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Sample records for antifungal protein ppebl21

  1. Characterization and antifungal properties of wheat nonspecific lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin-Yue; Gaudet, Denis A; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Frick, Michele; Puchalski, Byron; Laroche, André

    2008-03-01

    This study simultaneously considered the phylogeny, fatty acid binding ability, and fungal toxicity of a large number of monocot nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (ns-LTP). Nine novel full-length wheat ns-LTP1 clones, all possessing coding sequences of 348 bp, isolated from abiotic- and biotic-stressed cDNA libraries from aerial tissues, exhibited highly conserved coding regions with 78 to 99 and 71 to 100% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two major ns-LTP families in wheat. Eight wheat ns-LTP genes from different clades were cloned into the expression vector pPICZalpha and transformed into Pichia pastoris. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and in vitro lipid binding activity assay confirmed that the eight ns-LTP were all successfully expressed and capable of in vitro binding fatty acid molecules. A comparative in vitro study on the toxicity of eight wheat ns-LTP to mycelium growth or spore germination of eight wheat pathogens and three nonwheat pathogens revealed differential toxicities among different ns-LTP. Values indicating 50% inhibition of fungal growth or spore germination of three selected ns-LTP against six fungi ranged from 1 to 7 microM. In vitro lipid-binding activity of ns-LTP was not correlated with their antifungal activity. Using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green as an indicator of fungal membrane integrity, the in vitro toxicity of wheat ns-LTP was associated with alteration in permeability of fungal membranes.

  2. Antifungal Effect of Arabidopsis SGT1 Proteins via Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Cheong, Mi Sun; Kim, Eun-Ji; Kim, Jin Hyo; Chi, Yong Hun; Jang, Mi-Kyeong

    2017-09-27

    The highly conserved SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 alleles of skp1) proteins from Arabidopsis are known to contribute to plant resistance to pathogens. While SGT1 proteins respond to fungal pathogens, their antifungal activity is not reported and the mechanism for this inhibition is not well understood. Therefore, recombinant Arabidopsis SGT1 proteins were cloned, expressed, and purified to evaluate their antifungal activity, resulting in their potent inhibition of pathogen growth. Dye-labeled proteins are localized to the cytosol of Candida albicans cells without the disruption of the cell membrane. Moreover, we showed that entry of the proteins into C. albicans cells resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death via altered mitochondrial potential. Morphological changes of C. albicans cells in the presence of proteins were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Our data suggest that AtSGT1 proteins play a critical role in plant resistance to pathogenic fungal infection and they can be classified to a new plant antifungal protein.

  3. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

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    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg{sup −1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  4. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz; Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István; Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2013-01-01

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg −1 daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation

  5. Isolation and characterization of an antifungal protein from Bacillus licheniformis HS10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Yunpeng; Zheng, Li; Yang, Xiaona; Liu, Hongxia; Guo, Jianhua

    2014-11-07

    Bacillus licheniformis HS10 is a good biocontrol agent against Pseudoperonospora cubensis which caused cucumber downy disease. To identify and characterize the antifungal proteins produced by B.licheniformis HS10, the proteins from HS10 were isolated by using 30-60% ammonium sulfate precipitation, and purified with column chromatography on DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow, RESOURCE Q and Sephadex G-75. And the SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis results demonstrated that the antifungal protein was a monomer with molecular weight of about 55 kDa, identified as carboxypeptidase. Our experiments also showed that the antifungal protein from B. licheniformis HS10 had significantly inhibition on eight different kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and it was stable with good biological activity at as high as 100°C for 30 min and in pH value ranged from 6 to 10. The biological activity was negatively affected by protease K and 10mM metal cations except Ca(2+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of co-cultivation on expression of the antifungal protein in Aspergillus giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Stahl, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    The afp gene of Aspergillus giganteus encodes a small, highly basic polypeptide with antifungal activity, named Antifungal Protein (AFP). The protein is secreted by the mould and inhibits the growth of various filamentous fungi. In this paper we report that co-cultivation of A. giganteus with various microorganisms alters afp expression. It was found that co-cultivation modulates afp expression on the level of transcription, using a reporter system based on the beta-glucuronidase gene. The presence of Fusarium oxysporum triggered afp transcription whereas dual cultures of A. giganteus and A. niger resulted in suppression of afp transcription. Growth tests performed with several carbon and nitrogen sources, revealed that the influence of co-cultivation is strongly dependent on the medium composition.

  7. Impact of the antifungal protein PgAFP from Penicillium chrysogenum on the protein profile in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2015-10-01

    Antifungal proteins produced by molds are generally small, highly basic, and cysteine-rich. The best known effects of these proteins include morphological changes, metabolic inactivation, and membrane perturbation on sensitive fungi. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leads to apoptosis, with G -protein playing a key role in transduction of cell death signals. The antifungal protein PgAFP from Penicillium chrysogenum inhibits growth of some toxigenic molds. Here we analyzed the effect of the antifungal protein PgAFP on the growth of Aspergillus flavus. For this, comparative proteomic analysis was used to identify the whole protein profile and protein change in abundance after PgAFP treatment. PgAFP provoked metabolic changes related to reduced energy metabolism, cell wall integrity alteration, and increased stress response due to higher levels of ROS. The observed changes in protein abundance, favoring a higher glutathione concentration as well as the increased abundance in heat shock proteins, do not seem to be enough to avoid necrosis. The decreased chitin deposition observed in PgAFP-treated A. flavus is attributed to a lower relative quantity of Rho1. The reduced relative abundance of a β subunit of G -protein seems to be the underlying reason for modulation of apoptosis in PgAFP-treated A. flavus hyphae. We propose Rho1 and G -protein subunit β CpcB to be the main factors in the mode of action of PgAFP in A. flavus. Additionally, enzymes essential for the biosynthesis of aflatoxin were no longer detectable in A. flavus hyphae at 24 h, following treatment with PgAFP. This presents a promising effect of PgAFP, which may prevent A. flavus from producing mycotoxins. However, the impact of PgAFP on actual aflatoxin production requires further study.

