; Feuilhade, M; Grillot, R; Guiguen, C; Lavarde, V; Letscher, V; Linas, M D; Michel, A; Morin, O; Paugam, A; Piens, M A; Raberin, H; Tissot, E; Toubas, D; Wade, A

    2005-04-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antifungal agent voriconazole were determined using the Etest and compared with those of amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole using 1986 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Voriconazole MICs were also compared with those of amphotericin B and itraconazole using 391 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. Voriconazole was found to have more potent activity and lower MIC values than amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. kefyr. Against C. glabrata and C. krusei, voriconazole was more active than either of the other two azole antifungals but had similar activity to amphotericin B. For species of Aspergillus, MIC values of voriconazole were lower than those of amphotericin B and itraconazole against A. fumigatus and A. flavus, and were similar to those of amphotericin B against A. niger. Against A. terreus, MIC values for voriconazole and itraconazole were similar. A. terreus is known to be resistant to amphotericin B, and this was reflected in higher MIC values compared with those of voriconazole and itraconazole. Voriconazole therefore compares very favourably with other antifungal agents against a large number of clinical isolates of Candida and Aspergillus spp. PMID:15784312

  5. In vitro resistance of clinical Fusarium species to amphotericin B and voriconazole using the EUCAST antifungal susceptibility method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Hamed, Manal; Theelen, Bart; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Boekhout, Teun; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    Susceptibility testing using the EUCAST-AFST method against 39 clinical Fusarium strains consecutively collected from local and invasive infections during the last 10years assessed the in vitro activities of amphotericin B (AmB) and triazole antifungal agents. In addition, the susceptibility pattern of 12 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS) was evaluated. In particular Fusarium petroliphilum and F. solani sensu lato were involved in disseminated infections and known for treatment failure. AmB displayed the lowest MICs followed by voriconazole VRC, posaconazole (POC). Itraconazole (ITC) showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Clinical isolates were significantly (P antifungal therapy. Resistant profiles to AmB and VRC, which are the currently recommended agents in the guidelines for treatments, and a late diagnosis may be associated with high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. The present antifungal susceptibility profiles showed that species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility exist within Fusarium and that susceptibility testing is important and may improve the prognosis of these infections. PMID:27312690

  6. Diversity of Bipolaris species in clinical samples in the United States and their antifungal susceptibility profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, K C; Sutton, D A; Fothergill, A W; Cano, J; Gené, J; Madrid, H; De Hoog, S; Crous, P W; Guarro, J

    2012-12-01

    A set of 104 isolates from human clinical samples from the United States, morphologically compatible with Bipolaris, were morphologically and molecularly identified through the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed space (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The predominant species was Bipolaris spicifera (67.3%), followed by B. hawaiiensis (18.2%), B. cynodontis (8.6%), B. micropus (2.9%), B. australiensis (2%), and B. setariae (1%). Bipolaris cynodontis, B. micropus, and B. setariae represent new records from clinical samples. The most common anatomical sites where isolates were recovered were the nasal region (30.7%), skin (19.2%), lungs (14.4%), and eyes (12.5%). The antifungal susceptibilities of 5 species of Bipolaris to 9 drugs are provided. With the exception of fluconazole and flucytosine, the antifungals tested showed good activity. PMID:23052310

  7. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates from a randomized, multicenter trial of fluconazole versus amphotericin B as treatment of nonneutropenic patients with candidemia. NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the Candidemia Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Rex, J. H.; Pfaller, M. A.; Barry, A L; Nelson, P W; Webb, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 232 pathogenic blood stream Candida isolates collected during a recently completed trial comparing fluconazole (400 mg/day) with amphotericin B (0.5 mg/kg of body weight per day) as treatment for candidemia in the nonneutropenic patient were determined both by the National committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-P macrobroth methodology and by a less cumbersome broth microdilution methodology. For amphotericin B, M27-P yielded a very narrow range of ...

  8. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections. PMID:26591009

  9. Prevalence of Candida Infection and its Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern in Tertiary Care Hospital, Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata R Patel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the past three decades with the use of potent antibacterial immunosuppressive and cytotoxic drugs, lethal invasive candidiasis has been described with increasing frequency. Patients admitted at tertiary care hospitals have access to very intensive management modalities. This, along with increasing number of immune-compromised patients, has lead to rise in infections caused by candida especially by NCA (Non Candida Albicans. Methodology: Duration of the study was from 1st July- 2011 to 30th June 2012. Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens were subjected to speciation using standard yeast identification protocol and CHROM agar. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by the disc diffusion method against Amphotericin B and Azole group of antifungals like Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Clotrimazole and Voriconazole. Results: Among the 430 culture positive isolates 161(37.4% were C. albicans and 269 (62.6% were non candida albicans. Among NCA, 176(40.9% were C. tropicalis followed by other species. Susceptibility pattern showed that Azole group 25.5% sensitive among C. albicans and 18.7% sensitive among C. tropicalis while in Amphotericin B sensitivity varies from 75.6% to 100% to all isolated spp. of candida. Conclusion: In this study C. tropicalis was the most common yeast isolated from all the clinical samples. The C. albicans and NCA showed highly susceptible to Amphotericin B, followed by Voriconazole & Clotrimazole, is the drug of choice. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 439-441

  10. First description of Candida nivariensis in Brazil: antifungal susceptibility profile and potential virulence attributes

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    Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profile and the production of potential virulence attributes in a clinical strain of Candida nivariensis for the first time in Brazil, as identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and D1/D2 domains of the 28S of the rDNA. For comparative purposes, tests were also performed with reference strains. All strains presented low planktonic minimal inhibitory concentrations (PMICs to amphotericin B (AMB, caspofungin (CAS, and voriconazole. However, our strain showed elevated planktonic MICs to posaconazole (POS and itraconazole, in addition to fluconazole resistance. Adherence to inert surfaces was conducted onto glass and polystyrene. The biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility on biofilm-growing cells were evaluated by crystal violet staining and a XTT reduction assay. All fungal strains were able to bind both tested surfaces and form biofilm, with a binding preference to polystyrene (p < 0.001. AMB promoted significant reductions (≈50% in biofilm production by our C. nivariensis strain using both methodologies. This reduction was also observed for CAS and POS, but only in the XTT assay. All strains were excellent protease producers and moderate phytase producers, but lipases were not detected. This study reinforces the pathogenic potential of C. nivariensis and its possible resistance profile to the azolic drugs generally used for candidiasis management.

  11. First case of Tritirachium oryzae as agent of onychomycosis and its susceptibility to antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2013-08-01

    The first case of Tritirachium oryzae isolated from an Iranian patient is reported. A 44-year-old woman with a lesion in her fingernail was examined for onychomycosis. Direct microscopic examination of the nail clippings revealed fungal filaments and inoculation of portions of the nail clippings on cultures media yielded T. oryzae after 8 days. The isolate was identified as Tritirachium spp. on the basis of gross morphological characteristics of the fungal colony and microscopic characterization of slide cultures. The diagnosis of T. oryzae was confirmed by PCR sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer domain of the rDNA gene. In vitro antifungal susceptibility test demonstrated that the fungus was susceptible to itraconazole and posaconazole. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:23591624

  12. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

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    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  13. Diagnosis of oral fungal infection in patients undergoing head and neck cancer radiation. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy adverse effects are very common, they contribute to development of opportunistic infections. Genus Candida is often associated with oral diseases in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to study the presence of yeast in oral lesions, in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Swabs of oral mucosal lesions of 76 patients were studied. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated, with ATB Fungus-3 method, which tests 5-fluorcitosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC); and allows the estimation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Yeasts were isolated in 74% of samples, being Candida albicans, most frequent specie (53%), followed by C.tropicalis (24%), C.parapsilosis (14%), C.krusei (5%), C.dubliniensis (2%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2%). All strains were susceptible to VRC. For other antifungals, there were resistant or dose-dependent-susceptible strains. Only C.krusei was resistant to the FCA. About AMB, 2 isolates of C. tropicalis presented a value of 2 mg/l MIC, dose with high incidence of adverse effects. These studies are important to establish early and suitable therapy, wich contribute to achieve lowers rates of disseminated forms of candidiasis, and to reduce the difficulties in food intake that carries the presence of oral lesions. (authors)

  14. Candidiasis in Pediatrics; Identification and In vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of the Clinical Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, R; Ataei, B

    2016-01-01

    Background Candida species are normal microflora of oral cavity, vagina, and gastrointestinal tract. They are the third most prevalent cause of pediatric health care–associated bloodstream fungal infection. This study aimed to provide an epidemiological feature of candidiasis and also presents an antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical Candida isolates among children. Materials and Methods During July 2013 to February 2015, 105 patients from different hospitals of Isfahan, Iran, were examined for candidiasis by phenotypic tests. Samples were obtained from nail clippings, blood, thrush, BAL, urine, oropharynx, skin, and eye discharge. The age range of patients was between 18 days to 16 years. Genomic DNA of isolates was extracted and ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region was amplified by ITS1 and ITS2 primers. The PCR products were digested using the restriction enzyme MspI. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) was determined using microdilution broth method according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Results Forty-three patients (40.9%) had Candida infection.The most clinical strains were isolated from nail infections (39.5%), and candidemia (13.9%). Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (46.5%). MICs ranges for amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole were (0.025-0.75 µg/ml), (0.125-16 µg/ml), and (0.094-2 µg/ml), respectively. Conclusion Due to high incidence of Candida infections among children, increasing of fatal infection like candidemia, and emersion of antifungal resistance Candida isolates, early and precise identification of the Candida species and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates may lead to better management of the infection. PMID:27222702

  15. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia. PMID:26868904

  16. Comparison of Antifungal Susceptibilities to Fluconazole and Voriconazole of Oral Candida glabrata Isolates from Head and Neck Radiation Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Burn, A. K.; Fothergill, A W; Kirkpatrick, W. R.; Coco, B. J.; Patterson, T F; McCarthy, D I; Rinaldi, M.G.; Redding, S W

    2004-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 79 oral Candida glabrata isolates to fluconazole and voriconazole were compared. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited were 1 μg of voriconazole/ml and 32 μg of fluconazole/ml. Oral C. glabrata isolates for which the fluconazole MICs are elevated are commonly those for which the voriconazole MICs are elevated, but these increases may be transient for voriconazole, as they are for fluconazole.

  17. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility of esophageal candidiasis in cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abirami Lakshmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in patients with altered immunity such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection, cancer patients on chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Neutropenia, irradiation and chemotherapy will facilitate deeper mucosal invasion leading to esophageal candidiasis. Empirical treatment of esophageal candidiasis without antifungal susceptibility testing will lead to the emergence of drug resistant species increasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. The present study aimed to study the frequency of esophageal candida in individuals with cancer, species level identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern. Scrapings of whitish appearing lesions were obtained from a total of thirty five cases of endoscopically identified esophageal candidiasis were obtained from cancer patients. Identification of the Candida isolates were done by cultivation in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, Gram staining, germ tube test, colony morphology in Chrom agar and corn meal agar, sugar assimilation and fermentation tests. Antifungal susceptibility was done by Microbroth dilution method for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B. We found that Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. Sensitivity rates were 94%, 96% and 100% for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B. Species level identification of Candida isolated from esophageal candidiasis and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed for early identification of resistant strains and for promptly treating the cases there by preventing the dissemination of infection in case of immune-compromised individuals. Further the susceptibility pattern will facilitate therapeutic guidance especially in individuals prone to relapse. [J Med Allied Sci 2016; 6(1: 29-34

  18. Environmental isolation, biochemical identification, and antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Luis Iost Teodoro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has increased in recent years and is considered an important public health problem. Among systemic and opportunistic mycoses, cryptococcosis is distinguished by its clinical importance due to the increased risk of infection in individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Methods To determine the occurrence of pathogenic Cryptococcus in pigeon excrement in the City of Araraquara, samples were collected from nine environments, including state and municipal schools, abandoned buildings, parks, and a hospital. The isolates were identified using classical tests, and susceptibility testing for the antifungal drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B independently was also performed. After collection, the excrement samples were plated on Niger agar and incubated at room temperature. Results A total of 87 bird dropping samples were collected, and 66.6% were positive for the genus Cryptococcus. The following species were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans (17.2%, Cryptococcus gattii (5.2%, Cryptococcus ater (3.5%, Cryptococcus laurentti (1.7%, and Cryptococcus luteolus (1.7%. A total of 70.7% of the isolates were not identified to the species level and are referred to as Cryptococcus spp. throughout the manuscript. Conclusions Although none of the isolates demonstrated resistance to antifungal drugs, the identification of infested areas, the proper control of birds, and the disinfection of these environments are essential for the epidemiological control of cryptococcosis.

  19. Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Penicillium-Like Fungi from Clinical Samples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; García, Dania; Martin-Vicente, Adela; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa

    2016-08-01

    Penicillium species are some of the most common fungi observed worldwide and have an important economic impact as well as being occasional agents of human and animal mycoses. A total of 118 isolates thought to belong to the genus Penicillium based on morphological features were obtained from the Fungus Testing Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio (United States). The isolates were studied phenotypically using standard growth conditions. Molecular identification was made using two genetic markers, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a fragment of the β-tubulin gene. In order to assess phylogenetic relationships, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference assessments were used. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2 for nine antifungal drugs. The isolates were identified within three genera, i.e., Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Rasamsonia The most frequent species in our study were Penicillium rubens, P. citrinum, and Talaromyces amestolkiae The potent in vitro activity of amphotericin B (AMB) and terbinafine (TRB) and of the echinocandins against Penicillium and Talaromyces species might offer a good therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by these fungi. PMID:27280422

  20. Species level identification and antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens and evaluation of Integral System Yeasts Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicmen, Can; Doluca, Mine; Gulat, Sinem; Gunduz, Ayriz T; Tuksavul, Fevziye

    2012-07-01

    It is essential to use easy, standard, cost-effective and accurate methods for identification and susceptibility testing of yeasts in routine practice. This study aimed to establish the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of yeast isolates and also to evaluate the performance of the colorimetric and commercially available Integral System Yeasts Plus (ISYP). Yeast isolates (n=116) were identified by conventional methods and ISYP. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the microdilution method according to the standards of CLSI M27-A3 and ISYP. Candida albicans (50%) was the most common species isolated, followed by C. parapsilosis (25%) (mostly in blood samples). According to the CLSI M27-S3 criteria, resistance rates for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 0%, 0%, 4.6%, 4.5% and 1.8%, respectively. Resistance for miconazole (MIC >1 mg/L) was found as 17.9%. Sixty-two (53.4%) of the isolates which were analyzed by ISYP showed disagreement with those identified by the conventional methods and API ID 32C identification kit or a specific identification code could not be assigned by ISYP. The performance of ISYP could be indicated as low for all antifungal drugs tested according to the ROC analysis (AUC: 0.28-0.56). As the current version of ISYP displays a poor performance, it is recommended to use the other commercial systems whose results are approved as reliable and in agreement with those of the reference methods in identification and susceptibility testing of yeasts. PMID:22842602

  1. Veronaea botryosa: molecular identification with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and in vitro antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, Hamid; Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Mousavi, Bita; de Hoog, G Sybren; Klaassen, Corné H W; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-06-01

    Inter- and intraspecific genomic variability of 18 isolates of Veronaea botryosa originating from clinical and environmental sources was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The species was originally described from the environment, but several severe cases of disseminated infection in apparently healthy individuals have been reported worldwide. All tested strains of V. botryosa, identified on the basis of sequencing and phenotypic and physiological criteria prior to our study, were confirmed by AFLP analysis, yielding a clear separation of V. botryosa as a rather homogeneous group from related species. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing resulted in MIC90s across all strains in increasing order posaconazole (0.25 μg/ml), itraconazole (1 μg/ml), voriconazole (4 μg/ml), terbinafine (4 μg/ml), caspofungin (8 μg/ml), anidulafungin (8 μg/ml), isavuconazole (16 μg/ml), amphotericin B (16 μg/ml), and fluconazole (32 μg/ml). Overall, the isolates showed a uniform pattern of low MICs of itraconazole and posaconazole, but high MICs for remaining agents. The echinocandins (caspofungin and anidulafungin) had no activity against V. botryosa. There was no statistically significant difference between susceptibilities of environmental (n = 11) and clinical (n = 7) isolates of V. botryosa (P > 0.05). PMID:23463524

  2. Candidiasis in Pediatrics; Identification and In vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of the Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMADI, R.; Ataei, B

    2016-01-01

    Background Candida species are normal microflora of oral cavity, vagina, and gastrointestinal tract. They are the third most prevalent cause of pediatric health care–associated bloodstream fungal infection. This study aimed to provide an epidemiological feature of candidiasis and also presents an antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical Candida isolates among children. Materials and Methods During July 2013 to February 2015, 105 patients from different hospitals of Isfahan, Iran, were ex...

  3. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method Teste de suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos isolados em Goiânia, Brasil, contra cinco agentes antifúngicos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 ºC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 µg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.Atividades antifúngicas de fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, terbinafina e griseofulvina foram testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo contra 60 isolados de dermatófitos. Os resultados mostraram que todos os isolados produziram crescimento claramente detectável a 28 ºC e a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada após quatro dias de incubação para Trichophyton mentagrophytes e cinco dias para T. rubrum e Microsporum canis. A maioria dos isolados teve um padrão uniforme de suscetibilidade para os agentes antifúngicos testados. Baixos valores de CIM como 0,03 µg/mL foram encontrados para 33,3%, 31,6% e 15% dos isolados para itraconazol, cetoconazol e terbinafina, respectivamente.

  4. Enzymatic Activity and Susceptibility to Antifungal Agents of Brazilian Environmental Isolates of Hortaea werneckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Andrea; Heidrich, Daiane; Felix, Ciro Ramón; Tenório, Anne Carolyne; Leite, Belize R; Pagani, Danielle M; Ortiz-Monsalve, Santiago; Ramírez-Castrillón, Mauricio; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Scroferneker, Maria L; Valente, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Four strains of Hortaea werneckii were isolated from different substrates in Brazil (a salt marsh macrophyte, a bromeliad and a marine zoanthid) and had their identification confirmed by sequencing of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain or ITS region. Most of the strains were able to express amylase, lipase, esterase, pectinase and/or cellulase, enzymes that recognize components of plant cells as substrates, but did not express albuminase, keratinase, phospholipase and DNAse, whose substrates are animal-related. Urease production was positive for all isolates, while caseinase, gelatinase and laccase production were variable among the strains. All the strains grew in media containing up to 30% NaCl. We propose that the primary substrate associated with H. werneckii is plant-related, in special in saline environments, where the fungus may live as a saprophyte and decomposer. Infection of animal-associated substrates would be secondary, with the fungus acting as an opportunistic animal pathogen. All strains were resistant to fluconazole and presented high MIC for amphotericin B, while they were susceptible to all the other antifungal agents tested. PMID:26162643

  5. Use of Fatty Acid RPMI 1640 Media for Testing Susceptibilities of Eight Malassezia Species to the New Triazole Posaconazole and to Six Established Antifungal Agents by a Modified NCCLS M27-A2 Microdilution Method and Etest

    OpenAIRE

    Velegraki, Aristea; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Kritikou, Stavroula; Gaitanis, George

    2005-01-01

    A novel formulation of RPMI 1640 medium for susceptibility testing of Malassezia yeasts by broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest is proposed. A modification of the NCCLS M27-A2 BMD method was used to test 53 isolates of Malassezia furfur (12 isolates), M. sympodialis (8 isolates), M. slooffiae (4 isolates), M. globosa (22 isolates), M. obtusa (2 isolates), M. restricta (2 isolates), M. pachydermatis (1 isolates), and M. dermatis (2 isolates) against amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, f...

  6. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution ofCandidaspecies in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype ofCandida albicansin vaginal swab. A total of 115Candida albicansstrains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115Candida albicansstrains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicanswas the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance amongCandida albicansisolated from VVC patients. PMID:26468549

  7. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 316 Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Badali, Hamid; Rafiei, Abdollah; Ravandeh, Mostafa; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common mycotic infection of the skin, nail, and hair, associated with major public health concern worldwide. Various species of dermatophytes show significant differences in susceptibility to antifungals. Here, we present the antifungal susceptibility of a large collection of molecularly identified dermatophyte isolates obtained from tropical region of south of Iran. A total of 9485 patients clinically suspected to have cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Dermatophytosis was confirmed in 1502 cases by direct microscopy and culture. Three hundred and sixteen isolates recovered in culture were identified to species level using PCR sequencing of ITS region and RFLP. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent type of clinical manifestation (35.2 %), followed by tinea cruris (17 %), tinea capitis (12.8 %), tinea pedis (11.3 %), tinea manuum (11 %), tinea unguium (6.9 %), and tinea barbae (5.8 %). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (49.36 %), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (18.98 %), Epidermophyton floccosum (13.29 %), Microsporum canis (9.17 %), Arthroderma benhamiae (T. anamorph of A. benhamiae; 5.38 %), and Trichophyton tonsurans (3.79 %). Overall, irrespective of the geographical region, terbinafine was the most potent antifungal against all isolates, with an MIC range of 0.002-0.25 μg/mL, followed by itraconazole (0.004-0.5 μg/mL), griseofulvin (0.125-8 μg/mL), and fluconazole (4-128 μg/mL). Analysis of our data revealed a significant increase in the frequency of A.benhamiae, which definitely warrants further investigation to explore source of this infection in south of Iran. Moreover, terbinafine was the most effective antifungal against all isolates, in vitro. PMID:26369643

  8. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Sharifzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis, Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe, Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla, Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare. The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%, linalool (42%, α-pinene (27.87%, α-pinene (22.10%, and zingiberene (31.79% were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P

  9. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals

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    Patrício Godoy

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available From March 1999 to March 2000, we conducted a prospective multicenter study of candidemia involving five tertiary care hospitals from four countries in Latin America. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility profile was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth assay method. During a 12 month-period we were able to collect a total of 103 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 42% of all isolates. Non-albicans Candida species strains accounted for 58% of all episodes of candidemia and were mostly represented by C. tropicalis (24.2% and C. parapsilosis (21.3%. It is noteworthy that we were able to identify two cases of C. lusitaniae from different institutions. In our casuistic, non-albicans Candida species isolates related to candidemic episodes were susceptible to fluconazole. Continuously surveillance programs are needed in order to identify possible changes in the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts that may occurs after increasing the use of azoles in Latin American hospitals.

  10. Antifungal susceptibility analysis of berberine, baicalin, eugenol and curcumin on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianhua; Wen Hai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the antifungal effects of Chinese herb monomers, i.e. berberine, baicalin, eugenol and curcumin, on Candida albicans. Methods: After Candida albicans strain Y01-09 was incubated for 48 h in YEPD broth which contained different concentrations of Chinese herb components, the cell cycle, fluorescent intensity and the size of cell volume were detected by flow cytometry. Results: The 4 Chinese herb monomers could affect the cell cycle of Candida albicans in different ranges. The ratio of cells in S-G2-M period decreased as the agents concentration increased, indicating that the cell division was inhibited. The fluorescent intensity of Candida albicans cells became weaker after being incubated, which reflected the loss of DNA fragments. The higher the concentration was, the weaker the fluorescent intensity became. The cell size, cell diopter and particle size changed much as the agents concentration increased. Conclusion: Chinese herb monomers play the antifungal role in inhibiting cell division. FCM could be used to determine the susceptibility of antifungal agents.

  11. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    2015-05-01

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and verified to the species level by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, terbinafine and MECs of caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed based on CLSI M38-A2. The resulting MIC90 s of all strains were, in increasing order, as follows: terbinafine (0.063 mg l(-1) ); posaconazole (1 mg l(-1) ); isavuconazole and anidulafungin (2 mg l(-1) ); itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin (4 mg l(-1) ) and fluconazole (>64 mg l(-1) ). These results confirm that terbinafine is an excellent agent for treatment of dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, T. schoenleinii and E. floccosum. In addition, the new azoles POS and ISA are potentially useful antifungals to treat dermatophytosis. However, the clinical effectiveness of these novel antifungals remains to be determined. PMID:25757042

  12. Studies in Phylogeny, Development of Rapid IdentificationMethods, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Growth Rates of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rumi; Yikelamu, Alimu; Tanaka, Reiko; Igawa, Ken; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix species, which have distinct virulence profiles and geographic distributions. We performed a phylogenetic study in strains morphologically identified as Sporothrix schenckii from clinical specimens in Japan, which were preserved at the Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University. In addition, we examined the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and growth rate to evaluate their physiological features. Three hundred strains were examined using sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, or polymerase chain reaction(PCR)method using newly designed species-specific primers; 291 strains were Sporothrix globosa and 9 strains were S. schenckii sensu stricto (in narrow sense, s. s.). S. globosa strains were further clustered into two subclades, and S. schenckii s. s. strains were divided into three subclades. In 38 strains of S. globosa for which antifungal profiles were determined, 4 strains (11%) showed high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for itraconazole. All tested strains of S. schenckii s. s. and S. globosa showed low sensitivity for amphotericin B. These antifungals are used for treatment of sporotrichosis when infection is severe. S. schenckii s. s. grew better than S. globosa; wherein S. globosa showed restricted growth at 35℃ and did not grow at 37℃. Our molecular data showed that S. globosa is the main causal agent of sporotrichosis in Japan. It is important to determine the antifungal profiles of each case, in addition to accurate species-level identification, to strategize the therapy for sporotrichosis. PMID:27581775

  13. SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST FOR FUNGI: CLINICAL AND LABORATORIAL CORRELATIONS IN MEDICAL MYCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ALASTRUEY-IZQUIERDO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYDuring recent decades, antifungal susceptibility testing has become standardized and nowadays has the same role of the antibacterial susceptibility testing in microbiology laboratories. American and European standards have been developed, as well as equivalent commercial systems which are more appropriate for clinical laboratories. The detection of resistant strains by means of these systems has allowed the study and understanding of the molecular basis and the mechanisms of resistance of fungal species to antifungal agents. In addition, many studies on the correlation of in vitro results with the outcome of patients have been performed, reaching the conclusion that infections caused by resistant strains have worse outcome than those caused by susceptible fungal isolates. These studies have allowed the development of interpretative breakpoints for Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., the most frequent agents of fungal infections in the world. In summary, antifungal susceptibility tests have become essential tools to guide the treatment of fungal diseases, to know the local and global disease epidemiology, and to identify resistance to antifungals.

  14. Comparison between E-test and CLSI broth microdilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans oral isolates Comparação entre E-test e o método da microdiluição do CLSI para teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados orais de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Candida albicans isolated from oral candidosis patients and 30 C. albicans isolated from control individuals were studied. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and itraconazole through the Clinical and Laboratorial Standards Institute (CLSI reference method and E test system. The results obtained were analyzed and compared. MIC values were similar for the strains isolated from oral candidosis patients and control individuals. The agreement rate for the two methods was 66.67% for amphotericin B, 53.33% for fluconazole, 65% for flucytosine and 45% for itraconazole. According to our data, E test method could be an alternative to trial routine susceptibility testing due to its simplicity. However, it can not be considered a substitute for the CLSI reference method.Trinta Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e 30 Candida albicans isoladas de indivíduos controle foram estudadas. Testes de susceptibilidade in vitro foram realizados com anfotericina B, fluconazol, 5-flucitosina e itraconazol pelo método do Clinical and Laboratorial Standars Institute (CLSI e por E-test. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados. Os valores de CIM foram semelhantes para amostras isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e indivíduos controle. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 66,7% para a anfotericina B, 53,33% para o fluconazol, 65% para a flucitosina e 45% para o itraconazol. De acordo com estes resultados, o método do E-test poderia ser uma alternativa para a triagem de casos de rotina pela sua simplicidade. Entretanto, este método não pode ser considerado como um substituto para o método de referência do CLSI.

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachysp...

  16. Antifungal susceptibility evaluation of Candida albicans isolated from buccal lesions of hiv-positive and HIV-negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Latercia Tranches DIAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined to 35 samples of Candidaalbicans; 14 of them were isolated from HIV-positive patients, and 21 from HIV-negative patients with oral erythematouscandidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of agar dilution method in the determination ofsusceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from buccal lesions of HIV-positive and negative patients to some antifungalsand compare the results with the plasmatic concentration reached by each one of these drugs. The samples were evaluated invitro by the agar dilution method and showed higher MIC values to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole andamphotericin B than the concentrations achieved by these antifungals in plasma. 88.9% of the samples presented in vitroresistance to ketoconazole and the plasmatic levels of this antifungal varied from 1 to 8 μg/mL. Regarding fluconazole anditraconazole, most samples presented MIC larger than 128 μg/mL and plasmatic concentration varying from 0.4 to 8 μg/mL.Only 11.9% of the samples were susceptible in vitro to fluconazole and 2.7% of them to itraconazol. The usageconcentrations prescribed for the topical antifungals nystatin, fenticonazole and miconazole are markedly higher than thevalues of MIC obtained. Related to nystatin, it was verified that its MIC values were between 1 and 4 μg /mL. Theplasmatic levels to this drug are extremely low. Fenticonazole presented a MIC value larger than 128 μg/mL. Relating tomiconazole, the plasmatic levels vary from 1 to 8 μg/mL and 11.9% of the samples presented in vitro susceptibility to thisdrug. No significant differences (p<0.05 were found in the susceptibility profiles of the samples obtained from HIVpositiveand HIV-negative patients.

  17. Resistance Surveillance in Candida albicans: A Five-Year Antifungal Susceptibility Evaluation in a Brazilian University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Isabela Haddad; Reichert-Lima, Franqueline; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Nagasako, Cristiane Kibune; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans caused 44% of the overall candidemia episodes from 2006 to 2010 in our university tertiary care hospital. As different antifungal agents are used in therapy and also immunocompromised patients receive fluconazole prophylaxis in our institution, this study aimed to perform an antifungal susceptibility surveillance with the C.albicans bloodstream isolates and to characterize the fluconazole resistance in 2 non-blood C.albicans isolates by sequencing ERG11 gene. The study included 147 C. albicans bloodstream samples and 2 fluconazole resistant isolates: one from oral cavity (LIF 12560 fluconazole MIC: 8μg/mL) and one from esophageal cavity (LIF-E10 fluconazole MIC: 64μg/mL) of two different patients previously treated with oral fluconazole. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMB), 5-flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), caspofungin (CASP) was performed by broth microdilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute documents (M27-A3 and M27-S4, CLSI). All blood isolates were classified as susceptible according to CLSI guidelines for all evaluated antifungal agents (MIC range: 0,125–1.00 μg/mL for AMB, ≤0.125–1.00 μg/mL for 5FC, ≤0.125–0.5 μg/mL for FLC, ≤0.015–0.125 μg/mL for ITC, ≤0.015–0.06 μg/mL for VRC and ≤0.015–0.125 μg/mL for CASP). In this study, we also amplified and sequenced the ERG11 gene of LIF 12560 and LIF-E10 C.albicans isolates. Six mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions were found (E116D, T128K, E266D, A298V, G448V and G464S) and these mutations were previously described as associated with fluconazole resistance. Despite the large consumption of antifungals in our institution, resistant blood isolates were not found over the trial period. Further studies should be conducted, but it may be that the very prolonged direct contact with the oral antifungal agent administered to the patient from which

  18. Dermatophyte susceptibilities to antifungal azole agents tested in vitro by broth macro and microdilution methods Suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos a azóis pelos métodos macro e microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Siqueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to the azole antifungals itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole was evaluated by broth macro and microdilution methods, according to recommendations of the CLSI, with some adaptations. Twenty nail and skin clinical isolates, four of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 16 of T. rubrum were selected for the tests. Itraconazole minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC varied from Foi avaliada a suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos aos antifúngicos itraconazol, fluconazol e cetoconazol, pelos métodos macro e microdiluição em caldo, de acordo com as recomendações do CLSI, com algumas modificações. Foram estudados 20 isolados clínicos de lesões de unha e pele, sendo quatro Trichophyton mentagrophytes e 16 T. rubrum. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM para itraconazol variou de < 0,03 a 0,25 µg/mL pelo método da macrodiluição, e de < 0,03 a 0,5 µg/mL pela microdiluição em caldo; de 0,5 a 64 µg/mL e de 0,125 a 16 µg/mL para fluconazol, respectivamente, pela macro e microdiluição; e de < 0,03 a 0,5 µg/mL por ambos os métodos para cetoconazol. A concordância entre os dois métodos (considerando ± uma diluição foi de 70% para itraconazol, 45% para fluconazol e 85% para cetoconazol. Conclui-se que os isolados estudados foram inibidos por concentrações relativamente baixas dos antifúngicos testados, e os dois métodos apresentam boa concordância, especialmente para itraconazol e cetoconazol.

  19. Establishing a Method of Inoculum Preparation for Susceptibility Testing of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, D. A.; Barros, M. E. S.; J. S. Hamdan

    2006-01-01

    A total of 92 clinical isolates of dermatophytes (52 of Trichophyton rubrum and 40 of Trichophyton mentagrophytes) were selected for testing with six antifungal drugs (terbinafine, griseofulvin, clotrimazole, miconazole, isoconazole, and fluconazole) and two pairs of drug combinations (ketoconazole-cyclopiroxolamine and itraconazole-cyclopiroxolamine). Two methods of inoculum preparation for susceptibility testing were evaluated that used (i) inocula consisting only of microconidia of dermato...

  20. INCIDENCE OF NON-CANDIDA ALBICANS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SPECIATIO N AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Ragini Ananth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fungal urinary tract infections have become frequent, as a result of increased use of broad spec trum antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and bladder catheters in acut e care settings. The associated risk factors which are seen in cases of candiduria are: antibiotic therapy, female gender, urinary catheterization, surgical procedure and extended hos pitalization. Candiduria has become a potential source of morbidity and mortality if untre ated. We undertook a prospective study to note the incidence of non-Candida albicans in patien ts with urinary tract infection with special reference to speciation, antifungal susceptibility an d the associated risk factors. METHODS: Candida species isolated from urine samples of patient s with urinary tract infection were subjected to speciation using standard yeast identif ication protocol and CHROM agar. Antifungal Susceptibility testing was done by the disc diffusio n method to amphotericin B and fluconazole. Clinical details and risk factors of the patients we re noted down. RESULTS: Among the 60 culture positive cases, six Candida species which wer e isolated are : C.tropicalis (66.66%, C.albicans (13.33%, C.parapsilosis (8.33%, C.glabr ata (6.66%, C.kefyr (3.33% and C.guilliermondii (1.66% The susceptibility pattern s howed, that of the 60 isolates, 40% were resistant to fluconazole. No resistance was seen to amphotericin B. CONCLUSION: Isolation of non-Candida albicans species was more than Candida a lbicans. Candida tropicalis was the predominant isolate. The following risk factors were noted: 43.33 % of the patients had diabetes mellitus, 30%had history of prolonged antib iotics (cephalosporin and aminoglycosides, 16.66% had underlying renal pathol ogy, 3.33% had post –renal transplant status, 1.66% were on steroids, 1.66%had pregnancy a nd 3.33% had no identifiable risk factors.20% patients had an indwelling catheter in them. The antifungal

  1. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

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    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  2. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes in...... complex samples from pigs suffering from catheter associated urinary tract infections. The oCelloScope system provides a fast high-throughput screening method to detect bacterial susceptibility that may entail earlier diagnosis and introduction of appropriate targeted therapy and thus combat the threat...

  3. In vitro susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, J A

    1979-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria should be limited to isolates from persistent or recurrent infections that have been treated adequately and appropriately with antimicrobial agents and, in reference centers, to collections of isolates in order to monitor alterations in susceptibility of species to various antimicrobial agents. An agar dilution reference method is being evaluated currently; however, practicality limits sporadic testing of single isolates to disk elution or broth dilution techniques. No single disk diffusion method has yet been found to be acceptable for testing anaerobic bacteria, and the results obtained with standardized procedures for aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria are not applicable to anaerobic bacteria. PMID:288163

  4. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O2, 3% CO2, and 94% N2, the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on [3H]thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them

  5. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedeno, J.R.; Krogstad, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O/sub 2/, 3% CO/sub 2/, and 94% N/sub 2/, the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them.

  6. Epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and ERG11 mutations of Candida species isolated from pregnant Chinese Han women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Su, M Q; Ma, Y Y; Xin, Y J; Han, R B; Zhang, R; Wen, J; Hao, X K

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of antifungal agents has led to increasing azole resistance in Candida species. A major azole-resistance mechanism involves point mutations in the ERG11 gene, which encodes cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase. In this study, vaginal swabs were obtained from 657 pregnant Chinese Han women and cultured appropriately. The open reading frame of the obtained fungal species were amplified by PCR and sequenced; additionally, the ERG11 gene of the isolated Candida species was amplified and sequenced, and the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated species was determined. The vaginal swabs of 124 women produced fungal cultures; five species of Candida were isolated from the patients, among which Candida albicans was predominant. Twelve C. albicans isolates (13.8%) were resistant to fluconazole and 2 (2.2%) were resistant to itraconazole. Seventeen mutations, including 9 silent and 8 missense mutations, were identified in the ERG11 gene of 31 C. albicans isolates. Our findings suggest that infection caused by C. albicans and non-C. albicansis common in Chinese Han women of reproductive age. Moreover, the relationship between Candida infection and certain epidemiological factors emphasizes the need to educate women about the precise diagnosis and punctual treatment of vaginitis. PMID:27173274

  7. Epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidemia among Internal Medicine Wards of community hospitals of Udine province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Silvestri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Candidemia is an emerging problem among patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Wards (IMW. We performed a retrospective study to assess the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidaemia recorded over a 3-year period (2010-2012 among IMW of community hospitals of Udine province in Italy: forty-eight patients were identified, with an overall incidence of 1.44 cases/1000 hospital admissions/year. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by Candida parapsilosis that accounted for 42.9% of Tolmezzo cases. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin and caspofungin, while 11.4% of strains were not-susceptible to voriconazole and 14.3% to fluconazole. Crude mortality was 41.7%. In conclusion, in community hospitals overall incidence of candidemia is similar to tertiary care hospitals, but 80% of cases are detected in IMW. Candida species distribution is overlapping, but differences in local epidemiology were found and should be taken into consideration. No resistance to amphotericin and caspofungin was found while resistance to azoles was observed. Knowledge of this data might be useful when planning the best therapeutic strategy.

  8. Next-Generation Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Belkum, Alex van; Dunne, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as one of the most-significant health care problems of the new millennium, and the clinical microbiology laboratory plays a central role in optimizing the therapeutic management of patients with infection. This minireview explores the potential value of innovative methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms that could provide valuable alternatives to existing methodologies in the very near future.

  9. Molecular characterisation and antifungal susceptibility of clinical Trichosporon isolates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vijaylatha; Honnavar, Prasanna; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Pamidi, Umabala; Ghosh, Anup; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2016-08-01

    In Asian countries, Trichosporon infection is a well-known disease in Japan. In India, the infection is increasingly recognised. The study was conducted to characterise the clinical Trichosporon isolates from India by phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 31 Trichosporon clinical isolates, recovered from patients of 14 hospitals across India were sequenced (ITS and IGS1 regions of rDNA). In vitro drug susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed against amphotericin-B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole. IGS1, rather than ITS sequences, correctly identified the isolates: Trichosporon asahii, 20; Trichosporon ovoides, 3; Trichosporon inkin, 2; Trichosporon asteroides, 1; Trichosporon mucoides, 1; Trichosporon loubieri, 1; Trichosporon debeurmannianum, 1; and Trichosporon dermatis, 1. Trichosporon asahii genotype III was the most common type, followed by genotype I and VII. Both these targets did not help to identify one Trichosporon to the species level. Trichosporon debeurmannianum, T. dermatis and T. asteroides were isolated for the first time from a human disease in India. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for voriconazole and posaconazole were within effective range. The study highlights the presence of wide range of Trichosporon species causing infection in India. Voriconazole or posaconazole may be the better drugs to treat such patients. PMID:27144725

  10. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Cucumis melo on Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Issa Gholampour-Azizi; Samaneh Rouhi; Fahimeh Yahyayi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With respect to the emergence of susceptibility of some fungi to antifungal agents, making use of medicinal plants is progressing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the anti-fungal characteristics of mature and immature Cucumis melo fruit on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, antifungal activity of aqueous, ethnolic and methanolic extracts of C. melo fruits were tested on C. albicans; also results were obtained by disc and well ...