  8. Selection of antifungal protein-producing molds from dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Raquel; Rodríguez-Martín, Andrea; Martín, Alberto; Núñez, Félix; Asensio, Miguel A

    2009-09-30

    To control unwanted molds in dry-cured meats it is necessary to allow the fungal development essential for the desired characteristics of the final product. Molds producing antifungal proteins could be useful to prevent hazards due to the growth of mycotoxigenic molds. The objective has been to select Penicillium spp. that produce antifungal proteins against toxigenic molds. To obtain strains adapted to these products, molds were isolated from dry-cured ham. A first screening with 281 isolates by the radial inhibition assay revealed that 166 were active against some of the toxigenic P. echinulatum, P. commune, and Aspergillusniger used as reference molds. The activity of different extracts from cultured medium was evaluated by a microspectroscopic assay. Molds producing active chloroform extracts were eliminated from further consideration. A total of 16 Penicillium isolates were screened for antifungal activity from both cell-free media and the aqueous residues obtained after chloroform extraction. The cell-free media of 10 isolates that produced a strong inhibition of the three reference molds were fractionated by FPLC on a cationic column. For protein purification, the fractions of the three molds that showed high inhibitory activity were further chromatographed on a gel filtration column, and the subfractions containing the highest absorbance peaks were assayed against the most sensitive reference molds. One subfraction each from strains AS51D and RP42C from Penicilliumchrysogenum confirmed the inhibitory activity against the reference molds. SDS-PAGE revealed a single band from each subfraction, with estimated molecular masses of 37kDa for AS51D and 9kDa for RP42C. Although further characterisation is required, both these proteins and the producing strains can be of interest to control unwanted molds on foods.

  9. Identification and Characterization of an Antifungal Protein, AfAFPR9, Produced by Marine-Derived Aspergillus fumigatus R9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qi; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    A fungal strain, R9, was isolated from the South Atlantic sediment sample and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. An antifungal protein, AfAFPR9, was purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus fumigatus R9. AfAFPR9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. AfAFPR9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria longipes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.6, 0.6, 1.2, 1.2, and 2.4 μg/disc, respectively. Moreover, AfAFPR9 exhibited a certain extent of thermostability, and metal ion and denaturant tolerance. The iodoacetamide assay showed that the disulfide bridge in AfAFPR9 was indispensable for its antifungal action. The cDNA encoding for AfAFPR9 was cloned from A. fumigatus R9 by RTPCR and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant AfAFPR9 protein exhibited obvious antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, T. viride, and A. longipes. These results reveal the antifungal properties of a RIP member (AfAFPR9) from marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus and indicated its potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungi.

  10. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification and characterization of a CkTLP protein from Cynanchum komarovii seeds that confers antifungal activity.

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    Qinghua Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cynanchum komarovii Al Iljinski is a desert plant that has been used as analgesic, anthelminthic and antidiarrheal, but also as a herbal medicine to treat cholecystitis in people. We have found that the protein extractions from C. komarovii seeds have strong antifungal activity. There is strong interest to develop protein medication and antifungal pesticides from C. komarovii for pharmacological or other uses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An antifungal protein with sequence homology to thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs was isolated from C. komarovii seeds and named CkTLP. The three-dimensional structure prediction of CkTLP indicated the protein has an acid cleft and a hydrophobic patch. The protein showed antifungal activity against fungal growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Valsa mali. The full-length cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR according to the partial protein sequences obtained by nanoESI-MS/MS. The real-time PCR showed the transcription level of CkTLP had a significant increase under the stress of abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA, NaCl and drought, which indicates that CkTLP may play an important role in response to abiotic stresses. Histochemical staining showed GUS activity in almost the whole plant, especially in cotyledons, trichomes and vascular tissues of primary root and inflorescences. The CkTLP protein was located in the extracellular space/cell wall by CkTLP::GFP fusion protein in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, over-expression of CkTLP significantly enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis against V. dahliae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the CkTLP is a good candidate protein or gene for contributing to the development of disease-resistant crops.

  12. Characterization of a new antifungal non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) from sugar beet leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Madsen, M T

    2000-01-01

    A novel protein (IWF5) comprising 92 amino acids has been purified from the intercellular washing fluid of sugar beet leaves using cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Based on amino acid sequence homology, including the presence of eight...... cysteines at conserved positions, the protein can be classified as a member of the plant family of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). The protein is 47% identical to IWF1, an antifungal nsLTP previously isolated from leaves of sugar beet. A potential site for N-linked glycosylation present...

  13. Manuscript title: antifungal proteins from moulds: analytical tools and potential application to dry-ripened foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Moulds growing on the surface of dry-ripened foods contribute to their sensory qualities, but some of them are able to produce mycotoxins that pose a hazard to consumers. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins (AFPs) from moulds are highly stable to pH and proteolysis and exhibit a broad inhibition spectrum against filamentous fungi, providing new chances to control hazardous moulds in fermented foods. The analytical tools for characterizing the cellular targets and affected pathways are reviewed. Strategies currently employed to study these mechanisms of action include 'omics' approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years, developing in tandem with genome sequencing of relevant organisms. These techniques contribute to a better understanding of the response of moulds against AFPs, allowing the design of complementary strategies to maximize or overcome the limitations of using AFPs on foods. AFPs alter chitin biosynthesis, and some fungi react inducing cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, moulds able to increase chitin content at the cell wall by increasing proteins in either CWI or calmodulin-calcineurin signalling pathways will resist AFPs. Similarly, AFPs increase the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moulds increasing G-protein complex β subunit CpcB and/or enzymes to efficiently produce glutathione may evade apoptosis. Unknown aspects that need to be addressed include the interaction with mycotoxin production by less sensitive toxigenic moulds. However, significant steps have been taken to encourage the use of AFPs in intermediate-moisture foods, particularly for mould-ripened cheese and meat products.

  14. High-Resolution Genetics Identifies the Lipid Transfer Protein Sec14p as Target for Antifungal Ergolines.

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    Ireos Filipuzzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections by fungal pathogens cause more deaths than malaria worldwide. We found the ergoline compound NGx04 in an antifungal screen, with selectivity over mammalian cells. High-resolution chemogenomics identified the lipid transfer protein Sec14p as the target of NGx04 and compound-resistant mutations in Sec14p define compound-target interactions in the substrate binding pocket of the protein. Beyond its essential lipid transfer function in a variety of pathogenic fungi, Sec14p is also involved in secretion of virulence determinants essential for the pathogenicity of fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans, making Sec14p an attractive antifungal target. Consistent with this dual function, we demonstrate that NGx04 inhibits the growth of two clinical isolates of C. neoformans and that NGx04-related compounds have equal and even higher potency against C. neoformans. Furthermore NGx04 analogues showed fungicidal activity against a fluconazole resistant C. neoformans strain. In summary, we present genetic evidence that NGx04 inhibits fungal Sec14p and initial data supporting NGx04 as a novel antifungal starting point.

  15. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. D19S Mutation of the Cationic, Cysteine-Rich Protein PAF: Novel Insights into Its Structural Dynamics, Thermal Unfolding and Antifungal Function.