  11. Perfil de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de dermatófitos isolados de pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica Antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes isolated from patients with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Massotti Magagnin

    2011-08-01

    . Treatment requires the use of topical and/or systemic antifungal drugs. The efficacy of antifungal agents for the treatment of dermatophytosis has yet to be evaluated. Studies evaluating the in vitro activity of antifungal agents are rare, particularly in filamentous fungi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility profile of different species of dermatophytes isolated from patients with chronic renal failure to nine antifungal drugs available on the market for the treatment of dermatophytosis. METHODS: Twenty-six isolates of dermatophytes obtained from patients with chronic renal failure were analyzed with respect to their susceptibility to nine antifungal agents (ketoconazole, ciclopirox olamine, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, miconazole, piroctone olamine, terbinafine and tioconazole, using the broth microdilution method proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and adapted for dermatophytes. RESULTS: Of the antifungal agents tested, the best results in terms of sensitivity were found with terbinafine and tioconazole, while the antifungal activity of fluconazole was found to be weak, particularly against strains of M. gypseum. Ciclopirox olamine, although less effective than terbinafine, also yielded satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the sensitivity profile of the antifungal agents tested in this study was similar to results obtained in previous studies, confirming the need to determine which species is causing the dermatophytosis given that antifungal susceptibility varies from one species to another. Furthermore, the present findings show the importance of conducting in vitro sensitivity tests, since the sensitivity profile may differ among isolates of the same species

  12. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodloff AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed over the last two decades: The number of patients suffering from such infections has increased dramatically and the Candida species involved have become more numerous as Candida albicans is replaced as an infecting agent by various non-C. albicans species (NAC. At the same time, additional antifungal agents have become available. The different Candida species may vary in their susceptibility for these various antifungals. This draws more attention to in vitro susceptibility testing. Unfortunately, several different test methods exist that may deliver different results. Moreover, clinical breakpoints (CBP that classify test results into susceptible, intermediate and resistant are controver- sial between CLSI and EUCAST. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that interpretations may vary with the test system being followed by the microbiological laboratory. Thus, knowledge of actual MIC values and pharmacokinetic properties of individual antifungal agents is important in delivering appropriate therapy to patients

  13. Conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans: influence of growth conditions and antifungal susceptibility profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Pereira de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have investigated some growth conditions capable of inducing the conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans. Germination in Sabouraud medium (pH 7.0, 37ºC, 5% CO2 showed to be a typically time-dependent event, reaching ~75% in S. minutisporum and > 90% in S. apiospermum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans after 4 h. Similar germination rate was observed when conidia were incubated under different media and pHs. Contrarily, temperature and CO2 tension modulated the germination. The isotropic conidial growth (swelling and germ tube-like projection were evidenced by microscopy and cytometry. Morphometric parameters augmented in a time-dependent fashion, evidencing changes in size and granularity of fungal cells compared with dormant 0 h conidia. In parallel, a clear increase in the mitochondrial activity was measured during the transformation of conidia-into-germinated conidia. Susceptibility profiles to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin varied regarding each morphotype and each fungal species. Overall, the minimal inhibitory concentrations for hyphae were higher than conidia and germinated conidia, except for caspofungin. Collectively, our study add new data about the conidia-into-hyphae transformation in Scedosporium and Lomentospora species, which is a relevant biological process of these molds directly connected to their antifungal resistance and pathogenicity mechanisms.

  14. Activation of murine invariant NKT cells promotes susceptibility to candidiasis by IL-10 induced modulation of phagocyte antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Norihiro; Kikuchi, Norihiro; Morishima, Yuko; Matsuyama, Masashi; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Shibuya, Akira; Shibuya, Kazuko; Taniguchi, Masaru; Ishii, Yukio

    2016-07-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells play an important role in a variety of antimicrobial immune responses due to their ability to produce high levels of immune-modulating cytokines. Here, we investigated the role of iNKT cells in host defense against candidiasis using Jα18-deficient mice (Jα18(-/-) ), which lack iNKT cells. Jα18(-/-) mice were more resistant to the development of lethal candidiasis than wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, treatment of WT mice with the iNKT cell activating ligand α-galactosylceramide markedly enhanced their mortality after infection with Candida albicans. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly elevated in WT mice in response to infection with C. albicans. Futhermore, IL-10 production increased after in vitro coculture of peritoneal macrophages with iNKT cells and C. albicans. The numbers of peritoneal macrophages, the production of IL-1β and IL-18, and caspase-1 activity were also significantly elevated in Jα18(-/-) mice after infection with C. albicans. The adoptive transfer of iNKT cells or exogenous administration of IL-10 into Jα18(-/-) reversed susceptibility to candidiasis to the level of WT mice. These results suggest that activation of iNKT cells increases the initial severity of C. albicans infection, most likely mediated by IL-10 induced modulation of macrophage antifungal activity. PMID:27151377

  15. Conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans: influence of growth conditions and antifungal susceptibility profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Thaís Pereira de; Aor, Ana Carolina; Oliveira, Simone Santiago Carvalho de; Branquinha, Marta Helena; Santos, André Luis Souza Dos

    2016-06-27

    In the present study, we have investigated some growth conditions capable of inducing the conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans. Germination in Sabouraud medium (pH 7.0, 37ºC, 5% CO2) showed to be a typically time-dependent event, reaching ~75% in S. minutisporum and > 90% in S. apiospermum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans after 4 h. Similar germination rate was observed when conidia were incubated under different media and pHs. Contrarily, temperature and CO2 tension modulated the germination. The isotropic conidial growth (swelling) and germ tube-like projection were evidenced by microscopy and cytometry. Morphometric parameters augmented in a time-dependent fashion, evidencing changes in size and granularity of fungal cells compared with dormant 0 h conidia. In parallel, a clear increase in the mitochondrial activity was measured during the transformation of conidia-into-germinated conidia. Susceptibility profiles to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin varied regarding each morphotype and each fungal species. Overall, the minimal inhibitory concentrations for hyphae were higher than conidia and germinated conidia, except for caspofungin. Collectively, our study add new data about the conidia-into-hyphae transformation in Scedosporium and Lomentospora species, which is a relevant biological process of these molds directly connected to their antifungal resistance and pathogenicity mechanisms. PMID:27355215

  16. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  17. In vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. against voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jun-yan; WANG He; GUO Li-na; XU Ying-chun; SHI Yi; L(U) Huo-xiang; LIU Yong; ZHAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Dong-mei; XI Li-yan; ZHOU Xin

    2010-01-01

    Background During recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors,transplantations and so forth. Unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of Aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. The present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin) against different kinds of Aspergillus spp. that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting.Methods The agar-based Etest MIC method was employed. One hundred and seven strains of Aspergillus spp. (5 species) were collected and prepared according to Etest Technique Manuel. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 hours at 35℃. MIC50, MIC90 and MIC range were acquired by Whonet 5.4 software.Results The MIC90 of caspofungin against A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. nidulans was 0.094 μg/ml whereas the MIC90 against A. niger was 0.19 μg/ml. For these four species, the MlC90 of caspofungin was the lowest among the five antifungal agents. For A. terrus, the MIC90 of posaconazole was the lowest. For A. fumigatus and A. flavus, the MlC90in order of increasing was caspofungin, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. The MIC of amphotericin B against A. terrus was higher than 32 μg/ml in all 7 strains tested.Conclusions The in vitro antifungal susceptibility test shows the new drug caspofungin, which is a kind of echinocandins, has good activity against the five species of Aspergillus spp. and all the triazoles tested have better in vitro activity than traditional amphotericin B.

  18. Disk susceptibility testing of slow-growing anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Y Y; Tally, F P; Sutter, V L; Finegold, S M

    1975-01-01

    The susceptibility of 55 strains of slow-growing anaerobes to eight clinically useful or potentially useful antibiotics was determined by agar dilution and disk diffusion tests. Strains of the genera Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Megasphaera, Veillonella, Eubacterium, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, and Fusobacterium were included. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, but varied in their susceptibility to penicillin, lincomycin, clindamycin, tetracyclines, and vancomycin. Correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration and inhibition zone diameters was generally good. Prediction of susceptibility based on zone diameter measurements appeared satisfactory. Although routine susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria is not recommended, there are circumstances where such testing is relevant to the clinical situation. For those laboratories ill-equipped to do dilution tests, a disk diffusion test would give relatively accurate preliminary information. Quantitative susceptibility tests could then be done by a reference laboratory. PMID:1137353

  19. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    OpenAIRE

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there is large interest in the development of in vitro and/or in silico test systems as alternatives for the animal studies. The aim of the present thesis was to evaluate the applicability of combined in vi...

  20. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there is

  1. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 enhances the susceptibility to antifungals and reduces the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Evangelista, Antonio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Melo, Charlline Vládia Silva de; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Franco, Jônatas da Silva; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fébio Gadelha

    2016-02-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperones required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in different fungal pathogens, playing an important role in the infectious process. This study investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 by radicicol on the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex - agents of the most common life-threatening fungal infection amongst immunocompromised patients. The influence of Hsp90 inhibition was investigated regarding in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents of planktonic and sessile cells, ergosterol concentration, cell membrane integrity, growth at 37 °C, production of virulence factors in vitro, and experimental infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hsp90 inhibition inhibited the in vitro growth of planktonic cells of Cryptococcus spp. at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2 μg ml- 1 and increased the in vitro inhibitory effect of azoles, especially fluconazole (FLC) (P biofilm formation and mature biofilms of Cryptococcus spp., notably for Cryptococcus gattii. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition compromised the permeability of the cell membrane, and reduced planktonic growth at 37 °C and the capsular size of Cryptococcus spp. In addition, Hsp90 inhibition enhanced the antifungal activity of FLC during experimental infection using Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our results indicate that Hsp90 inhibition can be an important strategy in the development of new antifungal drugs. PMID:26645478

  2. Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2005-12-01

    Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

  3. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 143 Candida strains%143株念珠菌菌种分布及对5种抗真菌药物的敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云昆; 朱雯梅; 高辉; 徐敏; 许丽虹; 王杨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 143 Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens. Methods A comprehensive study was carried out to analyze the species distribution of Candida spp. and their susceptibility to five commonly used antifungal agents. A total of 143 isolates were collected from Yan' an Hospital between 2005 and 2009. Antifungal susceptibility testing was conducted with ATB-Fungus-3 strip. Results Candida albicans accounted for 39. 2% (56/143), and non-albicans Candida spp. 60.8% (87/143), including Candida glabrata 24.5% (35/143), Candida tropicalis 7. 7% (11/143) and Candida parapsilosis 5.6% (8/143). Of the 143 Candida isolates, the overall percentage of strains susceptible to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole was 86. 0%, 100%, 90.9%, 69.9%, and 93.5 %, respectively. About 91. l%, 100%, 96.4%, 82. 1 %, and 96.3% of the 56 Candida a lbicans strains were susceptible to these five antifungal agents. Of the 87 non-albicans Candida spp. isolates, the susceptibility rates were 82.8%, 100%, 87. 4%, 62. 1 %, and 92. 0%, respectively. Conclusions Candida albicans remains a common species in Candida infections. Non-albicans Candida spp. is also increasing. Candida albicans isolates are still highly susceptible to the common antifungal agents. Non-albicans Candida species are more resistant than Candida albicans. Clinical antifungal therapy should be based on the results of pathogen identification and antifungal susceptibility testing.%目的 分析临床标本中念珠菌属的菌种分布及对常用抗真菌药物的敏感性,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 总结分析昆明市延安医院2005-2009年念珠菌属的菌种分布及其对5种常用抗真菌药物的敏感性.药敏试验采用ATB-Fungus-3微量稀释法.结果 在2005-2009年分离的共143株念珠菌中,白念珠菌占39.2%(56/143),非白念珠菌占60

  4. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  5. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...... resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  6. [Internal quality control for antimicrobial susceptibility test: an experience feedback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) position in antimicrobial susceptibility testing must be evaluated attentively before using. Ours S. aureus ATCC 25923 use during year 2011 has given precious information that can be useful for other laboratories. First, IQC should never be used before checking that all the realisation process steps are controlled. It will then appear that reagents are the most susceptible to give false results. That's what happens in 2.74% of antimicrobial susceptibility test. IQC is then useful to limit their clinical's impact. However, IQC use also shows that quality improvement will be difficult without industrial producer's involvement. PMID:22826843

  7. [Investigation of the correlation between biofilm forming ability of urinary Candida isolates with the use of urinary catheters and change of antifungal susceptibility in the presence of biofilm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hacer; Gülmez, Dolunay

    2016-04-01

    Frequency of Candida species causing urinary tract infections is increasing, and this increase is outstanding in nosocomial urinary tract infections especially in intensive care units. The ability of biofilm formation that is contributed to the virulence of the yeast, plays a role in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-related infections and also constitutes a risk for treatment failure. The aims of this study were to compare biofilm forming abilities of Candida strains isolated from urine cultures of patients with and without urinary catheters, and to investigate the change of antifungal susceptibility in the presence of biofilm. A total of 50 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures of 25 patients with urinary catheters (10 C.tropicalis, 6 C.glabrata, 4 C.albicans, 4 C.parapsilosis, 1 C.krusei) and 25 without urinary catheters (8 C.tropicalis, 6 C.albicans, 4 C.krusei, 3 C.parapsilosis, 2 C.kefyr, 1 C.glabrata, 1 C.lusitaniae) were included in the study. Biofilm forming ability was tested by Congo red agar (CRA) and microplate XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction methods. Fluconazole (FLU) and amphotericin B (AMP-B) susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by reference microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for planktonic cells and by XTT reduction assay in case of biofilm presence. Biofilm formation was detected in 12 (24%) by CRA and 50 (100%) of the isolates by XTT reduction method. None of the C.albicans (n= 10) and C.tropicalis (n= 18) strains were detected as biofilm positive by CRA, however, these strains were strongly positive by XTT reduction method. No statistically significant correlation was detected between the presence of urinary catheter and biofilm forming ability of the isolate (p> 0.05). This might be caused by the advantage of biofilm forming strains in adhesion to bladder mucosa at the initial stages of infection. For all of the isolates in

  8. Are Creativity Tests Susceptible to Coaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Elizabeth C.; Cramond, Bonnie; Landis, Rebecca Nordin

    2015-01-01

    Critics of creativity tests, some of which are used widely in determining student eligibility for special educational opportunities such as gifted programs, claim that scores on these tests can be improved with specific training on the scoring components of the tests. However, we could find no empirical evidence supporting this claim. So, we…

  9. Antifungal tests in phytochemical investigations: comparison of bioautographic methods using phytopathogenic and human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahalison, L; Hamburger, M; Monod, M; Frenk, E; Hostettmann, K

    1994-02-01

    The detection limits in two bioautographic assays have been determined for a series of antifungal compounds, including clinically used antimycotics, fungicidal agrochemicals, and various classes of secondary plant metabolites. Target organisms were the filamentous fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans. For clinical agents and agrochemicals, the detection limits in the two assays reflected to a certain extent their known spectrum of activity. Most of the plant-derived compounds tested showed a positive response in both assays, but with detection limits varying by a factor up to tenfold. For screening purposes, it is thus advisable to use both tests, as some activities would otherwise go undetected. The MIC values of these substances were determined in order to verify a possible correlation with the detection limit in the bioautographic assays. PMID:8134415

  10. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Passage of cell cultures may adversely influence cell susceptibility to virus infection through selection of cell clones that thrive in vitro but may not necessarily display high sensitivity to virus infection. Susceptibility to a given virus can therefore vary not only between cell lines and......-cell-culture-adapted" virus by propagating the virus in heterologous cell lines to the one tested. A stock of test virus was produced and stored at - 80 °C and tests were conducted biannually. This procedure becomes complicated when several cell lines are in use and does not account for variation among lineages. In comparing...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...

  11. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  12. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  13. Personalized Genetic Testing and Norovirus Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prystajecky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-to-consumer personalized genetic testing has enabled the public to access and interpret their own genetic information. Various genetic traits can be determined including resistance to norovirus through a nonsense mutation (G428A in the FUT2 gene. Although this trait is believed to confer resistance to the most dominant norovirus genotype (GII.4, the spectrum of resistance to other norovirus strains is unknown. The present report describes a cluster of symptomatic norovirus GI.6 infection in a family identified to have norovirus resistance through personalized genetic testing.

  14. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. PMID:24630580

  15. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic susceptibility tests with three tetracyclines. Reassessment of the "class concept" of disk testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, A L; Draper, D L; Wong, M K

    1978-11-01

    Both aerobic and anaerobic susceptibility tests were performed with tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline, using disk diffusion and agar dilution technics. The data were examined in order to reassess the concept of testing a single disk, representative of the tetracycline class of antimicrobics. All strains that were susceptible to a tetracycline disk were predictably susceptible to the tetracycline analogs. Some strains that gave zones in the resistant or intermediate range were susceptible or moderately susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline by agar dilution methods. However, disk tests with the more active analogs were often unproductive, since most tetracycline-resistant strains gave indeterminate results with doxycycline or minocycline disks. It was concluded that the "class concept" of disk testing is still appropriate and that tests with tetracycline disks predict susceptibility to the other tetracycline analogs reasonably well. PMID:717289

  17. Effect of incubation conditions on anaerobic susceptibility testing results.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, P R; Niles, A C

    1982-01-01

    We determined the effect of performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests in five different anaerobic incubation systems: GasPak jar, large GasPak jar, evacuated-gassed anaerobic jar, anaerobic chamber, and Bio-Bag. Growth of the anaerobes was equivalent in all five incubation systems. The results of testing 38 anaerobes against 11 antimicrobial agents were comparable for the anaerobic jars and anaerobic chamber. However, discordant results were observed for metronidazole and cefamandole test...

  18. A prospective survey of Aspergillus spp. in respiratory tract samples: prevalence, clinical impact and antifungal susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K L; Johansen, H K; Fuursted, Kurt;

    2011-01-01

    A three-month laboratory-based prospective survey was conducted at four major university hospitals covering one-third of the Danish population in order to determine the prevalence, significance, and susceptibility pattern of aspergilli in airway samples. Samples received in January-March 2007 for...

  19. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  20. Antifungal suscepitibility profile of candida spp. oral isolates obtained from denture wearers

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Lyon; L.M. Moreira; M.A.G. Cardoso; Saade, J.; Resende, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition that occurs in denture wearers and is frequently associated with Candida yeasts. Antifungal susceptibility profiles have been extensively evaluated for candidiasis patients or immunosupressed individuals, but not for healthy Candida carriers. In the present study, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosin were tested against 109 oral Candida spp. isolates. All antifungal agents were effective against the samples teste...

  1. FLUCONAZOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CANDIDA SPECI ES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND AGAR DILUTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fungal infections with candida species are an import ant cause of morbidity and mortality 1 . Situation is further worsened by increasing resis tance to antifungal drugs 2 .The objective of this study was to evaluate antifu ngal susceptibility pattern of Candida species to fluconazole by disc diffusion and agar di lution method and compare these two methods as far as fluconazole is concerned. MATERIAL & METHODS: Between January 2006 to December 2006, 119 Candida species were isolated fro m 225 sputum samples of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and immunocomprised patients. RESULTS: Of the 119 Candida isolates 33 (27.73% were Candida albicans, 32 (26.89% were Candida gullermondi, 27 (22.68% Candida tropicalis, 14 (11.76% Candida pseudotropica lis, 7 (5.88% Candida parapsilosis and 6 (5.04% were Candida krusei. The Candida isolates w ere tested for fluconazole by disc diffusion method on Muller hinton agar with 2% glucose and 0. 5 microgram of methylene blue 3 .Amongst the 119 Candida isolates, 17 (14.28% isolates were resistant to fluconazole by disc diffusion method. MIC done by agar dilution method using CLSI guidelines 4. Candida isolates showed growth of 15 (88 .23% Candida strains upto 8 micro gram / ml with 80% inhibition of growth whereas 2 (1.7% isolates showed MIC upto 64 microgr am/ ml. CONCLUSIONS: Candida albicans though a common species other species were i solated in significant number. The results of disc diffusion for fluconazole do not co rrelate with agar dilution method. To cater the need of resource constrained laboratories, it is im portant to have results that correspond to the clinical outcome of antifungal treatment and show c o-relation to those obtained with the reference method as recommended by CLSI guidelines and also be reproducible 5 . Further critical studies are needed

  2. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and routine susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, J; Wilkins, T D

    1978-09-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim against 144 strains of obligately anaerobic bacteria were determined on Diagnostic Sensitivity Test agar (Oxoid) or in prereduced Diagnostic Sensitivity Test broth, both supplemented with sodium pyruvate (1 mg/ml), hemin (5 mug/ml), and vitamin K(1) (1 mug/ml). Fifty-eight percent of the strains were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole alone (MIC disk test proposed by Wilkins and Thiel, modified by using prereduced Diagnostic Sensitivity Test broth instead of brain heart infusion broth and by using a smaller inoculum, there was over 90% correlation with the MICs. Poor results were found when the broth-disk tests were performed in brain heart infusion broth. There was very poor correlation between inhibition zone diameters by an agar diffusion method and MICs. PMID:708016

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of less commonly isolated Haemophilus species using Haemophilus test medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J H; Howell, A W; Maher, L A

    1990-01-01

    Haemophilus test medium (HTM) was developed recently for dilution and disk diffusion antimicrobial agent susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae. The application of HTM to the testing of other, less frequently encountered Haemophilus species recovered from humans was evaluated in this study by using commercially prepared HTM (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) in broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion susceptibility tests with 18 antimicrobial agents. A total of 93.3% ...

  4. Susceptibility testing with the sensititer breakpoint broth microdilution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, G V; Dascal, A; Keville, M

    1985-05-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a total of 318 aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria (255 gram-negative bacilli and 63 gram-positive cocci) were determined, using a new commercially available breakpoint broth microdilution procedure (Sensititer Breakpoint System (SBS), Gibco Diagnostics, Inc., Madison, WI) that categorizes test results in the form of susceptibility categories: susceptible, intermediate, and resistant. Results obtained with the SBS were compared with those achieved with a standardized disk diffusion procedure. Among a total of 4,414 organism-antimicrobic comparisons, concordance between the results of the SBS and the disk diffusion procedure was observed in 3,888 cases (88.1%). Four hundred twenty-three (9.6%) minor discrepancies, 45 (1.0%) major discrepancies, and 58 (1.3%) very major discrepancies were noted. Arbitration of major and very major discrepancies with a full-range minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) procedure confirmed the results of the SBS in 53.4% of cases. A single organism-antimicrobial combination, the nonenterococcal streptococci tested against the aminoglycosides, yielded a significant number of very major errors which were arbitrated in favor of the disk diffusion result. These errors were probably due to poor growth of the test organism in the broth medium used for performing the SBS test (i.e., cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth). With this exception, the SBS was found to be at least as accurate as the standardized disk diffusion procedure. PMID:3922668

  5. In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 ...

  6. Evaluation of the disc diffusion method with a comparison study for fluconazole susceptibility of Candida strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To performance susceptibility testing of antifungal agents. Due to the increasing number of resistant strains, susceptibility testing of antifungal agents is gaining importance. Methods We compared the results of standard macrotube dilution reference method with two different microdilution methods, as well as the disc diffusion method in order to test the susceptibility of 150 Candida strains to fluconazole. Results Overall correlation between microdilution and macrodilution methods was 86%. It was 91% between the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations obtained from macrodilution and disc diffusion zone diameters. Conclusion The disc diffusion test was evaluated as a low-cost, reproducible, and efficient way of assessing the in vitro susceptibility of Candida strains to fluconazole.

  7. Etiologic Agents and Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candidosis from Romanian patients with HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minea, Bogdan; Nastasa, Valentin; Kolecka, Anna; Mares, Magdalena; Marangoci, Narcisa; Rosca, Irina; Pinteala, Mariana; Hancianu, Monica; Mares, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    This is the first Romanian investigation of oral candidosis in patients suffering of HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Candida albicans was the dominant species in both types of isolates: n = 14 (46.7%) in T1DM, n = 60 (69.8%) in HIV. The most frequent non-albicans Candida spp. were Candida kefyr (n = 6; 20%) in T1DM and Candida dubliniensis (n = 8; 9.3%) in HIV. Resistance to fluconazole was detected only in the HIV non-albicans Candida group (n = 8; 9.3%). All isolates were susceptible to VOR. The experimental drug MXP had MIC values equal or close to the ones of VOR. Echinocandin resistance was more frequent than azole resistance. PMID:27282005

  8. 含有额外拷贝黄曲霉cyp51同源基因的烟曲霉对抗真菌药物的敏感性测定%Antifungal susceptibility of the A.fumigatus transformants containing extra copies of A.flavus cyp51 gene homologues to the common antifungal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟霞; 孙毅; 万喆; 李若瑜; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Aspergillus flavus cyp51 genes on antifungal susceptibility by cloning and constucting the extra copies of Aspergillus flavus cyp51 genes. Methods A.flavus cyp5l gene homologues were identified by tblastn searches inA. flavus genome database. PCR fragments composed of the 5'flanking sequence (approximately 1 000 bp) ofcyp51 ,cyp51 ORF, and its 3'flanking sequence (approximately 1 000 bp), were subcloned into shuttle plasmid pRG3-AMAl-NotI to produce recombinant plasmids. These plasmids and empty plasmid pRG3-AMA1-Notl were transformed into A.fumigatus strain AF293.1 (pyrG-) respectively to produce transformants. The Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2 and E-test method were used to assay the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole ( ITC), voriconazole ( VRC), amphotericin B (AMB), and posaconazole (POS), or minimal effect concentration (MEC) of caspofungin (CAS), against these transformants. Results A. flavus genome contains three cyp51 gene homologues, cyp51A ,cyp51B and cyp51 C, of which the ORF size are 1 400-2 000 bp. When these genes were subcloned into shuttle plasmid pRG3-AMA1-NotI, we get plasmids pRG3-AMA1-CYP51 A, pRG3-AMA1-CYP51B and pRG3-AMA1-CYP51C. These plasmids and empty plasmid were transformed into A.fumigatus strain AF293.1 (pyrG-) to produce transformants rCYP51A, rCYP51B, rCYP51C and rpRG. The antifungal susceptibility of these A.fumigatus transformants to the antifungal drugs by broth microdilution assaying and E-test method showed that, rCYP51A and rCYP51B were cross-resistant to VRC and ITC, susceptible to both AM B and CAS; rCYP51C and rpRG were intermediate to ITC and VRC, susceptible to both A MB and CAS. Conclusion In A. fumigatus , extra copies of A.flavus ' cyp51A gene or cyp51B gene have effect on antifungal susceptibility to azoles, have no effect on AMB and CAS. Extra copy ofcyp51C has no obvious effect on all the tested drugs.%目的

  9. High-throughput metal susceptibility testing of microbial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Raymond J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial biofilms exist all over the natural world, a distribution that is paralleled by metal cations and oxyanions. Despite this reality, very few studies have examined how biofilms withstand exposure to these toxic compounds. This article describes a batch culture technique for biofilm and planktonic cell metal susceptibility testing using the MBEC assay. This device is compatible with standard 96-well microtiter plate technology. As part of this method, a two part, metal specific neutralization protocol is summarized. This procedure minimizes residual biological toxicity arising from the carry-over of metals from challenge to recovery media. Neutralization consists of treating cultures with a chemical compound known to react with or to chelate the metal. Treated cultures are plated onto rich agar to allow metal complexes to diffuse into the recovery medium while bacteria remain on top to recover. Two difficulties associated with metal susceptibility testing were the focus of two applications of this technique. First, assays were calibrated to allow comparisons of the susceptibility of different organisms to metals. Second, the effects of exposure time and growth medium composition on the susceptibility of E. coli JM109 biofilms to metals were investigated. Results This high-throughput method generated 96-statistically equivalent biofilms in a single device and thus allowed for comparative and combinatorial experiments of media, microbial strains, exposure times and metals. By adjusting growth conditions, it was possible to examine biofilms of different microorganisms that had similar cell densities. In one example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was up to 80 times more resistant to heavy metalloid oxyanions than Escherichia coli TG1. Further, biofilms were up to 133 times more tolerant to tellurite (TeO32- than corresponding planktonic cultures. Regardless of the growth medium, the tolerance of biofilm and planktonic

  10. Inoculum Standardization for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi Pathogenic for Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Petrikkou, Eva; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gómez, Alicia; Molleja, Ana; Mellado, Emilia

    2001-01-01

    Two methods of inoculum preparation for filamentous fungi were compared: counting with a hematocytometer and spectrophotometric adjustment. One hundred eighty-two filamentous fungi pathogenic for humans were used. Colony counts were done for all inoculum preparations. The agreement between the hematocytometer counts and the colony counts (CFU per milliliter) was 97.2%. The reproducibility between the hematocytometer counts and the colony counts by means of an intraclass correlation coefficien...

  11. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  12. Performance of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay in pyrazinamide susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zi-kun; LUO Qing; JIANG Bi-xia; LI Wei-ting; XU Xiao-meng; XIONG Guo-liang; LI Jun-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug susceptibility assay is very important in tuberculosis therapy.Pyrazinamide is a first line antituberculosis drug and diagnosis of its resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) is difficult and time consuming by conventional methods.In this study,we aimed to evaluate the performance of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay in the detection of pyrazinamide resistance in M.tuberculosis relative to the conventional Wayne assay and Lowenstein-Jensen (L J) proportion method.Methods M.tuberculosis clinical isolates (n=132) were tested by the MODS and the Wayne assay:the results were compared with those obtained by the LJ proportion method.Mutations in the gene were identified by direct sequencing of the pncA genes of all isolates in which pyrazinamide resistance was detected by any of the three methods.Results Compared to the LJ results,the sensitivity and specificity of the MODS assay were 97.8% and 96.5% respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of the Wayne assay were 87.0% and 97.7% respectively.Mutations in the pncA gene were found in 41 of 46 strains that were pyrazinamide resistant (3 tests),in 1 of the 4 strains (LJ only),in 42 of 48 strains (at least 1 test),but no mutations in 1 strain sensitive according to the MODS assay only.The MODS assay,Wayne assay and LJ proportion method provided results in a median time of 6,7 and 26 days respectively.Conclusions MODS assay offers a rapid,simple and reliable method for the detection of pyrazinamide resistance in M.tuberculosis and is an optimal alternative method in resource limited countries.

  13. Screening of Embelia ribes for Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulik Suthar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Embelia ribes reported to contain mainly benzoquinone derivatives such as Embelin (2, 5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-2, 5-cyclohexadiene-1, 4-benzoquinone. Chemical structure of Embelin is having quite resemblance with the structure of natural Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinones and the role of this is well defined in various biochemical protective mechanism. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Embelia ribes (Myrsinaceae plant extracts using standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility test methods like NCCLS M27- A2 protocol (The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards , USA and EUCAST (European Committee for Antifungal Susceptibility Tests. Values of the MIC50 obtained by NCCLS method revealed that Methanol extract and Embelin exhibited lowest MIC50 values against C. albican (183 which was 120 mg/L. Embelin's MIC50 values were below 700 mg/L for C. albican, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. albidus and A. flavus. Diethyl ether extract, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract and embelin obtained MIC50 in range of 300-700 mg/L against C. albican and C. parapsilosis. Petroleum ether extract showed lowest MIC50 values for C. parapsilosis (250 mg/L; C. laurintis (360 mg/L; I.orientalis (180 mg/L and A. fumigatus(170 mg/L.

  14. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole and routine susceptibility testing by standardized methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wust, J

    1977-04-01

    A total of 114 strains of anaerobic bacteria were examined for their susceptibility to metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration in different media. All strains, with the exception of the isolates of Propionibacterium acnes, were inhibited by 3.1 mug each and killed by 6.3 mug each of all three nitroimidazole compounds per ml. No significant differences in MIC values were found among metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole. Only minor differences were detected by comparing MIC values obtained in brain heart infusion agar with and without sheep blood, brucella agar, and Mueller-Hinton agar (both containing blood). When the strains were tested by the modified broth-disk method proposed by the Anaerobe Laboratory of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI), there was good correlation with the MIC values (97.4% agreement for metronidazole and 94.7% for ornidazole and tinidazole). For routine testing, use of a 30-mug-class disk of either nitroimidazole derivative is proposed for the broth-disk method, resulting in a final concentration of 6 mug/ml in the test tubes, a concentration easily attainable in body fluids. In contrast to the broth-disk method, there was very poor correlation between inhibition zone diameters by the standardized VPI agar diffusion test and MIC values. PMID:856015

  15. Susceptibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 - (Gubbins, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.), s. 931-933. (Encyclopedia of Earth sciences series). ISBN 978-1-4020-3992-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetic susceptibility * magnetic field * magnetization curve Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R; Bourgault, A M; Lamothe, F

    1987-10-01

    The susceptibilities of 225 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group to six antibiotics were determined by a new disk diffusion test in Wilkins-Chalgren agar and by the standard agar dilution method. For disk diffusion, the bacteria were directly suspended in saline and immediately swabbed onto 15-cm agar plates. Disks of cefoxitin (30 micrograms), chloramphenicol (30 micrograms), clindamycin (2 micrograms), moxalactam (30 micrograms), imipenem (10 micrograms), and ticarcillin (75 micrograms) were applied, and the plates were incubated at 37 degrees C in an anaerobic atmosphere. Zone sizes were measured at 24 h. The results of disk diffusion and agar dilution were compared by regression analysis by the method of least squares and by the error rate-bounded method. Zones were easily measured for 216 strains (96%). The correlation between the MICs and diameters of inhibition for cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxalactam, and ticarcillin was generally good. A correlation could not be established for chloramphenicol and imipenem, as there were too few resistant strains. With the recommended resistance breakpoints, the following susceptible and resistant zone diameter breakpoints could be established: cefoxitin, less than or equal to 19 and greater than or equal to 21 mm; clindamycin, less than or equal to 14 and greater than or equal to 18 mm; moxalactam, less than or equal to 21 and greater than or equal to 25 mm; and ticarcillin, less than or equal to 15 and greater than or equal to 16 mm. By applying these zone criteria, the percentage of false-susceptible strains was less than 1% and of false-resistant strains was less than 4% for the drugs tested. PMID:3481247

  17. Antifungal activity of TiO2 photocatalysis against Penicillium expansum in vitro and in fruit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneerat, Chamorn; Hayata, Yasuyoshi

    2006-03-15

    The antifungal activity of TiO2 photocatalytic reaction in the form of TiO2 powder and TiO2 coated on a plastic film against Penicillium expansum was investigated in vitro and in fruit tests. The mixture of P. expansum conidial suspension and TiO2 powder was added to potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates for vitro test. The TiO2 photocatalytic reaction reduced conidial germination of the fungal pathogen. It was found that the ability of the TiO2 photocatalytic reaction to suppress P. expansum growth correlated to the amount of TiO2 added. Lower numbers of viable colonies of P. expansum were observed with increasing amount of TiO2. Regardless of the kind of selected fruit inoculated with P. expansum, both TiO2 powder and TiO2-coated film exhibited antifungal activity to control fruit rot. Development of Penicillium rot in apple was significantly (P = 0.05) retarded by the TiO2 photocatalytic reaction. Similarly the TiO2 photocatalytic reaction was the only treatment where no tomato fruit rot was noticeable after 1 week of storage. TiO2-coated film also decreased brown lesions and Penicillium rot infection in lemons. The mean severity fruit rot scores (browning and softening flesh) were 3.2 and 1.9 for uncoated and TiO2-coated film, respectively. Our findings suggest that "TiO2 photocatalytic reaction" shows antifungal activity against P. expansum which may have potential for postharvest disease control. PMID:16269195

  18. Comprehensive approach for the detection of antifungal compounds using a susceptible strain of Candida albicans and confirmation of in vivo activity with the Galleria mellonella model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Godal, Quentin; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Conan, Céline; Marcourt, Laurence; Wardojo, Bambang Prajogo Eko; Voinesco, Francine; Buchwalder, Aurélie; Gindro, Katia; Sanglard, Dominique; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-09-01

    An efficient screening strategy for the identification of potentially interesting low-abundance antifungal natural products in crude extracts that combines both a sensitive bioautography assay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) microfractionation was developed. This method relies on high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautography with a hypersusceptible engineered strain of Candida albicans (DSY2621) for bioactivity detection, followed by the evaluation of wild type strains in standard microdilution antifungal assays. Active extracts were microfractionated by HPLC in 96-well plates, and the fractions were subsequently submitted to the bioassay. This procedure enabled precise localisation of the antifungal compounds directly in the HPLC chromatograms of the crude extracts. HPLC-PDA-mass spectrometry (MS) data obtained in parallel to the HPLC antifungal profiles provided a first chemical screening about the bioactive constituents. Transposition of the HPLC analytical conditions to medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) allowed the efficient isolation of the active constituents in mg amounts for structure confirmation and more extensive characterisation of their biological activities. The antifungal properties of the isolated natural products were evaluated by their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in a dilution assay against both wild type and engineered strains of C. albicans. The biological activity of the most promising agents was further evaluated in vitro by electron microscopy and in vivo in a Galleria mellonella model of C. albicans infection. The overall procedure represents a rational and comprehensive means of evaluating antifungal activity from various perspectives for the selection of initial hits that can be explored in more in-depth mode-of-action studies. This strategy is illustrated by the identification and bioactivity evaluation of a series of antifungal compounds from the methanolic extract of a Rubiaceae

  19. In vitro antifungal effect of EDTA disodium salt in tested black aspergilli

    OpenAIRE

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal effect of Na2EDTA on an Aspergillus carbonarius, an A. ibericus, an ochratoxigenic A. niger and a non-ochratoxigenic A. niger strain was studied. Also, the effect of Na2EDTA on the production of ochratoxin A by A. carbonarius and the ochratoxigenic A. niger was evaluated. The poisoned food technique was used with CYA medium supplemented with 0, 1 and 10 mmol L-1 of Na2EDTA. The colony diameters were recorded daily and the amount of ochratoxin A produced was quantified every two...

  20. Static NLO susceptibilities testing approximation schemes against exact results

    CERN Document Server

    Del Freo, L; Painelli, A; Freo, Luca Del; Terenziani, Francesca; Painelli, Anna

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the approximations commonly adopted in the calculation of static optical (hyper)polarizabilities is tested against exact results obtained for an interesting toy-model. The model accounts for the principal features of typical nonlinear organic materials with mobile electrons strongly coupled to molecular vibrations. The approximations introduced in sum over states and finite field schemes are analyzed in detail. Both the Born-Oppenheimer and the clamped nucleus approximations turn out to be safe for molecules, whereas for donor-acceptor charge transfer complexes deviations from adiabaticity are expected. In the regime of low vibrational frequency, static susceptibilities are strongly dominated by the successive derivatives of the potential energy and large vibrational contributions to hyperpolarizabilities are found. In this regime anharmonic corrections to hyperpolarizabilities are very large, and the harmonic approximation, exact for the linear polarizability, turns out totally inadequate ...

  1. Characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics by a standardized antibiotic susceptibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda D; Nguyen, Oanh T; Deinhard, Rebecca K; White, Teresa M; Harrell, Lee W; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2008-08-01

    Three cohorts of juvenile and subadult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha received multiple treatments with macrolide antibiotics for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) during rearing in a captive broodstock program. A total of 77 mortalities among the cohorts were screened for Renibacterium salmoninarum, the etiologic agent of BKD, by agar culture from kidney, and isolates from 7 fish were suitable for growth testing in the presence of macrolide antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin and azithromycin was determined by a modification of the standardized broth assay using defined medium. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strain 33209 exhibited a MIC of 0.008 microg m(-1) to either erythromycin or azithromycin. Isolates from 3 fish displayed MICs identical to the MICs for the ATCC type strain 33209. In contrast, isolates from 4 fish exhibited higher MICs, ranging between 0.125 and 0.250 microg ml(-1) for erythromycin and between 0.016 and 0.031 microg ml(-1) for azithromycin. Sequence analysis of the mutational hotspots for macrolide resistance in the 23S rDNA gene and the open reading frames of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 found identical sequences among all isolates, indicating that the phenotype was not due to mutations associated with the drug-binding site of 23S rRNA. These results are the first report of R. salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics isolated from fish receiving multiple antibiotic treatments. PMID:18814542

  2. High-Throughput Intracellular Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius; Kirby, James E

    2015-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic human pathogen that causes a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Notably, in the human host, the organism is believed to replicate solely within an intracellular compartment, predominantly within pulmonary macrophages. Consequently, successful therapy is predicated on antimicrobials penetrating into this intracellular growth niche. However, standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods test solely for extracellular growth inhibition. Here, we make use of a high-throughput assay to characterize intracellular growth inhibition activity of known antimicrobials. For select antimicrobials, high-resolution dose-response analysis was then performed to characterize and compare activity levels in both macrophage infection and axenic growth assays. Results support the superiority of several classes of nonpolar antimicrobials in abrogating intracellular growth. Importantly, our assay results show excellent correlations with prior clinical observations of antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, we also show the applicability of high-throughput automation to two- and three-dimensional synergy testing. High-resolution isocontour isobolograms provide in vitro support for specific combination antimicrobial therapy. Taken together, findings suggest that high-throughput screening technology may be successfully applied to identify and characterize antimicrobials that target bacterial pathogens that make use of an intracellular growth niche. PMID:26392509

  3. High-Throughput Intracellular Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic human pathogen that causes a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Notably, in the human host, the organism is believed to replicate solely within an intracellular compartment, predominantly within pulmonary macrophages. Consequently, successful therapy is predicated on antimicrobials penetrating into this intracellular growth niche. However, standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods test solely for extracellular growth inhibition. Here, we make use of a high-throughput assay to characterize intracellular growth inhibition activity of known antimicrobials. For select antimicrobials, high-resolution dose-response analysis was then performed to characterize and compare activity levels in both macrophage infection and axenic growth assays. Results support the superiority of several classes of nonpolar antimicrobials in abrogating intracellular growth. Importantly, our assay results show excellent correlations with prior clinical observations of antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, we also show the applicability of high-throughput automation to two- and three-dimensional synergy testing. High-resolution isocontour isobolograms provide in vitro support for specific combination antimicrobial therapy. Taken together, findings suggest that high-throughput screening technology may be successfully applied to identify and characterize antimicrobials that target bacterial pathogens that make use of an intracellular growth niche. PMID:26392509

  4. Rifaximin disc diffusion test for in vitro susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Huhulescu, Steliana; Sagel, Ulrich; Fiedler, Anita; Pecavar, Verena; Blaschitz, Marion; Wewalka, Guenther; Allerberger, Franz; Indra, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Rifaximin is a rifampicin derivative, poorly absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract. We studied the in vitro susceptibility to rifamixin of 1082 Clostridium difficile isolates; among these,184 isolates from a strain collection were tested by an in-house rifaximin disc (40 µg) diffusion test, by an in-house rifaximin broth microdilution test, by rifampicin Etest and by rpoB gene sequencing. In the absence of respective CLSI or EUCAST MIC breakpoints for rifaximin and rifampicin against C. dif...

  5. Effects of the association of antifungal drugs on the antimicrobial action of endodontic sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique WECKWERTH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study aimed to determine the susceptibility of oral specimens and ATCC lineages of Candida albicans for five endodontic sealers, which were pure and associated with two antifungal drugs, and to analyze their effect on the physical properties. For this purpose, 30 lineages of C. albicans, collected from the oral cavity of patients assisted at the endodontics clinic of the Universidade Sagrado Coração, were analyzed. Yeasts susceptibility to the sealers was tested by diffusion on agar plates. Physical properties were evaluated according to the ADA specification no. 57. The pure versions of the Sealer 26, AH Plus, Endofill, Fillapex, and Sealapex demonstrated antifungal activity, with Endofill presenting the greatest inhibition zones. All cements, except for Endofill, had their antifungal actions enhanced by addition of ketoconazole and fluconazole (p < 0.05, and the AH Plus presented the best antifungal activity. The addition of antifungal drugs did not interfere with the setting time and flowability of the sealers. It was concluded that the addition of antifungals to endodontic sealers enhanced the antimicrobial action of most cements tested without altering their physical properties.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of drug-resistance genes in Candida albicans biofilms in response to antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamoto, T; Samaranayake, L P; Egusa, H; Yatani, H; Seneviratne, C J

    2011-09-01

    Biofilm formation is a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans and is directly associated with therapeutic failure. One method by which Candida acquires antifungal resistance is the expression of drug-resistance genes. This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional regulation of several genes associated with antifungal resistance of C. albicans under planktonic, recently adhered and biofilm growth modes and in C. albicans biofilms in response to antifungal agents. Initially, the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans cultures in different growth modes was evaluated by standard antifungal susceptibility testing. Next, to assess CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, ERG11, FKS1 and PIL1 expression, RNA was harvested from cells in each growth mode, and from biofilms after drug treatment, and subjected to quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Biofilm C. albicans was more resistant to antifungals than recently adhered cells and stationary-phase planktonic cultures. Transcriptional expression of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, ERG11 and FKS1 was lower in recently adhered C. albicans than in the stationary-phase planktonic cultures. In contrast, PIL1 levels were significantly increased in recently adhered and biofilm modes of growth. The expression of MDR1 in biofilms greatly increased on challenge with amphotericin B but not with the other drugs tested (PERG11 was significantly upregulated by ketoconazole (PCandida biofilms, and lay a foundation for future large-scale genome-wide expression analysis. PMID:21474609

  7. Molecular epidemiology and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus species complex isolates in Delhi, India: evidence of genetic diversity by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallu Kathuria

    Full Text Available Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140 from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP. Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of

  8. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J M

    2009-09-01

    azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and telithromycin (Table 15); clarithromycin and erythromycin MIC and zone diameter BPs for Moraxella catarrhalis (Table 16); azithromycin MIC BPs for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Table 17); chloramphenicol and rifampicin MIC BPs for Neisseria meningitidis (Table 18); azithromycin MIC BPs for Haemophilus influenzae (Table 19); MIC BPs for metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Clostridium perfringens (Tables 23-25, respectively); susceptibility testing of Listeria spp. (Appendix 3); the acceptable range for ATCC 25923 to a 10 microg tobramycin disc (Table 26). PMID:19587067

  9. 21 CFR 866.1700 - Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. 866.1700 Section 866.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....1700 Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. (a) Identification. A culture medium...

  10. Adhesion and biofilm formation in artificial saliva and susceptibility of yeasts isolated from chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Paula Assis; Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Negri, Melyssa

    2015-09-01

    Yeasts of the genera Candida and Saccharomyces are opportunist pathogens and cause oral lesions, especially in immunocompromised patients. This study assessed yeasts isolated from chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis for their adhesion capacity, biofilm formation and susceptibility to antifungal agents. Ten isolates of Candida spp. and one isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested for adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BECs), adhesion and formation of biofilm in artificial saliva and their susceptibility profile to antifungal agents. Adhesion and biofilm formation were undertaken in polystyrene plates with artificial saliva, whilst susceptibility to antifungal agents was evaluated by broth microdilution. Candida parapsilosis had the highest adhesion index in BECs (154.55 ± 22.13) and Candida rugosa was the species with the highest adhesion capacity (18 398  Abs cm(-2)) in abiotic surface with artificial saliva. Candida albicans provided the greatest biofilm formation (2035  Abs cm(-2) ± 0.09) but was revealed to be susceptible to the five antifungal agents under analysis. However, some non-albicans Candida isolates showed a lower susceptibility for the antifungal agents itraconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole. All of the species were sensitive to amphotericin B and nystatin. The current analysis showed that yeasts isolated from the mouth of chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis varied significantly with regard to their capacity for adherence, biofilm formation and susceptibility to antifungal agents, underscoring the high virulence of non-albicans Candida species. PMID:26297016

  11. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent.

  12. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D K

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent. PMID:26317075

  13. Test of Fuzzy Logic Rules for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Yannick; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Maquaire, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Landslide Susceptibility Assessment (LSA) is defined as the spatial probability for a landslide to be generated in an area for many environmental factors. Currently, two approaches are used: (i) the qualitative approach based on expert opinion and knowledge of the relationship between the observed phenomenon and some predisposing factors and (ii) the statistical approach based on the statistical analysis of the relationship between the observed landslide and some predisposing factors. This pa...

  14. Use of a constant deflection test to evaluate susceptibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constant deflection test was developed to evaluate the susceptibility of irradiated stainless steel (SS) to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. The test was shown useful in supplementing constant extension rate tensile or slow strain rate tensile, constant load, and swelling mandrel tests that have been used in the past. Preliminary data showing the susceptibility of commercial-purity type 304 SS (UNS S30400) as a function of stress, strain, and fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) were presented

  15. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  16. A Novel Hypoxia Challenge Test Demonstrates Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Susceptibility to Acrolein Gas in Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of air pollution increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations including those with hypertension. Stress tests are useful for manifesting latent effects of exposure, particularly at low concentrations, often when no...

  17. Susceptibility testing of sequential isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus recovered from treated patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Meletiadis, J.; Tortorano, A.M.; Symoens, F.; Nolard, N.; Viviani, M.A.; Piens, M.A.; Lebeau, B.; Verweij, P.E.; Grillot, R.

    2004-01-01

    Two-hundred sequential Aspergillus fumigatus isolates recovered from 26 immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis or bronchial colonization were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and amphotericin B. Twenty-one patients were

  18. Susceptibility to heat and antifungal agents of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D isolated from Eucalyptus spp in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Susceptibilidade de Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (sorotipo D isolados de Eucalyptus spp., no Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, frente ao calor e a agentes antifúngicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Horta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the susceptibility to heat and antifungal agents of the first strains of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans (serotype D isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In order to achieve a rigorous analysis, we employed the methodology recommended by NCCLS, Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB proposed by Ghannoum et al (YNB-1, Antibiotic medium 3 (AM3 indicated by others, YNB adjusted to the NCCLS methodology (YNB-2 and Etest. Our results indicate that all strains were susceptible to amphotericin B (0.0625-0.5 µg/mL, fluconazole (0.125-8.0 µg/mL, itraconazole (0.031-0.25 µg/mL and flucytosine (0.125-4.0 µg/mL. The C. neoformans serotype D strains were more susceptible to heat (47ºC/30 min than C. neoformans serotype A.Este estudo foi realizado com os primeiros isolados ambientais de C. neoformans sorotipo D, obtidos no Rio Grande do Sul. Objetivando-se avaliar a susceptibilidade a agentes antifúngicos de forma mais rigorosa, utilizou-se a técnica de referência proposta pelo NCCLS, Caldo Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB proposto por Ghannoum et al., Antibiotic medium 3, caldo YNB adequado à metodologia do NCCLS e o E-test. Os resultados indicaram que todos os isolados foram sensíveis à anfotericina B (0,0625-0,5 µg/mL, fluconazol (0,125-4,0 µg/mL, itraconazol (0,031-0,25 µg/ml e fluorocitosina (0,125-4,0 µg/mL através das técnicas empregadas. Nos testes de termotolerância (47ºC/30 min, observou-se que as culturas de C. neoformans sorotipo D são mais sensíveis do que as de C. neoformans sorotipo A.

  19. 抗真菌药物治疗外阴阴道念珠菌病敏感性的临床研究%Clinical Research of Susceptibility to Antifungal Agents in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭爱芹

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨外阴阴道念珠菌病(VVC)的临床特征及抗真菌药物治疗VVC的敏感性.方法 对我院自2008年1月至2011年8月收治的1000例妇科门诊患者的VVC发病情况进行回顾性分析,观察念珠菌对抗真菌药物的敏感性.结果 通过分离1000株念珠菌,白念珠菌为610例(61%),非白念珠菌为390例(39%).白念珠菌及非白念珠菌对氟康唑和伊曲康唑的敏感度比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);对酮康唑和两性霉素B的敏感度比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 白念珠菌是VVC的主要致病菌,非白念珠菌的药物敏感性较白念珠菌低,白念珠菌对抗真菌药物的耐药性不常见.%Objective To discuss the clinical features of vulvovaginal candidiasis( VVC )and the susceptibility to antifungal agents in the treatment. Methods Retrospective analysis of VVC incidence of 1000 gynecological outpatients of our hospital from January 2008 to August 2011 was done, Candida albicans sensitivity to antifungal agents was observed. Results Among the 1000 cases,610 patients( 61% )had Candida albicans,and 390 patients( 39% )had non-Candida albicans. Sensitivity of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans to fluconazole and itraconazole werestatistically significantly different^ P 0. 05 ). Conclusion The main pathogen of VCC is Candida albicans, non-Candida albicans drug sensitivity is lower than Candida albicans, antifungal drug resistance is not common in Candida albicans.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A;

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study to determ....... Consequently, susceptibility testing of all H. pylori strains is recommended in order to survey the development of resistance, and in our hands the described methodology was relatively easy to perform and the results were easy to read....

  1. A preliminary study on radiation treatment of chitosan for enhancement of antifungal activity tested on fruit - spoiling strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy, and then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate. Our study indicated that degree of deacetylation of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. Radiation treatment at doses higher than 20 kGy increased clearly the antifungal activity of chitosan. In addition, dose of 60-75 kGy where the viscosity-average molecular weight reduced to 110,000, expressed the highest activity. (author)

  2. Antifungal Activity of C-27 Steroidal Saponins

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Li, Xing-Cong

    2006-01-01

    As part of our search for new antifungal agents from natural resources, 22 C-27 steroidal saponins and 6 steroidal sapogenins isolated from several monocotyledonous plants were tested for their antifungal activity against the opportunistic pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the steroidal saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties and the number and struct...

  3. Antifungal activity of triterpenoid isolated from Azima tetracantha leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) against fungi. Antifungal activity was carried out using broth micro dilution method and fractions were collected using (silica gel) column chromatography. The antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha crude extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Hexane extract showed some antifungal activity. The compound also exhibited antifungal activity against tested fungi. The lowest MIC against Trichophyton rubrum (296) was 62.5 micro g/ml and the MIC for Curvularia lunata was 62.5 micro g/ml. These results suggest that Friedelin is a promising antifungal agent. (authors)

  4. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  5. Effect of physiological heterogeneity of E. coli population on antibiotic susceptivity test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the instantaneous growth rate (dN/dt) of E. coli CVCC249 growing in batch culture, the entire growth progress was distinguished into four phases: accelerating growth phase, constant growth phase, decelerating growth phase and declining phase, in each of which obvious variation in physiological and biochemical properties was detected, including total DNA, total protein, and MTT-dehydrogenase activity, etc., that led to difference in their antibiotic susceptivity. Antibiotic susceptivity of the population sampled from each phase was tested by Concentration-killing Curve (CKC) approach following the formula N=N0/{1+exp[r((x-BC50)]}, showing as normal distribution at the individual cell level for an internal population, in which the median bactericidal concentration BC50 represents the mean level of susceptivity, while the bactericidal span BC1-99=(2lnN0)/r indicates the variation degree of the antibiotic susceptivity. Furthermore, tested by CKC approach, the antibiotic susceptivity of E. coli CVCC249 population in each physiological phase to gentamicin or enoxacin was various: susceptivity of the population in the constant growth phase and declining phase all increased compared with that in the accelerating growth phase for gentamicin but declined for enoxacin. The primary investigations revealed that the physiological phase should be taken into account in the context of antibiotic susceptivity and research into antimicrobial mechanism. However there are few reports concerned with this study. Further research using different kinds of antibiotics with synchronized continuous culture of different bacterial strains is required.

  6. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, D T; Sakoulas, G; Nizet, V; Pogliano, J; Pogliano, K

    2016-02-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1-2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  7. Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior: a field experiment to encourage home radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test one's home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly more likely than minimal-treatment subjects to acknowledge the possibility of high radon levels in their homes. Perceptions of susceptibility and illness severity were significantly correlated with orders of radon test kits and with testing intentions. Nevertheless, there were no differences between groups in test orders or intentions. Results are discussed in terms of the difficulty of getting people to acknowledge susceptibility and the factors other than risk perceptions that influence self-protective behavior

  8. Adherence to HeLa cells, typing by killer toxins and susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida dubliniensis strains Adesão a células HeLa, tipagem pelas toxinas "killer" e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismari Miranda da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence capability to HeLa cells, the susceptibility to killer toxins and the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents (eTest? method - AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden of 9 Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from HIV+ and AIDS patients. The adherence test was strongly positive for strain ATCC 777 and positive for all other strains. Typing by killer toxins revealed two different biotypes among the 9 isolates studied: 888 and 688. Only biotype 688 (ATCC 777 was susceptible to the K2 toxin. There was a significant inverse correlation between adherence and killer toxin susceptibility (r = -0.8525 - p = 0.0035. No strains presented resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine or amphotericin-B. With the exception of ATCC 777, all the other isolates presented similar behavior.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cepas de Candida dubliniensis recuperadas de pacientes HIV+ e com AIDS por meio da pesquisa de capacidade de adesão a células HeLa, susceptibilidade a toxinas "Killer" e resistência in vitro a antifúngicos (eTest® AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia. O ensaio de adesão foi fortemente aderente para a amostra padrão ATCC 777, e aderente para os demais isolados. Os testes de tipagem das amostras frente às cepas-padr��o produtoras de toxinas "Killer" mostraram dois biótipos diferentes dos 9 isolados estudados: 888 e 688. Somente o biótipo 688 (ATCC 777 de C. dubliniensis foi sensível à toxina K2. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre adesão e sensibilidade a toxinas "killer" (r = -0,8525 - p = 0,0035. Em relação à pesquisa de resistência a antifúngicos, as amostras de C. dubliniensis foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, voriconazol, à flucitosina e anfotericina B. Com exceção da amostra ATCC 777, todas as demais mostraram comportamento similar.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, L T; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Kahlmeter, G;

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by ...

  10. Antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  11. Accelerated electrochemical test of 14Kh17N2 steel susceptibility to ICC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of the accelerated electrochemical technique used to determine susceptibility 14Kh17N2 steel of ferrite-martensite type to intercrystallite corrosion under the drop of electrolyte, is given. Convergence of the results obtained due to accelerated techniques with those of tests using the All-Union Standards 6032-84 constitutes 95%. These results demonstrate possibility to use data of the accelerated techniques for rapid estimation of susceptibility to ICC of martensite-ferrite steel-14Kh17N2

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of a Nonweekend Reading Schedule for Radiometric Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, B.; Gross, W.; George, I.; Sloutsky, A.; Washabaugh, G.; Robinson-Dunn, B.; Lipman, H; Metchock, B; Mazurek, G; Ridderhof, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an integral component of the short-course chemotherapy regimen for tuberculosis. The BACTEC 460TB PZA susceptibility test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a daily (D) reading schedule has been available for more than 10 years, but weekend laboratory staffing is necessary. A nonweekend (NW) reading schedule has not been validated in a multicenter study. This prospective multicenter study compares the interlaboratory reproducibility of PZA susceptibility results by foll...

  13. Comparison of an Automated System with Conventional Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini Duggal; Rajni Gaind; Neha Tandon; Manorama Deb; Tulsi Das Chugh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare a fully automated identification/antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) system BD Phoenix (BD) for its efficacy in rapid and accurate identification and AST with conventional manual methods and to determine if the errors reported in AST, such as the (very major errors) VME (false susceptibility), (major errors) ME (false resistance), and (minor errors) MiE (intermediate category interpretation) were within the range certified by FDA. Identification a...

  14. Suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes com estomatite protética Susceptibility to antifungal drugs of Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Moreira BATISTA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes portadores de próteses totais, apresentam, com freqüência a chamada estomatite protética, com a qual associa-se Candida albicans determinando a chamada candidíase eritematosa. Assim, procuramos avaliar a suscetibilidade dessa levedura a agentes antifúngicos. A suscetibilidade de dezenove cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes apresentando estomatite protética foi estudada frente a: um derivado poliênico representado, pela anfotericina B (AnB, e dois derivados azóicos, cetoconazol e miconazol. A atividade antifúngica foi estudada a partir da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e da concentração fungicida mínima (CFM, pela técnica de diluição em ágar. Os resultados obtidos, mostraram baixos valores de CIMs e CFMs (mg/ml para a AnB frente a todas as leveduras. Para o miconazol e o cetoconazol, foram observadas CIMs invariavelmente £ 4,00 mg/ml; para as CFMs, foram obtidos valores ³ 16,00 mg/ml frente a maioria das cepas. Conclui-se que a AnB apresentou maior ação fungicida in vitro enquanto os azóis demonstraram ação fungistática mas não fungicida. Acreditamos que a pesquisa de novas drogas, principalmente de uso tópico ainda é necessária, a fim de se tratar, com sucesso, a candidíase eritematosa, comumente observada nas chamadas estomatites protéticas.Users of total prosthesis present in general a high frequency of the so called denture stomatitis, associated to erythematous candidiasis. So, we evaluated the susceptibility of oral yeast to three antifungal agents. Strains of Candida albicans isolated from patients with denture stomatitis were evaluated in relation to the susceptibility of the antifungal drugs as amphotericin B (polyenic derivatives, and azole agents as ketoconazole and miconazole. The antifungal activity was evaluated, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicide concentration (MFC were determined utilizing the agar dilution method. The

  15. A Counselling Model for BRCA1/2 Genetic Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oostrom Iris

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When BRCA1/2 genetic susceptibility testing was introduced in the clinic in the mid-nineties, the "Huntington protocol" was used in the counselling of individuals applying for genetic testing. This protocol includes at least three sessions with a certain reflection period before blood sampling. Evidence on the psychological impact of BRCA1/2 genetic susceptibility testing has been accumulating in the last years. We will give a short overview of these psychological studies in order to reflect the need of using the extensive Huntington protocol in the counselling of individuals applying for BRCA1/2 genetic susceptibility testing. A shortened and more flexible BRCA1/2 counselling protocol is delineated, in which the attention is focused on the needs and strengths of the individual.

  16. Sequence variant classification and reporting: recommendations for improving the interpretation of cancer susceptibility genetic test results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plon, S.E.; Eccles, D.M.; Easton, D.; Foulkes, W.D.; Genuardi, M.; Greenblatt, M.S.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Spurdle, A.B.; Tavtigian, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic testing of cancer susceptibility genes is now widely applied in clinical practice to predict risk of developing cancer. In general, sequence-based testing of germline DNA is used to determine whether an individual carries a change that is clearly likely to disrupt normal gene function. Genet

  17. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.; Coles, M.; Coyne, R.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Gieseker, C.; Hsu, H.M.; Mathers, J.J.; Papapetropoulou, M.; Petty, B.; Teitzel, C.; Reimschuessel, R.

    2005-01-01

    antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bacterial isolates from aquatic animal species. QC ranges were established for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 when testing at 22, 28 and 35 degrees C (E. coli only) for 10 different antimicrobial agents...

  18. Impact of New Antifungal Breakpoints on Antifungal Resistance in Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fothergill, Annette W.; Sutton, Deanna A.; McCarthy, Dora I.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed our antifungal susceptibility data for micafungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole against Candida species and compared resistance rates determined by the previous and recently revised CLSI antifungal breakpoints. With the new breakpoints, resistance was significantly increased for micafungin (from 0.8% to 7.6%), anidulafungin (from 0.9% to 7.3%), and voriconazole (from 6.1% to 18.4%) against Candida glabrata. Resistance was also increased for fluconazole against Cand...

  19. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete; Sipila, H.; Franklin, A.; Gunnarsson, E.

    2003-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries......, whereas for Enterococcus spp., two laboratories had less than 90 % concordant results. Susceptibility testing of Salmonella to fluoroquinolones gave rise to almost 0.5% nonconcordant results and susceptibility testing of S. aureus to vancomycin resulted in that 1.8% of the strains were incorrectly...... reported as vancomycin resistant. Ten laboratories identified the Enterococcus spp. to species level. All five Enterococcus faecium and 10 Enterococcus faecalis selected from the strain collection at the Danish Veterinary Institute were correctly identified by all laboratories, whereas some problems were...

  20. A two-hour antibiotic susceptibility test by ATP-bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; García-Loygorri Jordán de Urries, María Cristina; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María Purificación; Simarro Grande, María; Orduña Domingo, Antonio; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) in Clinical Microbiology laboratories is still time-consuming, and most procedures take 24h to yield results. In this study, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test using ATP-bioluminescence has been developed. The design of method was performed using five ATCC collection strains of known susceptibility. This procedure was then validated against standard commercial methods on 10 strains of enterococci, 10 staphylococci, 10 non-fermenting gram negative bacilli, and 13 Enterobacteriaceae from patients. The agreement obtained in the sensitivity between the ATP-bioluminescence method and commercial methods (E-test, MicroScan and VITEK2) was 100%. In summary, the preliminary results obtained in this work show that the ATP-bioluminescence method could provide a fast and reliable AST in two hours. PMID:25979598

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of four medicinal plants used in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Hashemi; J. Asgarpanah; Z. Alaee; Sadeghian, S.; Hasani, H.; A. Azimi

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the in vitro antifungal activity of Phlomis lanceolata, Rhynchocorys elephas, Otostegia persica and Eremurus persicus, four species used in Iranian Traditional Medicine, has been performed on the clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum and the yeast Candida albicans. The susceptibility tests were done by agar disc diffusion method and...

  2. Evaluation of a direct blood culture disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, G V; Scott, D R; Rashad, A L; Kim, K S

    1981-11-01

    A total of 556 unique blood culture isolates of nonfastidious aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were examined by direct and standardized disk susceptibility test methods (4,234 antibiotic-organism comparisons). When discrepancies which could be accounted for by the variability inherent in disk diffusion susceptibility tests were excluded, the direct method demonstrated 96.8% overall agreement with the standardized method. A total of 1.6% minor, 1.5% major, and 0.1% very major discrepancies were noted. PMID:7325634

  3. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of the Gram-Negative Bacteria Based on Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Ruf, Claude; Crussard, Steve; Franceschi, Christine; Orenga, Sylvain; Ouattara, Jasmine; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Surre, Jérémy; Matic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly treating infections with adequate antibiotics is of major importance. This requires a fast and accurate determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. The most frequently used methods are slow because they are based on the measurement of growth inhibition. Faster methods, such as PCR-based detection of determinants of antibiotic resistance, do not always provide relevant information on susceptibility, particularly that which is not genetically based. Consequently, new methods, such as the detection of changes in bacterial physiology caused by antibiotics using flow cytometry and fluorescent viability markers, are being explored. In this study, we assessed whether Alexa Fluor® 633 Hydrazide (AFH), which targets carbonyl groups, can be used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbonylation of cellular macromolecules, which increases in antibiotic-treated cells, is a particularly appropriate to assess for this purpose because it is irreversible. We tested the susceptibility of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to antibiotics from the three classes: β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In addition to AFH, we used TO-PRO®-3, which enters cells with damaged membranes and binds to DNA, and DiBAC4 (3), which enters cells with depolarized membranes. We also monitored antibiotic-induced morphological alterations of bacterial cells by analyzing light scattering signals. Although all tested dyes and light scattering signals allowed for the detection of antibiotic-sensitive cells, AFH proved to be the most suitable for the fast and reliable detection of antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:27507962

  5. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Methods for Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Girouard, Yves; Ringuette, Louise; Tsimiklis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Disk diffusion was a reliable, easy, and inexpensive method for testing the susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin (215 susceptible and 45 resistant isolates) and to ciprofloxacin (154 susceptible, two intermediate, and 124 resistant isolates) using, respectively, an erythromycin disk and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid disks.

  6. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Wolfensberger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A and after (period B changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011 guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013 guidelines. RESULTS: The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009 vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009 vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009 vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009 and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3. CONCLUSIONS: The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  7. Growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by polyoxyethylene stearate present in the BACTEC pyrazinamide susceptibility test.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M A; Thibert, L; Desjardins, F; Siddiqi, S H; Dascal, A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously found that approximately 3.5% of 428 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis yield uninterpretable results in the BACTEC pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility test system, because of inadequate growth. We tested the hypothesis that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES), the ingredient of the reconstituting fluid for the test, was the cause of this growth inhibition. A total of 15 isolates known for their previously uninterpretable results and 100 randomly chosen clinical isol...

  8. Modified broth-disk method for testing the antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, T D; Thiel, T

    1973-03-01

    The most commonly used method for testing the antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria is the disk diffusion method. However, some anaerobic bacteria do not grow well enough in anaerobic jars for performance of disk diffusion tests. A modification of the broth-disk method of Schneierson allowed us to determine antibiotic susceptibility in a completely anaerobic environment. Commercial antibiotic disks were added anaerobically to tubes of prereduced brain heart infusion broth to achieve a concentration of each antibiotic approximating that attainable in blood. The tubes were then inoculated and incubated for 18 h. Resistance or susceptibility to each antibiotic was determined according to the amount of growth in each tube as compared with a control culture without the antibiotic. There was good correlation between results obtained by this broth-disk method and minimal inhibitory concentrations. PMID:4790595

  9. Negative temperament as a moderator of intervention effects in infancy: testing a differential susceptibility model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Stifter, Cynthia A; Paul, Ian M; Birch, Leann L

    2014-10-01

    A consideration of potential moderators can highlight intervention effects that are attenuated when investigating aggregate results. Differential susceptibility is one type of interaction, where susceptible individuals have poorer outcomes in negative environments and better outcomes in positive environments, compared to less susceptible individuals, who have moderate outcomes regardless of environment. In the current study, we provide rationale for investigating this type of interaction in the context of a behavioral childhood obesity preventive intervention and test whether infant negativity moderated intervention effects on infant self-regulation and weight gain and on two aspects of mothers' parenting competence: parenting self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction. Results showed that infants' negative temperament at 3 weeks moderated intervention effects on some, but not all, outcomes. The intervention led to greater parenting satisfaction in mothers with highly negative infants but did not affect parenting satisfaction in mothers with less negative infants, consistent with a model of differential susceptibility. There was also a trend toward less weight gain in highly negative intervention group infants. In contrast, there was a main effect of the intervention on infant self-regulation at 1 year, such that the intervention group had higher observed self-regulation, across levels of infant negativity. Results support the importance of incorporating tests of moderation into evaluations of obesity interventions and also illustrate that individuals may be differentially susceptible to environmental effects on some outcomes but not others. PMID:23832637

  10. Susceptibility testing of Propionibacterium acnes comparing agar dilution with E test.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M.A.; Alperstein, P; France, K.; Vellozzi, E M; Isenberg, H D

    1996-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been identified as a significant agent of nosocomial infections, including endophthalmitis. Data concerning susceptibility of P. acnes to newer beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones are limited. Recent reports suggest that quinolones have activity against these organisms sufficient to warrant further study. We undertook a study to select appropriate antimicrobial agents for use in a rabbit model of P. acnes endophthalmitis. We compared the antibiotic suscept...

  11. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  12. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  13. Agar diffusion tests with cefuroxime disks for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Cícero A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of agar diffusion tests using disks of cefuroxime (30µg for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility in 33 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied. All 7 resistant isolates to ceftriaxone (MIC ³1.0 µg/ml exhibited zones of inhibition <28mm. The procedure can be easily adapted to clinical laboratories.

  14. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone ...

  15. Interpretive criteria for mupirocin susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus spp. using CLSI guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creagh, S

    2012-02-03

    Mupirocin is an antimicrobial agent commonly used to treat staphylococcal infection or to eliminate persistent carriage. To date, interpretive criteria have not been established to define susceptibility or resistance when performing mupirocin susceptibility testing. In this evaluation, using CLSI guidelines, a total of 502 staphylococci comprising 219 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 222 methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 61 coagulase-negative staphylococci are tested by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and E-test. Disc diffusion using 5 microg mupirocin discs was found to be a reliable method to distinguish susceptible and resistant strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination was required to differentiate low-level and high-level resistance to mupirocin. E-test was found to be an accurate alternative to broth microdilution for the routine determination of MIC values of staphylococci to mupirocin. Broth microdilution and disc-diffusion results were plotted on a scattergram, and error rates were calculated. No errors were found using susceptibility criteria of < 4 microg\\/mL (MIC) and > 19 mm (zone diameter).

  16. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...

  17. Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin as a Representative of Veterinary Fluoroquinolones in Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Riddle, Christa; Lemons, Carol L.; Papich, Mark G.; Altier, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Currently in veterinary medicine, ciprofloxacin is often used in susceptibility testing to represent the entire class of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials. Using quality control organisms as well as clinical isolates, we compared the MIC of ciprofloxacin to those of three other fluoroquinolones used in animals and found that ciprofloxacin is not an adequate representative of other members of this class.

  18. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa; Urbán, Edit

    2015-02-01

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Bacteroides fragilis group isolates the need of susceptibility testing in routine laboratories is increasing. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing in case of different clinical isolates of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin and vitamin K1. Plates were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 24 h. The zone diameters were read at 100% inhibition. In case of discrepant results MICs were determined by gradient test and compared with the inhibition zones on the same plate. We found a good agreement between the inhibition zone diameters and the MICs for imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin and tigecyclin. The inhibition zone diameters of meropenem also separated clearly the isolates, which can be considered wild-type isolates. In case of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam intermediate and susceptible isolates according to the MIC determination, overlap during the zone diameter determination. Isolates with an inhibition zone disk diffusion can be an option for susceptibility testing of B. fragilis group isolates for most relevant antibiotics in routine laboratories. PMID:25464140

  19. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.;

    2005-01-01

    -Hinton broth. These QC ranges were accepted by the CLSI/NCCLS Subcommittee on Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in January 2004. This broth microdilution testing method represents the first standardized method for determining MICs of bacterial isolates whose preferred growth temperatures......A multiple laboratory study was conducted in accordance with the standards established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), for the development of quality control (QC) ranges using dilution...... antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bacterial isolates from aquatic animal species. QC ranges were established for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 when testing at 22, 28 and 35 degrees C (E. coli only) for 10 different antimicrobial agents...

  20. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani Pereira Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05 embedded in a microemulsion (ME. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05 showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1 and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1. Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1, but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.

  1. Routine disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile and association with PCR ribotype 027

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, H M; Danielsen, T K; Justesen, U S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin in Clostridium difficile has been reported, which emphasises the need for simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The aim of this study was to apply a published disc diffusion method and zone diameter breakpoint correlates to the...... published breakpoint (<23 mm) and five isolates had a vancomycin zone diameter below the published breakpoint (<19 mm), most of which were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027. The total number of PCR ribotype 027 was 29 (1.1 %). Overall, C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 isolates had smaller zone...... diameters than non-027 isolates. The disc diffusion method is very simple and inexpensive, and the published zone diameter breakpoints will detect C. difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin....

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Acinetobacter spp. by NCCLS Broth Microdilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Jana M.; Killgore, George E.; Tenover, Fred C.

    2004-01-01

    Although both broth microdilution (BMD) and disk diffusion (DD) are listed by NCCLS as acceptable methods for testing Acinetobacter spp. for antimicrobial susceptibility, few studies have compared the results generated by the two methods. We tested 196 isolates of Acinetobacter spp. from nine U.S. hospitals and from the Centers for Disease Control culture collection by using BMD and DD and clinically appropriate antimicrobial agents. Categorical results for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxac...

  3. Antifungal Activity of Ellagic Acid In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Guo, Xin; Dawuti, Gulina; Aibai, Silafu

    2015-07-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. In Uighur traditional medicine, Euphorbia humifusa Willd is used to treat fungal diseases, and recent studies suggest that it is the EA content which is responsible for its therapeutic effect. However, the effects of EA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of EA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (M38-A and M27-A2) standard method in vitro. EA had a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, with MICs for all the tested dermatophyte strains between 18.75 and 58.33 µg/ml. EA was also active against two Candida strains, with MICs between 25.0 and 75.0 µg/ml. It was inactive against Candida glabrata. The susceptibility of six species of dermatophytes to EA was comparable with that of the commercial antifungal, fluconazole. The most sensitive filamentous species was Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 18.75 µg/ml). Studies on the mechanism of action using an HPLC-based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that EA inhibited ergosterol biosynthesis and reduced the activity of sterol 14α-demethylase P450 (CYP51) in the Trichophyton rubrum membrane, respectively. An in vivo test demonstrated that topical administration of EA (4.0 and 8.0 mg/cm(2) ) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a guinea-pig infection model of Trichophyton rubrum. The results suggest that EA has the potential to be developed as a natural antifungal agent. PMID:25919446

  4. Direct antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct-drug-susceptibility tests were performed on clinical specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by either Ziehl-Neelsen or fluorochrome staining. The results of conventional agar dilution and a modified radiometric (BACTEC) method were compared. A total of 580 smear-positive specimens were tested by the BACTEC method at three separate sites. Three hundred and seventy-seven of these were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 343 (91%) yielded acceptable direct-susceptibility-test results. We used the conventional method to determine that 343 of 519 smear-positive specimens were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 212 (62%) produced acceptable results within 3 wks. Conventional results were reported in 3-4 wks, while the time required to obtain results with the BACTEC method ranged from 5 to 21 days (average 11.5 days). Results indicate that the radiometric method provides reportable results more frequently with time savings as compared to the conventional method

  5. Synthesis of Pyridazinonethiadiazoles as Possible Antifungal Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several 5-[1-aryl-1,4-dihydro-6-methylpyridazin-4-one-3-yl]-2-arylamino-1,3,4-thia diazoles were synthesized.The preliminary bio-active test shows that these compounds exhibit high antifungal activity.

  6. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Mincheol; Kim, Eun-Geun; Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Seungok; Joo, Seik; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2014-12-17

    A rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is desperately needed in clinical settings for fast and appropriate antibiotic administration. Traditional ASTs, which rely on cell culture, are not suitable for urgent cases of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance owing to their relatively long test times. We describe a novel AST called single-cell morphological analysis (SCMA) that can determine antimicrobial susceptibility by automatically analyzing and categorizing morphological changes in single bacterial cells under various antimicrobial conditions. The SCMA was tested with four Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard bacterial strains and 189 clinical samples, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci from hospitals. The results were compared with the gold standard broth microdilution test. The SCMA results were obtained in less than 4 hours, with 91.5% categorical agreement and 6.51% minor, 2.56% major, and 1.49% very major discrepancies. Thus, SCMA provides rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility data that satisfy the recommended performance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25520395

  7. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. PMID:26324357

  8. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing for Conducted Susceptibility Along Interconnecting Signal Lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shourbaji, A. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beets, B. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-07-31

    This document presents recommendations and the associated technical basis for addressing the effects of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) along interconnecting signal lines in safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in assisting the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMIIRFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research efforts have provided recommendations on (1) electromagnetic compatibility design and installation practices, (2) the endorsement of EMI/RFI and SWC test criteria and test methods, (3) the determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants, and (4) the development of recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes applicable to locations where safety-related I&C systems will be installed. The current research focuses on the susceptibility of l&C systems to conducted EMIIRFI along interconnecting signal lines. Coverage of signal line susceptibility was identified as an open issue in previous research on establishing the technical basis for EMIIRFI and SWC in safety-related I&C systems. Research results provided in this report will be used to establish the technical basis for endorsing U.S. Department of Defense and European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization test criteria and test methods that address signal-line susceptibility. In addition, recommendations on operating envelopes are presented based on available technical information.