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    Christoph Sonderegger

    Full Text Available The cysteine-rich, cationic, antifungal protein PAF is abundantly secreted into the culture supernatant of the filamentous Ascomycete Penicillium chrysogenum. The five β-strands of PAF form a compact β-barrel that is stabilized by three disulphide bonds. The folding of PAF allows the formation of four surface-exposed loops and distinct charged motifs on the protein surface that might regulate the interaction of PAF with the sensitive target fungus. The growth inhibitory activity of this highly stable protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens provides great potential in antifungal drug research. To understand its mode of action, we started to investigate the surface-exposed loops of PAF and replaced one aspartic acid at position 19 in loop 2 that is potentially involved in PAF active or binding site, with a serine (Asp19 to Ser19. We analysed the overall effects, such as unfolding, electrostatic changes, sporadic conformers and antifungal activity when substituting this specific amino acid to the fairly indifferent amino acid serine. Structural analyses revealed that the overall 3D solution structure is virtually identical with that of PAF. However, PAFD19S showed slightly increased dynamics and significant differences in the surface charge distribution. Thermal unfolding identified PAFD19S to be rather a two-state folder in contrast to the three-state folder PAF. Functional comparison of PAFD19S and PAF revealed that the exchange at residue 19 caused a dramatic loss of antifungal activity: the binding and internalization of PAFD19S by target cells was reduced and the protein failed to trigger an intracellular Ca2+ response, all of which are closely linked to the antifungal toxicity of PAF. We conclude that the negatively charged residue Asp19 in loop 2 is essential for full function of the cationic protein PAF.

  17. Studies on Antifungal Potential, Primary Characterization and Mode of Action of a De Novo Cytoplasmic Protein (EAF) from Human Commensal Escherichia coli Against Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    A de novo protein named as EAF (Escherichia antifungal protein) from the cytoplasmic pool of an Escherichia coli strain (MTCC 1652), has been purified to homogeneity using anion exchange (Q-XL Sepharose) and cation exchange (SP-Sepharose) chromatography. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of purified protein against A. fumigatus (the major pathogenic species) were found to be comparable with standard drugs i.e. 3.90 µg/ml, 3.90 µg/ml and 1.25 µg/disc via microbroth dilution assay (MDA), percentage spore germination inhibition (PSGI) and disc diffusion assay (DDA) respectively. Toxicity results confirmed that it causes no haemolysis against human RBCs upto a concentration of 1000.0 µg/ml as compared to Amphotericin B (conventional antifungal drug) that causes hundred percent haemolysis at a concentration of 37.50 µg/ml only.The purified protein demonstrated a molecular mass of 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE which was further authenticated by MALDI-TOF. Proteomic and bioinformatics studies deciphered its significant homology (72 %) with chain A-D-ribose binding protein (cluster 2 sugar binding periplasmic proteins; sequence homologues of transcription regulatory proteins) from E. coli. Single dimensional page analysis of A. fumigatusproteins with due effect of EAF (at MIC50) revealed the inhibition of two major proteins; a heat shock protein 70-Hsp70 (68 kDa); having role in protein folding and functioning andphenylanalyl-t RNA synthetase PodG subunit protein (74 kDa); involved in growth polarity in fungi. Scanning electron microscopic studies depicted homologous results. We suggest that EAF most likely belongs to a new group of proteins with potent antifungal characteristics, negligible toxicity and targeting vital proteins of fungal metabolism.

  18. New insights into the structure and mode of action of Mo-CBP3, an antifungal chitin-binding protein of Moringa oleifera seeds.

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    Adelina B Batista

    Full Text Available Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein purified from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds that displays inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This study investigated the structural properties and the antifungal mode of action of this protein. To this end, circular dichroism spectroscopy, antifungal assays, measurements of the production of reactive oxygen species and microscopic analyses were utilized. Mo-CBP3 is composed of 30.3% α-helices, 16.3% β-sheets, 22.3% turns and 30.4% unordered forms. The Mo-CBP3 structure is highly stable and retains its antifungal activity regardless of temperature and pH. Fusarium solani was used as a model organism for studying the mechanisms by which this protein acts as an antifungal agent. Mo-CBP3 significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth at 0.05 mg.mL-1. Mo-CBP3 has both fungistatic and fungicidal effects, depending on the concentration used. Binding of Mo-CBP3 to the fungal cell surface is achieved, at least in part, via electrostatic interactions, as salt was able to reduce its inhibitory effect. Mo-CBP3 induced the production of ROS and caused disorganization of both the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in F. solani cells. Based on its high stability and specific toxicity, with broad-spectrum efficacy against important phytopathogenic fungi at low inhibitory concentrations but not to human cells, Mo-CBP3 has great potential for the development of new antifungal drugs or transgenic crops with enhanced resistance to phytopathogens.

  19. A Transcriptome Meta-Analysis Proposes Novel Biological Roles for the Antifungal Protein AnAFP in Aspergillus niger.

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    Norman Paege

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic, molecular and evolutionary basis of cysteine-stabilized antifungal proteins (AFPs from fungi is important for understanding whether their function is mainly defensive or associated with fungal growth and development. In the current study, a transcriptome meta-analysis of the Aspergillus niger γ-core protein AnAFP was performed to explore co-expressed genes and pathways, based on independent expression profiling microarrays covering 155 distinct cultivation conditions. This analysis uncovered that anafp displays a highly coordinated temporal and spatial transcriptional profile which is concomitant with key nutritional and developmental processes. Its expression profile coincides with early starvation response and parallels with genes involved in nutrient mobilization and autophagy. Using fluorescence- and luciferase reporter strains we demonstrated that the anafp promoter is active in highly vacuolated compartments and foraging hyphal cells during carbon starvation with CreA and FlbA, but not BrlA, as most likely regulators of anafp. A co-expression network analysis supported by luciferase-based reporter assays uncovered that anafp expression is embedded in several cellular processes including allorecognition, osmotic and oxidative stress survival, development, secondary metabolism and autophagy, and predicted StuA and VelC as additional regulators. The transcriptomic resources available for A. niger provide unparalleled resources to investigate the function of proteins. Our work illustrates how transcriptomic meta-analyses can lead to hypotheses regarding protein function and predict a role for AnAFP during slow growth, allorecognition, asexual development and nutrient recycling of A. niger and propose that it interacts with the autophagic machinery to enable these processes.

  20. A Transcriptome Meta-Analysis Proposes Novel Biological Roles for the Antifungal Protein AnAFP in Aspergillus niger.

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    Paege, Norman; Jung, Sascha; Schäpe, Paul; Müller-Hagen, Dirk; Ouedraogo, Jean-Paul; Heiderich, Caroline; Jedamzick, Johanna; Nitsche, Benjamin M; van den Hondel, Cees A; Ram, Arthur F; Meyer, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, molecular and evolutionary basis of cysteine-stabilized antifungal proteins (AFPs) from fungi is important for understanding whether their function is mainly defensive or associated with fungal growth and development. In the current study, a transcriptome meta-analysis of the Aspergillus niger γ-core protein AnAFP was performed to explore co-expressed genes and pathways, based on independent expression profiling microarrays covering 155 distinct cultivation conditions. This analysis uncovered that anafp displays a highly coordinated temporal and spatial transcriptional profile which is concomitant with key nutritional and developmental processes. Its expression profile coincides with early starvation response and parallels with genes involved in nutrient mobilization and autophagy. Using fluorescence- and luciferase reporter strains we demonstrated that the anafp promoter is active in highly vacuolated compartments and foraging hyphal cells during carbon starvation with CreA and FlbA, but not BrlA, as most likely regulators of anafp. A co-expression network analysis supported by luciferase-based reporter assays uncovered that anafp expression is embedded in several cellular processes including allorecognition, osmotic and oxidative stress survival, development, secondary metabolism and autophagy, and predicted StuA and VelC as additional regulators. The transcriptomic resources available for A. niger provide unparalleled resources to investigate the function of proteins. Our work illustrates how transcriptomic meta-analyses can lead to hypotheses regarding protein function and predict a role for AnAFP during slow growth, allorecognition, asexual development and nutrient recycling of A. niger and propose that it interacts with the autophagic machinery to enable these processes.

  1. THE EFFLUENT OF NATURAL-RUBBER FACTORIES IS ENRICHED IN THE ANTIFUNGAL PROTEIN HEVEIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOEDJANAATMADJA, UMS; SUBROTO, T; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Hevein is a small cystine-rich protein with a polypeptide chain length of 43 residues. It occurs in the lutoid body fraction of rubber latex, has affinity for chitin, and inhibits fungal growth. It was isolated from the effluent of a rubber factory in a yield of about 0.7 g/l. The elution position

  2. The secreted antifungal protein thionin 2.4 in Arabidopsis thaliana suppresses the toxicity of a fungal fruit body lectin from Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Asano

    Full Text Available Plants possess active defense systems and can protect themselves from pathogenic invasion by secretion of a variety of small antimicrobial or antifungal proteins such as thionins. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of thionins are derived from their ability to induce open pore formation on cell membranes of phytopathogens, resulting in release of potassium and calcium ions from the cell. Wheat thionin also accumulates in the cell walls of Fusarium-inoculated plants, suggesting that it may have a role in blocking pathogen infection at the plant cell walls. Here we developed an anti-thionin 2.4 (Thi2.4 antibody and used it to show that Thi2.4 is localized in the cell walls of Arabidopsis and cell membranes of F. graminearum, when flowers are inoculated with F. graminearum. The Thi2.4 protein had an antifungal effect on F. graminearum. Next, we purified the Thi2.4 protein, conjugated it with glutathione-S-transferase (GST and coupled the proteins to an NHS-activated column. Total protein from F. graminearum was applied to GST-Thi2.4 or Thi2.4-binding columns, and the fungal fruit body lectin (FFBL of F. graminearum was identified as a Thi2.4-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid analysis. To investigate the biological function of FFBL, we infiltrated the lectin into Arabidopsis leaves and observed that it induced cell death in the leaves. Application of FFBL at the same time as inoculation with F. graminearum significantly enhanced the virulence of the pathogen. By contrast, FFBL-induced host cell death was effectively suppressed in transgenic plants that overexpressed Thi2.4. We found that a 15 kD Thi2.4 protein was specifically expressed in flowers and flower buds and suggest that it acts not only as an antifungal peptide, but also as a suppressor of the FFBL toxicity. Secreted thionin proteins are involved in this dual defense mechanism against pathogen invasion at the plant-pathogen interface.

  3. Lentin, a novel and potent antifungal protein from shitake mushroom with inhibitory effects on activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Patrick H K; Ng, T B

    2003-11-14

    From the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes, a novel protein designated lentin with potent antifungal activity was isolated. Lentin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The N-terminal sequence of lentin manifested similarity to endoglucanase. Lentin, which had a molecular mass of 27.5 kDa, inhibited mycelial growth in a variety of fungal species including Physalospora piricola, Botrytis cinerea and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Lentin also exerted an inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells.

  4. Biological safety assessment of mutant variant of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a novel antifungal protein for future transgenic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2013-12-04

    Genetic engineering has established itself to be an important tool for crop improvement. Despite the success, there is always a risk of food allergy induced by alien gene products. The present study assessed the biosafety of mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein generated by site directed mutagenesis of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL). mASAL was cloned in pET28a+ and expressed in E. coli, and the safety assessment was carried out according to the FAO/WHO guideline (2001). Bioinformatics analysis, pepsin digestion, and thermal stability assay showed the protein to be nonallergenic. Targeted sera screening revealed no significant IgE affinity of mASAL. Furthermore, mASAL sensitized Balb/c mice showed normal histopathology of lung and gut tissue. All results indicated the least possibility of mASAL being an allergen. Thus, mASAL appears to be a promising antifungal candidate protein suitable for agronomical biotechnology.

  5. The Candida albicans Ddr48 protein is essential for filamentation, stress response, and confers partial antifungal drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Leila; Hayek, Peter; Sadek, Helen; Beyrouthy, Berna; Khalaf, Roy A

    2008-06-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic pathogenic fungus that causes mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans pathogenicity is attributed to its ability to exist in different morphologic states and to respond to stress by up regulating several key genes. DDR48 is a stress-associated gene involved in DNA repair and in response to antifungal drug exposure. One allele of DDR48 was knocked out by homologous recombination that inserted a marker cassette in its position. Furthermore, reintroducing DDR48 on a plasmid created a revertant strain. Strains were grown on filamentation inducing and noninducing media, subjected to an oxidative stress challenge, injected into mice to assess virulence, and assayed for antifungal susceptibility by the E-test method. DDR48 was found to be haploid insufficient and possibly essential, since only a heterozygote, but not a homozygous, null mutant was generated. The mutant was filamentation defective on all hyphal media tested including serum and corn meal agar. Discrepancies in drug resistance profiles also were present: compared with the parental strain, DDR48/ddr48 heterozygote strain was susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to itraconazole and fluconazole and susceptible to ketoconazole. The mutant also appeared to be hypersensitive to a potentially lethal hydrogen peroxide challenge. However, no reduction in virulence of the mutant was observed. The present findings provide evidence that DDR48 is essential for filamentation, stress response, and possibly viability of C. albicans, making it a prime target for antifungal drug design.