  9. Development of an Accelerated Test Method for the Determination of Susceptibility to Atmospheric Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical rationale is presented for use of a repetitive cyclic current reversal voltammetric technique for characterization of localized corrosion processes, including atmospheric corrosion. Applicability of this proposed experimental protocol is applied to characterization of susceptibility to crevice and pitting corrosion, atmospheric corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Criteria upon which relative susceptibility is based were determined and tested using two iron based alloys commonly in use at NASA-Kennedy; A36 (a low carbon steel) and 4130 (a low alloy steel). Practicality of the procedure was demonstrated by measuring changes in anodic polarization behavior during high frequency current reversal cycles of 25 cycles per second with 1 mA/sq cm current density amplitude in solutions containing Cl anions. The results demonstrated that, due to excessive polarization which affects conductivity of barrier corrosion product layers, A36 was less resistant to atmospheric corrosion than its 4130 counterpart; behavior which was also demonstrated during exposure tests.

  10. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete;

    2003-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries...... using routine methodology. In addition, the 25 Enterococcus strains were identified to species level. A total of 22,598 (97.2%) out of 23,259 test results were in accordance when the data were categorized as susceptible or resistant. When the reported results were categorized according to the National...... reported as vancomycin resistant. Ten laboratories identified the Enterococcus spp. to species level. All five Enterococcus faecium and 10 Enterococcus faecalis selected from the strain collection at the Danish Veterinary Institute were correctly identified by all laboratories, whereas some problems were...

  11. Isolation,Identification and Antibiotics Susceptibility Test of Citrobacter freundii from Procambarus clarkia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Honglian; Song; Guangtong; He; Jixiang; Hou; Guanjun; Wang; Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to clarify species and drug resistance of pathogen from the diseased Procambarus clarkia. Pathogenic bacteria from hepatopancreas of the diseased P. clarkia were examined using conventional methods,and then were isolated. The further tests and analysis of the isolated strain were developed,including the regression experiment to P. clarkia,the morphology,physiological and biochemical characteristics,sequence analysis of their 16 S rRNA and gyr B genes,and the susceptibility test to antibiotics. Large colonies with similar morphology and color were obtained. Strain X120523 was identified as Citrobacter freundii,proved to have strong pathogenicity,and was susceptible to quinolones and aminoglycosides.

  12. Assessment of Etest as an Alternative to Agar Dilution for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hsi; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined a...

  13. Multicenter Evaluation of the MB/BACT System for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bemer, Pascale; Bodmer, Thomas; Munzinger, Juerg; Perrin, Monique; Vincent, Véronique; Drugeon, Henri

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of the MB/BACT system for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide, rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin, and ethambutol was compared to the BACTEC 460TB system. The proportion method was used to resolve discrepant results by an independent arbiter. Two interpretative methods were used, with an undiluted control (direct control) and a diluted control (10−1 control). As no significant difference was observed between the two controls, the method with the...

  14. In vitro susceptibility testing of fluoroquinolone activity against Salmonella: recent changes to CLSI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphries, R. M.; Fang, F. C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2012-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Salmonella enterica is a significant clinical concern. Recognition of resistance by the clinical laboratory is complicated by the multiple FQ resistance mechanisms found in Salmonella. The Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recently addressed...... significance, and data supporting the revised ciprofloxacin break points. We encourage clinical laboratories to adopt the revised CLSI ciprofloxacin break points for all Salmonella isolates in which susceptibility testing is indicated and discuss the technical issues for laboratories using commercial...

  15. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  16. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing via electrochemical measurement of ferricyanide reduction by Escherichia coli and Clostridium sporogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Robello, E; Battaglini, F; Mikkelsen, S R

    2000-10-15

    Electrochemical measurement of respiratory chain activity allows rapid and reliable screening for antibiotic susceptibility in microorganisms. Chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry of suspensions of aerobically cultivated E. coli combined with the non-native oxidant potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) (ferricyanide) yield signals for reoxidation of the reduction product ferrocyanide that are much smaller if the E. coli has been incubated briefly with an effective antibiotic compound. Chronocoulometric results, obtained following 20-min incubation with antibiotic and 2-min measurement in assay buffer containing 50 mM ferricyanide and 10 mM succinate, at +0.50 V vs Ag/AgCl at a Pt working electrode, were compared with traditional disk diffusion susceptibility testing, which requires overnight incubation on agar plates; the results show significantly lower accumulation of ferrocyanide in all cases in which growth inhibition was observed in the disk diffusion assay. A range of antibiotic compounds (13) were examined that possess different mechanisms of action. Quantitative determination of IC50 values for penicillin G and chloramphenicol yielded values that were 100-fold higher than those obtained by standard turbidity methods after 10-h incubation; this is likely a result of the very brief (10 min) exposure time to the antibiotics. Addition of 5 microM 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, a hydrophobic electron-transfer mediator, to the assay mixture allowed susceptibility testing of a Gram-positive obligate anaerobe, Clostridium sporogenes. This rapid new assay will facilitate clinical susceptibility testing, allowing appropriate treatment virtually as soon as a clinical isolate can be obtained. PMID:11055715

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Escherichia coli Strains to Fluoroquinolones, in Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA Nakhjavani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed all over the world. Meanwhile most episode of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (up to 85% and frequently fluoroquinolones are preferred as initial agents for empiric therapy of UTIs. Widespread use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in an increasing incidence of resistance these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from UTI patients against common fluoroquinolones. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk agar diffusion (DAD and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration methods as described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Results: One hundred sixty four clinical isolates of E. coli were collected by urine cultures from patients with UTI. The extent of resistant to nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, by disk diffusion method was 49.3%, 44.5%, 41.4% and 40.2%, respectively. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by MIC method was 4.9%. Conclusion: This study represents high level resistant of E. coli isolates from UTI patients. It is because of inappropriate and incorrect administration of antimicrobial agents in blind cases. This problem remarks significance of performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing before empiric antibiotic therapy. To overcome this problem use of unnecessary antibiotics therapy should be limited.

  18. Direct susceptibility testing for multi drug resistant tuberculosis: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffner Sven

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the challenges facing the tuberculosis (TB control programmes in resource-limited settings is lack of rapid techniques for detection of drug resistant TB, particularly multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB. Results obtained with the conventional indirect susceptibility testing methods come too late to influence a timely decision on patient management. More rapid tests directly applied on sputum samples are needed. This study compared the sensitivity, specificity and time to results of four direct drug susceptibility testing tests with the conventional indirect testing for detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in M. tuberculosis. The four direct tests included two in-house phenotypic assays – Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS, and two commercially available tests – Genotype® MTBDR and Genotype® MTBDRplus (Hain Life Sciences, Nehren, Germany. Methods A literature review and meta-analysis of study reports was performed. The Meta-Disc software was used to analyse the reports and tests for sensitivity, specificity, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC curves. Heterogeneity in accuracy estimates was tested with the Spearman correlation coefficient and Chi-square. Results Eighteen direct DST reports were analysed: NRA – 4, MODS- 6, Genotype MTBDR® – 3 and Genotype® MTBDRplus – 5. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for detection of resistance to rifampicin were 99% and 100% with NRA, 96% and 96% with MODS, 99% and 98% with Genotype® MTBDR, and 99% and 99% with the new Genotype® MTBDRplus, respectively. For isoniazid it was 94% and 100% for NRA, 92% and 96% for MODS, 71% and 100% for Genotype® MTBDR, and 96% and 100% with the Genotype® MTBDRplus, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC curves was in ranges of 0.98 to 1.00 for all the four tests. Molecular tests were

  19. An Agar Medium Designed for Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Testing Of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najafi Mosleh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrazinamide (PZA is an important front-line antituberculosis agent. This drug plays a unique role in shortening the therapy, besides of metabolically active and replicating bacilli; it kills a population of semi-dormant organisms that are not killed by other first-line antituberculosis drugs. The activity of PZA correlates with the acidity of the medium, being most active at PH 5.5 less active at PH 6 and inactive at neutral PH. The problem is that such an acidic environment is quite unfavorable for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Therefore the PZA susceptibility testing is difficult and often unreliable because of the acid PH requirement for drug activity. For this reason, many clinical microbiology laboratories do not perform PZA susceptibility testing and most drug-resistance surveys do not have PZA resistance data. For this reason a special condition which could be to support the optimal growth of organisms & allow to performing PZA susceptibility testing at favorable PH has been developed. Methods: The continuously buffered Middlebrook 7H10 agar base with an acidic PH of 6.0 used, to provide optimal conditions for PZA acidity, it also differs from conventional 7H10 medium in that supplemented with animal serum instead of oleic acid to support optimal growth of organism at low PH of 6.0. Individual critical concentrations of PZA were used according to the Hassle- Bausch´s enzyme- substrate activity correlation in this medium made it possible to differentiate between PZA-susceptible and PZA-resistant clinical isolates. Results: During two years survey following results was obtained; approximately 2.6٪ of isolated were identified as PZA-resistance together other drugs resistance, with about 1٪ only PZA-resistance. PZA positive & PZA negative standard strains as control shown the method was used in this study obtains reliable results. Conclusion: Compared to a liquid medium this agar medium also has the following advantages

  20. Patients' understanding of genetic susceptibility testing in mainstream medicine: qualitative study on thrombophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Maggie H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK and US policy initiatives have suggested that, in the future, patients and clinicians in mainstream medicine could use genetic information to prevent common illnesses. There are no studies on patients' experience and understanding of the process of testing for common genetic susceptibilities in mainstream medicine. Methods Qualitative interviews with 42 individuals who had undergone testing for a genetic susceptibility for deep vein thrombosis in primary and secondary care in the UK. Results Some participants, often from higher social classes, had a good understanding of the test and its implications. They had often sought additional information on thrombophilia from relatives and from the Internet. Others, often from less privileged backgrounds, had a poorer understanding of the test – seven individuals were unaware of having had the genetic test. Features of genetic information led to misunderstandings: (i at referral, (ii when communicating results, and (iii when making sense of the implications of testing. Participants' accounts indicated that non-specialist doctors may feel obliged to refer a patient for a genetic test they know little about, because a patient requests it after a relative had tested positive. Sometimes a referral for a genetic test was lost under information overload when multiple tests and issues were considered. The inconsistent and informal ways of communicating test results – for example by phone – in mainstream medicine also led to confusion. Participants did not generally overestimate their risk, but some were uncertain about whether they were taking the right preventive actions and/or whether their children were at risk. Information about genetic susceptibilities was difficult to make sense of, as it related to ambiguous risks for participants and family members, complicated and unfamiliar terminology and multiple genes and preventive strategies. Conclusion Policy visions of clinicians

  1. Activity of fosfomycin and comparison of several susceptibility testing methods against contemporary urine isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Elizabeth B; Raux, Brian R; Zucchi, Paola C; Kim, Yisu; McCoy, Christopher; Kirby, James E; Wright, Sharon B; Eliopoulos, George M

    2015-12-01

    Fosfomycin is recommended as first-line treatment for acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. It has demonstrated in vitro activity against a variety of pathogens; however, a paucity of data are available from the USA. We determined the susceptibility of a collection of urine isolates to fosfomycin and compared multiple methods of susceptibility testing. Consecutive non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from the clinical microbiology laboratory between August 2013 and January 2014. Isolates represented hospitalised or emergency department patients with monomicrobial bacteriuria. Fosfomycin MICs were determined in duplicate, on separate days, by Etest and disk diffusion and results were compared with agar dilution. Nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin were used as comparators. MIC results were categorised using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Correlation between the three testing methods was evaluated. Overall susceptibility to fosfomycin was 94.4%, 93.5% and 87.9% by agar dilution, disk diffusion and Etest, respectively. Five fosfomycin-resistant isolates were identified, including two Morganella morganii, one P. aeruginosa, one Proteus mirabilis and one Enterobacter aerogenes. Across all organisms, rates of essential agreement, categorical agreement, minor errors, major errors and very major errors for Etest/disk diffusion compared with agar dilution were 77.3%/NA, 89.5/93.8%, 7.1/5.0%, 3.6/1.3% and 0/0%, respectively. Fosfomycin displayed fairly consistent activity against a majority of isolates collected when using the susceptibility breakpoint of 64 μg/mL. MICs for E. coli were particularly low (≤2 μg/mL). These data lend support to current guidelines that recommend fosfomycin as empirical first-line therapy for uncomplicated UTI. PMID:26498988

  2. Reverberation Chamber Uniformity Validation and Radiated Susceptibility Test Procedures for the NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory has developed a capability based on the RTCA/DO-160F Section 20 guidelines for radiated electromagnetic susceptibility testing in reverberation chambers. Phase 1 of the test procedure utilizes mode-tuned stirrer techniques and E-field probe measurements to validate chamber uniformity, determines chamber loading effects, and defines a radiated susceptibility test process. The test procedure is segmented into numbered operations that are largely software controlled. This document is intended as a laboratory test reference and includes diagrams of test setups, equipment lists, as well as test results and analysis. Phase 2 of development is discussed.

  3. Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro

    2010-01-13

    This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546

  4. Direct Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Anne-Marie; Venter, Amour; Friedrich, Sven O.; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mapamba, Daniel; Jugheli, Levan; Sasamalo, Mohammed; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Jentsch, Ute; Gibson, Mara; Everitt, Daniel; Diacon, Andreas H.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antituberculosis drug, yet no rapid susceptibility test is commercially available. PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed directly on sputum samples from 327 patients and compared with the indirect method by using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in the context of patient screening for participation in a drug trial. Compared to standard indirect PZA DST, direct DST was successful in only 59% of cases, but results obtained were highly accurate and available faster. Agreement between the direct and indirect methods varied from 90 to 100% in each laboratory. The median times for obtaining PZA results from the time when the specimen was collected ranged from 11 to 16 days for the direct test and 18 to 95 days for the indirect test across laboratories. The direct method is accurate and reproducible across laboratories. It can be expected to accelerate results in >50% of cases, but it cannot replace indirect DST for PZA. Phenotypic methods remain the gold standard for DST in drug trials. If future studies can optimize the method to decrease the number of uninterpretable results, direct MGIT DST could be the new phenotypic DST standard for clinical trials, providing more rapid detection of resistance to new drugs in experimental regimens. PMID:26912751

  5. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006 (SNI has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control. This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004 were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006.

  6. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-01-01

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006). PMID:26466532

  7. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria

  8. Genetic antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Gram-negative sepsis - impact on time to results in a routine laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommedal, Øyvind; Aasen, Johanne Lind; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic testing of positive blood cultures is among the most critical tasks performed by clinical microbiology laboratories, and the total analysis time from sampling to results should be kept as short as possible. By providing identification of pelleted bacteria directly from positive blood-cultures, MALDI-TOF MS opens for relatively low-complex species-adjusted genetic susceptibility testing from the same bacterial pellet. In our lab routine, we prospectively evaluated a rapid in-house real-time PCR targeting the most common aminoglycoside and cephalosporin resistance genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and measured time to preliminary susceptibility reporting for 138 samples. The results were compared to direct phenotypic susceptibility testing with interpretation after 6 h and overnight incubation respectively. Results from the genetic susceptibility testing were available for 69.5% (96/138) of the positive blood cultures within 24 h after sample collection. No phenotypic susceptibility results were available at this time. Compared to overnight direct susceptibility testing, the average time from sample collection to preliminary susceptibility reporting was reduced with 43%, from 45 h and 5 min to 25 h and 44 min, providing an earlier adjustment of antimicrobial therapy for 12 patients. Minor logistic adjustments have the potential to save yet another 4 h. PMID:27197792

  9. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  10. Antifungals of acromyrmex, allomerus, and tetraponera ant- and cultivarassociated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The central purpose of this thesis is to test the utility of ant-microbe associations for discovering antifungal compounds with novel molecular (sub-) structures. Novel antifungals displaying reduced adverse side-effects, increased water-solubilities, and/or strong fungicidal properties would be helpful in medical science for responding to the rising prevalence of human mycoses and for solving problems with adverse side-effects in currently used antifungal drugs. Host-symbiont systems m...

  11. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME COLEUS SPECIES GROWING IN NILGIRIS

    OpenAIRE

    P Nilani; Duraisamy, B.; Dhanabal, P.S.; khan, Saleemullah; Suresh, B.; Shankar, V; Kavitha, K.Y.; Syamala, G.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity ...

  12. Standard Test Method for Determination of the Susceptibility of Metallic Materials to Hydrogen Gas Embrittlement (HGE)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of the susceptibility of metallic materials to hydrogen embrittlement, when exposed to high pressure gaseous hydrogen. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. New Agar Medium for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Heifets, Leonid; Sanchez, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    A new agar medium to perform pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility testing with Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been developed. This medium has an acidic pH of 6.0 instead of the usual for agar media, pH 6.8, to provide optimal conditions for PZA activity, and it also differs from conventional Middlebrook 7H10/7H11 agar in that animal serum (fetal or calf bovine or fetal equine serum) is used instead of oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase to support good growth of M. tuberculosis at the low pH of...

  14. Bedaquiline susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an automated liquid culture system

    OpenAIRE

    Torrea, Gabriela; Coeck, Nele; Desmaretz, Christel; Van De Parre, Tim; Van Poucke, Tijs; Lounis, Nacer; de Jong, Bouke C.; Rigouts, Leen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the BACTEC MGIT960 system to test the susceptibility to bedaquiline for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Methods: We determined the quality control (QC) range of bedaquiline using the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference strain and the epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) in MGIT960 and on Middlebrook 7H11 agar (M7H11) using 47 strains from bedaquiline treatment-naive patients. The accuracy of MGIT960 was evaluated ...

  15. 我院2009-2011年老年真菌感染菌种分布及其对抗真菌药敏感性分析%Analysis of Species Distribution and Drug Susceptibility to Antifungal Agents in the Aged with Fungal Infection of Our Hospital during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧儿; 裘莉佩

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨临床老年患者标本中所分离的假丝酵母菌属的菌种分布及其对临床常用抗真菌药的敏感性,为老年人使用抗真菌药提供参考.方法:对我院2009-2011年从老年体内分离的213例假丝酵母菌进行回顾性分析,分析其菌种分布情况以及对5种抗真菌药的敏感性.结果:在213株假丝酵母菌中,白假丝酵母菌占42.3%(90/213),非白假丝酵母菌占57.7% (123/213);5-氟胞嘧啶、两性霉素B、氟康唑、伊曲康唑和伏立康唑的总敏感率分别为87.8%、100%、93.2%、85.9%和95.9%;90株白假丝酵母菌对上述5种抗真菌药的敏感率分别为93.3%、100%、95.4%、92.2%和96.3%,123株非白假丝酵母菌分别为83.7%、100%、91.6%、81.3%和95.6%.结论:在老年感染假丝酵母菌中最常见的菌种仍是白假丝酵母菌,但其比例较已报道的非老年感染者比例有所下降;白假丝酵母菌对常用抗真菌药仍有较高的敏感性,非白假丝酵母菌的耐药性则高于白假丝酵母菌.%OBJECTIVE: To discuss the species distribution and drug susceptibility to antifungal agent of isolated Candida, and to provide reference for the use of antifungal agent in the aged. METHODS: A total of 213 isolates were collected from our hospital during 2009 — 2011 were analyzed statistically, and the species distribution of Candida and drug resistance to 5 commonly used antifungal agents were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 213 Candida, Candida albicans accounted for 42.3% (90/213) and non-Candida albicans accounted for 57.7% (123/213). The overall percentage of strains susceptible to 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole and voriconazole were 87.8% , 100% , 93.2% , 85.9% and 95.9% , respectively. About 93.3% , 100%, 95.4% , 92.2% and 96.3% of 90 strains of Candida albicans were susceptible to these 5 antifungal agents. The susceptibility rates of 123 non-Candida albicans isolates were 83.7%, 100

  16. Physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling: geotechnical testing and model evaluation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We used the software r.slope.stability for physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling in the 90 km² Collazzone area, Central Italy, exploiting a comprehensive set of lithological, geotechnical, and landslide inventory data. The model results were evaluated against the inventory. r.slope.stability is a GIS-supported tool for modelling shallow and deep-seated slope stability and slope failure probability at comparatively broad scales. Developed as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, r.slope.stability evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected ellipsoidal potential sliding surfaces. The bottom of the soil (for shallow slope stability) or the bedding planes of lithological layers (for deep-seated slope stability) are taken as potential sliding surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geological structures. To take account for the uncertain geotechnical and geometric parameters, r.slope.stability computes the slope failure probability by testing multiple parameter combinations sampled deterministically or stochastically, and evaluating the ratio between the number of parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety below 1 and the total number of tested combinations. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a slope failure probability. The most critical sliding surface is relevant for each pixel. Intensive use of r.slope.stability in the Collazzone Area has opened up two questions elaborated in the present work: (i) To what extent does a larger number of geotechnical tests help to better constrain the geotechnical characteristics of the study area and, consequently, to improve the model results? The ranges of values of cohesion and angle of internal friction obtained through 13 direct shear tests corresponds remarkably well to the range of values suggested by a geotechnical textbook. We elaborate how far an increased number of

  17. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-15

    As the leading organization representing cancer specialists involved in patient care and clinical research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reaffirms its commitment to integrating cancer risk assessment and management, including molecular analysis of cancer predisposition genes, into the practice of oncology and preventive medicine. The primary goal of this effort is to foster expanded access to, and continued advances in, medical care provided to patients and families affected by hereditary cancer syndromes. The 1996 ASCO Statement on Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility set forth specific recommendations relating to clinical practice, research needs, educational opportunities, requirement for informed consent, indications for genetic testing, regulation of laboratories, and protection from discrimination, as well as access to and reimbursement for cancer genetics services. In updating this Statement, ASCO endorses the following principles: Indications for Genetic Testing: ASCO recommends that genetic testing be offered when 1) the individual has personal or family history features suggestive of a genetic cancer susceptibility condition, 2) the test can be adequately interpreted, and 3) the results will aid in diagnosis or influence the medical or surgical management of the patient or family members at hereditary risk of cancer. ASCO recommends that genetic testing only be done in the setting of pre- and post-test counseling, which should include discussion of possible risks and benefits of cancer early detection and prevention modalities. Special Issues in Testing Children for Cancer Susceptibility: ASCO recommends that the decision to offer testing to potentially affected children should take into account the availability of evidence-based risk-reduction strategies and the probability of developing a malignancy during childhood. Where risk-reduction strategies are available or cancer predominantly develops in childhood, ASCO believes that

  18. The First Case of Total Dystrophic Onychomycosis Caused by Aspergillus clavatus Resistant to Antifungal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahati, Mehraban; Ghojoghi, Aynaz; Abastabar, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Farahyar, Shirin; Roudbary, Maryam; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Taghizadeh Armaki, Mojtaba; Hoseinnejad, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of nails which is mainly caused by dermatophyte species and less often by yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. We present a case of onychomycosis due to Aspergillus clavatus for the first time worldwide. The patient was an immunocompetent 32-year-old woman who identified with Psoriasis of the nail. The presence of A. clavatus in a nail sample was confirmed using microscopic and culture analysis followed by PCR of the β-tubulin gene. After antifungal susceptibility test, it is revealed that the isolate was resistant to the majority of common antifungal drugs, but finally the patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg daily. A. clavatus and drug-resistant A. clavatus have not previously been reported from onychomycosis. PMID:26474550

  19. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D.M.; Hasselby, J.P.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple guinea pig model for the purpose of evaluating diagnostic principles and treatment modalities for dermatophytic infections. The following variables were evaluated; pre-treatment of the skin by shaving versus tape stripping, Microsporum canis or Tric....... In conclusion, we established a dermatophytosis animal model, which was proven useful for evaluating diagnostic methods and antifungal susceptibility testing Udgivelsesdato: 2008...... Trichophyton mentagrophytes test strains as etiologic agents, differences in inoculum concentrations, and inoculation with and without occlusion. The course of infection was evaluated clinically by redness and lesion scores and mycologically by microscopy, culture, and histopathology. The applicability of the...... model was evaluated with a recently developed diagnostic pan-dermatophyte PCR and antifungal treatment was tested with an oral solution of itraconazole, 10 mg/kg, once daily during days 3-14 of the test period. Pre-treatment of the skin with a manual razor was for practical reasons preferable to tape...

  20. Constitute and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp . causing blood-stream infection%血流感染假丝酵母菌菌种构成及其药物敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸣皋; 丁进亚; 徐娟; 孙洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the constitute and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp . causing bloodstream infection in a hospital,so as to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of bloodstream infection caused by Candida spp .Methods Candida spp . isolated from blood specimens of clinical patients in a hospital between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively,the high risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection were analyzed. Results A total of 42 isolates of Candida spp . were isolated from blood specimens of 42 patients between 2009 and 2013,the major was Candida parapsilosis (C.parapsilosis ,n =20,47.62%),followed by C.albicans (n =16, 38.10%),C.tropicalis (n=4,9.52%),and C.glabrata(n=2,4.76%).Candida spp .were mainly distributed in emergency intensive care unit(n=11),departments of urologic surgery (n=9)and cardiothoracic surgery(n=8). The venous catheters of 37 patients(88.10%)were isolated the same Candida spp . as blood culture,the average time from indwelling venous catheters to positive culture of blood and catheters were 31 .47 and 33.18 days respec-tively;the percentage of positive culture for blood and catheters both increased with the prolongation of catheteriza-tion (both P < 0.001 ).Susceptibility rates of Candida spp . to fluconazole and voriconazole were 75.00% -100.00%,to amphotericin B were all 100.00%,to itraconazole varied significantly with different species (0 -87.50%).Conclusion The major Candida strains causing bloodstream infection in this hospital is C.parapsilosis , and is related to the use of intravenous catheters,susceptibility rates to fluconazole,amphotericin B,and voricon-azole are all high.%目的:分析某院假丝酵母菌血流感染菌种构成及其对抗真菌药物的敏感性,为临床预防和治疗假丝酵母菌血流感染提供依据。方法回顾性分析2009—2013年该院临床科室送检血标本中检出的假丝酵母菌,并对假丝酵母菌血流感染的高

  1. Comparison of Etest with Modified Broth Microdilution Method for Testing Susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. to Voriconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M. C.; Morilla, D.; Valverde, A.; Chávez, M.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Claro, R.; Ramírez, M.; Mazuelos, E. Martín

    2003-01-01

    We compared the Etest with a broth microdilution method, performed according to a modified National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guideline (M38-A), for determining the in vitro susceptibility of 77 isolates of Aspergillus spp. (26 A. fumigatus, 21 A. flavus, 10 A. terreus, 9 A. niger, 5 A. nidulellus, 4 A. glaucus, and 2 A. flavipes isolates). Overall, there was 92.2% agreement between both methods when Etest MICs were read at 24 h and 83.1% agreement when both methods were read at 48 h. When Etest MICs were read at 24 h, the agreement was >90% for all species tested except for A. fumigatus (84.6%). When Etest MICs were read at 48 h, the agreement ranged from 50 to 100%. The poorest agreement was seen with A. glaucus (50%) and A. fumigatus (65%). Where a discrepancy was observed between Etest and the reference method, the Etest MIC was generally higher. The Etest appears to be a suitable alternative procedure for testing the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. to voriconazole. PMID:14605181

  2. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E; Kroghsbo, S; Wang, M; Sondergaard, T E

    2015-12-01

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the oCelloScope system, to perform rapid AST. The oCelloScope system demonstrated a very high accuracy (96% overall agreement) when determining the resistance profiles of four reference strains, nine clinical isolates, including multi-drug-resistant isolates, and three positive blood cultures. AST of clinical isolates (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6% minor, no major and 1.2% very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) profiles. The net average time-to-result was 108 min, with 95% of the results being available within 180 min. In conclusion, this study strongly indicates that the oCelloScope system holds considerable potential as an accurate and sensitive AST method with short time-to-result, enabling same-day targeted antimicrobial therapy, facilitating antibiotic stewardship and better patient management. A full-scale validation of the oCelloScope system including more isolates is necessary to assess the impact of using it for AST. PMID:26407621

  3. Revisiting the susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to ethionamide in solid culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Increase in the isolation of drug resistant phenotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis necessitates accuracy in the testing methodology. Critical concentration defining resistance for ethionamide (ETO, needs re-evaluation in accordance with the current scenario. Thus, re-evaluation of conventional minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and proportion sensitivity testing (PST methods for ETO was done to identify the ideal breakpoint concentration defining resistance. Methods: Isolates of M. tuberculosis (n=235 from new and treated patients were subjected to conventional MIC and PST methods for ETO following standard operating procedures. Results: With breakpoint concentration set at 114 and 156 µg/ml, an increase in specificity was observed whereas sensitivity was high with 80 µg/ml as breakpoint concentration. Errors due to false resistant and susceptible isolates were least at 80 µg/ml concentration. Interpretation & conclusions: Performance parameters at 80 µg/ml breakpoint concentration indicated significant association between PST and MIC methods.

  4. Contributions of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests to the retreatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Horta Andrade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3% cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34. Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5% cases; 70 (48.6% had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5% cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988, despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034. For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026. Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved.

  5. Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, E N; Sampietro, A R; Vattuone, M A

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot causing Basidiomycetes. Extracts of Larrea divaricata, Zuccagnia punctata and Larrea cuneifolia displayed remarkable activity in the assays against the majority of the test fungi. In addition to the former plants, Prosopanche americana also inhibited yeast growth. PMID:11137353

  6. Evaluation of rapid alternative methods for drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mengatto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to compare the performance of a commercial method (MGIT and four inexpensive drug susceptibility methods: nitrate reductase assay (NRA, microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay, MTT test, and broth microdilution method (BMM. A total of 64 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were studied. The Lowenstein-Jensen proportion method (PM was used as gold standard. MGIT, NRA, MODS, and MTT results were available on an average of less than 10 days, whereas BMM results could be reported in about 20 days. Most of the evaluated tests showed excellent performance for isoniazid and rifampicin, with sensitivity and specificity values > 90%. With most of the assays, sensitivity for ethambutol was low (62-87% whereas for streptomycin, sensitivity values ranged from 84 to 100%; NRA-discrepancies were associated with cultures with a low proportion of EMB-resistant organisms while most discrepancies with quantitative tests (MMT and BMM were seen with isolates whose minimal inhibitory concentrations fell close the cutoff. MGIT is reliable but still expensive. NRA is the most inexpensive and easiest method to perform without changing the organization of the routine PM laboratory performance. While MODS, MTT, and BMM, have the disadvantage from the point of view of biosafety, they offer the possibility of detecting partial resistant strains. This study shows a very good level of agreement of the four low-cost methods compared to the PM for rapid detection of isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin resistance (Kappa values > 0.8; more standardization is needed for ethambutol.

  7. Drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci by the Phoenix automated microbiology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokeng Gertrude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is an emerging problem among streptococcal and enterococcal species. Automated diagnostic systems for species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST have become recently available. We evaluated drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci using the recent Phoenix system (BD, Sparks, MD. Diagnostic tools included the new SMIC/ID-2 panel for streptococci, and the PMIC/ID-14 for enterococci. Two-hundred and fifty isolates have been investigated: β-hemolytic streptococci (n = 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 50, viridans group streptococci (n = 32, Enterococcus faecium (n = 40, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 43, other catalase-negative cocci (n = 20. When needed, species ID was determined using molecular methods. Test bacterial strains were chosen among those carrying clinically-relevant resistance determinants (penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. AST results of the Phoenix system were compared to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values measured by the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Results Streptococci: essential agreement (EA and categorical agreement (CA were 91.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Major (ME and minor errors (mE accounted for 0.1% and 1.1% of isolates, respectively. No very major errors (VME were produced. Enterococci: EA was 97%, CA 96%. Small numbers of VME (0.9%, ME (1.4% and mE (2.8% were obtained. Overall, EA and CA rates for most drugs were above 90% for both genera. A few VME were found: a teicoplanin and high-level streptomycin for E. faecalis, b high-level gentamicin for E. faecium. The mean time to results (± SD was 11.8 ± 0.9 h, with minor differences between streptococci and enterococci. Conclusion The Phoenix system emerged as an effective tool for quantitative AST. Panels based on dilution tests provided rapid and accurate MIC values with regard to clinically-relevant streptococcal and enterococcal

  8. Towards in vitro DT/DNT testing: Assaying chemical susceptibility in early differentiating NT2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzner, Ann-Katrin; Abolpour Mofrad, Sepideh; Friedrich, Oliver; Gilbert, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    Human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (NT2) cells are increasingly considered as a suitable model for in vitro toxicity testing, e.g. developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity (DT/DNT) studies, as they undergo neuronal differentiation upon stimulation with retinoic acid (RA) and permit toxicity testing at different stages of maturation. NT2 cells have recently been reported to show specific changes in dielectric resistance profiles during differentiation which can be observed as early as 24h upon RA-stimulation. These observations suggest altered susceptibility to chemicals at an early stage of differentiation. However, chemical susceptibility of early differentiating NT cells has not yet been studied. To address this question, we have established a cell fitness screening assay based on the analysis of intracellular ATP levels and we applied the assay in a large-scale drug screening experiment in NT2 stem cells and early differentiating NT2 cells. Subsequent analysis of ranked fitness phenotypes revealed 19 chemicals with differential toxicity profile in early differentiating NT2 cells. To evaluate whether any of the identified drugs have previously been associated with DT/DNT, we conducted a literature search on the identified molecules and quantified the fraction of chemicals assigned to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) pregnancy risk categories (PRC) N, A, B, C, D, and X in the hit list and the small molecule library. While the fractions of the categories N and B were decreased (0.81 and 0.35-fold), the classes C, D and X were increased (1.35, 1.47 and 3.27-fold) in the hit list compared to the chemical library. From these data as well as from the literature review, identifying large fractions of chemicals being directly (∼42%) and indirectly associated with DT/DNT (∼32%), we conclude that our method may be beneficial to systematic in vitro-based primary screening for developmental toxicants and neurotoxicants and we propose cell fitness screening in

  9. Sensitization of Candida albicans biofilms to various antifungal drugs by cyclosporine A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinde Ravikumar B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilms formed by Candida albicans are resistant towards most of the available antifungal drugs. Therefore, infections associated with Candida biofilms are considered as a threat to immunocompromised patients. Combinatorial drug therapy may be a good strategy to combat C. albicans biofilms. Methods Combinations of five antifungal drugs- fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VOR, caspofungin (CSP, amphotericin B (AmB and nystatin (NYT with cyclosporine A (CSA were tested in vitro against planktonic and biofilm growth of C. albicans. Standard broth micro dilution method was used to study planktonic growth, while biofilms were studied in an in vitro biofilm model. A chequerboard format was used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI of combination effects. Biofilm growth was analyzed using XTT-metabolic assay. Results MICs of various antifungal drugs for planktonic growth of C. albicans were lowered in combination with CSA by 2 to 16 fold. Activity against biofilm development with FIC indices of 0.26, 0.28, 0.31 and 0.25 indicated synergistic interactions between FLC-CSA, VOR-CSA, CSP-CSA and AmB-CSA, respectively. Increase in efficacy of the drugs FLC, VOR and CSP against mature biofilms after addition of 62.5 μg/ml of CSA was evident with FIC indices 0.06, 0.14 and 0.37, respectively. Conclusions The combinations with CSA resulted in increased susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. Combination of antifungal drugs with CSA would be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated C. albicans infections.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikstrup, L T; Danielsen, T K L; Hall, V; Olsen, K E P; Kristensen, B; Kahlmeter, G; Fuursted, K; Justesen, U S

    2012-08-01

    With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by comparing disk diffusion results with MICs from gradient tests and to propose zone diameter breakpoint correlates for the EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) recently published. We tested 211 clinical isolates of C. difficile, from patients with diarrhoea hospitalized at Aarhus and Odense University Hospitals, Denmark. Furthermore, ten clinical isolates of C. difficile from the Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, University Hospital of Wales, with known reduced susceptibility to either metronidazole or vancomycin, were included. Isolates were tested with Etest gradient strips and disk diffusion towards metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. We found an excellent agreement between inhibition zone diameter and MICs. For each MIC value, the inhibition zones varied from 0 to 8 mm, with 93% of values within 6 mm for metronidazole, 95% of values within 4 mm for vancomycin, and 98% of values within 4 mm for moxifloxacin. With proposed zone diameter breakpoints for metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin of WT ≥ 23 mm, WT ≥ 19 and WT ≥ 20 mm, respectively, we found no very major errors and only major errors below 2%. In conclusion, we suggest that disk diffusion is an option for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of C. difficile. PMID:22672504

  11. Antifungal activity of selected Malaysian honeys: a comparison with Manuka honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Sayadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate four selected Malaysian honey samples from different floral sources (Gelam, Tualang, Nenas and Acacia for their ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Methods: The broth microdilution method was used to assess the antifungal activity of honey against yeasts at different concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 70% (v/v. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the honeys were determined by visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay. Minimum fungicidal concentration test was performed by further sub-culturing from the plates which showed no visible growth in the MIC assay onto Sabroud dextrose agar. Results: All tested Malaysian honeys except Gelam showed antifungal activity against all species analysed, with the MIC ranging from 25% (v/v to 50% (v/v while MIC of Manuka honey ranged between 21% to 53% (v/v. Candida albicans was more susceptible to honey than other species tested. Conclusions: Locally produced honeys exhibited antifungal activity which is less than or equal to that of Manuka honey. Our data showed evidence in support of the therapeutic uses of Malaysian honeys.

  12. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Souza, Amanda de; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques.

  13. Interlaboratory drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a radiometric procedure and two conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 224 recent isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 163 patients selected to have multidrug resistance were tested against streptomycin (SM), isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol (EMB) by the rapid radiometric BACTEC method and two conventional proportion methods: the World Health Organization (WHO) method, using Lowenstein-Jensen medium; and the Veterans Administration reference laboratory for mycobacteria (VA) method, using Middlebrook 7H10 agar medium. The results were compared, focusing on the concentrations of the drugs in all three methods. Among the four drugs tested, most of the discrepancies in measured activity were observed with SM and EMB, generally because of differences in the drug concentrations used by the three methods. A 4-micrograms amount of SM in the BACTEC method was found to be slightly less active than 10 micrograms in the VA method and significantly more active than 4 micrograms of dihydrostreptomycin in the WHO method. With EMB, 2.5 micrograms in BACTEC was similar to 5 micrograms in the VA method and 2 micrograms in the WHO method, while 10 micrograms in the BACTEC method was found to be more active than 10 and 2 micrograms in the VA and WHO methods, respectively. To attain close agreement, drug concentrations used in the BACTEC method should be carefully selected when a comparison is to be made with any conventional method employed in a laboratory. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing is greatly needed to achieve uniformity among the test methods used to evaluate tuberculosis therapeutics

  14. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  15. In Vitro Interactions between Antifungals and Immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Transplant and Nontransplant Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, William J.; Singh, Nina; Miller, Jackie L.; Benjamin, Daniel K; Schell, Wiley A.; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.

    2004-01-01

    We performed in vitro antifungal checkerboard testing on 12 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates (6 transplant recipients and 6 nontransplant patients) with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, voriconazole, and caspofungin) and three immunosuppressants (FK506, cyclosporine, and rapamycin). We were not able to detect a difference in calcineurin inhibitor antifungal activity against isolates from transplant recipients and nontransplant patients.

  16. Effect of Manganese in Test Media on In Vitro Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii to Tigecycline

    OpenAIRE

    Veenemans, J; Mouton, J.; Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.; Donnely, R.; Verhulst, C.; Keulen, van, H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the effect of increasing manganese concentrations in test media (0.001 to 1,024 mg/liter) on MICs of tigecycline. For both broth microdilution (BMD) and Etests, this effect was negligible for physiological concentrations, but MICs increased when concentrations exceeded 8 mg/liter. Susceptibility testing should be performed on media with standardized low manganese content.

  17. Multicenter Evaluation of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to First-Line Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Domehl, Cornelia; Nardi, Giampietro; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Welscher, Hans-Martin; Pfyffer, Gaby E.