  6. Deciphering the mode of action of a mutant Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Hess, Daniel; Ghosh, Anupama; Das, Sampa

    2015-10-26

    Mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) is a potent, biosafe, antifungal protein that exhibits fungicidal activity against different phytopathogenic fungi, including Rhizoctonia solani. The effect of mASAL on the morphology of R.solani was monitored primarily by scanning electron and light microscopic techniques. Besides different fluorescent probes were used for monitoring various intracellular changes associated with mASAL treatment like change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In addition ligand blot followed by LC-MS/MS analyses were performed to detect the putative interactors of mASAL. Knowledge on the mode of function for any new protein is a prerequisite for its biotechnological application. Detailed morphological analysis of mASAL treated R. solani hyphae using different microscopic techniques revealed a detrimental effect of mASAL on both the cell wall and the plasma membrane. Moreover, exposure to mASAL caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the subsequent intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the target organism. In conjunction with this observation, evidence of the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) was also noted in the mASAL treated R. solani hyphae. Furthermore, we investigated its interacting partners from R. solani. Using ligand blots followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses, we identified different binding partners including Actin, HSP70, ATPase and 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, the present study provides insight into the probable mode of action of the antifungal protein, mASAL on R. solani which could be exploited in future biotechnological applications.

  7. Functional alteration of a dimeric insecticidal lectin to a monomeric antifungal protein correlated to its oligomeric status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Banerjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL is a 25-kDa homodimeric, insecticidal, mannose binding lectin whose subunits are assembled by the C-terminal exchange process. An attempt was made to convert dimeric ASAL into a monomeric form to correlate the relevance of quaternary association of subunits and their functional specificity. Using SWISS-MODEL program a stable monomer was designed by altering five amino acid residues near the C-terminus of ASAL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By introduction of 5 site-specific mutations (-DNSNN-, a β turn was incorporated between the 11(th and 12(th β strands of subunits of ASAL, resulting in a stable monomeric mutant ASAL (mASAL. mASAL was cloned and subsequently purified from a pMAL-c2X system. CD spectroscopic analysis confirmed the conservation of secondary structure in mASAL. Mannose binding assay confirmed that molecular mannose binds efficiently to both mASAL and ASAL. In contrast to ASAL, the hemagglutination activity of purified mASAL against rabbit erythrocytes was lost. An artificial diet bioassay of Lipaphis erysimi with mASAL displayed an insignificant level of insecticidal activity compared to ASAL. Fascinatingly, mASAL exhibited strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria brassicicola in a disc diffusion assay. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of mASAL might be associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, a ligand blot assay of the membrane subproteome of R. solani with mASAL detected a glycoprotein receptor having interaction with mASAL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Conversion of ASAL into a stable monomer resulted in antifungal activity. From an evolutionary aspect, these data implied that variable quaternary organization of lectins might be the outcome of defense-related adaptations to diverse situations in plants. Incorporation of m

  8. Quantitative proteomics reveals new insights into calcium-mediated resistance mechanisms in Aspergillus flavus against the antifungal protein PgAFP in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Núñez, Félix; Asensio, Miguel A

    2017-09-01

    The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins in dairy products presents a potential hazard. The antifungal protein PgAFP from Penicillium chrysogenum inhibits various foodborne toxigenic fungi, including Aspergillus flavus. However, PgAFP did not inhibit A. flavus growth in cheese, which was related to the associated cation content. CaCl 2 increased A. flavus permeability and prevented PgAFP-mediated inhibition in potato dextrose broth (PDB). PgAFP did not elicit any additional increase in permeability of CaCl 2 -incubated A. flavus. Furthermore, PgAFP did not alter metabolic capability, chitin deposition, or hyphal viability of A. flavus grown with CaCl 2 . Comparative proteomic analysis after PgAFP treatment of A. flavus in calcium-enriched PDB revealed increased abundance of 125 proteins, including oxidative stress-related proteins, as determined by label-free mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. Seventy proteins were found at lower abundance, with most involved in metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. These changes do not support the blockage of potential PgAFP receptors in A. flavus by calcium as the main cause of the protective role. A. flavus resistance appears to be mediated by calcineurin, G-protein, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase that combat oxidative stress and impede apoptosis. These findings could serve to design strategies to improve PgAFP activity against aflatoxigenic moulds in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract and protein fraction of Atlantia monophylla Linn (Rutaceae) leaf. Methods: Ammonium sulphate (0 – 80 %) precipitation method was used to extract protein from the leaves of A. monophylla Linn (Rutaceae). In vitro antifungal ...

  10. A novel lipid transfer protein from the pea Pisum sativum: isolation, recombinant expression, solution structure, antifungal activity, lipid binding, and allergenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Ivan V; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Finkina, Ekaterina I; Melnikova, Daria N; Rumynskiy, Eugene I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V

    2016-04-30

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) assemble a family of small (7-9 kDa) ubiquitous cationic proteins with an ability to bind and transport lipids as well as participate in various physiological processes including defense against phytopathogens. They also form one of the most clinically relevant classes of plant allergens. Nothing is known to date about correlation between lipid-binding and IgE-binding properties of LTPs. The garden pea Pisum sativum is widely consumed crop and important allergenic specie of the legume family. This work is aimed at isolation of a novel LTP from pea seeds and characterization of its structural, functional, and allergenic properties. Three novel lipid transfer proteins, designated as Ps-LTP1-3, were found in the garden pea Pisum sativum, their cDNA sequences were determined, and mRNA expression levels of all the three proteins were measured at different pea organs. Ps-LTP1 was isolated for the first time from the pea seeds, and its complete amino acid sequence was determined. The protein exhibits antifungal activity and is a membrane-active compound that causes a leakage from artificial liposomes. The protein binds various lipids including bioactive jasmonic acid. Spatial structure of the recombinant uniformly (13)C,(15)N-labelled Ps-LTP1 was solved by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. In solution the unliganded protein represents the mixture of two conformers (relative populations ~ 85:15) which are interconnected by exchange process with characteristic time ~ 100 ms. Hydrophobic residues of major conformer form a relatively large internal tunnel-like lipid-binding cavity (van der Waals volume comes up to ~1000 Å(3)). The minor conformer probably corresponds to the protein with the partially collapsed internal cavity. For the first time conformational heterogeneity in solution was shown for an unliganded plant lipid transfer protein. Heat denaturation profile and simulated gastrointestinal digestion assay showed that Ps

  11. Ocatin. A novel tuber storage protein from the andean tuber crop oca with antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E

    2002-04-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens.

  12. Ocatin. A Novel Tuber Storage Protein from the Andean Tuber Crop Oca with Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E.

    2002-01-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens. PMID:11950978

  13. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J

    1995-01-01

    cDNAs encoding three proteins from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a class-II chitinase (CHI), a class-II beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and a Type-I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) were expressed in tobacco plants under the control of the CaMV 35S-promoter. High-level expression of the transferred genes...... was detected in the transgenic plants by Northern and Western blot analysis. The leader peptides in CHI and GLU led to accumulation of these proteins in the intercellular space of tobacco leaves. RIP, which is naturally deposited in the cytosol of barley endosperm cells, was expressed either in its original...... cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco...