    1999-01-01

    In a multicenter study involving three reference centers for mycobacteria, the reliability of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated and compared to the radiometric method (BACTEC 460TB). Test cultures for which the results of the MGIT and BACTEC 460TB tests were discordant were checked by the conventional proportion method on solid medium. Four hundred forty-one isolates have been tested f...

  18. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei by Use of Laser Light Scattering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrysheva, Julia V; Lascols, Christine; Sue, David; Weigel, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Rapid methods to determine antimicrobial susceptibility would assist in the timely distribution of effective treatment or postexposure prophylaxis in the aftermath of the release of bacterial biothreat agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, or Burkholderia pseudomallei Conventional susceptibility tests require 16 to 48 h of incubation, depending on the bacterial species. We evaluated a method that is based on laser light scattering technology that measures cell density in real time. We determined that it has the ability to rapidly differentiate between growth (resistant) and no growth (susceptible) of several bacterial threat agents in the presence of clinically relevant antimicrobials. Results were available in 10 h of incubation. Use of laser scattering technology decreased the time required to determine antimicrobial susceptibility by 50% to 75% for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and B. pseudomallei compared to conventional methods. PMID:26984973

  19. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the broth microdilution method with 7H9 broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have evaluated the broth microdilution method (BMM for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 43 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and H37Rv as a control strain were studied. All isolates were tested by the proportion method and the BMM for isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RIF, streptomycin (STR, and ethambutol (ETM. The proportion method was carried out according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ medium. The BMM was carried out using 7H9 broth with 96 well-plates. All strains were tested at 3.2-0.05 µg/ml, 16-0.25 µg/ml, 32-0.5 µg/ml, and 32-0.5 µg/ml concentrations for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. When the BMM was compared with the proportion method, sensitivity was 100, 100, 96.9, and 90.2%, while specificity was 100, 85.7, 90.9, and 100% for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. The plates were examined 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after incubation. The majority of the result were obtained at 14th days after incubation, while the proportion method result were ended in 21-28 days. According to our results, it may be suggested that the BMM is suitable for early determining of multidrug-resistance-M. tuberculosis strains in developed or developing countries.

  20. Synthesis and investigation of novel benzimidazole derivatives as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nishad Thamban; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Ngo, Huy X; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-08-15

    The rise and emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs by diverse pathogenic fungal strains have resulted in an increase in demand for new antifungal agents. Various heterocyclic scaffolds with different mechanisms of action against fungi have been investigated in the past. Herein, we report the synthesis and antifungal activities of 18 alkylated mono-, bis-, and trisbenzimidazole derivatives, their toxicities against mammalian cells, as well as their ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in yeast cells. Many of our bisbenzimidazole compounds exhibited moderate to excellent antifungal activities against all tested fungal strains, with MIC values ranging from 15.6 to 0.975μg/mL. The fungal activity profiles of our bisbenzimidazoles were found to be dependent on alkyl chain length. Our most potent compounds were found to display equal or superior antifungal activity when compared to the currently used agents amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole against many of the strains tested. PMID:27301676

  1. Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of β-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

  2. Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haipeng; Guo Zhi, E-mail: jieruke@yahoo.com.cn; Xing Wenge; Guo Xiuying; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo [Tinajin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Key Cancer Prevention and Treatment Laboratory (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of {beta}-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Fátima Dalben Dota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE and propolis microparticles (PMs obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n=89, obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes.

  4. 致病性曲霉的耐药性研究进展%The progress in antifungal resistance of pathogenic Aspergillus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王千; 李若瑜; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    With the wide use of antifungals in the clinic ,there have been increasing reports of resistant strains of Aspergillus spp .to antifungals .The resistance of Aspergillus spp .has important impact on the diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis .Currently ,the determination of antifungal resistance of pathogenic Aspergillus spp .relies on antifungal susceptibility testing and molecular detection .Recently ,the resistance of Aspergillus spp .to antifungals is mainly focused on azole antifungals .The research progress on antifungal resistance of pathogenic Aspergillus spp ., including the diagnosis for resistance and the molecular mechanisms ,such as over‐expression of efflux pumps ,mutations in the target enzyme (Cyp51) ,formation of biofilm and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)‐mediated signaling pathways are reviewed .%随着抗真菌药物在临床上的广泛使用,致病性真菌的耐药率越来越高,耐药曲霉对侵袭性曲霉病的诊治产生了重要影响。目前,致病性曲霉耐药性的确定主要依靠抗真菌药敏试验和分子诊断。在有关曲霉耐药机制的研究中,报道最多的是曲霉对唑类药物的耐药,其机制主要包括外排泵表达增加、靶酶Cyp51突变和表达水平增高、形成生物膜,以及热休克蛋白90(Hsp90)介导的信号通路参与而导致的耐药。本文就上述领域近年来的主要进展进行综述。

  5. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (CITRONELLA AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Regina Grenier CAPOCI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively. Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment.

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  7. Evaluation of MGIT 960 System for the Second-Line Drugs Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many laboratories validate DST of the second-line drugs by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the critical concentration and perform DST for the 2nd line drugs. We evaluated 193 clinical strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in South Korea. Testing the critical concentration of six second-line drugs was performed by MGIT 960 and compared with L-J proportion method. The critical concentration was determined to establish the most one that gave the difference between drug resistance and susceptibility in MGIT960 system. Good agreement of the following concentrations was found: Concordance was 95% for 0.5 μg/mL of moxifloxacin; 93.6%, 1.0 μg/mL of levofloxacin; 97.5%, 2.5 μg/mL of kanamycin; 90.6%, 2.5 μg/mL of capreomycin; 86.2%, 5.0 μg/mL of ethionamide; and 90.8%, 2.0 μg/mL of ρ-aminosalicylic acid. The critical concentrations of the four drugs, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, were concordant and reliable for testing 2nd line drug resistance. Further study of ethionamide and ρ-aminosalicylic acid is required.

  8. Improving Appropriate Use of Antifungal Medications: The Role of an Over-the-Counter Vaginal pH Self-Test Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Roy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether patients can understand and use the vaginal pH device in the diagnosis of vaginitis. To compare whether vaginal pH readings determined by patients and healthcare providers are similar. To determine whether vaginalpHcan reduce inappropriate over-the-counter (OTC antifungal medication use and improve the correct diagnosis of vaginitis.

  9. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Per; Kise Marit S; Tambs Kristian; Aas Kaja K; Rønningen Kjersti S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questi...

  10. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa;

    2015-01-01

    clearly separated the resistant and the susceptible population of B. fragilis group strains. In the case of cefoxitin only resistant population could be separated with an inhibition zone <17 mm, intermediate and susceptible isolates overlap. In conclusion, we suggest that disk diffusion can be an option...... of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to...... with haemin and vitamin K1. Plates were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 24 hours. The zone diameters were read at 100% inhibition. In case of discrepant results MICs were determined by gradient test and compared with the inhibition zones on the same plate. We found a good agreement...

  11. Preliminary interpretive criteria for in vitro susceptibility testing of CP-99219 by dilution and disk diffusion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N

    1994-11-01

    CP-99219 is a novel 7-[3-azabicyclo (3.1.0) hexyl] quinolone that possesses activity against a wide variety of aerobic and anaerobic pathogens. The disk diffusion test results (5-micrograms CP-99219 disks) were compared with CP-99219 minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using 445 contemporary clinical isolates, including 210 strains that were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MICs, > or = 4 micrograms/ml). A high correlation was observed between methods (r = 0.97), and the proposed conservative zone diameter interpretive criteria were selected primarily from the regression equation as follows: susceptible at > or = 15 mm ( or = 8 micrograms/ml); or susceptible at > or = 19 mm ( or = 4 micrograms/ml). Using these criteria, the occurrence of false-resistant and false-susceptible disk diffusion test results should remain rare (< or = 1.5%). PMID:7874885

  12. Rapid colorimetric testing for pyrazinamide susceptibility of M. tuberculosis by a PCR-based in-vitro synthesized pyrazinamidase method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhou

    Full Text Available Pyrazinamide (PZA is an important first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. But PZA susceptibility test is challenging because PZA activity is optimal only in an acid environment that inhibits the growth of M. tuberculosis. For current phenotypic methods, inconsistent results between different labs have been reported. Direct sequencing of pncA gene is being considered as an accurate predictor for PZA susceptibility, but this approach needs expensive sequencers and a mutation database to report the results. An in-vitro synthesized Pyrazinamidase (PZase assay was developed based on PCR amplification of pncA gene and an in vitro wheat germ system to express the pncA gene into PZase. The activity of the synthesized PZase was used as an indicator for PZA susceptibility. Fifty-one clinical isolates were tested along with pncA sequencing and the BACTEC MGIT 960 methods. The in-vitro synthesized PZase assay was able to detect PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis within 24 h through observing the color difference either by a spectrometer or naked eyes. This method showed agreements of 100% (33/33 and 88% (14/16 with the pncA sequencing method, and agreements of 96% (27/28 and 65% (15/23 with the BACTEC MGIT 960 method, for susceptible and resistant strains, respectively. The novel in-vitro synthesized PZase assay has significant advantages over current methods, such as its fast speed, simplicity, no need for expensive equipment, and the potentials of being a direct test, predicting resistance level and easy reading results by naked eyes. After confirmation by more clinical tests, this method may provide a radical change to the current PZA susceptibility assays.

  13. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... with the strongest antifungal activity were examined by the milk agar plate method with three different mould strains isolated from spoiled dairy products as target microorganisms and were compared with the antifungal effectiveness of standard antifungal strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1 and Lb...... Lb. fermentum ST 41, was comparable to or slightly higher than that of standard strains. By use of both ST 41, was comparable to or slightly higher than that of standard strains. By use of both phenotypic and genotypic methods (REP-PCR, 16S rDNA), four out of seven antifungally active isolates were...

  14. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzatti, Patrícia; Scheid, Liliane Alves; Spader, Tatiana Borba; Atayde, Margareth Linde; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (Pcinnamon essential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (P<0.05). A relationship between the yeasts' susceptibilities and the chemical composition of the essential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations. PMID:18997851

  15. Stability of SM-7338, a new carbapenem in mediums recommended for the susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria and gonococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N; Gardiner, R V

    1989-01-01

    The stability of SM-7338 was compared to that of imipenem in media used for susceptibility testing anaerobic bacteria and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. SM-7338 was more stable in all media than imipenem. For tests with anaerobic bacteria, the broth-disk elution (in thioglycolate) and other methods recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards can be accurately used for SM-7338. However, the cysteine content of IsoVitaleX (25.9 g/L) supplement inactivates SM-7338 (20-fold reduction) in gonococcal susceptibility test systems with GC agar base. A cysteine-free supplement would be advised for tests with the carbapenems and clavulanic acid. The SM-7338 disk diffusion test (10 micrograms) results were not significantly influenced by the inactivating substances in the media. PMID:2507217

  16. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online. PMID:27338406

  17. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  18. Evaluation of four colourimetric susceptibility tests for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate four rapid colourimetric methods, including the resazurin microtitre assay (REMA, malachite green decolourisation assay (MGDA, microplate nitrate reductase assay (MNRA and crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA, for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis. Fifty Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates were used in this study. Eighteen isolates were MDR, two isolates were only resistant to isoniazid (INH and the remaining isolates were susceptible to both INH and rifampicin (RIF. INH and RIF were tested in 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The agar proportion method was used as a reference method. MNRA and REMA were performed with some modifications. MGDA and CVDA were performed as defined in the literature. The agreements of the MNRA for INH and RIF were 96% and 94%, respectively, while the agreement of the other assays for INH and RIF were 98%. In this study, while the specificities of the REMA, MGDA and CVDA were 100%, the specificity of the MNRA was lower than the others (93.3% for INH and 90.9% for RIF. In addition, while the sensitivity of the MNRA was 100%, the sensitivities of the others were lower than that of the MNRA (from 94.1-95%. The results were reported on the seventh-10th day of the incubation. All methods are reliable, easy to perform, inexpensive and easy to evaluate and do not require special equipment.

  19. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online. PMID:27338406

  20. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk perce

  1. Availability of second-line drugs and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing in China: a situational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.X. He; S. van den Hof; M.W. Borgdorff; M.J. van der Werf; S.M. Cheng; Y.L. Hu; L.X. Zhang; L.X. Wang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability of second-line drugs (SLDs) and the use of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey in 4675 health care facilities, 1960 of which have a dedicated TB clinic, in 12 provinces in Chin

  2. Clinical Analysis of Antifungal Agents in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Susceptibility%抗真菌药物治疗外阴阴道念珠菌病敏感性的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the sensitivity of the antifungal treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods To make 538 patients with the vulvovaginal candidiasis in our hospital between 2010 and 2012 as research subjects, analyze their clinical date retrospectively, and to observe and analyze the sensitivity of the antifungal to the disease. Results After the separation of candida from the 538 patients, the candida albicans accounted for 61.9%(333/538), and the non-albicans accounted for 38.1%(205/538). There were significant dif erences ( 0.05) and statistical y significant between the sensitivity of Ketoconazole and Amphotericin B to both of them. Conclusion For VVC, the main pathogen was candida albicans, and the candida albicans drug sensitivity was higher than that of non-albicans, but its antifungal drug resistance was rare.%目的探讨抗真菌药物治疗外阴阴道念珠菌病(VVC)敏感性。方法将我院2010年~2012年收治的538例外阴阴道念珠菌病患者作为研究对象,对他们临床资料进行回顾性分析,同时对抗真菌药物治疗该病的敏感性进行观察分析。结果对538株念珠菌进行分离后可知,其中白念珠菌占了61.90%(333/538),非白念珠菌则占了38.10%(205/538)。白念珠菌及非白念珠菌,在氟康唑与伊曲康唑的敏感度上有着显著性差异(0.05),没有统计学意义。结论对于VVC而言,其主要的致病菌当属白念珠菌,同时白念珠菌的药物敏感性要比非白念珠菌要高,但其对抗真菌药物的耐药性却不多见。

  3. Augmenting the Antifungal Activity of an Oxidizing Agent with Kojic Acid: Control of Penicillium Strains Infecting Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative treatment is one of the strategies for preventing Penicillium contamination in crops/foods. The antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; oxidant) was investigated in Penicillium strains by using kojic acid (KA) as a chemosensitizing agent, which can enhance the susceptibility of pathogens to antifungal agents. Co-application of KA with H2O2 (chemosensitization) resulted in the enhancement of antifungal activity of either compound, when compared to the independent application ...

  4. Evaluation of the ESP Culture System II for Testing Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates to Four Primary Antituberculous Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, John S.; Woods, Gail L.

    1998-01-01

    The reliability of the ESP Culture System II (herein referred to as ESP II) for testing susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin was evaluated by comparing results to those of the method of proportion (MOP), which was considered the reference method, for 20 clinical isolates and 30 challenge strains provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Clinical isolates also were tested with the BACTEC TB 460 syst...

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of Fully Automated BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 System for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bemer, Pascale; Palicova, Frantiska; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Drugeon, Henri B.; Pfyffer, Gaby E.

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system for testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to the three front-line drugs (isoniazid [INH], rifampin [RIF], and ethambutol [EMB]) plus streptomycin (STR) was compared to that of the BACTEC 460 TB system. The proportion method was used to resolve discrepant results by an independent arbiter. One hundred and ten strains were tested with an overall agreement of 93.5%. Discrepant results were obtained ...

  6. Sensititre autoreader for same-day breakpoint broth microdilution susceptibility testing of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Doern, G V; Staneck, J L; Needham, C.; Tubert, T

    1987-01-01

    The Sensititre Autoreader system is an instrument-assisted broth microdilution susceptibility test procedure based on the detection of fluorogenic growth substrate metabolism by test bacteria with different concentrations of antimicrobial agents. In the current investigation, this system was assessed as a means for predicting the in vitro activity of 17 antimicrobial agents versus numerous species of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using a breakpoint broth microdil...

  7. Lower bound on the four-point dynamical susceptibility: Direct experimental test on a granular packing

    OpenAIRE

    Lechenault, F.; Dauchot, O.; Biroli, G.; Bouchaud, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We track the motion of a horizontally vibrated amorphous assembly of bidisperse hard disks, for densities ranging across the jamming transition. We derive on very general grounds a bound on the dynamical susceptibility in terms of the response of the dynamics to a change in density. This generalizes a similar bound recently derived for equilibrium liquids. We find that in our experimental system the bound is tight and reproduces the non-monotonic behavior of the dynamical susceptibility both ...

  8. ABC transporters and azole susceptibility in laboratory strains of the wheat pathogen Mycosphearella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, L.H.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Nistelrooy, Van J.G.M.; Waard, De M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Mycosphaerella graminicola with decreased susceptibilities to the azole antifungal agent cyproconazole showed a multidrug resistance phenotype by exhibiting cross-resistance to an unrelated chemical, cycloheximide or rhodamine 6G, or both. Decreased azole susceptibility was fou

  9. Citral and carvone chemotypes from the essential oils of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown: composition, cytotoxicity and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Mesa-Arango

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two essential oils of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenacea, the carvone and citral chemotypes and 15 of their compounds were evaluated to determine cytotoxicity and antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity assays for both the citral and carvone chemotypes were carried out with tetrazolium-dye, which showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against HeLa cells. Interestingly, this effect on the evaluated cells (HeLa and the non-tumoural cell line, Vero was lower than that of commercial citral alone. Commercial citral showed the highest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus strains following the standard protocols, Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Subcommittee of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing and CLSI M38-A. Results demonstrated that the most active essential oil was the citral chemotype, with geometric means-minimal inhibitory concentration (GM-MIC values of 78.7 and 270.8 μg/mL for A. fumigatus and C. krusei, respectively. Commercial citral showed an antifungal activity similar to that of the citral chemotype (GM-MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL for A. fumigatus and 39.7 μg/mL for C. krusei. Although the citronellal and geraniol were found in lower concentrations in the citral chemotype, they had significant antifungal activity, with GM-MIC values of 49.6 μg/mL for C. krusei and 176.8 μg/mL for A. fumigatus.

  10. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose di...

  11. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gh.R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 250 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains in vitro. Primarily, the crude extracts at concentration of 100μg/ml were tested. Of 250 extracts tested, 185(74% showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. The outstanding species were Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia scoparia, Carthamus oxyacantha, Francoeuria undulate, Tripleurospermum disciform, and Xanthium spinosum.

  12. Anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extracts against Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    K Barani; Sunayana Manipal; D Prabu; Adil Ahmed; Preethi Adusumilli; C Jeevika

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in anti-fungal testing. Anti-fungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by agar culture and applied broth dilution test. Resul...

  13. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  14. Genotyping using whole-genome sequencing is a realistic alternative to surveillance based on phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf Sommer;

    2013-01-01

    200 isolates originating from Danish pigs, covering four bacterial species. Genomic DNA was purified from all isolates and sequenced as paired-end reads on the Illumina platform. The web servers ResFinder and MLST (www.genomicepidemiology.org) were used to identify acquired antimicrobial resistance......Objectives: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates is essential for clinical diagnosis, to detect emerging problems and to guide empirical treatment. Current phenotypic procedures are sometimes associated with mistakes and may require further genetic testing. Whole......-genome sequencing (WGS) may soon be within reach even for routine surveillance and clinical diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate WGS as a routine tool for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance compared with current phenotypic procedures. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed on...

  15. Fluconazole susceptibility and ERG11 gene expression in vaginal candida species isolated from Lagos Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam, Victoria K; Akpan, Juliet U; Oduyebo, Oyinlola O; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Fowora, Muinah A; Oladele, Rita O; Ogunsola, Folasade T; Smith, Stella I

    2012-01-01

    Fluconazole resistance is an important type of resistance in Candida because in most countries, fluconazole is the drug of choice for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candida species resist fluconazole by various mechanisms but there is paucity of data on these in our environment. Such mechanisms include among others, over-expression of the ERG11 gene, which codes for synthesis of the target enzymes in the fungus. The aim of this study was to screen Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole for the expression of ERG11 gene. Fluconazole susceptibility test was performed on 28 clinical strains of Candida species previously obtained from students of a School of Nursing in Lagos, Nigeria. They were identified by API Candida, CHROMagar candida and germ tube test. Using 25 mcg discs, fluconazole susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method and results were interpreted in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria; sensitive (S), resistant (R) and susceptible dose dependent (SDD). The R and SDD isolates were subsequently evaluated for the presence of ERG11 gene. Of the 28 clinical isolates, 14 were identified as C. albicans and six as C. tropicalis. The remaining isolates were identified as C. glabrata (2), C. famata (2) C. kefyr (2) one each of C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii respectively. In this study, 18 were susceptible (S) to fluconazole, eight were SDD and two were resistant to the antifungal agent. Out of the 14 C. albicans isolates, 12 were susceptible, one showed high level resistance and similar number showed susceptible dose dependence. ERG11 was detected in three susceptible dose dependent Candida species. This analysis demonstrates that susceptible dose dependence should not be overlooked as it may be associated with the presence of ERG11 gene and resistance to fluconazole. There is a need to consider routine antifungal susceptibility testing for Candida species causing vulvovaginitis. PMID:22493755

  16. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K;

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas ...

  17. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Taxus wallichiana Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Khan, Inamullah; Ahmad, Bashir; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmad, Waqar; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2008-04-01

    Current study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antibacterial potential of methanol extract and subsequent fractions obtained after partitioning in organic solvents with variable polarity of the aerial parts of the tree Taxus wallichiana Zucc. Traditionally, this plant is often used in folk medicines in Pakistan for treating microbial infections. In order to rationalize the traditional use, methanol extracts of leaf, bark, and heartwood of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. were tested against six bacteria and six fungal strains using the Hole diffusion and macro-dilution methods. All extracts and fractions displayed significant antimicrobial effect. Only three fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Microspoum canis, and Fusarium solani were susceptible to the extracts and fractions with MICs ranging from 0.08 to 200 mg/mL. In case of bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi were susceptible to the extracts and fractions with MICs ranging from 0.08 to 200 mg/mL. Comparison results were carried out using imipinem, miconazole and amphotericin B as standard antibiotics. PMID:18343912

  18. Standard Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover two tests as follows: 1.1.1 Method A, Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Test (Sections 3-10, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting the boiling ferric sulfate—50 % sulfuric acid test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to intergranular corrosion (see Terminology G 15), which may be encountered in certain service environments. The uniform corrosion rate obtained by this test method, which is a function of minor variations in alloy composition, may easily mask the intergranular corrosion components of the overall corrosion rate on alloys N10276, N06022, N06059, and N06455. 1.1.2 Method B, Mixed Acid-Oxidizing Salt Test (Sections 11-18, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting a boiling 23 % sulfuric + 1.2 % hydrochloric + 1 % ferric chloride + 1 % cupric chloride test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to display a step function increa...

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity and susceptibility testing of ofloxacin. Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, P C

    1989-12-29

    The fluoroquinolone, ofloxacin, exhibits a broad antibacterial spectrum. Based on our data and a review of the literature, ofloxacin inhibited essentially 100 percent of staphylococci, including oxacillin-resistant strains, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis. Ninety-five percent of Enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to ofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococci were less susceptible: 79 and 63 percent, respectively, were susceptible (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC], less than or equal to 2.0 micrograms/ml); 15 and 25 percent, respectively, were intermediate (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml); 3 and 6 percent, respectively, were resistant (MIC, more than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml). Clostridium spp., including Clostridium difficile, were resistant to ofloxacin, but other anaerobic species, including the Bacteroides fragilis group (over 90 percent) were either susceptible or intermediate to ofloxacin. Ofloxacin is bactericidal; minimal bactericidal concentrations of ofloxacin rarely exceed the MICs by one doubling concentration. A modest inoculum effect has been observed with ofloxacin: MICs with inocula of 10(7) colony-forming units/ml are often two- to fourfold higher than those with inocula of 5 x 10(5) colony-forming units/ml. Susceptible organisms exposed serially to increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid developed increasing resistance to not only nalidixic acid, but also to all other quinolones, including ofloxacin. Correlations of disk diffusion inhibitory zone diameters using the 5-micrograms ofloxacin disk with ofloxacin MICs have been performed, and the disk diffusion zone diameter breakpoints recommended are: susceptible, greater than or equal to 16 mm; intermediate, 13 to 15 mm; resistant, less than or equal to 12 mm. Quality control parameters also are summarized. PMID:2690614

  20. Typhoid outbreak in Songkhla, Thailand 2009-2011: clinical outcomes, susceptibility patterns, and reliability of serology tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannee Limpitikul

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes, the reliability of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S ser. Typhi IgM and IgG rapid tests, and the susceptibility patterns and the response to treatment during the 2009-2011 typhoid outbreak in Songkhla province in Thailand. METHOD: The medical records of children aged <15 years with S ser. Typhi bacteremia were analysed. The efficacy of the typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests and susceptibility of the S ser. Typhi to the current main antibiotics used for typhoid (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, were evaluated. RESULTS: S ser. Typhi bacteremia was found in 368 patients, and all isolated strains were susceptible to all 6 antimicrobials tested. Most of the patients were treated with ciprofloxacin for 7-14 days. The median time (IQR of fever before treatment and duration of fever after treatment were 5 (4, 7 days and 4 (3, 5 days, respectively. Complications of ascites, lower respiratory symptoms, anemia (Hct <30%, and ileal perforation were found in 7, 7, 22, and 1 patients, respectively. None of the patients had recurrent infection or died. The sensitivities of the typhoid IgM and IgG tests were 58.3% and 25.6% respectively, and specificities were 74.1% and 50.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients were diagnosed at an early stage and treated with a good outcome. All S ser. Typhi strains were susceptible to standard first line antibiotic typhoid treatment. The typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests had low sensitivity and moderate specificity.

  1. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Rühl-Hörster, B

    1996-04-01

    Malassezia (M.) furfur is an anthropophilic fungus with complex growth requirements. Apart from its physiological appearance on human skin it is the causative agent of several skin disorders. A method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of M. furfur in a microtiter plate assay has been developed. Read-out was performed colorimetrically in modified Leeming-Notman medium after incubation with alamarBlue. Twenty-two strains of M. furfur were tested, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for climbazole, piroctone-olamine, selenium disulfide, zinc pyrithione. These substances are of common use in topical therapy of M. furfur-associated skin conditions. For climbazole, the range of MICs was between piroctone-olamine were less active. PMID:8740097

  2. Novel pyrazine analogs of chalcones: synthesis and evaluation of their antifungal and antimycobacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerova-Chlupacova, Marta; Kunes, Jiri; Buchta, Vladimir; Vejsova, Marcela; Opletalova, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and invasive mycoses, represent serious health problems. As a part of our long-term efforts to find new agents for the treatment of these diseases, a new series of pyrazine analogs of chalcones bearing an isopropyl group in position 5 of the pyrazine ring was prepared. The structures of the compounds were corroborated by IR and NMR spectroscopy and their purity confirmed by elemental analysis. The susceptibility of eight fungal strains to the studied compounds was tested. The results have been compared with the activity of some previously reported propyl derivatives. The only strain that was susceptible to the studied compounds was Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was found that replacing a non-branched propyl with a branched isopropyl did not have a decisive and unequivocal influence on the in vitro antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes. In vitro activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable with that of fluconazole was exhibited by nitro-substituted derivatives. Unfortunately, no compound exhibited efficacy comparable with that of terbinafine, which is the most widely used agent for treating mycoses caused by dermatophytes. Some of the prepared compounds were assayed for antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The highest potency was also displayed by nitro-substituted compounds. The results of the present study are in a good agreement with our previous findings and confirm the positive influence of electron-withdrawing groups on the B-ring of chalcones on the antifungal and antimycobacterial activity of these compounds. PMID:25587786

  3. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of Brucella isolates from Egypt between 1999 and 2007 and evidence of probable rifampin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Maksoud Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis poses a significant public health problem in Mediterranean countries, including Egypt. Treatment of this disease is often empirical due to limited information on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella spp. in this region of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella blood isolates in Egypt, a country endemic for brucellosis. Methods Brucella spp. isolates were identified from the blood cultures of acute febrile illness (AFI patients presenting to a network of infectious disease hospitals from 1999–2007. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for tetracycline, gentamicin, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampin using the E-test. Interpretations were made according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results A total of 355 Brucella spp. isolates were analyzed. All were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin; probable resistance to rifampin and ceftriaxone was observed among 277 (64% and 7 (2% of the isolates, respectively. Percentages of isolates showing probable resistance to rifampin were significantly lower before 2001 than in the following years (7% vs. >81%, p  Conclusions Despite the high burden of brucellosis in Egypt and frequent empirical treatment, isolates have remained susceptible to the majority of tested antibiotics. However, this is the first report of high rates of probable resistance to rifampin among Brucella isolates from Egypt. Patients should be closely monitored while following standard treatment regimens. Continued surveillance, drug susceptibility studies and updated CLSI interpretive criteria are needed to monitor and update antibiotic prescribing policies for brucellosis.

  4. Antibody Peptide Based Antifungal Immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Giovati, Laura; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sperindè, Martina; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections still represent relevant human illnesses worldwide and some are accompanied by unacceptably high mortality rates. The limited current availability of effective and safe antifungal agents makes the development of new drugs and approaches of antifungal vaccination/immunotherapy every day more needed. Among them, small antibody(Ab)-derived peptides are arousing great expectations as new potential antifungal agents. In this topic, the search path from the study of the yeast kill...

  5. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Qatar between 2014 - 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, A.; Hagen, F.; Sharabasi, O.A.; Abraham, M.; Wilson, G.; Doiphode, S.; Maslamani, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including the Gulf Cooperation Council region (GCC). The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of B

  7. Recommendation of an appropriate medium for in vitro drug susceptibility testing of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Irgang, Rute; Núñez, Soledad; Romalde, Jesús L; Toranzo, Alicia E

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, Anacker and Ordal agar, marine agar (MA), and Flexibacter maritimus medium (FMM) were compared with the dilute versions of Mueller-Hinton agar (DMHA) medium recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for their use in disk diffusion tests with Tenacibaculum maritimum strains and to calculate the MICs of five drugs by the Etest method. Preliminary growth tests performed with 32 strains of this pathogen on each medium revealed that all strains failed to grow on DMHA, while the remaining media supported good growth of all isolates. In the susceptibility tests, which were carried out with the other three media, all strains were resistant to oxolinic acid and were highly susceptible to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, showing a good correspondence with the Etest values, which ranged from 0.064 to 0.75 and 0.006 to 1.5 mug/ml, respectively. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline produced significantly smaller inhibition zones and MICs on MA than on the other media assayed. However, fast, clear, and well-defined zones of inhibition were displayed for all strains at 24 h of incubation only on FMM by both the disk diffusion assay and Etest. In addition, FMM prepared with commercial sea salts instead of seawater was also suitable for bacterial isolation as well as for susceptibility testing. On the basis of these results, the use of FMM to determine the in vitro susceptibility of T. maritimum and its inclusion in a future revision of the NCCLS M42 report are recommended. PMID:15616279

  8. Quantitative drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by use of MGIT 960 and EpiCenter instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, B; Lucke, K.; Calligaris-Maibach, R; Ritter, C.; Böttger, E C

    2009-01-01

    Since numbers of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are on the rise, the simple classification into “susceptible” and “resistant” strains based on susceptibility testing at “critical concentrations” has to be reconsidered. While future studies have to address the correlation of phenotypic resistance levels and treatment outcomes, a prerequisite for corresponding investigations is the ability to exactly determine levels of quantitative drug resistance in clinical M. tuberculosis...

  9. Comparison of charcoal- and starch-based media for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species to macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones.

    OpenAIRE

    Pendland, S L; Martin, S J; Chen, C.; Schreckenberger, P C; Danziger, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    We compared growth characteristics of 46 Legionella strains grown on buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE alpha) agar and buffered starch yeast extract (BSYE) agar and MICs of macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones for these organisms. Growth was poor and not reproducible on BSYE agar. Growth was excellent on BCYE alpha, and MICs were easy to interpret. BCYE alpha is superior to BSYE for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species by agar dilution.

  10. Dobutamine “Stress” Test and Latent Cardiac Susceptibility to Inhaled Diesel Exhaust in Normal and Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari, Mehdi S.; Callaway, Justin; Winsett, Darrell W.; Lamb, Christina; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Krantz, Q. Todd; King, Charly; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercise “stress” testing is a screening tool used to determine the amount of stress for which the heart can compensate before developing abnormal rhythm or ischemia, particularly in susceptible persons. Although this approach has been used to assess risk in humans exposed to air pollution, it has never been applied to rodent studies. Objective: We hypothesized that a single exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) would increase the risk of adverse cardiac events such as arrhythmia and my...

  11. [The annual changes in antimicrobial susceptibility test results of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the Kinki district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Saori; Komatsu, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatuya; Jikimoto, Takumi; Nishio, Hisaaki; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Orita, Tamaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kita, Machiko; Nishi, Isao; Akagi, Masahiro; Higuchi, Takeshi; Kofuku, Tomomi; Nakai, Isako; Ono, Tamotsu; Kida, Kaneyuki; Ohama, Masanobu; Watari, Hideo; Shimura, Satoshi; Niki, Makoto; Kuchibiro, Tomokazu; Wada, Yasunao

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted of the 1,225 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that were isolated at 20 medical institutions in the Kinki district between 2011 and 2013 to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility and to characterize the strains of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) and the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) -producing strains. The MIC50/MIC90 values (μg/mL) of the various antimicrobial agents were as follows: imipenem, 2/>8; meropenem, 1/>8; doripenem, 0.5/8; biapenem, 1/>8; tazobactam/piperacillin, 8/>64; piperacillin, 8/>64; sulbactam/cefoperazone, 8/64; cefepime, 4/16; cefozopran, 2/>16; aztreonam, 8/>16; amikacin, 4/16; levofloxacin, 1/>4; and ciprofloxacin, 0.25/>2. From the viewpoint of the annual changes in the susceptibility rates (according to the CLSI guidelines [M100-S22]), the susceptibility to tazobactam/piperacillin, piperacillin, cefepime, cefozopran and aztreonam decreased in 2013. On the other hand, two antimicrobial agents showed high susceptibility rates each year; amikacin (94.0-95.6%) showed the highest rate, followed by doripenem (80.3-82.6%). With the exception of amikacin, there were substantial inter-institutional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility. In comparison to the previous CLSI guidelines (M100-S21), the new CLSI guidelines (M100-S22) on the use of carbapenems and penicillins show that the MIC80 has been affected. The MDRP detection rates in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 1.8% (8 strains), 1.8% (8 strains), and 2.8% (10 strains), respectively. The MBL detection rates were as follows: bla(VIM-2), 0.2% (1 strain) in 2011; bla(IMP-1), 0.9% (4 strains) in 2012, and 1.7% (6 strains, including bla(IMP-1) [3 strains], bla(IMP-2) [2 strains] and bla(VIM-2) [1 strain]) in 2013. PMID:27544978

  12. Molecular and Growth-Based Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex for Ethambutol Resistance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell A. Yakrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethambutol (EMB is used as a part of drug regimens for treatment of tuberculosis (TB. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates to EMB can be discerned by DNA sequencing to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with resistance. US Public Health Laboratories (PHL primarily use growth-based drug susceptibility test (DST methods to determine EMB resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC provides a service for molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR by DNA sequencing and concurrent growth-based DST using agar proportion. PHL and CDC test results were compared for 211 MTBC samples submitted to CDC from September 2009 through February 2011. Concordance between growth-based DST results from PHL and CDC was 88.2%. A growth-based comparison of 39 samples, where an embB mutation associated with EMB resistance was detected, revealed a higher percentage of EMB resistance by CDC (84.6% than by PHL (59.0% which was significant (P value = 0.002. Discordance between all growth-based test results from PHL and CDC was also significant (P value = 0.003. Most discordance was linked to false susceptibility using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 (MGIT growth-based system. Our analysis supports coalescing growth-based and molecular results for an informed interpretation of potential EMB resistance.

  13. Task 2 - Limits for High-Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Testing - CS114 (NRC-HQ-60-14-D-0015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moses, Rebecca J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A principal focus of Task 2 under this project was for ORNL to evaluate the basis for susceptibility testing against high-frequency conducted interference and to establish recommendations to resolve concerns about the severity of test limits for the conducted susceptibility (CS) test, CS114, from MIL-STD-461. The primary concern about the test limit has been characterized by the EPRI EMI Working Group in the following terms: Demonstrating compliance with the CS114 test limits recommended in TR-102323 has proven to be problematic, even for components that have been tested to commercial standards and demonstrated proper operation in industrial applications [6]. Specifically, EPRI notes that the CS114 limits approved in regulatory documents are significantly higher than those invoked by the US military and similar commercial standards in the frequency range below 200 kHz. For this task, ORNL evaluated the original approach to establishing the test limit, EPRI technical findings from a review of the limit, and the regulatory basis through which the currently approved limits were accepted. Based on this analysis, strategies have been developed regarding changes to the CS114 limit that can resolve the technical concerns raised by the industry. Guided by the principles that reasonable assurance of safety must not be compromised but excessive conservatism should be reduced, recommendations on a suitable basis for a revised limit have been developed and can be incorporated into the planned Revision 2 of RG 1.180.

  14. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  15. Isolation, cultivation, and in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veinović Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. The agents of Lyme borreliosis are borrelia, bacteria of the family Spirochaetaceae, which are grouped in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. Borreliae are fastidious, slow-growing and biochemically inactive bacteria that need special attention and optimal conditions for cultivation. The isolation of Borrelia from clinical material and their cultivation is a time-consuming and demanding procedure. Cultivation lasts from 9 up to 12 weeks, which is much longer than is necessary to grow most other human bacterial pathogens. Although B. burgdorferi sensu lato is susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobial agents in vitro, up to now the susceptibility of individual Borrelia species to antibiotics is defined only partially. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175011

  16. Test of magnetic susceptibility and grain-size age models of loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ages of the stratigraphic boundary MIS1/2 and MIS3/4 of the Yuanbu loess section in Linxia are used as the basis of the nodal control age. The age of MIS1/2 and MIS3/4 are obtained from the latest international research result-the climatic events recorded in the stalagmite in the Hulu Cave in Nanjing, that MIS1/2 is 11.5 kaB. P. and MIS3/4 is 59.8 kaB.P.. The ages of the two climatic events contain three nodal age control models (Model 1: 0 kaB. P. -59.8 kaB. P.; Model 2: 0 kaB. P. -11.5 kaB. P. and 11.5kaB. P. -59.8 kaB. P.; Model 3: 11.5 kaB. P. -59.8 kaB. P. ), which are used as the nodal control age separately. The deposition times of various stratigraphic horizons are calculated by using the magnetic susceptibility age model and grain-size age model, and then compared with each other. In addition, the AMS14C age, OSL age and the ages of YD and H events are compared with the ages of the corresponding horizons calculated by the three models of nodal control ages. From the analyses of lithologic characters and climatic stages it has been found that both the magnetic susceptibility age model and the grain-size age model have some defects. Because the accurate control ages are selected as the nodal points of the glacial period or interglacial period, the stratigraphic deposition times determined by the high resolution of magnetic susceptibility age model and grain-size age model approximate to the actual ages. As for the relative accuracy of the two age models, the magnetic susceptibility age model is more accurate than the grain-size age model.

  17. Correlation of moxalactam (LY127935) susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and agar plate dilution methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, W H; Opfer, B J

    1981-01-01

    Susceptibility of pathogenic aerobic bacteria to moxalactam (LY127935) was compared by two methods, diffusion from 30-microgram disks and agar plate dilution. The two methods gave a satisfactory degree of correlation when compared by linear regression, but the slope of the linear regression was significantly steeper for gram-negative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) than for coccal organisms (streptococci and staphylococci). The largest zone diameters by disk diffusion ...

  18. Evaluation of BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT 960) Automated System for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ardito, Fausta; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Zanetti, Stefania; Fadda, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, an automated version of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated on 78 clinical isolates. Rifampin (RMP), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (SM), and ethambutol (EMB) were tested at the following concentrations: 1.0 μg/ml for RMP, 0.1 and 0.4 μg/ml for INH, 1.0 and 4.0 μg/ml for SM, and 5.0 and 7.5 μg/ml for EMB. Results were compared with those obtained by the...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni assessed by E-test and double dilution agar method in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández H

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility patterns of 108 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni clinical strains, to six antimicrobial agents was determined by using the E-test and the double dilution agar methods. Using both metods, no strain was found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin, but two (1.8% were resistant to tetracycline and all to aztreonam. Seven (6.5% strains were resistant to ampicillin by the E-test and five (4.6% by the double dilution agar method and by both meyhods. No great discrepancies were observed between both methods.

  20. In Vitro Activities of New and Conventional Antifungal Agents against Clinical Scedosporium Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Meletiadis, Joseph; Meis, Jacques F. G. M.; Mouton, Johan W.; Rodriquez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Donnelly, J. Peter; Verweij, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 13 clinical isolates of Scedosporium apiospermum and 55 clinical isolates of S. prolificans to new and conventional drugs belonging to three different classes of antifungal agents, the azoles (miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, UR-9825, posaconazole), the polyenes (amphotericin B, nystatin and liposomal nystatin), and allylamines (terbinafine), were studied by use of proposed standard M38-P of NCCLS. Low growth-inhibitory antifungal activities were found in vitro ...

  1. Clinical application of micronucleus test: a case-control study on the prediction of breast cancer risk/susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bolognesi

    Full Text Available The micronucleus test is a well-established DNA damage assay in human monitoring. The test was proposed as a promising marker of cancer risk/susceptibility mainly on the basis of studies on breast cancer. Our recent meta-analysis showed that the association between micronuclei frequency, either at baseline or after irradiation, and breast cancer risk or susceptibility, has been evaluated in few studies of small size, with inconsistent results. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of micronucleus assay in evaluating individual breast cancer susceptibility. Two-hundred and twenty untreated breast cancer patients and 295 female controls were enrolled in the study. All women were characterized for cancer family history and 155 subjects were evaluated for the presence of BRCA mutations. Micronuclei frequency was evaluated at baseline and after irradiation with 1-Gy gamma rays from a 137Cs source. The results show a non significant increase of frequency of micronucleated binucleated lymphocytes in cancer patients compared with the controls at baseline (Mean (S.E.: 16.8 (0.7 vs 15.7 (0.5, but not after irradiation (Mean (S.E.: 145.8 (3.0 vs 154.0 (2.6. Neither a family history of breast cancer nor the presence of a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 genes were associated with an increased micronuclei frequency. Our results do not support a significant role of micronucleus frequency as a biomarker of breast cancer risk/susceptibility.

  2. Comparison of efficacy and cost-effectiveness of BIOMIC VIDEO and Vitek antimicrobial susceptibility test systems for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Berke, I; Tierno, P M

    1996-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing expense may be a significant portion of a clinical microbiology laboratory's budget. This study compares the BIOMIC VIDEO system (Giles Scientific, Inc., New York, N.Y.) with the Vitek system (bioMérieux Vitek, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), an established automated method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing with the ability to generate MIC data. The BIOMIC system is relatively inexpensive and automates the reading of the classical disk agar diffusion test to ...

  3. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A;

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...... 40,878 (3.7%) antimicrobials. Antifungals were mainly (54.2%) administered orally. Hospital-acquired infections represented 44.5% of indications for antifungals followed by medical prophylaxis at 31.2%. The site of infection was not defined in 36.0% of cases but the most commonly targeted sites were...... respiratory (19.2%) and gastrointestinal (18.8%). The most used antifungal was fluconazole (60.5%) followed by caspofungin (10.5%). Antifungal-antibacterial combinations were frequently used (77.5%). The predominance of fluconazole use in participating hospitals could result in an increase in prevalence of...

  4. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter Panduro

    2015-01-01

    and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of...... Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for Flexicult Vet B. The latter error can be prevented by categorizing staphylococcal strains growing in the oxacillin compartment as resistant to all β-lactams. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the shortcomings regarding species identification by clinical staff and β-lactam susceptibility...

  5. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of cefmetazole (CS-1170) and recommendations for susceptibility testing by disk diffusion, dilution, and anaerobic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N; Barry, A L; Fuchs, P C; Thornsberry, C

    1986-12-01

    Cefmetazole, formerly CS-1170, was found to have antimicrobial activity slightly superior to that of cefoxitin but a clinically usable antimicrobial spectrum that should be considered identical to that of cefoxitin. Disk diffusion and dilution test methods with cefmetazole correlated highly (r, greater than or equal to 0.95) with cefoxitin results. The recommended 30-micrograms cefmetazole disk interpretive breakpoints for susceptibility and resistance were greater than or equal to 18 mm (MIC, less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml) and less than or equal to 14 mm (MIC, greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml), respectively. Cefmetazole and cefoxitin should be considered to be in the same antimicrobial spectrum class, requiring separate testing for other cephalosporins such as cephalothin, cefamandole, cefuroxime, and cefotetan. Recommended interpretive criteria performed well for fastidious organisms (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Branhamella catarrhalis) and for broth microdilution tests with anaerobes. Cefmetazole and cefoxitin broth disk elution tests for anaerobic bacteria produced higher rates of false susceptibility results. PMID:3097064

  7. Anti-fungal activities of medicinal plants extracts of Ivorian pharmacopoeia

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Kra Adou Koffi; Marcel, Ahon Gnamien; Djè, Djo-Bi; Sitapha, Ouattara; Adama, Coulibaly; Joseph, Djaman Allico

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was to evaluate in vitro anti-fungal activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic from medicinal plants extracts collected in Côte d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: Plants extracts were prepared by homogenization and separately incorporated to Sabouraud agar using the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for anti-fungal assay. The anti-fungal tests were performed by sowing 1000 cells of Candida albicans on the previously prepared medium culture. Ant...

  8. Rapid drug susceptibility test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using microscopic time-lapse imaging in an agarose matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Eun-Geun; Park, Kyung Ock; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Haeun; Jung, Hyunju; Kim, Taeyoung; Choi, Myungjin; Kim, Hee Chan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) are spreading throughout the world. However, conventional drug susceptibility test (DST) methods, which rely on the detection of the colony formation on a solid medium, require 1-2 months to the result. A rapid and accurate DST is necessary to identify patients with drug-resistant TB and treat them with appropriate drugs. Here, we used microscopic imaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) immobilized in an agarose matrix for a rapid DST. The agarose matrix, which was molded in a microfluidic chip, was inoculated with MTB, and TB drugs in liquid culture medium diffused throughout the agarose to reach the MTB immobilized in the agarose matrix. After the responses of MTB to drugs were tracked with an automated microscopic system, an image-processing program automatically determined the susceptibility and resistance of MTB to specific doses of TB drugs. The automatic DST system was able to assess the drug susceptibility of various drug-resistant clinical TB strains within 9 days with an accuracy comparable to that of conventional method. Our rapid DST method based on microscopic time-lapse imaging greatly reduces the time required for a DST and can be used to rapidly and accurately treat TB patients. PMID:26754815

  9. Update on azole antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonios, Dimitrios I; Bennett, John E

    2008-04-01

    This is a comprehensive, clinically oriented review of the four commercially available triazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Emphasis is placed in pharmacology, drug interactions, adverse events, antifungal activity, and the evolving perspective of their clinical use. Key clinical trials are briefly discussed, and specific drug indications summarized. Fluconazole remains a valuable low-cost choice for the treatment of various fungal infections, including candidiasis and cryptococcosis. It has relatively few drug interactions and is safe but lacks activity against filamentous fungi. The use of itraconazole is historically plagued by erratic bioavailability of the oral capsule, improved with the oral solution. Drug interactions are numerous. Itraconazole exhibits significant activity against Aspergillus and the endemic fungi. Voriconazole has revolutionized the treatment of aspergillosis in severely immunocompromised patients, but its use is compromised by complicated pharmacokinetics, notable drug interactions, and relatively significant adverse events. Finally, posaconazole is the last addition to the azole armamentarium with extended antifungal spectrum, significant activity against the zygomycetes, and, apparently, optimal safety profile. Posaconazole has a significant role for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in severely immunocompromised patients. Multiple daily dosing, a need for fatty foods for absorption, and absence of an intravenous formulation restrict its use to selected populations. PMID:18366001

  10. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans-based Model Systems for Antifungal Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Cleo G Anastassopoulou; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections constitute undisputed tokens of their severity. The continued expansion of susceptible population groups (such as immunocompromised individuals, patients undergoing extensive surgery, and those hospitalized with serious underlying diseases especially in the intensive care unit) and the limitations of current antifungal agents due to toxicity issues or to the development of resistance, mandate the development of...

  12. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 μg mL-1. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  13. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cledualdo S. de; Lira, Bruno F.; Athayde-Filho, Petronio F. de, E-mail: athayde-filho@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Jorge G.F.; Menezes, Camilla P. de; Santos, Jessyca M.C.G. dos; Lima, Edeltrudes de O. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-01-15

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  14. Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. d'Azevedo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production by Klebsiella sp. and E. coli is an emerging problem. In this study, 107 clinical isolates (53 E. coli, 47 K. pneumoniae and 7 K. oxytoca screened as ESBL producers by the NCCLS disk diffusion procedure were submitted to a double disk confirmatory test (DDT and to the E-test double strip for confirmation of ESBL production by demonstration of clavulanic acid inhibition effect (CAIE. Only 72/107 (67% of the isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDT, with diverse results among species. By the E-test, 58/107 (54% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, and 18/107 (17% were not determinable. Susceptibility to cefoxitin was found in 57/68 (83% of strains that did not show CAIE. ESBL detection remains a controversial issue and clinical laboratories are in need of a simple and effective way to recognize strains with this kind of resistance.

  15. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  16. Comparison of TaqMan® Array Card and MYCOTB™ with conventional phenotypic susceptibility testing in MDR-TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foongladda, S.; Banu, S.; Pholwat, S.; Gratz, J.; O-Thong, S.; Nakkerd, N.; Chinli, R.; Ferdous, S. S.; Rahman, S. M. M.; Rahman, A.; Ahmed, S.; Heysell, S.; Sariko, M.; Kibiki, G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Although phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) is endorsed as the standard for second-line drug testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is slow and laborious. METHODS: We evaluated the accuracy of two faster, easier methodologies that provide results for multiple drugs: a genotypic TaqMan® Array Card (TAC) and the Sensititre® MYCOTB™ plate. Both methods were tested at three central laboratories in Bangladesh, Tanzania, and Thailand with 212 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates and compared with the laboratories' phenotypic method in use. RESULTS: The overall accuracy for ethambutol, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin vs. the phenotypic standard was 87% for TAC (range 70–99) and 88% for the MYCOTB plate (range 76–98). To adjudicate discordances, we re-defined the standard as the consensus of the three methods, against which the TAC and MYCOTB plate yielded 94–95% accuracy, while the phenotypic result yielded 93%. Some isolates with genotypic mutations and high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were phenotypically susceptible, and some isolates without mutations and low MIC were phenotypically resistant, questioning the phenotypic standard. CONCLUSIONS: In our view, the TAC, the MYCOTB plate, and the conventional phenotypic method have similar performance for second-line drugs; however, the former methods offer speed, throughput, and quantitative DST information. PMID:27393547

  17. Recent advances in antifungal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrikkos, George; Skiada, Anna

    2007-08-01

    For over 50 years, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBD) has been the 'gold standard' in antifungal chemotherapy, despite its frequent toxicities. However, improved treatment options for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have been developed during the last 15 years. Newer antifungal agents, including less toxic lipid preparations of AmBD, triazoles and the echinocandins, have been added to our armamentarium against IFIs. Some of these newer drugs can now replace AmBD as primary therapy (e.g. caspofungin for candidiasis, voriconazole for aspergillosis), whilst others offer new therapeutic options for difficult-to-treat IFIs (e.g. posaconazole for zygomycosis, fusariosis and chromoblastomycosis). It is interesting that extended use of newer antifungals such as fluconazole, despite decreasing the mortality attributed to candidiasis, resulted in selection of species resistant to several antifungals (Candida krusei, Candida glabrata); whilst several publications suggest that prolonged use of voriconazole may expose severely immunocompromised patients to the risk of zygomycosis (breakthrough). On the other hand, the differences in the mode of action of newer antifungals such as echinocandins raise the question whether combination antifungal therapy is more effective than monotherapy. Finally, the availability of an oral formulation with excellent biosafety of several newer antifungals (e.g. posaconazole) makes them candidates for prophylactic or prolonged maintenance therapy. PMID:17524625

  18. Yeasts from the oral cavity of children with AIDS: exoenzyme production and antifungal resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Vera Lúcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral fungal microbiota of 30 children with AIDS, of both genders, aged from two to six years, receiving outpatient treatment, was evaluated and compared with that of a control group composed of 30 healthy subjects with matching ages and genders. Virulence factors, such as exoenzyme production, and susceptibility to five antifungal agents using an E-Test kit were evaluated. C. albicans predominated over other species in the AIDS group, showing a higher production of proteinase and phospholipase when compared with that observed in the control group. In this study few clinical manifestations of and low selectivity for C. albicans (23.3% were observed in the AIDS group. The enzymatic studies showed that 53.8% of the AIDS strains were strongly positive whereas only 33.3% of the non-AIDS strains were positive. Amphotericin B was the most effective drug among the antifungal agents tested against C. albicans. The frequency, selectivity and level of exoenzyme production by C. albicans suggest a higher pathogenicity in the AIDS children than in the control children.

  19. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem;

    2015-01-01

    testing of E. coli, Flexicult Vet B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to......BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro...... and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of...

  20. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Gupta; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antif...

  1. Resistance to antifungals that target CYP51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Josie E; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Price, Claire L; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Fungal diseases are an increasing global burden. Fungi are now recognised to kill more people annually than malaria, whilst in agriculture, fungi threaten crop yields and food security. Azole resistance, mediated by several mechanisms including point mutations in the target enzyme (CYP51), is increasing through selection pressure as a result of widespread use of triazole fungicides in agriculture and triazole antifungal drugs in the clinic. Mutations similar to those seen in clinical isolates as long ago as the 1990s in Candida albicans and later in Aspergillus fumigatus have been identified in agriculturally important fungal species and also wider combinations of point mutations. Recently, evidence that mutations originate in the field and now appear in clinical infections has been suggested. This situation is likely to increase in prevalence as triazole fungicide use continues to rise. Here, we review the progress made in understanding azole resistance found amongst clinically and agriculturally important fungal species focussing on resistance mechanisms associated with CYP51. Biochemical characterisation of wild-type and mutant CYP51 enzymes through ligand binding studies and azole IC50 determinations is an important tool for understanding azole susceptibility and can be used in conjunction with microbiological methods (MIC50 values), molecular biological studies (site-directed mutagenesis) and protein modelling studies to inform future antifungal development with increased specificity for the target enzyme over the host homologue. PMID:25320648

  2. Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Inherited Susceptibility to Cancer: Comparing Breast and Ovarian Cancers to Colon Cancers: Patents and Licensing for Breast, Ovarian and Colon Cancer Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; DeRienzo, Christopher; Carbone, Julia; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Conover, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer can be compared to similar testing for colorectal cancer as a “natural experiment.” Inherited susceptibility accounts for a similar fraction of both cancers and genetic testing results guide decisions about options for prophylactic surgery in both sets of conditions. One major difference is that in the United States, Myriad Genetics is the sole provider of genetic testing, because it has sole control of relevant patents...

  3. Irradiation Programs and Test Plans to Assess High-Fluence Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teysseyre, Sebastien [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    . Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a known issue in current reactors. In a 60 year lifetime, reactor core internals may experience fluence levels up to 15 dpa for boiling water reactors (BWR) and 100+ dpa for pressurized water reactors (PWR). To support a safe operation of our fleet of reactors and maintain their economic viability it is important to be able to predict any evolution of material behaviors as reactors age and therefore fluence accumulated by reactor core component increases. For PWR reactors, the difficulty to predict high fluence behavior comes from the fact that there is not a consensus of the mechanism of IASCC and that little data is available. It is however possible to use the current state of knowledge on the evolution of irradiated microstructure and on the processes that influences IASCC to emit hypotheses. This report identifies several potential changes in microstructure and proposes to identify their potential impact of IASCC. The susceptibility of a component to high fluence IASCC is considered to not only depends on the intrinsic IASCC susceptibility of the component due to radiation effects on the material but to also be related to the evolution of the loading history of the material and interaction with the environment as total fluence increases. Single variation type experiments are proposed to be performed with materials that are representative of PWR condition and with materials irradiated in other conditions. To address the lack of IASCC propagation and initiation data generated with material irradiated in PWR condition, it is proposed to investigate the effect of spectrum and flux rate on the evolution of microstructure. A long term irradiation, aimed to generate a well-controlled irradiation history on a set on selected materials is also proposed for consideration. For BWR, the study of available data permitted to identify an area of concern for long term performance of component. The efficiency of

  4. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; Ascacio-Valdés; Edgardo; Burboa; Antonio; F; Aguilera-Carbo; Mario; Aparicio; Ramón; Pérez-Schmidt; Raúl; Rodríguez; Cristóbal; N; Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica(E.antisyphilitica)Zucc in the wax extraction process.Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16,until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder.An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography(Q XL)and gel permeation chromatography(G 25).The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated(TGA and DTA)to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid(monomeric unit).Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and.also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion.Results:The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined,the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol;and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated.Conclusions:It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin(860.7 g/mol)isolated from E.antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata,Fusarium oxyzporum,Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  5. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  6. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Ascacio-Valds; Edgardo Burboa; Antonio F Aguilera-Carbo; Mario Aparicio; Ramn Prez-Schmidt; Ral Rodrguez; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results: The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  7. Comparison of the serum-supplemented Todd-Hewitt and the new Haemophilus test media for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, M; Lapointe, J R

    1996-06-01

    Horse serum-supplemented Todd-Hewitt broth (STH) in use at Hôpital Ste-Justine for the last 12 years was compared to the recently proposed Haemophilus test medium (HTM), for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. One hundred and twenty S. pneumoniae isolates from pediatric clinical specimens were used in this study. In general, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in STH for 15 antimicrobial agents were quite comparable to those determined in HTM but tended to be higher. Drugs which generated MICs within +/- 1 log2 concentration differences in both media included penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Cefaclor and tetracycline MICs tended to be > or = 2 log2 dilutions higher with STH for most of the isolates tested, while erythromycin MICs were often 2 log2 dilutions lower with STH than with HTM. Despite some differences in MICs noted above, few very major (0.4%), major (0.2%) and minor interpretive category errors (4.4%) were observed. The visual reading of the MICs for most of the 120 clinical isolates tested was generally easier in STH which was superior in supporting best the bacterial growth as detected by spectrophotometry. The risk of false susceptibility is thus decreased by using STH rather than HTM; furthermore, STH is free of the technical problems of the lysed horse blood Mueller-Hinton (LHB-MH) recommended by the NCCLS. PMID:8808713

  8. Oblique Y-groove cracking test of the welding cold cracking susceptibility of domestic X-70 pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽萍; 杜则裕; 李云涛; 李九生

    2002-01-01

    "Gas Transmitting From West to East Project" is significant. It should ensure the welding quality and safety of pipeline. The task is very arduous to guarantee the quality of the project in the condition of long line, complex weather and geology features. In this paper, the welding cold cracking susceptibility of domestic X-70 pipeline steel adopted by the project, which is one of the most interesting questions of welding quality about petrol pipeline, was studied by means of oblique Y-groove cracking test. The crack ratio of surface and section was tested under the conditions of different welding materials and preheat temperature .The X-70 pipeline steel has good crack resistance. The research has important value for the construction of large-scale pipeline engineering and the application of domestic X-70 pipeline steel.

  9. Multilaboratory evaluation of an agar diffusion disk susceptibility test for rapidly growing anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, A L; Fuchs, P C; Gerlach, E H; Allen, S D; Acar, J F; Aldridge, K E; Bourgault, A M; Grimm, H; Hall, G S; Heizmann, W

    1990-01-01

    A multilaboratory collaborative study was undertaken to determine whether the anaerobic disk diffusion test of Horn et al. could be performed reproducibly and accurately. Tests with nine different antimicrobial disks were evaluated. Reproducibility of the agar diffusion disk method was similar to that of the reference agar dilution test procedure. The anaerobic disk diffusion procedure was found to be a potentially useful method for testing some antimicrobial agents against rapidly growing anaerobes belonging to the Bacteroides fragilis group. These promising results warrant further investigations and validations. PMID:2406872

  10. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in t...

  11. Revisiting the susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to ethionamide in solid culture medium

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopalan Lakshmi; Ranjani Ramachandran; D Ravi Kumar; A Syam Sundar; Radhika, G.; Fathima Rahman; N Selvakumar; Vanaja Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Increase in the isolation of drug resistant phenotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis necessitates accuracy in the testing methodology. Critical concentration defining resistance for ethionamide (ETO), needs re-evaluation in accordance with the current scenario. Thus, re-evaluation of conventional minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and proportion sensitivity testing (PST) methods for ETO was done to identify the ideal breakpoint concentration defining resistance. ...

  12. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-12-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  13. Standard test method for exfoliation corrosion susceptibility in 2XXX and 7XXX Series Aluminum Alloys (EXCO Test)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for constant immersion exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) testing of high-strength 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloys. Note 1—This test method was originally developed for research and development purposes; however, it is referenced, in specific material specifications, as applicable for evaluating production material (refer to Section 14 on Precision and Bias). 1.2 This test method applies to all wrought products such as sheet, plate, extrusions, and forgings produced from conventional ingot metallurgy process. 1.3 This test method can be used with any form of specimen or part that can be immersed in the test solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. State of the art report on the materials testing capabilities for IASCC susceptibility testing at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the current IASCC testing facilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN is given. The testing techniques are reviewed, and their capabilities as well as their limitations are discussed. Possible future developments in testing techniques are discussed. IASCC is caused by a complex interaction between materials, its environment and mechanical stresses. Characterisation techniques assessing mechanical stresses as well as electrochemical and microstructural characteristics are reported on

  15. State of the art report on the materials testing capabilities for IASCC susceptibility testing at SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.-W.; Boydens, P.; Vankeerbergen, R.; Van Nieuwenhove, R.; Van Dyck, S

    1999-08-01

    An overview of the current IASCC testing facilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN is given. The testing techniques are reviewed, and their capabilities as well as their limitations are discussed. Possible future developments in testing techniques are discussed. IASCC is caused by a complex interaction between materials, its environment and mechanical stresses. Characterisation techniques assessing mechanical stresses as well as electrochemical and microstructural characteristics are reported on.

  16. Novel triazole alcohol antifungals derived from fluconazole: design, synthesis, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Badali, Hamid; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Samadi, Nasrin; Afsarian, Mohammad Hosein; Irannejad, Hamid; Emami, Saeed

    2015-02-01

    A series of new triazole alcohol antifungals were designed by replacing one of the triazolyl moiety from fluconazole with a distinct 4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole motif, which is found in some antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of target compounds demonstrated that the direct analogs of fluconazole (difluorophenethyl-triazoles) were less active against fungi, while compound 10h containing dichloro substitutions on both phenyl rings of the molecule had potent activity against yeasts including Candida albicans (four strains) and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs = 2-8 μg/mL). Also, compound 10h was active against Candida parapsilosis, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, while it showed no activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, a molecular docking study suggested that compound 10h interacts suitably with lanosterol 14α-demethylase, which is the key enzyme in ergosterol biosynthesis. PMID:25182365

  17. Antifungal activities of the leaves of three Pistacia species grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, S; Cakir, A; Zengin, H; Duru, M E

    2003-02-01

    The crude extracts obtained from the leaves of Pistacia vera, Pistacia terebinthus and Pistacia lentiscus were tested for antifungal activities against three pathogenic agricultural fungi, Phythium ultimum, Rhizoctania solani and Fusarium sambucinum. The extracts significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum and R. solani. However, the antifungal activity was not observed against F. sambucinum. PMID:12628416

  18. Antifungal Activity of Flocculosin, a Novel Glycolipid Isolated from Pseudozyma flocculosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mimee, Benjamin; Labbé, Caroline; Pelletier, René; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2005-01-01

    Flocculosin, a glycolipid isolated from the yeast-like fungus Pseudozyma flocculosa, was investigated for in vitro antifungal activity. The compound displayed antifungal properties against several pathogenic yeasts. Synergistic activity was observed between flocculosin and amphotericin B, and no significant cytotoxicity was demonstrated when tested against human cell lines.

  19. Synthesis of quarternary ammonium salts with dithiocarbamate moiety and their antifungal activities against Helminthosporium oryzae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandeep Singh; Anita Garg; Anjali Sidhu; Vineet Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts containing dithiocarbamate moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against Helminthosporium oryzae. All the synthesized compounds showed moderate to promising fungitoxicity against the test. Some of the synthesized compounds inflicted antifungal activity greater than the standard fungicide.

  20. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  1. Synthesis, Antimycobacterial, Antifungal and Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Activity of Chlorinated N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of sixteen pyrazinamide analogues with the -CONH- linker connecting the pyrazine and benzene rings was synthesized by the condensation of chlorides of substituted pyrazinecarboxylic acids with ring-substituted (chlorine anilines. The prepared compounds were characterized and evaluated for their antimycobacterial and antifungal activity, and for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET. 6-Chloro-N-(4-chlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide manifested the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv (65% inhibition at 6.25 μg/mL. The highest antifungal effect against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for 6-chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (MIC = 62.5 μmol/L. 6-Chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(4-chlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide showed the highest PET inhibition in spinach chloroplasts (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts (IC50 = 43.0 μmol/L. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds as well as their structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  2. Posaconazole/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin host-guest system: Improving dissolution while maintaining antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peixiao; Ma, Xiaoli; Wu, Di; Li, Shanshan; Xu, Kailin; Tang, Bin; Li, Hui

    2016-05-20

    This study aimed to prepare and characterize the inclusion complex between posaconazole (POS) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). Phase solubility study was conducted to investigate the drug/CD interaction in solution, including the stoichiometry and apparent stability constant. The solid complex (HP-β-CD-POS) obtained was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, (1)H and ROESY 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. These approaches confirmed the formation of the inclusion complex. The HP-β-CD-POS inclusion complex exhibited better water solubility and higher dissolution rate than the free POS did; the water solubility of POS was increased by 82 times and almost 90% of the loaded drug dissolved after 10min in the dissolution media. In addition, preliminary in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that HP-β-CD-POS maintains a high level of antifungal activities. Therefore, the HP-β-CD complex may be useful in the delivery of posaconazole. PMID:26917368

  3. Studies on antimicrobial and antifungal activities of ziziphus mauritiana human clinical bacterial and fungal pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of crude extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves were investigated against six selected bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one fungal pathogen (Aspel-gillus niger). The crude extract was further fractionated in butanol, choloroform, n-hexane and methanol. Agar well diffusion and agar dilution assay were employed for determination of zones of inhibition and MICs, respectively, whereas MBC was determined using broth dilution test. The butanol fraction presented encouraging antimicrobial activity (15.0%0.02), while methanol (7.03:1:0.05) and chloroform (7.0%0,05) fractions emerged with significantly low susceptibility. The n-hexane fraction was recorded as almost inactive (0%0) against all bacterial pathogens. Unlike the antibacterial activities, all fractions possessed momentous antifungal activities except the methanol fraction (0%0). The n-hexane fraction showed widest zone of inhibition (11:1:0.05) followed by butanol (8.0%0.02) and chloroform (7.0%0.02). (author)

  4. Variations in phenolics, antioxidant and antifungal activities among different parts of selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracts, produced by 80% methanol, from leaf, bark and seed of three medicinal plants namely neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), kiker (Acacia nilotica L.) and jaman (Eugenia jambolana L.), were assessed for their total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant and antifungal activities. Appreciable quantities of TP and TF, ranging from 24.43-176.16 mg GAE/g DW and 16.33 to 41.92 mg CE/g DW, respectively, were established in different parts of the selected plants. Antiradical potential evaluated in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 34.02 to 71.54%, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, 60.16 to 76.53% while reducing power (2.5 to 10 mg/mL concentration) 0.55 to1.49. Antifungal activity of the extracts was examined against two fungal strains viz. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using disc diffusion method and micro dilution broth susceptible assay. Among the three medicinal plants selected, the crude extract from neem leaves was found to be the most potent against the tested fungal strains as well as exhibited greater antioxidant activity (p<0.05). (author)

  5. Phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, and antifungal assessment of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Perviz, Samreen

    2016-05-01

    The current study was designed to assess the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum (PA) and its various subsequent solvent fractions using agar well diffusion, agar tube dilution, and microdilution methods. Phytochemical analysis showed positive for different chemical groups and also contained marked quantity of saponin and flavonoid contents. Significant antibacterial activity was observed against various tested pathogenic bacteria. The only susceptible Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) measured ranged from 11-50 µg/ml. The sensitive Gram-negative bacteria were Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexeneri The estimated MICs were in the range of 2-7 µg/ml and 8-50 µg/ml for S. typhi and S. flexeneri, respectively. However, the antifungal activity of the plant was limited to Microsporum canis and their MICs ranged from 60 to 250 µg/ml. Our study confirmed significant antibacterial potential of the plant and substantiated its folk use in dysentery and pyrexia of multiple origins. PMID:24311628

  6. Revisiting the susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to ethionamide in solid culture medium

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi, Rajagopalan; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Kumar, D. Ravi; Sundar, A. Syam; Radhika, G.; Rahman, Fathima; N Selvakumar; Kumar, Vanaja

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Increase in the isolation of drug resistant phenotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis necessitates accuracy in the testing methodology. Critical concentration defining resistance for ethionamide (ETO), needs re-evaluation in accordance with the current scenario. Thus, re-evaluation of conventional minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and proportion sensitivity testing (PST) methods for ETO was done to identify the ideal breakpoint concentration defining resistance. M...

  7. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  9. Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses--in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirami, C P; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V

    2005-01-01

    Mouthrinses are nowadays routinely included in the home care oral hygiene maintenance besides dentifrice/tooth paste. Mouthrinses prevent bacterial attachment and prevent or slow down bacterial proliferation. Fungal organisms have now gained more importance due to increased incidence of AIDS/HIV. This has necessitated for mouthrinses to possess antifungal activity also. The mouthrinses used were Povidone iodine ( Wokadine), Thymol with Eucalyptol and Benzoic acid (Listerine) and fluoride with Triclosan (Colgate Plax), which were tested against oral isolates of different species of Candida. The agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mouthrinses and all of them exhibited antifungal activity especially against Candida albicans. PMID:16758789

  10. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from oral mucosa of patients with cancer Suscetibilidade de Candida albicans a antifúngicos: cepas isoladas da mucosa bucal de pacientes com câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino João da COSTA

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of oral infections due to opportunistic fungi in immunocompromised patients, needs a new evaluation of the drugs in use. The susceptibility in vitro of Candida albicans strains from the oral mucosa of cancer patients to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were evaluated. A dilution technique in YNB agar or subculture on Sabouraud agar was utilised for MIC or MFC determinations. With this methodology, the best fungicidal drug for C.albicans collected from the oral mucosa of 40 cancer patients, divided in two groups: one treated by radiotherapy and the other not, the best results were obtained with amphotericin B, presenting low values of MIC compared to azoles and MFC values. However it is important to take into consideration the utilisation in vivo of this polyenic antibiotic and the possible toxic levels necessary to achieve good results. The coexistence of other fungi and the local conditions must also be pondered with these patients, who are mostly undergoing radiotherapy. In order to achieve better results without undesirable consequences, higher levels of MIC are expected with the daily clinical use of new drugs.O crescente número de infecções fúngicas bucais em pacientes imunocomprometidos tem estimulado a pesquisa de drogas mais eficientes. Procuramos, assim, avaliar a suscetibilidade in vitro de cepas de Candida albicans de pacientes com câncer submetidos ou não a radioterapia frente às seguintes drogas: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, miconazol e itraconazol. A técnica de diluição em ágar YNB e o subcultivo em AS foram respectivamente utilizados para determinação da CIM (Concentração Inibitória Mínima e da CFM (Concentração Fungicida Mínima. Com esta metodologia, a droga que mostrou melhor atividade antifúngica para cepas de C. albicans isoladas de qualquer dos grupos de pacientes foi a anfotericina B, apresentando baixos valores de CIM em comparação aos az

  11. The implications of endemic IMP-4 carbapenemase for clinical laboratory susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goire, Namraj; Harnett, Gerald B; O'Reilly, Lyn C; Ingram, Paul R; Leung, Michael J; Speers, Davild J; Healy, Paul E; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2016-05-01

    A local predominance of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae with low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to meropenem prompted a review of methods available for carbapenemase detection. We report on results using two selective media, temocillin discs, CarbaNP test, GeneXpert Carba-R assay and an in-house PCR assay. PMID:26945518

  12. Standard test method for determining susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of 2XXX and 7XXX Aluminum alloy products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for characterizing the resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of high-strength aluminum alloy wrought products for the guidance of those who perform stress-corrosion tests, for those who prepare stress-corrosion specifications, and for materials engineers. 1.2 This test method covers method of sampling, type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure for determining the susceptibility to SCC of 2XXX (with 1.8 to 7.0 % copper) and 7XXX (with 0.4 to 2.8 % copper) aluminum alloy products, particularly when stressed in the short-transverse direction relative to the grain structure. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are provided for information. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and de...

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Michigan White-Tailed Deer during the 2009 Hunting Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Fitzgerald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic Mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. Worldwide, organisms within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR strains of human tuberculosis. Michigan's Bovine Tuberculosis Working Group has conducted active antimicrobial susceptibility testing on wildlife isolates of the endemic M. bovis organism at five-year intervals to detect any emerging drug resistance patterns. The results of 33 white-tailed deer origin isolates collected from the 2009 hunting season are reported here. There continues to be no evidence of any drug resistance except for pyrazinamide resistance. These results are likely due to the lack of antibacterial treatment applied to either wildlife or domestic animals which would provide selection pressure for the development of drug resistance.

  14. In vitro activity and selection of disk content for disk diffusion susceptibility tests with trovafloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, P C; Barry, A L; Brown, S D; Sewell, D L

    1996-08-01

    The activity of the new fluoroquinolone trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) was compared with that of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against 517 bacterial isolates representing 50 different species. Against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, all three drugs showed good in vitro activity. Against most anaerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus species, trovafloxacin was four- to sixteenfold more active than ciprofloxacin. For disk diffusion testing, 10 micrograms trovafloxacin disks gave satisfactory results. Tentative criteria are proposed for use during clinical studies. PMID:8894580

  15. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased

  16. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  17. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    significant proportion of the patients initially received inappropriate antifungal treatment and that the outcome was significantly improved when patients with C. glabrata received caspofungin as their first line agent. This has today been incorporated in the Danish and international treatment guidelines. The prevalence of acquired antifungal resistance remained very low throughout the study period, however, we may only have detected the tip of the resistance iceberg due to the study design, where for epidemiological purposes only the initial isolate was included with the lowest antifungal exposure, and as the susceptibility tests and breakpoints were not optimal for the detection of resistance at all centres. Most Danish laboratories either do not susceptibility test or use commercial tests such as the Etest and later the VITEK system. These are FDA approved with the CLSI breakpoints which, as we have shown, have been far too high to reliably detect resistance and which despite having now been revised and harmonised are not yet in formal CLSI print and hence not incorporated in the product inserts for the commercial tests on the market. Finally, even for laboratories aware of these issues challenges are still ahead as the official breakpoints not always lead to a correct classification for MIC endpoints obtained using the commercial systems or as the commercial tests do not include a relevant concentration range for all drug bug combinations. I thus believe, the studies included in this thesis have contributed significantly to the understanding of the interplay between the Candida virulence, epidemiology and susceptibility and the importance of appropriate diagnostics and treatment choice. It is my hope that we thereby have contributed to the improved options and outcome for patients with candidaemia. PMID:24192246

  18. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  19. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja; Sosnovskaja, Anaida; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates for...... isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. Fifty-seven of the isolates were tested for pyrazinamide. Results were compared to those of radiometric BACTEC 460 system and discrepancies were resolved by the agar proportion method. We found an overall agreement of 99.0% for isoniazid, 99.5% for rifampin, 98.2% for...... ethambutol, and 100% for pyrazinamide. After resolution of discrepancies, MGIT yielded no false susceptibility for rifampin and isoniazid. Although turnaround times were comparable, MGIT provides an advantage as inoculation can be done on any weekday as the growth is monitored automatically. The automated...

  20. WHO global salm-surv external quality assurance system (EQAS): an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Angulo, F. J.; Wong, S.; Stohr, K.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2002-01-01

    susceptibility testing through international training courses and an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS). In 2000, 44 WHO Global Salm-Surv member laboratories from 35 countries determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for eight "blinded" Salmonella isolates. For serotyping, 73% of...... the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 92% of the results were in agreement with the expected results. However, only 78% of the performed tests with the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain were within the quality control range specified by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory...... Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. These EQAS results demonstrate the need for further training to improve the performance of some of the laboratories. WHO Global Salm-Surv activities, including international training courses and EQAS, represent an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella...

  1. Antifungal therapy with an emphasis on biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Christopher G.; Srinivasan, Anand; Uppuluri, Priya; Anand K. Ramasubramanian; López-Ribot, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections are on the rise as advances in modern medicine prolong the lives of severely ill patients. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and there are a limited number of targets for antifungal drug development; as a result the antifungal arsenal is exceedingly limited. Azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, constitute the mainstay of antifungal therapy for patients with life-threatening mycoses. One of the main factors complicating antifungal therapy is the formation of fungal biofilms, micr...

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): identification and susceptibility testing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygaert, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    Many traditional techniques are useful for identification of MRSA strains, including techniques for detection of penicillin-resistance, such as the nitrocefin disk. Techniques for assessing methicillin-resistance vary from growth on special media or at a lower temperature, to detection of the mecA gene by manual (latex agglutination) and automated (PCR) methods. Technique development is now geared toward making MRSA identification more rapid. Real-time PCR has sped MRSA detection, but can be costly. Resistance to other drugs is also an issue. Clindamycin resistance may need to be induced, so a special disk diffusion test can be performed. Vancomycin resistance is becoming an issue, so alternative drugs need to be identified. Drugs that are currently available for MRSA infections include: daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and tigecycline. Drugs that are in the development phase include: ceftobiprole, dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin. These drugs provide a promising arsenal against MRSA. PMID:19534447

  3. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  4. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES PROUCED BY PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. GADE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens obtained from citrus rhizosphere were tested for antifungal activityagainst Phytophthora spp. P. fluorescens isolate Pf20 was found efficient in inhibiting the mycelial growth upto38.88%. The antifungal compounds were extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate and were tentativelyidentified on thin layer chromatography (TLC at Rf 0.28. The antifungal compounds extracted from P. fluorescensat 5% were found inhibitory to the growth of Rhizoctonia solani (42.79%, Phytophthora parasitica (28.57%,P. palmivora (25.98% and Fusarium solani (20.45%. In case of HPTLC analysis the characteristic colour andfluorescent band after derivatization with anisaldehyde reagent proved the presence of secondary metabolites incrude extract.

  5. A stepwise procedure to test contractility and susceptibility to injury for the rodent quadriceps muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J.P. Pratt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies.  Biological markers can also be used in measuring muscle injury, such as increased creatine kinase levels in the blood, but these are not always correlated with loss in muscle function (i.e. loss of force production.  This is even true of histological findings from animals, which provide a “direct measure” of damage, but do not account for loss of function.  The most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force.  To date, animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle.  Here we describe an in vivo animal model for the quadriceps, with abilities to measure torque, produce a reliable muscle injury, and follow muscle recovery within the same animal over time.  We also describe a second model used for direct measurement of force from an isolated quadriceps muscle in situ. 