  14. Characterisation, immunolocalisation and antifungal activity of a lipid transfer protein from chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) seeds with novel α-amylase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Mariângela S; Carvalho, Andre O; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Da Cunha, Maura; Beltramini, Leila; Rodrigues, Rosana; Nascimento, Viviane V; Machado, Olga L T; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2011-07-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) were thus named because they facilitate the transfer of lipids between membranes in vitro. This study was triggered by the characterization of a 9-kDa LTP from Capsicum annuum seeds that we call Ca-LTP(1) . Ca-LTP(1) was repurified, and in the last chromatographic purification step, propanol was used as the solvent in place of acetonitrile to maintain the protein's biological activity. Bidimensional electrophoresis of the 9-kDa band, which corresponds to the purified Ca-LTP(1) , showed the presence of three isoforms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 6.0, 8.5 and 9.5. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis suggested a predominance of α-helices, as expected for the structure of an LTP family member. LTPs immunorelated to Ca-LTP(1) from C. annuum were also detected by western blotting in exudates released from C. annuum seeds and also in other Capsicum species. The tissue and subcellular localization of Ca-LTP(1) indicated that it was mainly localized within dense vesicles. In addition, isolated Ca-LTP(1) exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lindemunthianum, and especially against Candida tropicalis, causing several morphological changes to the cells including the formation of pseudohyphae. Ca-LTP(1) also caused the yeast plasma membrane to be permeable to the dye SYTOX green, as verified by fluorescence microscopy. We also found that Ca-LTP(1) is able to inhibit mammalian α-amylase activity in vitro. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  15. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Menezes, Sara; de Andrade Silva, Edson Mario; Matos Lima, Eline; Oliveira de Sousa, Aurizângela; Silva Andrade, Bruno; Santos Lima Lemos, Livia; Peres Gramacho, Karina; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne

    2014-06-11

    The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b confirmed the importance of the cysteine residues to maintain the protein structure, and of several conserved amino acids for the catalytic activity. In the cacao genome, TcPR-4b belonged to a small multigene family organized mainly on chromosome 5. TcPR-4b RT-qPCR analysis in resistant and susceptible cacao plants infected by M. perniciosa showed an increase of expression at 48 hours after infection (hai) in both cacao genotypes. After the initial stage (24-72 hai), the TcPR-4b expression was observed at all times in the resistant genotypes, while in the susceptible one the expression was concentrated at the final stages of infection (45-90 days after infection). The recombinant TcPR-4b protein showed RNase, and bivalent ions dependent-DNase activity, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, TcPR-4b presented antifungal action against M. perniciosa, and the reduction of M. perniciosa survival was related to ROS production in fungal hyphae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a PR-4 showing simultaneously RNase, DNase and antifungal properties, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, we showed that the antifungal activity of TcPR-4b is directly related to RNase function. In cacao, TcPR-4b nuclease activities may be related to the establishment and maintenance of resistance, and to the PCD mechanism, in resistant and susceptible cacao genotypes, respectively.

  16. Antifungal resistance in mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, E

    2017-11-01

    The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials. Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are currently the most active agents against Mucorales; however, their activity remains suboptimal and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Combination therapy could be a promising approach to overcome resistance, but further studies are required to confirm its benefits and safety for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  18. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  19. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. Results TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b confirmed the importance of the cysteine residues to maintain the protein structure, and of several conserved amino acids for the catalytic activity. In the cacao genome, TcPR-4b belonged to a small multigene family organized mainly on chromosome 5. TcPR-4b RT-qPCR analysis in resistant and susceptible cacao plants infected by M. perniciosa showed an increase of expression at 48 hours after infection (hai) in both cacao genotypes. After the initial stage (24-72 hai), the TcPR-4b expression was observed at all times in the resistant genotypes, while in the susceptible one the expression was concentrated at the final stages of infection (45-90 days after infection). The recombinant TcPR-4b protein showed RNase, and bivalent ions dependent-DNase activity, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, TcPR-4b presented antifungal action against M. perniciosa, and the reduction of M. perniciosa survival was related to ROS production in fungal hyphae. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of a PR-4 showing simultaneously RNase, DNase and antifungal properties, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, we showed that the antifungal activity of TcPR-4b is directly related to RNase function. In cacao, TcPR-4b nuclease activities may be related to the establishment and maintenance of resistance, and to the PCD mechanism, in resistant and susceptible cacao genotypes, respectively. PMID:24920373

  20. Lipid Biosynthesis as an Antifungal Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, commonly including phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols, and triacylglycerols (TAGs, are important biomolecules for the viability of all cells. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols are important constituents of biological membranes. Many lipids play important roles in the regulation of cell metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Neutral lipids, including TAGs and sterol esters (STEs, are important storage lipids in cells. In view of the importance of lipid molecules, this review briefly summarizes the metabolic pathways for sterols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids in fungi and illustrates the differences between fungal and human (or other mammalian cells, especially in relation to lipid biosynthetic pathways. These differences might provide valuable clues for us to find target proteins for novel antifungal drugs. In addition, the development of lipidomics technology in recent years has supplied us with a shortcut for finding new antifungal drug targets; this ability is important for guiding our research on pathogenic fungi.

  1. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  2. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins is discussed.

  3. Antifungal activity of methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    remedy for many diseases in various regions of the world, especially in ... For control, 2 mL of DMSO was added to 16 mL of water, and 4 mL of this .... 3E). Since the four organic solvents used for fractionation of methanolic root .... Purification of a Lectin-Like Antifungal Protein from the Medicinal Herb, Withania Somnifera.

  4. Tenebrio molitor Gram-negative-binding protein 3 (TmGNBP3) is essential for inducing downstream antifungal Tenecin 1 gene expression against infection with Beauveria bassiana JEF-007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Mi Rong; Lee, Se Jin; Kim, Sihyeon; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Jae Su

    2017-05-23

    The Toll signaling pathway is responsible for defense against both Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) has a strong affinity for the fungal cell wall component, β-1,3-glucan, which can activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and induce the Toll signaling pathway. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in the Toll signaling pathway. In this study, we monitored the response of 5 key genes (TmGNBP3, TmMyD88, and Tenecin 1, 2, and 3) in the Toll pathway of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor immune system against the fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 using RT-PCR. TmGNBP3, Tenecin 1, and Tenecin 2 were significantly upregulated after fungal infection. To better understand the roles of the Toll signaling pathway in the mealworm immune system, TmGNBP3 and TmMyD88 were knocked down by RNAi silencing. Target gene expression levels decreased at 2 d postknockdown and were dramatically reduced at 6 d post-dsRNA injection. Therefore, mealworms were compromised by B. bassiana JEF-007 at 6 d post-dsRNA injection. Silencing of TmMyD88 and TmGNBP3 resulted in reduced resistance of the host to fungal infection. Particularly, reducing TmGNBP3 levels obviously downregulated Tenecin 1 and Tenecin 2 expression levels, whereas silencing TmMyD88 expression resulted in decreased Tenecin 2 expression. These results indicate that TmGNBP3 is essential to induce downstream antifungal peptide Tenecin 1 expression against B. bassiana JEF-007. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. The antifungal properties of a 2S albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds involve plasma membrane permeabilization and ultrastructural alterations in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agizzio, Ana Paula; Da Cunha, Maura; Carvalho, André O; Oliveira, Marco Antônio; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2006-10-01