  6. Cell-on-hydrogel platform made of agar and alginate for rapid, low-cost, multidimensional test of antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han; Liu, Zhengzhi; Hu, Chong; Ren, Kangning

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a rapidly increasing threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The two major remedies include: (1) using narrow-spectrum antibiotics based on rapid diagnosis; and (2) developing new antibiotics. A key part of both remedies is the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST). However, the current standard ASTs that monitor colony formation are costly and time-consuming and the new strategies proposed are not yet practical to be implemented. Herein, we report a strategy to fabricate whole-hydrogel microfluidic chips using alginate-doped agar. This agar-based microfabrication makes it possible to prepare inexpensive hydrogel devices, and allows a seamless link between microfluidics and conventional agar-based cell culture. Different from common microfluidic systems, in our system the cells are cultured on top of the device, similar to normal agar plate culture; on the other hand, the microfluidic channels inside the hydrogel allow precise generation of linear gradient of drugs, thus giving a better performance than the conventional disk diffusion method. Cells in this system are not exposed to any shear flow, which allows the reliable tracking of individual cells and AST results to be obtained within 2-3 hours. Furthermore, our system could test the synergistic effect of drugs through two-dimensional gradient generation. Finally, the platform could be directly implemented to new drug discovery and other applications wherein a fast, cost-efficient method for studying the response of microorganisms upon drug administration is desirable. PMID:27452345

  7. Inhibition of postharvest penicillium molds of oranges by antifungal hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite films and coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia A. Valencia-Chamorro; Pérez-Gago, María B.; del Río, Miguel A.; Palou, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible composite films and coatings containing low-toxicity chemicals with antifungal properties were developed. Tested antifungal chemicals were mainly salts of organic acids, salts of parabens, and other compounds, most of them classified as food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Stand-alone edible films were used for in vitro evaluation of their antifungal activity against the pathogens Penicillium digitat...

  8. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin: killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates Teste de suscetibilidade de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa orofaringeana de pacientes HIV+, ao fluconazol, anfotericcina B e caspofungina: cinética de morte de caspofungina e anfotericina B contra isolados fluconazol resistentes e suscetíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine de Aquino Lemos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing patterns obtained with caspofungin and amphotericin B against susceptible and resistant strains to fluconazole were determined. The results of MICs showed that all C. albicans isolates were highly susceptible to amphotericin B, but two isolates were fluconazole resistant. The comparative analysis between MIC and MFC showed that MFC of fluconazole was fourfold higher than MIC in 41.9% of the C. albicans isolates. Same values of MFC and MIC of amphotericin B and caspofungin were found for 71% of the isolates. Correlation between time kill curves and MFC of amphotericin B and caspofungin against all 4 isolates tested was observed. The caspofungin killing effect was more evident at MFC in 6 hours of incubation than at MIC in this time, suggesting dependence of concentration. The similarity of results of time-kill curve and MFC values indicate that determination of MFC is an alternative for the detection of the fungicidal activity of these drugs.Um claro entendimento das propriedades farmacodinâmicas dos agentes antifúngicos é de grande importância para o adequado tratamento das infecções fúngicas como a candidíase. Em alguns casos de escolha do agente antifúngico, a determinação da concentração fungicida minima (CFM e a curva do tempo de morte podem ser mais clinicamente relevantes do que a concentração inibitória minima (CIM. Nesse estudo, foi avaliado a CIM e a CFM de fluconazol, anfotericina B e caspofungina em Candida albicans e ainda os padrões de

  9. Species distribution and drug susceptibility of candida in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre at Indore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01 kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (60 year patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU patients as compared to out patient department (OPD patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.

  10. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used.

  11. The identification of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients with PCR and determination of antifungal resistance genes with RFLP and sequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yeğenoğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate PCRtechnique and antifungal resistance genes with RFLP andsequencing analysis in Candida species isolated fromclinical specimens of immune-compromised patients.Materials and methods: Clinical samples (96 bronchoalveolarlavages, 56 biopsy-abscess, 8 blood specimens,15 peritoneal fluid specimens, 15 pleural fluid, 5 cerebrospinalfluid and 5 pericard fluid specimens from 200 immunosuppressedpatients were studied by conventionaland molecular methods. Antifungal susceptibility testingwas performed by the E-test method. Firstly, fungal DNAwas isolated from specimens, and then the resultantproducts are defined with multiplex PCR. Antifungal resistanceand resistance genes were established by E-testand RFLP analysis.Results: Thirty of 200 samples (15% were culture positive[20 Candida albicans (67%, five Candida parapsilosis(17%, five Candida tropicalis (17%], and 170 ofsamples were found culture negative (85%. PCR with theuniversal primers detected fungal DNA in all 30 culturepositive samples. One strain was determined as resistant;2 strains were dose dependent susceptible and 27 strainswere sensitive to fluconazole by E-test. The resistancegene (ERG11 was detected by BamHI and SalI enzymesrevealed fluconazole resistance in one of C.albicansstrains. The identification was successful in Candida dubliniensis(950 bp and Candida krusei (360 bp with multiplexPCR. D132E and E216D mutations were detected insequencing of ERG 11 gene of this isolate and comparedwith reference gene in GenBank by clustal analysis.Conclusion: The molecular test methods supplies correcttherapy rather early in immunosuppressive patientstherefore it is important for the survival.

  12. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Ye, Xiu Juan; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (-)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (-)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the aforementioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The prospects of

  13. Antifungal properties of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against clinically relevant fungal pathogens Atividade Antifúngica de plantas utilizadas na medicina tradicional brasileira contra fungos de relevância clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Johann; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; Cláudio L. Donnici; Maria Aparecida de Resende

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal properties of extracts from eight Brazilian plants traditionally used in popular Brazilian medicine were tested against five clinically relevant Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Sporothrix schenckii. Results demonstrate that almost all extracts exhibited antifungal activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested. The ethanolic extract from the leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius exhibited potential antifungal activity against C. glabrata and S. schenckii. Pr...

  14. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-01-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one ...

  15. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON GROWTH OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven essential oils (clove, rosemary, cinnamon leaf, sage, scots pine, neroli, peppermint, aniseed, caraway, lavander, common thyme were tested for in vitro antifungal activity on twelve plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. avenaceum, Diaporthe helianthi, Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora, Phomopsis longicolla, P. viticola, Helminthosporium sativum, Colletotrichum coccodes, Thanatephorus cucumeris. The results indicated that all oils except scots pine and neroli had antifungal activity against some or all tested fungi. The best antifungal activity had common thyme, cinnamon leaf, clove and aniseed oils. When compared to control, scots pine, neroli and sage oils stimulated mycelium growth of some investigated fungi.

  16. Use of drug-susceptibility testing for management of drug-resistant tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eugene; Nateniyom, Sriprapa; Whitehead, Sara; Anuwatnonthakate, Amornrat; Monkongdee, Patama; Kanphukiew, Apiratee; Inyaphong, Jiraphan; Sitti, Wanlaya; Chiengsorn, Navarat; Moolphate, Saiyud; Kavinum, Suporn; Suriyon, Narin; Limsomboon, Pranom; Danyutapolchai, Junya; Sinthuwattanawibool, Chalinthorn; Podewils, Laura Jean

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, routine use of culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) was implemented for persons in 5 Thailand provinces with a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). To determine if DST results were being used to guide treatment, we conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with rifampin-resistant or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB during 2004-2008. A total of 208 patients were identified. Median time from clinical sample collection to physician review of DST results was 114 days. Only 5.8% of patients with MDR TB were empirically prescribed an appropriate regimen; an additional 31.3% received an appropriate regimen after DST results were reviewed. Most patients with rifampin -resistant or MDR TB had successful treatment outcomes. Patients with HIV co-infection and patients who were unmarried or had received category II treatment before DST results were reviewed had less successful outcomes. Overall, review of available DST results was delayed, and results were rarely used to improve treatment. PMID:24565738

  17. Heteroresistance in Mycobacteria tuberculosis is an important factor for the inconsistency between the results of phenotype and genotype drug susceptibility tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of heteroresistance on the results of genotype drug susceptibility test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis(M.tuberculosis).Methods A total of 80 phenotype ofloxacin-resistant M.tuberculosis isolates obtained from Shanghai Municipal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were included in the study.The mutations of gyrA and gyrB in each isolate

  18. Endocrine disruptive effects in vitro of conazole antifungals used as pesticides and pharmaceutical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Taxvig, Camilla; Nellemann, Christine Lydia;

    2010-01-01

    Widely used conazole antifungals were tested for endocrine disruptive effects using a panel of in vitro assays. They all showed endocrine disrupting potential and ability to act via several different mechanisms. Overall the imidazoles (econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, prochloraz) were more...

  19. A test system to evaluate the susceptibility of Oregon, USA, native stream invertebrataes to triclopyr and carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J L; Jepson, P C; Jenkins, J J

    2001-10-01

    The susceptibility of six indigenous macroinvertebrate species representative of U.S. Pacific Northwest streams (Ameletus sp., Brachycentrus americanus, Calineuria californica, Cinygma sp., Lepidostoma unicolor, Psychoglypha sp. early and late instar) to formulated triclopyr ester (herbicide) and carbaryl (insecticide) was determined using laboratory bioassays. Acute toxicity was expressed as the lethal concentration to 50% (LC50) and 1% (LC1) of the test population based on a 96-h exposure duration. Carbaryl was found to be 1,000 times more toxic than triclopyr for all the organisms tested. The LCI values (7.5, 28.8, 9.0, 3.0, 9.5, 14.8, 33.8 microg/L, respectively, for carbaryl and 1.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.2, 29.0, 16.1 mg/L, respectively, for triclopyr) were used in the calculation of hazardous concentration to 5% of the stream macroinvertebrate community (HC5) based on the lower 95% confidence limit (HC5/95). The hazardous concentration (HC5/95) for triclopyr was 0.11 mg/L and for carbaryl ranged from 0.43 to 0.66 microg/L, respectively. Triclopyr and carbaryl symptomology were analyzed for two organisms, C. californica and Cinygma sp. Carbaryl symptomology included knockdown and moribund states with severity and time of appearance being a function of dose. In triclopyr poisoning, death occurred suddenly with little or no symptomology. Time to 50% mortality (LT50) values were consistently higher for C. californica than for Cinygma sp. exposed to both chemicals at similar concentrations. PMID:11596752

  20. Results of Use of WHO Global Salm-Surv External Quality Assurance System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella Isolates from 2000 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Jensen, Arne Bent;

    2009-01-01

    An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data for surveill......An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data for...... surveillance purposes worldwide. Seven EQAS iterations have been conducted from 2000 to 2007. In each iteration, participating laboratories submitted susceptibility results from 10 to 15 antimicrobial agents for eight Salmonella isolates and an Escherichia coli reference strain (ATCC 25922). A total of 287...... laboratories in 102 countries participated in at least one EQAS iteration. A large number of laboratories reported results for the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain which were outside the quality control ranges. Critical deviations for susceptibility testing of the Salmonella isolates varied from 4% in 2000...

  1. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult® Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    OpenAIRE

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter Panduro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro-pathogens in veterinary practice.METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate...

  2. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of Brucella isolates from Egypt between 1999 and 2007 and evidence of probable rifampin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Maksoud Mohamed; House Brent; Wasfy Momtaz; Abdel-Rahman Bassem; Pimentel Guillermo; Roushdy Gehan; Dueger Erica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Brucellosis poses a significant public health problem in Mediterranean countries, including Egypt. Treatment of this disease is often empirical due to limited information on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella spp. in this region of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella blood isolates in Egypt, a country endemic for brucellosis. Methods Brucella spp. isolates were identified from the blood cultur...

  3. Influence of different susceptibility testing methods and media on determination of the relevant fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations for heavy trailing Candida isolates with low-high phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Sehnaz; Sancak, Banu; Hascelik, Gulsen; Arikan, Sevtap

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the incidence of trailing growth with fluconazole in 101 clinical Candida isolates (49 C. albicans and 52 C. tropicalis) and tried to establish the convenient susceptibility testing method and medium for fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were determined by CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest methods on RPMI-1640 agar supplemented with 2% glucose (RPG) and on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% glucose and 0.5 μg ml(-1) methylene blue (GMB). BMD and Etest MICs were read at 24 and 48 h, and susceptibility categories were compared. All isolates were determined as susceptible with BMD, Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB at 24 h. While all isolates were interpreted as susceptible at 48 h on Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB, one C. albicans isolate was interpreted as susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and two C. tropicalis isolates were interpreted as resistant with BMD. On Etest-RPG, trailing growth caused widespread microcolonies within the inhibition zone and resulted in confusion in MIC determination. On Etest-GMB, because of the nearly absence of microcolonies within the zone of inhibition, MICs were evaluated more easily. We conclude that, for the determination of fluconazole MICs of trailing Candida isolates, the Etest method has an advantage over BMD and can be used along with this reference method. Moreover, GMB appears more beneficial than RPG for the fluconazole Etest. PMID:19563491

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm2), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in SMIC

  5. Susceptibility profile and epidemiological cut-off values of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Maria G; Szusz, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Altamirano, Rodrigo; Davel, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution have been recently proposed for some antifungal drug/Cryptococcus neoformans combinations. However, these ECVs vary according to the species studied, being serotypes and the geographical origin of strains, variables to be considered. The aims were to define the wild-type (WT) population of the C. neoformans species complex (C. neoformans) isolated from patients living in Argentina, and to propose ECVs for six antifungal drugs. A total of 707 unique C. neoformans isolates obtained from HIV patients suffering cryptococcal meningitis were studied. The MIC of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole was determined according to the EDef 7.2 (EUCAST) reference document. The MIC distribution, MIC50 , MIC90 and ECV for each of these drugs were calculated. The highest ECV, which included ≥95% of the WT population modelled, was observed for flucytosine and fluconazole (32 μg ml(-1) each). For amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, the ECVs were: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.06 μg ml(-1) respectively. The ECVs determined in this study may aid in identifying the C. neoformans strains circulating in Argentina with decreased susceptibility to the antifungal drugs tested. PMID:26865081

  6. Anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni extracts against Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Barani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in anti-fungal testing. Anti-fungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by agar culture and applied broth dilution test. Results: M. citrifolia extract at 1000 μg/ml concentration effectively inhibited the growth of C. albicans (16.6 ± 0.3 compared with the positive control - amphotericin B (20.6 ± 0.6. It was found to be a dose-dependent reaction. Conclusion: M. citrifolia fruit extract had an anti-fungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration.

  7. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  8. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive aspergillosis according to primary disease - review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayr A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aspergilli, less susceptible to antifungals emerge and resistance to azoles have been found mainly in Aspergillus fumigatus; this has launched a new phase in handling aspergillosis. Resistant strains have currently been reported from Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK and the USA. Centres in the UK (Manchester and The Netherlands (Nijmegen have described particularly high frequencies (15 and 10% respectively, and a significant increase in azole resistance in recent years. The reason of this high incidence may be due to long term azole therapy in patients with chronic aspergillosis in Manchester, and due to high use of agricultural azoles in Nijmegen. The primary underlying mechanism of resistance is as a result of alterations in the cyp51A target gene, with a variety of mutations found in clinical isolates and one genotype identified in the environmental (LH98. Reports on well documented in vitro and in vivo resistance to echinocandins are rare for Aspergillus species and resistance may be under-diagnosed as susceptibility testing is less frequently performed due to technical reasons.

  9. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-06-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of the three systems. The 188 remaining organisms included 158 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas spp., 5 Acinetobacter sp., 3 Aeromonas spp., and 2 Vibrio spp. A total of 2,256 organism-antibiotic combinations were analyzed for each system. An MIC was considered correct if two of the three systems were in agreement. When disagreements occurred, correct MICs were determined by the standard agar dilution method. With this criterion, overall agreements of the Cathra Repliscan II system, AutoMicrobic system, and Micro-Media Fox Panel system were 94.7, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Tetracycline (20%), nitrofurantoin (20%), and ampicillin (16%) accounted for 56% of the discrepancies observed. These results indicate that all three systems perform with a high degree of accuracy for susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli. PMID:4008625

  10. Standardization of Operator-Dependent Variables Affecting Precision and Accuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Maurer, Florian P; Pfiffner, Tamara; Böttger, Erik C; Furrer, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    Parameters like zone reading, inoculum density, and plate streaking influence the precision and accuracy of disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). While improved reading precision has been demonstrated using automated imaging systems, standardization of the inoculum and of plate streaking have not been systematically investigated yet. This study analyzed whether photometrically controlled inoculum preparation and/or automated inoculation could further improve the standardization of disk diffusion. Suspensions of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 of 0.5 McFarland standard were prepared by 10 operators using both visual comparison to turbidity standards and a Densichek photometer (bioMérieux), and the resulting CFU counts were determined. Furthermore, eight experienced operators each inoculated 10 Mueller-Hinton agar plates using a single 0.5 McFarland standard bacterial suspension of E. coli ATCC 25922 using regular cotton swabs, dry flocked swabs (Copan, Brescia, Italy), or an automated streaking device (BD-Kiestra, Drachten, Netherlands). The mean CFU counts obtained from 0.5 McFarland standard E. coli ATCC 25922 suspensions were significantly different for suspensions prepared by eye and by Densichek (P standard deviations of the CFU counts were observed. The interoperator differences in standard deviations when dry flocked swabs were used decreased significantly compared to the differences when regular cotton swabs were used, whereas the mean of the standard deviations of all operators together was not significantly altered. In contrast, automated streaking significantly reduced both interoperator differences, i.e., the individual standard deviations, compared to the standard deviations for the manual method, and the mean of the standard deviations of all operators together, i.e., total methodological variation. PMID:26468500

  11. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  12. Design,synthesis and antifungal activities in vitro of novel tetralin compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tang; You Jun Zhou; Yao Wu Li; Jia Guo Lv; Can Hui Zheng; Jun Chen; Ju Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Novel chiral tetralin compounds were designed and synthesized, and their antifungal activities in vitro were tested. The results showed that all of target compounds had potent antifungal activities, and were stronger than that of control compounds tetrahydroisoquinolines. The binding model of lead molecules in the active site of CYP51 of Candida albicans showed that lead compound specifically interacted with the amino acids residues in the active site, without binding with the heme of CYP51, which was different from azole antifungal drugs. The present study might afford a novel lead molecule to develop non-azole CYP51 inhibitors of fungi.

  13. 外阴阴道念珠菌病的病因研究及体外药敏检测%Analysis on the pathogens and fungi susceptibility test in vitro of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江爱萍; 黄剑清; 蔡蕾; 徐明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the pathogens of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in FuZhou. Methods 332 strains i-solated from vaginal secretions of 661 patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis in our department were identified with CHROMagar candida chromogenic culture medium,YBC method and API20C AUX. The susceptibility test of 4 anti-fungal drugs was tested by ROSCO disk diffusion method. Results The total infection rate was 69. 45%. In 339 strains of candida albicans, there were 288 stains of candida albicans ( 85%) , 23 stains of candida glabrata (6. 8%), 12 strains of candida tropicalis (3. 54%), 7 strains of candida krusei (2%), 4 strains of candida parap-silosis (1. 18%), 4 strains of Candida glabrata (1. 18%) and 1 strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae (0. 29%). Conclusion The major pathogens of vulvovaginal candidiasis is candida albicans, candida glabrata and candida tropi-calis in Fuzhou.%目的:了解福州地区阴道念珠菌病的病因、致病菌的菌种特征。方法采用科玛嘉念珠菌显色培养基和YBC鉴定卡及API-20C AUX酵母菌鉴定系统对门诊就诊661例患者阴道分泌物分离到的332株致病真菌进行鉴定,并采用ROSCO纸片扩散法对4种抗真菌药进行药物敏感检测。结果总感染率为69.45%共分离菌种6种。339株念珠菌,其中白念珠菌为288株占85%,光滑念珠菌23株占6.8%,热带念珠菌12株占3.54%,克柔念珠菌7株占2%,近平滑念珠菌4株占1.18%,光滑假丝酵母菌4株占1.18%,酿酒酵母菌1株占0.29%。结论本地区念珠菌性阴道炎主要的病原菌以白色念珠菌为主,其次是光滑念珠菌、热带念珠菌。

  14. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  15. Searching new antifungals: The use of in vitro and in vivo methods for evaluation of natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzoni, Liliana; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; de Lacorte Singulani, Junya; de Paula E Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades, the increased number of immunocompromised patients has led to the emergence of many forms of fungal infections. Furthermore, there are a restricted arsenal of antifungals available and an increase in the development of resistance to antifungal drugs. Because of these disadvantages, the search for new antifungal agents in natural sources has increased. The development of these new antifungal drugs involves various steps and methodologies. The evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity and cytotoxicity are the first steps in the screening. There is also the possibility of antifungal combinations to improve the therapy and reduce toxicity. Despite that, the application of the new antifungal candidate could be used in association with photodynamic therapy or using nanotechnology as an ally. In vivo tests can be performed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity using conventional and alternative animal models. In this work, we review the methods available for the evaluation of the antifungal activity and safety of natural products, as well as the recent advances of new technology in the application of natural products for antifungal therapy. PMID:26853122

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates discrepancies, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Moura Freixo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM, isoniazid (INH, and/or rifampin (RIF as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB. Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63% for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%. Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido; Martha Salinas-Sandoval; Arely Díaz-López; Patricia Jácquez-Ríos; Myriam Arriaga-Alba; Cynthia Ordaz-Pichardo

    2015-01-01

    Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against exper...

  18. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    SAHADEO PATIL; PANKAJ MAKNIKAR; SUSHILKUMAR WANKHADE; CHANDRAKIRAN UKESH; MAHENDRA RA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Patil S, Maknikar P, Wankhade S, Ukesh C, Rai M. 2015. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 55-59. We report evaluation of antifungal activity of cumin seed oil and its pharmacological interactions when used in combination with some of the widely used conventional antifungal drugs using CLSI broth microdilution, agar disc diffusion and checkerboard microtitre assay against Candida. The essential oil was obta...

  19. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  20. Identification of Ebsulfur Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Huy X; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-07-19

    Invasive fungal infections are on the rise due to an increased population of critically ill patients as a result of HIV infections, chemotherapies, and organ transplantations. Current antifungal drugs are helpful, but are insufficient in addressing the problem of drug-resistant fungal infections. Thus, there is a growing need for novel antimycotics that are safe and effective. The ebselen scaffold has been evaluated in clinical trials and has been shown to be safe in humans. This makes ebselen an attractive scaffold for facile translation from bench to bedside. We recently reported a library of ebselen-inspired ebsulfur analogues with antibacterial properties, but their antifungal activity has not been characterized. In this study, we repurposed ebselen, ebsulfur, and 32 additional ebsulfur analogues as antifungal agents by evaluating their antifungal activity against a panel of 13 clinically relevant fungal strains. The effect of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by three of these compounds was evaluated. Their hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities were also determined using mouse erythrocytes and mammalian cells. The MIC values of these compounds were found to be in the range of 0.02-12.5 μg mL(-1) against the fungal strains tested. Notably, yeast cells treated with our compounds showed an accumulation of ROS, which may further contribute to the growth-inhibitory effect against fungi. This study provides new lead compounds for the development of antimycotic agents. PMID:27334363

  1. Food preservation using antifungal lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Sarah Catherine Mary

    2013-01-01

    Fungal spoilage of food and feed prevails as a major problem for the food industry. The use antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may represent a safer, natural alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in foods. A large scale screen was undertaken to identify a variety of LAB with antifungal properties from plant, animal and human sources. A total of 6,720 LAB colonies were isolated and screened for antifungal activity against the indicator Penicillium expansum. 94 broad-spe...

  2. Evaluation of vaginal antifungal formulations in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRipley, R. J.; Erhard, P. J.; Schwind, R. A.; Whitney, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively simple and rapid procedures have been developed for evaluating the local efficacy of vaginal antifungal agents in vivo in a vaginal candidiasis model in ovariectomized rats. The results of this investigation indicate that the model and methods described are quite suitable for screening potential antifungal substances and for assessing the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of new antifungal agents and formulations before carrying out clinical studies. PMID:392480

  3. Antifungal Activity of Micafungin in Serum ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jun; Maeda, Tetsuo; Matsumura, Itaru; Yasumi, Masato; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Mochizuki, Nobuo; Kishino, Satoshi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the antifungal activity of micafungin in serum by using the disk diffusion method with serum-free and serum-added micafungin standard curves. Serum samples from micafungin-treated patients have been shown to exhibit adequate antifungal activity, which was in proportion to both the applied dose and the actual concentration of micafungin measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity of micafungin in serum was also confirmed with the broth microdil...

  4. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lijian Xu; Wei Meng; Cong Cao; Jian Wang; Wenjun Shan; Qinggui Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review.

  5. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Nucci

    2012-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the dif...

  6. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M LeBoldus

    Full Text Available Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis and (or to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis. We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined] zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal

  7. Comparison of antifungal and antioxidant activities of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Rie; Barry, Karen M; Mohammed, Caroline L; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2005-04-01

    The effect of heartwood extracts from Acacia mangium (heartrot-susceptible) and A. auriculiformis (heartrot-resistant) was examined on the growth of wood rotting fungi with in vitro assays. A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts had higher antifungal activity than A. mangium. The compounds 3,4',7,8-tetrahydroxyflavanone and teracacidin (the most abundant flavonoids in both species) showed antifungal activity. A. auriculiformis contained higher levels of these flavonoids (3.5- and 43-fold higher, respectively) than A. mangium. This suggests that higher levels of these compounds may contribute to heartrot resistance. Furthermore, both flavonoids had strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and laccase inhibition. This suggests that the antifungal mechanism of these compounds may involve inhibition of fungal growth by quenching of free radicals produced by the extracellular fungal enzyme laccase. PMID:16124251

  8. Gatifloxacin (AM-1155, CG 5501) susceptibility testing interpretive criteria and quality control guidelines for dilution and disk (5-microgram) diffusion methods. The Quality Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N; Kugler, K C; Erwin, M E; Biedenbach, D J; Beach, M L; Pfaller, M A

    1999-04-01

    Gatifloxacin (formerly AM-1155 and CG5501), a new 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone, has an expanded spectrum of activity against Gram-positive cocci and some anaerobic bacteria. This compound was tested against 600 recent clinical strains of rapidly growing aerobic species to establish susceptibility testing interpretive criteria for the reference broth microdilution and standardized disk (5-microgram) diffusion methods of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). These strains included 285 Enterobacteriaceae (17 species), 165 staphylococci, 49 enterococci, and 101 nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Based on achievable serum levels with projected gatifloxacin dosing regimens, MIC break points of or = 18 mm) for susceptibility and > or = 8 micrograms/mL (< or = 14 mm) for resistance were selected. The absolute agreement between tests was 94.3% with no very major false-resistant errors. The quality control ranges (MIC and zone diameters) for the NCCLS recommended strains were determined in a nine-laboratory NCCLS protocol as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 = 0.008-0.03 microgram/mL and 31-37 mm; Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 = 0.12-1 microgram/mL; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 = 0.5-2 micrograms/ml and 21-27 mm; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 = 27-33 mm and S. aureus ATCC 29213 = 0.03-0.12 microgram/mL. Gatifloxacin appears to be a promising new fluoroquinolone with acceptable susceptibility testing methods for routine clinical laboratory use. PMID:10212751

  9. Experimental models in predicting topical antifungal efficacy: practical aspects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J; Maibach, H I

    2009-01-01

    What are efficient screening models for improved topical antifungals? The use of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as one such parameter is discussed; we focus on the use of animal membranes for in vitro testing while highlighting the pros and cons of each model, exploring alternatives and discussing the importance of data transferability to humans and the influence of penetration kinetics in topical antifungal efficacy. Ultimately, the gold standard of testing is in vivo in humans; however, initiating with human testing, especially for novel topical antifungal agents, may be impractical, which is why we seek the ideal experimental model that most closely mimics human skin. We conclude that the pig may be an appropriate model membrane for topical antifungal testing based on its similarities in anatomical structure, physiology and permeation to human skin. Most importantly, pig and human skins appear equally permeable to several antifungals in prior in vitro and in vivo work. We do not discuss all prior work but highlight important issues in designing the protocol and parameters of the ideal experimental model for topical antifungals. PMID:19729988

  10. A simple synthesis of kaurenoic esters and other derivatives and evaluation of their antifungal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative esters derived from kaurenoic acid were prepared in order to evaluate their antifungal properties. Alkyl and substituted benzyl esters were obtained in good yield under mild conditions by esterification of kaurenoic acid with the corresponding alkyl halide in KOH-acetone. All synthesized compounds were tested for antifungal properties against pathogenic yeasts, hialohyphomycetes and dermatophytes. Kaurenoic acid and derivatives containing a free carboxyl group were moderately active against dermatophytes. (author)

  11. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sayed Alam

    2004-11-01

    Some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one (flavone ring) have been synthesized and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities along with their chalcone precursors against four human pathogenic bacteria and five plant mould fungi. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by UV, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal screens of the synthesized compounds were performed in vitro by the filter paper disc diffusion method and the poisoned food technique.

  12. Synthesis, in vitro antifungal evaluation and in silico study of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayati Adile

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from toxicity, greatest potential drug interactions with other drugs, insufficient pharmacokinetics properties, and development of resistance. Thus, development of new antifungal agents with optimum pharmacokinetics and less toxicity is urgent task. In the search for new azole antifungals, we have been previously described azolylchromanone oxime ethers as rigid analogs of oxiconazole. In continuation of our work, we incorporated phenylhydrazone moiety instead of oxime ether fragment in azolylchromanone derivatives. Methods The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones were synthesized via ring closure of 2-azolyl-2'-hydroxyacetophenones and subsequent reaction with phenylhydrazine. The biological activity of title compounds was evaluated against different pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Microsporum gypseum. Docking study, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents. Results The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds based on MIC values revealed that all compounds showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and M. gypseum at concentrations less than 16 μg/mL. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-imidazolyl derivative 3b showed the highest values of drug-likeness and drug-score. Conclusion The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones considered as analogs of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone oxime ethers basically designed as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of title compounds was comparable to that of standard drug fluconazole. The drug-likeness data of synthesized compounds make them promising leads for future development of antifungal agents.

  13. Synthesis, in vitro antifungal evaluation and in silico study of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Emami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from toxicity, greatest potential drug interactions with other drugs, insufficient pharmacokinetics properties, and development of resistance. Thus, development of new antifungal agents with optimum pharmacokinetics and less toxicity is urgent task. In the search for new azole antifungals, we have been previously described azolylchromanone oxime ethers as rigid analogs of oxiconazole. In continuation of our work, we incorporated phenylhydrazone moiety instead of oxime ether fragment in azolylchromanone derivatives.MethodsThe 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones were synthesized via ring closure of 2-azolyl- 2'-hydroxyacetophenones and subsequent reaction with phenylhydrazine. The biological activity of title compounds was evaluated against different pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Microsporum gypseum. Docking study, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents.ResultsThe in vitro antifungal activity of compounds based on MIC values revealed that all compounds showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and M. gypseum at concentrations less than 16 mug/mL. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3- imidazolyl derivative 3b showed the highest values of drug-likeness and drug-score.ConclusionThe 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones considered as analogs of 3-azolyl-4- chromanone oxime ethers basically designed as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of title compounds was comparable to that of standard drug fluconazole. The drug-likeness data of synthesized compounds make them promising leads for future development of antifungal agents.

  14. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maghdu Nainamohamed Abubacker; Palaniyappan Kamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (L. cristata) and to assess antifungal potentials of the isolated compound. Methods: Aqueous extracts of L. cristata inflorescence were used for this study. The major bioactive compound isolated was tested for antifungal activities. Results: The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence of L. cristata. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials and found to be highly effective to plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. Conclusions: The results justify the antifungal potentials of both plant and human pathogenic fungi. The plant bioactive compound will be helpful in herbal antifungal formulations.

  15. Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted in Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga villages in Zimbabwe during the 2011 malaria period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide susceptibility tests using World Health Organization papers treated with 4% dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.5% etofenprox, 0.15% cyfluthrin and 0.75% permethrin were conducted in Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga villages, Zimbabwe. Three to 5-day old female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato adult mosquitoes were used. Deltamethrin knocked down 100% of the mosquitoes from Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga at 35 min exposure. DDT did not knock down 100% of the mosquitoes from Kamhororo and Masakadza but did so in Chilonga. One hundred percent knockdown was achieved for cyfluthrin when exposed to mosquitoes from Kamhororo (60 min, Masakadza (25 min and Chilonga (25 min. Etofenprox knocked down 100% of the mosquitoes collected from Kamhororo (30 min, Masakadza (30 min and Chilonga (55 min. Knockdown of mosquitoes due to deltamethrin, DDT, cyfluthrin, permethrin; lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox were different at different observation times. One hundred percent mortality due to deltamethrin, DDT, etofenprox, lambdacyhalothrin and cyfluthrin was recorded for mosquitoes collected from all the 3 sites. One hundred percent mortality due to pemethrin was recorded for mosquitoes collected from Kamhororo and Chilonga but mortality was 98.5% for those collected from Masakadza. No knockdown or mortality occurred in the controls from each locality. The kd50 (knockdown of 50% of the mosquitoes values were 24.4-73.7 min (DDT, 8-13 min (pemethrin, 9.4-16.3 min (cyfluthrin, 9.4-14.4 min (etofenprox, 8.7-13 min (lambda-cyhalothrin and 12.1-15.9 min (deltamethrin. The kd90 (knockdown of 90% of the mosquitoes values were 45.6-199.5 min (DDT, 14.7-26.5 min (pemethrin, 16.5-34.9 min (cyfluthrin, 21.8-24.4 min (etofenprox, 16.3-31.6 min (lambdacyhalothrin and 21-25.3 min (deltamethrin. No insecticide resistance was recorded from the 3 sites.

  16. A multi-annual landslide inventory for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility - Two test cases in Vorarlberg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieher, Thomas; Perzl, Frank; Rössel, Monika; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Markart, Gerhard; Geitner, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological landslide inventories provide crucial input data for any study on the assessment of landslide susceptibility, hazard or risk. Several approaches for assessing landslide susceptibility have been proposed to identify areas particularly vulnerable to this natural hazard. What they have in common is the need for data of observed landslides. Therefore the first step of any study on landslide susceptibility is usually the compilation of a geomorphological landslide inventory using a geographical information system. Recent research has proved the feasibility of orthophoto interpretation for the preparation of an inventory aimed at the delineation of landslides with the use of distinctive signs in the imagery data. In this study a multi-annual landslide inventory focusing on shallow landslides (i.e. translational soil slides of 0-2 m in depth) was compiled for two study areas in Vorarlberg (Austria) from the interpretation of nine orthophoto series. In addition, derivatives of two generations of airborne laser scanning data aided the mapping procedure. Landslide scar areas were delineated on the basis of a high-resolution differential digital terrain model. The derivation of landslide volumes, depths and depth-to-length ratios are discussed. Results show that most mapped landslides meet the definition of a shallow landslide. The inventory therefore provides the data basis for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility and allows for the application of various modelling techniques.

  17. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data – The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Gatermann, Sören G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of c...

  18. Evaluation of indirect susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the first- and second-line, and alternative drugs by the newer MB/BacT system

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto Angela Maria Werneck; Araújo Joselba Borges Melo; Medeiros Reginalda Ferreira de Melo; Caldas Paulo César de Souza

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the Organon Teknika MB/BacT system used for testing indirect susceptibility to the alternative drugs ofloxacin (OFLO), amikacin (AMI), and rifabutin (RIF), and to the usual drugs of standard treatment regimes such as rifampin (RMP), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA), streptomycin (SM), ethambutol (EMB), and ethionamide (ETH), cultures of clinical specimens from 117 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis under multidrug-resistant investigation, admitted sequentially for ex...

  19. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli from BACTEC bottles by use of the MS-2 system with updated bacterial identification software.

    OpenAIRE

    Dipersio, J R; Ficorilli, S M; Varga, F J

    1984-01-01

    The Abbott MS-2 system (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Irving, Tex.), equipped with updated bacterial identification software (version 03.02), was used to perform both direct identification and susceptibility tests on gram-negative bacilli from positive BACTEC blood culture bottles. Ninety-eight of 101 Enterobacteriaceae strains, one strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were correctly identified by following a direct inoculation procedure...

  20. A New Twist to the Kirby-Bauer Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Activity—Increasing Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens through Thermal Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Donald G. Gerbig Jr.; Jean Engohang-Ndong; Heather Aubihl

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic sensitivity and the effect of temperature on microbial growth are two standard laboratory activities found in most microbial laboratory manuals. We have found a novel way to combine the two activities to demonstrate how temperature can influence antibiotic sensitivity using a standard incubator in instructional laboratory settings. This activity reinforces the important concepts of microbial growth and temperature along with Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility testing. We found t...

  1. Influence of Clinical Breakpoint Changes from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 2011 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Guidelines on Multidrug Resistance Rates of Gram-Negative Rods

    OpenAIRE

    Hombach, Michael; Wolfensberger, Aline; Stefan P Kuster; Böttger, Erik C.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of Gram-negative rods were analyzed comparing CLSI 2009 and EUCAST 2011 antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines. After EUCAST 2011 was applied, the MDR rates increased for Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.2%), Enterobacter cloacae (1.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.7%), and Escherichia coli (0.4%). A total of 24% of Enterobacteriaceae MDR isolates and 12% of P. aeruginosa MDR isolates were categorized as MDR due to breakpoint changes.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Condensed Tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens: Effect on Candida tropicalis Growth and Adhesion Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Alexandre T; de Souza, Felipe C; Santos, Jussevania P; Pereira, Caibe A; Cardoso, Juscelio D; de Almeida, Ricardo S C; Costa, Marco A; de Mello, João C P; Nakamura, Celso V; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Yamauchi, Lucy M; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are some of the most common causes of fungal infection worldwide. The limited efficacy of clinically available antifungals warrants the search for new compounds for treating candidiasis. This study evaluated the effect of condensed tannin-rich fraction (F2 fraction) of Stryphnodendron adstringens on in vitro and in vivo growth of Candida tropicalis, and on yeast adhesion properties. F2 exhibited a fungistatic effect with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/mL. A significant reduction in biofilm mass was observed after either pretreatment of planktonic cells for 2 h (mean reduction of 46.31±8.17%) or incubation during biofilm formation (mean reduction of 28.44±13.38%) with 4x MIC of F2. Prior exposure of planktonic cells to this F2 concentration also significantly decreased yeast adherence on HEp-2 cells (mean reduction of 43.13±14.29%), cell surface hydrophobicity (mean reduction of 25.89±10.49%) and mRNA levels of the genes ALST1-3 (2.9-, 1.8- and 1.8-fold decrease, respectively). Tenebrio molitor larvae, which are susceptible to C. tropicalis infection, were used for in vivo testing. Treatment with 128 and 256 μg/mL F2 significantly increased the survival of infected larvae. These results indicate a combined effect of F2 on inhibition of yeast growth and interference in yeast adhesion, which may contribute to the suppression of infection caused by C. tropicalis, thus reinforcing the potential of the condensed tannins from S. adstringens for the development of novel antifungal agents. PMID:26696018

  3. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  4. Comparison between two culture media for in vitro evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of the Sporothrix schenckii complex Comparação entre dois meios de cultura para avaliação in vitro da suscetibilidade a antifúngicos do complexo Sporothrix schenckii

    OpenAIRE

    Cheila Denise Ottonelli Stopiglia; Daiane Péres Marchese; Daiane Heidrich; Julia Medeiros Sorrentino; Fabiane Jamono Vieira; Maria Lúcia Scroferneker

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The standard methodology for determining the antifungal sensitivity against the Sporothrix schenckii complex recommends the use of the 1640 Roswell Park Memorial Institute culture medium (RPMI) buffered with morpholinepropanolsulfonic acid (MOPS). However, while this is a high-cost medium which requires a laborious implementation and sterilization by filtration, the Sabouraud dextrose broth is a low-cost medium, widely used in mycology, sterilized by autoclave. OBJECTIVE: To evalu...