    Different types of antimicrobial proteins were purified from plant seeds, including chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins and 2S albumins. It has become clear that these groups of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants from microbial infection. Recent results from our laboratory have shown that the defense-related proteins from passion fruit seeds, named Pf1 and Pf2 (which show sequence homology with 2S albumins), inhibit fungal growth and glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether 2S albumins from passion fruit seeds induce plasma membrane permeabilization and cause morphological alterations in yeast cells. Initially, we used an assay based on the uptake of SYTOX Green, an organic compound that fluoresces upon interaction with nucleic acids and penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes, to investigate membrane permeabilization in S. cerevisiae cells. When viewed with a confocal laser microscope, S. cervisiae cells showed strong SYTOX Green fluorescence in the cytosol, especially in the nuclei. 2S albumins also inhibited glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by S. cerevisiae cells, which indicates a probable impairment of fungal metabolism. The microscopical analysis of the yeast cells treated with 2S albumins demonstrated several morphological alterations in cell shape, cell surface, cell wall and bud formation, as well as in the organization of intracellular organelles. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antifungal Resistance, Metabolic Routes as Drug Targets, and New Antifungal Agents: An Overview about Endemic Dimorphic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by fungi can occur in healthy people, but immunocompromised patients are the major risk group for invasive fungal infections. Cases of fungal resistance and the difficulty of treatment make fungal infections a public health problem. This review explores mechanisms used by fungi to promote fungal resistance, such as the mutation or overexpression of drug targets, efflux and degradation systems, and pleiotropic drug responses. Alternative novel drug targets have been investigated; these include metabolic routes used by fungi during infection, such as trehalose and amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial proteins. An overview of new antifungal agents, including nanostructured antifungals, as well as of repositioning approaches is discussed. Studies focusing on the development of vaccines against antifungal diseases have increased in recent years, as these strategies can be applied in combination with antifungal therapy to prevent posttreatment sequelae. Studies focused on the development of a pan-fungal vaccine and antifungal drugs can improve the treatment of immunocompromised patients and reduce treatment costs.

  7. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  8. "Invisible" conformers of an antifungal disulfide protein revealed by constrained cold and heat unfolding, CEST-NMR experiments, and molecular dynamics calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizil, Ádám; Gáspári, Zoltán; Barna, Terézia; Marx, Florentine; Batta, Gyula

    2015-03-23

    Transition between conformational states in proteins is being recognized as a possible key factor of function. In support of this, hidden dynamic NMR structures were detected in several cases up to populations of a few percent. Here, we show by two- and three-state analysis of thermal unfolding, that the population of hidden states may weight 20-40 % at 298 K in a disulfide-rich protein. In addition, sensitive (15) N-CEST NMR experiments identified a low populated (0.15 %) state that was in slow exchange with the folded PAF protein. Remarkably, other techniques failed to identify the rest of the NMR "dark matter". Comparison of the temperature dependence of chemical shifts from experiments and molecular dynamics calculations suggests that hidden conformers of PAF differ in the loop and terminal regions and are most similar in the evolutionary conserved core. Our observations point to the existence of a complex conformational landscape with multiple conformational states in dynamic equilibrium, with diverse exchange rates presumably responsible for the completely hidden nature of a considerable fraction. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. “Invisible” Conformers of an Antifungal Disulfide Protein Revealed by Constrained Cold and Heat Unfolding, CEST-NMR Experiments, and Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizil, Ádám; Gáspári, Zoltán; Barna, Terézia; Marx, Florentine; Batta, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Transition between conformational states in proteins is being recognized as a possible key factor of function. In support of this, hidden dynamic NMR structures were detected in several cases up to populations of a few percent. Here, we show by two- and three-state analysis of thermal unfolding, that the population of hidden states may weight 20–40 % at 298 K in a disulfide-rich protein. In addition, sensitive 15N-CEST NMR experiments identified a low populated (0.15 %) state that was in slow exchange with the folded PAF protein. Remarkably, other techniques failed to identify the rest of the NMR “dark matter”. Comparison of the temperature dependence of chemical shifts from experiments and molecular dynamics calculations suggests that hidden conformers of PAF differ in the loop and terminal regions and are most similar in the evolutionary conserved core. Our observations point to the existence of a complex conformational landscape with multiple conformational states in dynamic equilibrium, with diverse exchange rates presumably responsible for the completely hidden nature of a considerable fraction. PMID:25676351

  10. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC

  11. The Elements of Antifungal Drug Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Lasse

    In this PhD thesis I will explore the development of antifungal drugs. Fungal infections are estimated to cause the death of 1.5 million patients each year. There is currently a need for new antifungal drugs as the existing drugs are hampered by lack of broad-spectrum antifungal activity, resista...

  12. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...

  13. Antifungal stewardship considerations for adults and pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Rana F; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Seo, Susan K

    2017-08-18

    Antifungal stewardship refers to coordinated interventions to monitor and direct the appropriate use of antifungal agents in order to achieve the best clinical outcomes and minimize selective pressure and adverse events. Antifungal utilization has steadily risen over time in concert with the increase in number of immunocompromised adults and children at risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). Challenges in diagnosing IFI often lead to delays in treatment and poorer outcomes. There are also emerging data linking prior antifungal exposure and suboptimal dosing to the emergence of antifungal resistance, particularly for Candida. Antimicrobial stewardship programs can take a multi-pronged bundle approach to ensure suitable prescribing of antifungals via post-prescription review and feedback and/or prior authorization. Institutional guidelines can also be developed to guide diagnostic testing in at-risk populations; appropriate choice, dose, and duration of antifungal agent; therapeutic drug monitoring; and opportunities for de-escalation and intravenous-to-oral conversion.

  14. Macrophage Reporter Cell Assay for Screening Immunopharmacological Activity of Cell Wall-Active Antifungals

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Russell E.; Liao, Guangling; Young, Katherine; Douglas, Cameron; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal exposure can elicit immunological effects that contribute to activity in vivo, but this activity is rarely screened in vitro in a fashion analogous to MIC testing. We used RAW 264.7 murine macrophages that express a secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene induced by transcriptional activation of NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1) to develop a screen for immunopharmacological activity of cell wall-active antifungal agents. Isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus f...

  15. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  16. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  17. Study on mutagenic breeding of bacillus subtilis and properties of its antifungal substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Yao Jianming

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our study. After B. subtilis JA was implanted by N + ions, a strain designated as B. Subtilis JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%, the precipitate enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein. (authors)

  18. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao

    2008-01-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  19. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  20. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Antifungal activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei of some substituted quinolinium derivatives has been investigated. It was established that the most perspective compound for detail investigation of antifungal activity by labeled biomarkers method was N-phenylbenzoquinaldinium tetrafluoroborate.

  1. Purification and characterization of pathogenesis-related antifungal beta 1,3 glucanase from basrai banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, N.; Saleem, M.; Chaudhry, Z.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins have been described as proteins that are encoded by the plant genome and that are induced specifically in response to infections by pathogens. These represent a collection of unrelated protein families which function as part of the plant defense system. Pathogenesis-related antifungal protein has been isolated from the pulp of ripe Basrai bananas and purified through ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sephadex G- 75 gel filtration chromatography and electro-elution. The purified protein with acidic character (pI 6.81). has molecular weight of 34.5kDa, as determined by MALOI- TOF mass spectrometry. Mascot score obtained was 473 greater than 82, indicate extensive homology at a significant level (p.0.05) and the protein was identified as beta 1,3-glucanase with antifungal activity. It inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum demonstrating the potential role of Basrai banana antifungal protein to control fungal diseases in plants, animals and human. (author)

  2. Antifungal isopimaranes from Hypoestes serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, L; Guilet, D; Marston, A; Randimbivololona, F; Hostettmann, K

    2003-09-01

    Five isopimarane diterpenes (7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8,15-dien-14-one, 14alpha-hydroxyisopimara-7,15-dien-1-one, 1beta,14alpha-dihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, 7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one and 7beta-acetoxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one) have been isolated from the leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). All compounds exhibited antifungal activity against both the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans; two of them also displayed an acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis.

  3. Update on antifungal therapy with terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, C

    2010-06-01

    Terbinafine, a synthetic antifungal of allylamine class, has fungicidal activity against dermatophytes, moulds and certain dimorphic fungi and fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Following oral administration the terbinafine is absorbed rapidly (>70%) and reaches within 2 hours the peak plasma concentration. The drug is highly lipophilic and keratophilic and is highly bound to plasma protein (>90%) with a bioavailability of 70% to 80%. The drug is rapidly delivered and it is present in the stratum corneum, sebum, nails and hair for months after stopping the medication. The drug has been proven to be the choice treatment in the therapy of onychomycosis as it is very effective, well tolerated and has a relatively low potential for drug interactions. The pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine give strong support to the possibility that the pulse therapy may be equally effective in onychomycoses, possibly reducing medication costs and drug exposure. Several therapeutic patterns have been proposed: weekly intermittent terbinafine (500 mg/d for 1 week each month for 4 months), or single-dose terbinafine (1000 mg per month for 4 months). Use of topical terbinafine 1% may be practical where the tinea involvement is not extensive or chronic. Recently, the terbinafine is available in a novel topical solution (film-forming solution--FFS) effective in the treatment of tinea pedis (athlete's foot).

  4. Production, optimization, characterization and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... the present study, the antifungal activity of crude A. terrus chitinase was investigated against Apergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae .... Chitinase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by estimating the amount of ..... characterization of two. Bifunctional chitinases lysozyme extracellularly produced by.

  5. Antifungal effect of thymol, thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several human pathogenic fungi can acquire resistance against the available antifungal compounds or need ... Thymol, thymoquinone (TQ) and thymohydroquinone (THQ) are principle constituents of the essential oil of Nigella sativa seeds.

  6. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... may have significant potential for biological control of fungi and theirs toxins. Key words: Citrullus .... antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antiochratoxigenic effect ... C. colocynthis Schrad. fruits were collected in December (2010).

  7. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  8. Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Emergence of Resistant Pathogens and New Antifungal Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria N. Gamaletsou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with hematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis and empirical and preemptive therapy, result in long-term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors. The widespread use of agricultural and industrial fungicides with similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action has resulted in the development of environmental reservoirs for some drug-resistant fungi, especially azole-resistant Aspergillus species, which have been reported from four continents. The majority of resistant strains have the mutation TR34/L98H, a finding suggesting that the source of resistance is the environment. The global emergence of new fungal pathogens with inherent resistance, such as Candida auris, is a new public health threat. The most common mechanism of antifungal drug resistance is the induction of efflux pumps, which decrease intracellular drug concentrations. Overexpression, depletion, and alteration of the drug target are other mechanisms of resistance. Mutations in the ERG11 gene alter the protein structure of C-demethylase, reducing the efficacy of antifungal triazoles. Candida species become echinocandin-resistant by mutations in FKS genes. A shift in the epidemiology of Candida towards resistant non-albicans Candida spp. has emerged among patients with hematological malignancies. There is no definite association between antifungal resistance, as defined by elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations, and clinical outcomes in this population. Detection of genes or mutations conferring resistance with the use of molecular methods

  9. Antifungal Potential of Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobaswar Hossain Chowdhury

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC present a serious disease threat. Although the echinocandins are recommended as the first line of antifungal drug class, resistance to these agents is beginning to emerge, demonstrating the need for new antifungal agents. Host defense peptides (HDP exhibit potent antifungal activity, but as drugs they are difficult to manufacture efficiently, and they are often inactivated by serum proteins. HDP mimetics are low molecular weight non-peptide compounds that can alleviate these problems and were shown to be membrane-active against C. albicans and NAC. Here, we expand upon our previous works to describe the in vitro and in vivo activity of 11 new HDP mimetics that are active against C. albicans and NAC that are both sensitive and resistant to standard antifungal drugs. These compounds exhibit minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentration (MIC/MFC in the µg/mL range in the presence of serum and are inhibited by divalent cations. Rapid propidium iodide influx into the yeast cells following in vitro exposure suggested that these HDP mimetics were also membrane active. The lead compounds were able to kill C. albicans in an invasive candidiasis CD-1 mouse model with some mimetic candidates decreasing kidney burden by 3–4 logs after 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. The data encouraged further development of this new anti-fungal drug class for invasive candidiasis.

  10. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine S Dobb

    Full Text Available Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds.

  11. A novel and exploitable antifungal peptide from kale (Brassica alboglabra) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to purify and characterize antifungal peptides from kale seeds in view of the paucity of information on antifungal peptides from the family Brassicaceae, and to compare