  5. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  6. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  7. Discordance across Phenotypic and Molecular Methods for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in a Low TB Incidence Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Mokaddas, Eiman; Al-Mutairi, Noura; Eldeen, Hanaa S.; Mohammadi, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), accurate drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-line drugs has become crucial for proper patient management. We evaluated concordance of DST results for 70 M. tuberculosis isolates across two phenotypic and two molecular methods: BACTEC 460TB, MGIT 960 system, GenoType MTBDRplus and DNA sequencing of gene segments most commonly implicated in conferring resistance to anti-TB drugs. Most (84%) M. tuberculosis isolates were multidrug-resistant. Twenty-four isolates yielded discrepant DST results. For rifampicin, isoniazid and streptomycin, 96%, 97% and 93% of isolates, respectively, were susceptible or resistant by all four methods, whereas for ethambutol, this agreement was observed for only 76% of isolates (P streptomycin versus ethambutol). Occurrence of rare mutations in three isolates that confer low-level resistance caused lower agreement for rifampicin among the four methods (kappa coefficient (κ) range, 0.84 to 0.95). For isoniazid, there was perfect agreement among phenotypic methods and molecular methods (κ, 1.00) but lower agreement between phenotypic and molecular methods. Three isolates were detected as polydrug-resistant by MGIT 960 system but as multidrug-resistant by DNA sequence-based method. The agreement was higher for streptomycin among the two phenotypic methods (κ, 0.97) while targeted sequencing yielded lower agreement (κ range, 0.86 to 0.89). The discrepancy for ethambutol resulted largely due to lower concordance of MGIT 960 results (κ range, 0.53 to 0.64). The MGIT 960 system is an accurate method for DST of M. tuberculosis against isoniazid and streptomycin while the results of rifampicin susceptibility should be complemented with DNA sequencing-based method when the suspicion for resistance is high. The possibility of false susceptibility to ethambutol with MGIT 960 system suggests that molecular or other phenotypic methods may be

  8. UPC2A is required for high-level azole antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G; Caudle, Kelly E; Vermitsky, John-Paul; Chadwick, Sean G; Toner, Geoffrey; Barker, Katherine S; Gygax, Scott E; Rogers, P David

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata, the second most common cause of Candida infections, is associated with high rates of mortality and often exhibits resistance to the azole class of antifungal agents. Upc2 and Ecm22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Upc2 in Candida albicans are the transcriptional regulators of ERG11, the gene encoding the target of azoles in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Recently two homologs for these transcription factors, UPC2A and UPC2B, were identified in C. glabrata. One of these, UPC2A, was shown to influence azole susceptibility. We hypothesized that due to the global role for Upc2 in sterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans, disruption of UPC2A would enhance the activity of fluconazole in both azole-susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) and -resistant C. glabrata clinical isolates. To test this hypothesis, we constructed mutants with disruptions in UPC2A and UPC2B alone and in combination in a matched pair of clinical azole-SDD and -resistant isolates. Disruption of UPC2A in both the SDD and resistant isolates resulted in increased susceptibility to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors, including a reduction in fluconazole MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, enhanced azole activity by time-kill analysis, a decrease in ergosterol content, and downregulation of baseline and inducible expression of several sterol biosynthesis genes. Our results indicate that Upc2A is a key regulator of ergosterol biosynthesis and is essential for resistance to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. glabrata. Therefore, the UPC2A pathway may represent a potential cotherapeutic target for enhancing azole activity against this organism. PMID:24867980

  9. Novel hybrids of fluconazole and furanones: design, synthesis and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borate, Hanumant B; Sawargave, Sangmeshwer P; Chavan, Subhash P; Chandavarkar, Mohan A; Iyer, Ramki; Tawte, Amit; Rao, Deepali; Deore, Jaydeep V; Kudale, Ananada S; Mahajan, Pankaj S; Kangire, Gopinath S

    2011-08-15

    During our efforts to develop new antifungal agents, a number of hybrid molecules containing furanones and fluconazole pharmacophores were designed and synthesized. The new chemical entities thus synthesized were tested for their potential as antifungal agents against various fungal strains and it was observed that the compounds with general structure 7 were potent inhibitors of Candida albicans ATCC 24433, Candida glabrata ATCC 90030, Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 and Candida neoformans ATCC 34664 while the fluconazole analogues 12 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 24433 and Candida glabrata ATCC 90030. The structure-activity relationship for these compounds is discussed. The synthetic strategies used in the present work have potential to prepare a large number of compounds for further refinement of structures to obtain molecules suitable for development as antifungal drugs. PMID:21757344

  10. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  11. The Antifungal Eugenol Perturbs Dual Aromatic and Branched-Chain Amino Acid Permeases in the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Darvishi; Mansoor Omidi; Ali Akbar Shahnejat Bushehri; Ashkan Golshani; Smith, Myron L.

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol is an aromatic component of clove oil that has therapeutic potential as an antifungal drug, although its mode of action and precise cellular target(s) remain ambiguous. To address this knowledge gap, a chemical-genetic profile analysis of eugenol was done using ∼4700 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutants to reveal 21 deletion mutants with the greatest degree of susceptibility. Cellular roles of deleted genes in the most susceptible mutants indicate that the main targe...

  12. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Kanniah Rajasekaran; Jian Chen; BECNEL, JAMES J.; Natasha M. Agramonte; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Maia Tsikolia; Kemal Husnu Can Baser; Betul Demirci; David E. Wedge; Nurhayat Tabanca; Sampson, Blair J.; Hamidou F. Sakhanokho; James M. Spiers

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum...

  13. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; Fernanda de Oliveira DEMITTO; Renata Claro Ribeiro do AMARAL; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Lilian Cristiane BAEZA; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from...

  14. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram: evaluation of screening tests and antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami Lakshmy Jayachandran; Ukkiravel Gnanasambandam; Balan K.; Sangeetha, A.V.; T. S. Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) occurring in pregnant women can lead onto complications like acute pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation if untreated. Methods: The present study aims to estimate the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women and to study the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. The Gram staining, pus cell count and culture was performed for 120 urine samples. Antibi...

  15. Clinical laboratory evaluation of the Abbott MS-2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system: report of a collaborative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornsberry, C; Anhalt, J P; Washington, J A; McCarthy, L R; Schoenknecht, F D; Sherris, J. C.; Spencer, H J

    1980-01-01

    The MS-2 system (Abbott Diagnostics, Division of Abbott Laboratories, Dallas, Tex.) was evaluated for its efficacy in determining the susceptibilities of both clinical and selected challenge (nonfastidious, facultative, and aerobic) isolates. The MS-2 results were compared with standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and microdilution results by using fresh clinical isolates. For gram-positive isolates other than enterococci, overall agreement between MS-2 and reference results was 93 to 98%. Wit...

  16. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

  17. Correlation between Genotypic and Phenotypic Testing for Resistance to Rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates in Haiti: Investigation of Cases with Discrepant Susceptibility Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ocheretina, Oksana; Escuyer, Vincent E.; Mabou, Marie-Marcelle; Royal-Mardi, Gertrude; Collins, Sean; Vilbrun, Stalz C.; Pape, Jean W.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended use of molecular-based tests MTBDRplus and GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in developing and high-burden countries. Both tests are based on detection of mutations in the Rifampin (RIF) Resistance-Determining Region of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase gene (rpoB). Such mutations are found in 95–98% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains determined to be RIF-resistant by the “gold standard” culture-based drug susceptibility...

  18. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichny, G; Külkamp-Guerreiro, I C; Cunha, S L; Silva, F E K; Bueno, K; Pohlmann, A R; Fuentefria, A M; Guterres, S S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing copaiba oil with and without allantoin (NCOA, NCO, respectively) and to evaluate their antifungal activity. Nanoparticle suspensions were prepared using a high homogenisation technique and characterised by dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, multiple light scattering analysis, high-pressure liquid chromatography, pH and rheology. The antifungal activities of the formulations were tested in vitro against the emergent yeasts Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, and the fungal pathogens of human skin Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The dynamic light scattering analysis showed z-average diameters (intensity) between 118.63 ± 8.89 nm for the nanoparticles with both copaiba oil and allantoin and 126.06 ± 9.84nm for the nanoparticles with just copaiba oil. The D[4,3] determined by laser diffraction showed similar results of 123 ± 1.73 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin and 130 ± 3.6 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil alone. Nanoparticle tracking analysis demonstrated that both suspensions had monomodal profiles and consequently, the nanoparticle populations were homogeneous. This analysis also corroborated the results of dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction, exhibiting a smaller mean diameter for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin (143 nm) than for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil (204 nm). The physicochemical properties indicated that the dispersions were stable overtime. Rheology evidenced Newtonian behaviour for both suspensions. Antifungal susceptibility showed a MIC90 of 125 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 7.8 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against C. parapsilosis. The nanoparticles with copaiba oil and the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin presented a MIC90 of 500 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively, against C. krusei. The MIC90

  19. Comparison of M.I.C.E. and Etest with CLSI agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza H Campana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the performance of M.I.C.E. and Etest methodologies to that of agar dilution for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. METHODS: A total of 100 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected from hospitalized patients at a teaching hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was performed using the reference CLSI agar dilution method (2009, Etest and M.I.C.E. methodologies. The MIC values were interpreted according to CLSI susceptibility breakpoints and compared by regression analysis. RESULTS: In general, the essential agreement (±1-log2 between M.I.C.E. and CLSI agar dilution was 93.0%, 84.0% and 77.0% for linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively. Essential agreement rates between M.I.C.E. and Etest were excellent (>90.0% for all antibiotics tested. Both strips (M.I.C.E. and Etest yielded two very major errors for linezolid. Unacceptable minor rates were observed for teicoplanin against CoNS and for vancomycin against S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, linezolid and teicoplanin MICs against all staphylococci and S. aureus, respectively, were more accurately predicted by M.I.C.E. strips. However, the Etest showed better performance than M.I.C.E. for predicting vancomycin MICs against all staphylococci. Thus, microbiologists must be aware of the different performance of commercially available gradient strips against staphylococci.

  20. Diversity and antifungal resistance patterns of prevalent opportunistic pathogenic yeasts colonizing the oral cavities of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, and their relation to CD4 + counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yeasts are important opportunistic pathogens, in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Yeast species inhabiting the oral mucosa of HIV-infected persons can act as source of oral lesions, especially as the individual progresses towards immunocompromised state. Present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity of yeasts in oral cavities of asymptomatic HIV-infected persons and their association with CD4 + cell counts. Materials and Methods: 100 HIV seropositive subjects and 100 healthy controls were screened for oral yeast carriage using standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 HIV-seropositive persons screened, 48 were colonized by different yeasts, either alone or in association with another species. Candida albicans was the most common species (56.90% while non C. albicans Candida (NCAC accounted for 39.65%. Among NCAC, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei were most common. One isolate each of rare opportunistic pathogenic yeasts, Geotrichum candidum and Saccharomyces cereviseae, was recovered. The control group had an oral candidal carriage rate of 23%; C. albicans was the predominant species, followed by Candida glabrata, C. tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no resistance in C. albicans, to the commonly used antifungal agents, whereas resistance or dose dependent susceptibility to fluconazole was observed in some of the NCAC species. Conclusion: Oral carriage of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts was greater in HIV-seropositive persons heading towards immunocompromised state, as evidenced by their CD4 + cell count. The predominant yeast isolated in this study (C. albicans, was found to be susceptible to commonly used antifungals.

  1. A Genome-Wide Test of the Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis Reveals a Genetic Predictor of Differential Response to Psychological Treatments for Child Anxiety Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R I; Lester, Kathryn J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The differential susceptibly hypothesis suggests that certain genetic variants moderate the effects of both negative and positive environments on mental health and may therefore be important predictors of response to psychological treatments. Nevertheless, the identification of such...... variants has so far been limited to preselected candidate genes. In this study we extended the differential susceptibility hypothesis from a candidate gene to a genome-wide approach to test whether a polygenic score of environmental sensitivity predicted response to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in...... children with anxiety disorders. METHODS: We identified variants associated with environmental sensitivity using a novel method in which within-pair variability in emotional problems in 1,026 monozygotic twin pairs was examined as a function of the pairs' genotype. We created a polygenic score of...

  2. Fungal sterol C22-desaturase is not an antimycotic target as shown by selective inhibitors and testing on clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Binder, Ulrike; Maurer, Elisabeth; Grimm, Christian; Giera, Martin; Bracher, Franz

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of concise enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis is one of the most prominent strategies for antifungal chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol C22-desaturase, which introduce double bonds into the sterol core and side chain, have not been fully investigated yet for their potential as antifungal drug targets. Lathosterol side chain amides bearing N-alkyl groups of proper length are known as potent inhibitors of the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol Δ(24)-reductase in mammalian cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we present the results of our evaluation of these amides for their ability to inhibit enzymes in fungal ergosterol biosynthesis. In the presence of inhibitor(s) an accumulation of sterols lacking a double bond at C22/23 (mainly ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol) was observed in Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Hence, the lathosterol side chain amides were identified as selective inhibitors of the fungal sterol C22-desaturase, which was discussed as a specific target for novel antifungals. One representative inhibitor, (3S,20S)-20-N-butylcarbamoylpregn-7-en-3β-ol was subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing on patient isolates according to modified EUCAST guidelines. But, the test organisms showed no significant reduction of cell growth and/or viability up to an inhibitor concentration of 100μg/mL. This leads to the conclusion that sterol C22-desaturase is not an attractive target for the development of antifungals. PMID:26022150

  3. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  4. Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against aspergillus species and its interaction with common antifungal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-juan; CHEN Wei; XU Hui; WAN Zhe; LI Ruo-yu; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has increased in frequency in immunocompromised patients with a variety of diseases. The poor prognosis might be due to limited treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of ibuprofen against clinical isolates of aspergillus species, as well as its interaction with azoles or with amphotericin B or with micafungin.Methods Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against 10 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were tested with both disk diffusion assay and standard broth microdilution method. To determine whether ibuprofen combined with itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, or micafungin had interactive effects on aspergillus spp., we used both disk diffusion assay and Chequerboard method.Results As for disk diffusion method, ibuprofen produced a zone of growth inhibition with diameters of (20.1±3.9) mm at 48 hours of incubation. As for broth microdilution method, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of ibuprofen against aspergillus spp. were 1000-2000 μg/ml, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges of that was 2000-8000 μg/ml. For 2 of 5 isolates, when ibuprofen combined with itraconazole or voriconazole, the zones of growth inhibition were larger than those of the individual drug. The results of Chequerboard method showed that fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranges were 1.125-2.500.Conclusions Ibuprofen is active against aspergillus spp.. And ibuprofen does not affect the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B or micafungin against aspergillus spp..

  5. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHADEO PATIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Patil S, Maknikar P, Wankhade S, Ukesh C, Rai M. 2015. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 55-59. We report evaluation of antifungal activity of cumin seed oil and its pharmacological interactions when used in combination with some of the widely used conventional antifungal drugs using CLSI broth microdilution, agar disc diffusion and checkerboard microtitre assay against Candida. The essential oil was obtained from cumin seeds using hydrodistillation technique and was later evaluated for the presence of major chemical constituents present in it using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS assay. The GC-MS assay revealed the abundance of γ-terpinene (35.42% followed by p-cymene (30.72%. The agar disc diffusion assay demonstrated highly potent antifungal effect against Candida species. Moreover, the combination of cumin essential oil (CEO with conventional antifungal drugs was found to reduce the individual MIC of antifungal drug suggesting the occurrence of synergistic interactions. Therefore, the therapy involving combinations of CEO and conventional antifungal drugs can be used for reducing the toxicity induced by antifungal drugs and at the same time enhancing their antifungal efficacy in controlling the infections caused due to Candida species.

  6. A prospective surveillance study of candidaemia: Epidemiology, risk factors, antifungal treatment and outcome in hospitalised patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Ashutosh, Deshpande; Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Mary F. Hanson; Williams, Craig; Munro, Carol; Jones, Brian L.; Ramage, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    This study provide an up-to-date overview of the epidemiology and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in Scotland in 2012/2013, and the antifungal susceptibility of isolates from blood cultures from 11 National Health Service boards within Scotland. Candida isolates were identified by chromogenic agar and confirmed by MALDI-TOF methods. Survival and associated risk factors for patients stratified as albicans and non-albicans cases were assessed. Information on the spectrum of antif...

  7. Antifungal activity of the extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, against yeasts of the genus Candida isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and is treated empirically with topical or systemic antifungals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible antifungal action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, on yeasts in this population. Samples were collected from HIV-positive patients who attended the Laboratory for Teaching and Research in Clinical Analysis at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá for routine exams. The isolated yeasts were identified at the genus and species levels through classical methodology. Next, tests of microdilution in broth were carried out to determine the profile of susceptibility of these yeasts towards the hydroalcoholic extract of C. zedoaria, following methodology standardised by the CLSI (2002. A total of 53 yeasts were identified, 49 of them C. albicans, two C. tropicalis and two C. glabrata. These yeasts were inhibited by low concentrations of the extract of C. zedoaria (between 1.95 and 15.63 μg/mL. In addition, 7.82 μg/mL inhibited 90% of the yeasts. Our results indicate a potent antifungal action for C. zedoaria and suggest more detailed studies with a view towards the practical application of this phytomedicine in topical pharmaceutical forms for the treatment of oral candidosis or candidiasis.

  8. 21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antifungal drug products. 333.250... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.250 Labeling of antifungal drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The... “antifungal.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the...

  9. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. PMID:26032632

  10. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiguelCachoTeixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g, from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a GFP fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and

  11. Tolerance of yeast biofilm cells towards systemic antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth

    of this thesis has been to explore the tolerance mechanisms of yeast biofilms to systemic antifungal agents and to identify the molecular target of a novel peptidomimetic with anti-biofilm activity. The genetic tractable S. cerevisiae was used as biofilm model system for the pathogenic Candida...... species in an attempt to take advantage of the molecular tools available for S. cerevisiae. Mature biofilms containing mainly growth arrested cells were shown to be tolerant to three out of four tested antifungals, while all drugs had inhibitory activity against proliferating biofilm cells, demonstrating...... physiological state of the cell and the mechanism of action of the drug, and this is independent of mode of growth. Based on these results, it can be suggested that future drug treatment strategies should focus on targeting growth arrested cells, rather than distinguishing between modes of growth. At last, we...

  12. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  13. Antifungal suscepitibility profile of candida spp. oral isolates obtained from denture wearers Perfil de sensibilidade antifungica de isolados de candida sp obtidos de usuários de prótese total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Lyon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition that occurs in denture wearers and is frequently associated with Candida yeasts. Antifungal susceptibility profiles have been extensively evaluated for candidiasis patients or immunosupressed individuals, but not for healthy Candida carriers. In the present study, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosin were tested against 109 oral Candida spp. isolates. All antifungal agents were effective against the samples tested except for terbinafine. This work might provide epidemiological information about Candida spp. drug susceptibility in oral healthy individuals.A estomatite protética é uma condição inflamatória que ocorre em usuários de prótese total e está frequentemente associada a leveduras do gênero Candida, Os perfis de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos têm sido extensivamente estudados em pacientes com candidíase ou em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, mas não em portadores sadios de Candida. No presente estudo, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, terbinafina e 5-flucitosina foram testados contra 109 isolados orais de Candida spp. Todos os agentes antifúngicos mostraram-se eficazes contra as amostras avaliadas, exceto a Terbinafina. O presente trabalho pode fornecer dados epidemiológicos com relação à susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida spp em indivíduos com saúde oral.

  14. Synthesis and antifungal activity of trichodermin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li Cheng; Yong Zhou; Jin Hao Zhao; Chu Long Zhang; Fu Cheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    A series of derivatives were synthesized from trichodermin(1)which was an antifungal metabolite produced by Trichoderma taxi sp.nov.Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR,MS spectrum.Their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro.The preliminary structure activity relationships(SAR)results indicated that the double bond,epoxide moiety and ester group were main pharmacophore elements,the stereochemistry of C4 position played a key role as well,and the compounds 1e-1g displayed stronger antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea than 1.

  15. [Comparison of proportion method in Löwenstein-Jensen medium with the BACTEC 460 TB system for antimycobacterial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül Yurtsever, Süreyya; Biçmen, Can; Gündüz, Ayriz T; Ozkütük, Nuri; Salman, Serkan; Demirci, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare BACTEC 460 TB system and the proportion method in commercially available and ready to use antibiotic added Löweinstein-Jensen (LJ) medium for susceptibility testing of first line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. A total 238 M.tuberculosis strains isolated from clinical samples in our laboratory between 2006-2010 period were included in the study. Susceptibility testing for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol in commercially provided LJ medium (Salubris Inc., Istanbul) was performed by the proportion method as recommended by the manufacturer, and the results were compared with the results of BACTEC 460 TB (Becton Dickinson, USA) system. Resistance rates of M.tuberculosis strains against streptomycin, isoniasid, rifampicin and ethambutol obtained by BACTEC 460 TB system were 19.7%, 42%, 40.8% and 18%, respectively. Those rates were 22.7%, 38.7%, 37% and 15.5%, respectively, by antibiotic added LJ proportion method. There was no statistically significant difference between the two methods in terms of resistance rates (p> 0.05). The rates of consistency between proportion method in LJ medium and BACTEC 460 TB system for streptomycin, isoniasid, rifampicin and ethambutol susceptibility were found as 85.3%, 92.4%, 95.4% and 92.4%, respectively. When comparing the reporting time (interval between beginning of the process to reporting of the results) of the methods, minimal, maximal and average reporting spans for BACTEC 460 TB system were 5, 12 and 8.08 ± 2.65 days, and 15, 42 and 23.89 ± 6.02 days for the proportion method in LJ medium, respectively, being statistically significant (p= 0.001). It was determined that the sensitivity test results of major antimycobacterial drugs in commercial LJ medium were compatible with the BACTEC 460 TB system. Nonetheless, the rate of incompatible results was higher for STR than the other drugs. Although there has been some disadvantages such as longer

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections to fluoroquinolones and detection of gyrA mutations in resistant strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari-Nakhjavani F.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Widespread uses of fluoroquinolones have resulted in increasing incidences of resistance against these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from patients with Urinary Tract Infection against common fluoroquinolones and detection of mutations in the gyrA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 164 E.coli isolates from patients with UTI, was evaluated by disk agar diffusion (DAD and MIC methods. Polymerase chain reaction of E.coli strains were performed by amplification of Quinolone Resistance Determining Region (QRDR of gyrA gene. PCR products were tested by Conformational Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis (CSGE and those with hetrodublexes were selected and examined by DNA sequencing. According to disc agar diffusion, 49.3% were resistant to nalidixic acid, 41.4% to norfloxacin, 44.5% to ofloxacin and 40.2 % to ciprofloxacin. By Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC testing a high-level of resistance (42.1% to ciprofloxacin was observed. Mutations in codons 83 and 87 in all 81 isolates were positive by CSGE method.

  17. Novel, Synergistic Antifungal Combinations that Target Translation Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martinez, Elena; Vallieres, Cindy; Holland, Sara L; Avery, Simon V

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new antifungal or fungicide treatments, as resistance to existing treatments grows. Combination treatments help to combat resistance. Here we develop a novel, effective target for combination antifungal therapy. Different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with different sulphate-transport inhibitors produced strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of several fungi. Combinations decreased the respective MICs by ≥8-fold. Synergy was suppressed in yeast mutants resistant to effects of sulphate-mimetics (like chromate or molybdate) on sulphate transport. By different mechanisms, aminoglycosides and inhibition of sulphate transport cause errors in mRNA translation. The mistranslation rate was stimulated up to 10-fold when the agents were used in combination, consistent with this being the mode of synergistic action. A range of undesirable fungi were susceptible to synergistic inhibition by the combinations, including the human pathogens Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, the food spoilage organism Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Zymoseptoria tritici. There was some specificity as certain fungi were unaffected. There was no synergy against bacterial or mammalian cells. The results indicate that translation fidelity is a promising new target for combinatorial treatment of undesirable fungi, the combinations requiring substantially decreased doses of active components compared to each agent alone. PMID:26573415

  18. Lipidome analysis reveals antifungal polyphenol curcumin affects membrane lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni; Singh, Ashutosh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that antifungal curcumin (CUR), significantly depletes ergosterol levels in Candida albicans. CUR while displaying synergy with fluconazole (FLC) lowers ergosterol. However, CUR alone at its synergistic concentration (lower than MIC50), could not affect ergosterol contents. For deeper insight of CUR effects on lipids, we performed high throughput mass spectroscopy (MS) based lipid profiling of C. albicans cells. The lipidome analysis revealed that there were no major changes in phosphoglycerides (PGLs) composition following CUR treatment of Candida, however, significant differences in molecular species of PGLs were detected. Among major SPLs, CUR treatment resulted in the reduction of ceramide and accumulation of IPCs levels. The lipidome of CUR treated cells confirmed a dramatic drop in the ergosterol levels with a simultaneous accumulation of its biosynthetic precursors. This was further supported by the fact that the mutants defective in ergosterol biosynthesis (ERG2 and ERG11) and those lacking the transcription factor regulating ergosterol biosynthesis, UPC2, were highly susceptible to CUR. Our study first time shows that CUR, for its antifungal activity, targets and down regulates delta 5, 6 desaturase (ERG3) resulting in depletion of ergosterol. This results in parallel accumulation of ergosterol biosynthetic precursors, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. PMID:22201946

  19. Antifungal isopimaranes from Hypoestes serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, L; Guilet, D; Marston, A; Randimbivololona, F; Hostettmann, K

    2003-09-01

    Five isopimarane diterpenes (7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8,15-dien-14-one, 14alpha-hydroxyisopimara-7,15-dien-1-one, 1beta,14alpha-dihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, 7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one and 7beta-acetoxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one) have been isolated from the leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). All compounds exhibited antifungal activity against both the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans; two of them also displayed an acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis. PMID:12943772

  20. Comparative Evaluation of the VITEK 2, Disk Diffusion, Etest, Broth Microdilution, and Agar Dilution Susceptibility Testing Methods for Colistin in Clinical Isolates, Including Heteroresistant Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii Strains▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Diederen, Bram M. W.; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; van Keulen, Peter H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria has recently renewed interest in colistin as a therapeutic option. The increasing use of colistin necessitates the availability of rapid and reliable methods for colistin susceptibility testing. We compared seven methods of colistin susceptibility testing (disk diffusion, agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton [MH] and Isosensitest agar, Etest on MH and Isosensitest agar, broth microdilution, and VITEK 2) on 102 clinical isolates collected f...

  1. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram: evaluation of screening tests and antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Lakshmy Jayachandran

    2016-02-01

    Results: Out of the 120 samples 14 (11.66% were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The Gram staining showed specificity and negative predictive value of 95.2% and 98.1% respectively. Pus cell count showed a specificity and negative predictive value of 96.29% and 98.11% respectively. Escherichia coli were the predominant species isolated 5 (35.7%. Among the gram negative bacteria, amikacin and nitrofurantoin showed a susceptibility of 90% and 80% each. All the staphylococcus aureus isolates showed 100% sensitivity for nitrofurantoin. Two Klebsiella spp and one Escherichia coli isolate were identified as ESBL producers. Among the S. aureus isolates 3 were identified as Methicillin resistant (MRSA. Conclusions: Urine culture should be performed for all pregnant women irrespective of the symptoms and should be treated promptly to prevent the complications arising out of ASB. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 540-544

  2. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in 20 Chinese Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaoli; Cavaco, Lina; Lv, Yuan;

    2011-01-01

    . An equally very high frequency of resistance and equally high levels of diversity in phylogroups, PFGE types, and plasmids were observed among community- and hospital-acquired E. coli isolates, indicating the presence of a large reservoir in the community and a long-term spread of cephalosporin resistance......A total of 222 urinary Escherichia coli isolates from 20 tertiary hospitals in 15 different provinces and 4 municipalities in mainland China were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, phylogrouping, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. A subset of 138 suspected......%) being the most prevalent of these genes. Nine of the 13 CTX-M-15- or CTX-M-14-containing B2 isolates belonged to ST131. PFGE typing showed a high level of diversity, and plasmid analysis indicated a very large pool of different resistance plasmids mediating the spread of blaCTX-M genes in mainland China...

  3. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. PMID:27527782

  4. Comparison of Two Different Disk Diffusion Agar Tests in Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility for E-Coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the most common infections during childhood and E-Coli is the more predominant pathogen recovered in UTI. Disk Diffusion agar test is a method of choice because it is cost effective, simple, and now routinely used for detection of antibiotic susceptibility. A rapid increase in antibiotic resistance in our region made the authors to design a study to compare this traditional method with two different disk diffusion agar tests.Materials & Methods: Our study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in Be’sat teaching hospital on 100 pediatric patients ranged 15 days to 13 years old with positive urine culture for E-coli. Antibiogram detection was performed by disk diffusion agar test with two different kits as Padtan-Teb (made in Iran and Mast (made in the U.K. for Co-trimoxazol, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Nalidixic Acid, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. At last the data was analyzed by McNemar test.Results: Co-trimoxazol obtained the lowest (23% Padtan-Teb and 26% Mast and Nitrofurantoin had the highest (86% Padtan-Teb and 97% Mast sensitivity in the two methods which were used in our study. The results were statistically significant for Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. The data was analyzed by Mc Memar test.Conclusion: According to our study the results of antibiotic susceptibility were more compatible with other non national Disk diffusion agar test and thus we recommend that our manufactures in Iran should increase the quality of their products.

  5. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

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    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  6. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Luliconazole against Trichophyton spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Jun; Nanjoh, Yasuko; Koga, Hiroyasu; Toga, Tetsuo; Makimura, Koichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of luliconazole against Trichophyton rubrum (14 strains) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (14 strains), which are the most common cause of tinea, were compared with those of 6 topical antifungal drugs of lanoconazole, bifonazole, efinaconazole, liranaftate, naftifine and terbinafine. Luliconazole showed the most potent antifungal activity (MIC90 =0.00098 μg/ml and MFC90 =0.0078 μg/ml) among the compounds tested against the two species. Efinaconazole and bifonazole, the drug of azole-class, showed a large MFC/MIC ratio. On the other hand, these ratios of luliconazole and lanoconazole were as small as those of liranaftate, naftifine and terbinafine which are thought to possess fungicidal mechanism. These results suggest that luliconazole possesses fungicidal activity against both species of Trichophyton. In this study, we found that luliconazole had the most potent antifungal activity among the major topical antimycotics used in Japan and the US. Luliconazole would be the best-in-class drug for dermatophytosis in clinics. PMID:26936346

  7. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane eLacerda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 90’s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP have been studied. However, Broekaert only coined the term plant defensin in 1995, after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity towards microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM. Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 µM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90’s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii the possibility of using plant defensin(s genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins.

  8. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Ariane F; Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term "plant defensin," after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins. PMID:24765086

  9. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Negri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  10. Antifungal drugs and resistance: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar Nigam

    2015-01-01

    Recently, clinical failure and relapses have been observed in patients treated with antifungals. Drug resistance has become an important problem leading to significant negative social, psychological, and occupational health effects and quality of life. Early recognition and treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and possibility of transmission. The increased use, inappropriate prescribing and over the counter sale of antifungal agents has also added in the development of resistance to the...

  11. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Oliveira Cecília Maria Alves de; Ferri Pedro Henrique; Santos Suzana Costa; Oliveira Júnior Juldásio Galdino de; Miranda André Thiago Borges; Lião Luciano Morais; Silva Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  12. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  13. In vitro antifungal activity of four medicinal plants used in Iranian Traditional Medicine

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    S.J. Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the in vitro antifungal activity of Phlomis lanceolata, Rhynchocorys elephas, Otostegia persica and Eremurus persicus, four species used in Iranian Traditional Medicine, has been performed on the clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum and the yeast Candida albicans. The susceptibility tests were done by agar disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of active extracts and sub-fractions were measured using the method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Among the investigated species, P. lanceolata sub-fractions were found to have fungicidal activity. The MIC and MFC was found to be considerable in petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions (100 and 200 mg/mL against the studied fungi and the yeast Candida albicans. The species appears to be a promising remedy for fungal based diseases, yet further studies are necessary.

  14. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for addiction susceptibility: a premature commercialisation of doubtful validity and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rebecca; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Genetic research on addiction liability and pharmacogenetic research on treatments for addiction have identified some genetic variants associated with disease risk and treatment. Genetic testing for addiction liability and treatment response has not been used widely in clinical practice because most of the genes identified only modestly predict addiction risk or treatment response. However, many of these genetic tests have been commercialized prematurely and are available direct to the consumer (DTC). The easy availability of DTC tests for addiction liability and lack of regulation over their use raises a number of ethical concerns. Of paramount concern is the limited predictive power and clinical utility of these tests. Many DTC testing companies do not provide the consumer with the necessary genetic counselling to assist them in interpreting and acting on their test results. They may also engage in misleading marketing to entice consumers to purchase their products. Consumers' genetic information may be vulnerable to misuse by third parties, as there are limited standards to protect the privacy of the genetic information. Non-consensual testing and inappropriate testing of minors may also occur. The United States Food and Drug Administration plans to regulate DTC genetic tests. Based on the ethical concerns we discuss below, we believe there is a strong case for regulation of DTC genetic tests for addiction liability and treatment response. We argue that until this occurs, these tests have more potential to cause harm than to contribute to improved prevention and treatment of addiction. PMID:22510165

  15. Evaluación de tres métodos para la detección de la sensibilidad in vitro de especies de Candida a los antifúngicos Evaluation of three methods for in vitro detection of antifungal susceptibility of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Maldonado

    2011-06-01

    yield results comparable to those of the reference methods. The objectives of this study were: a to compare the results of minimal inhibitory concentration of 82 Candida spp. clinic isolates according to reference method E.Def 7.1 and ATB® Fungus 3; b to compare the results of fluconazole susceptibility testing by disk diffusion in agar with Neo-SensitabsTM tablets and Malbrán disks with those of the reference methods. Minimal inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole and itraconazole was performed according to the E.Def 7.1 and the ATB Fungus 3 methods and diffusion was carried out with fluconazole disks and tablets. General concordance between the reference method and ATB Fungus 3 was 90.2 % and 96.3 and 92.7% for diffusion with disks and tablets. The ATB Fungus 3 method was effective to determine susceptibility against amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine; however, discrepancies were observed with azole drugs. Disk diffusion methods are useful to determine susceptibility to fluconazole; however, 3 very major, 1 major and 2 minor errors were observed with the tablets, whereas only 3 minor errors were observed with the disks.

  16. One-pot synthesis and antifungal activity against plant pathogens of quinazolinone derivatives containing an amide moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jia; Ma, Yangmin; Ren, Decheng; Cheng, Pei; Zhao, Jiawen; Zhang, Fan; Yao, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    An efficient one-pot, three-component synthesis of quinazolinone derivatives containing 3-acrylamino motif was carried out using CeO2 nanoparticles as catalyst. Thirty-nine synthesized compounds were obtained with satisfied yield and elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Four phytopathogenic fungi were chosen to test the antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Compounds 4ag, 4bb, 4bc showed broad antifungal activities against at least three fungi, and dramatic effects of substituents on the activities were observed. Docking studies were established to explore the potential antifungal mechanism of quinazolinone derivatives as the chitinase inhibitors, and also verified the importance of the amide moiety. PMID:27040656

  17. A rapid method for testing in vivo the susceptibility of different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi to active chemotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny S. Filardi

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A method is described which permits to determine in vivo an in a short period of time (4-6 hours the sensitivity of T. cruzo strains to known active chemotherapeutic agents. By using resistant- and sensitive T. cruzi stains a fairly good correlation was observed between the results obtained with this rapid method (which detects activity against the circulating blood forms and those obtained with long-term schedules which involve drug adminstration for at least 20 consecutive days and a prolonged period of assessment. This method may be used to characterize susceptibility to active drugs used clinically, provide infomation on the specific action against circulating trypomastigotes and screen active compounds. Differences in the natural susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains to active drugs have been already reported using different criteria, mostly demanding long-term study of the animal (Hauschka, 1949; Bock, Gonnert & Haberkorn, 1969; Brener, Costa & Chiari, 1976; Andrade & Figueira, 1977; Schlemper, 1982. In this paper we report a method which detects in 4-6 hours the effect of drugs on bloodstream forms in mice with established T. cruzi infections. The results obtained with this method show a fairly good correlation with those obtained by prolonged treatment schedules used to assess the action of drugs in experimental Chagas' disease and may be used to study the sensitivity of T. cruzi strains to active drugs.No presente trabalho descreve-se um metodo que permite determinar in vivo e em curto espaço de tempo (4-6 horas a sensibilidade de cepas de T. cruzi a agentes terapeuticos ativos na doença de Chagas. Usando-se cepas sensíveis e resistentes aos medicamentos foi possível observar uma boa correlação entre os resultados obtidos com o método rápido (que detecta atividade contra as formas circulantes do parasita e aqueles obtidos com esquema de acao prolongada que envolve a administração da droga por 20 dias e posterior avalia

  18. Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Débora; Oro; Andréia; Heissler; Eliandra; Mirlei; Rossi; Diane; Scapin; Patrícia; da; Silva; Malheiros; Everton; Boff

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum(C. zeylanicum) and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils and honey against strains of Candida sp. from HIV-positive patients in order to subsidize new therapeutic strategies for candidiasis.Methods: The study evaluated the antifungal effect of natural antimicrobials against 30 strains of Candida sp. isolated from oral cavities in HIV-infected patients. Then, they were compared to the action of fl uconazole and amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by the broth macrodilution technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration were determined.Results: Among all antifungals evaluated in this study, amphotericin B was the one showing the best results; however, all compounds studied here showed inhibitory activities against isolates of Candida sp. Honey(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) demonstrated fungistatic activity inhibiting 70% of the isolates. C. zeylanicum essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) inhibited 93.3% of the Candida strains and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) was able to inhibit 73.3% of them.Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.

  19. Mechanism of Action of ME1111, a Novel Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Sho; Kubota, Natsuki; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Mari; Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Abe, Shigeru; Tabata, Yuji; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Despite the existing treatment options for onychomycosis, there remains a strong demand for potent topical medications. ME1111 is a novel antifungal agent that is active against dermatophytes, has an excellent ability to penetrate human nails, and is being developed as a topical agent for onychomycosis. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism of action. Trichophyton mentagrophytes mutants with reduced susceptibility to ME1111 were selected in our laboratory, and genome sequences were determined for 3 resistant mutants. The inhibitory effect on a candidate target was evaluated by a spectrophotometric enzyme assay using mitochondrial fractions. Point mutations were introduced into candidate genes by a reverse genetics approach. Whole-genome analysis of the 3 selected mutants revealed point mutations in the structural regions of genes encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II). All of the laboratory-generated resistant mutants tested harbored a mutation in one of the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SdhB, SdhC, or SdhD). Most of the mutants showed cross-resistance to carboxin and boscalid, which are succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors. ME1111 strongly inhibited the succinate-2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase reaction in Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] of 0.029 and 0.025 μg/ml, respectively) but demonstrated only moderate inhibition of the same reaction in human cell lines. Furthermore, the target protein of ME1111 was confirmed by the introduction of point mutations causing the amino acid substitutions in SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD found in the laboratory-generated resistant mutants, which resulted in reduced susceptibility to ME1111. Thus, ME1111 is a novel inhibitor of the succinate dehydrogenase of Trichophyton species, and its mechanism of action indicates its selective profile. PMID:26596944

  20. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth. Pax. & Hoffman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract.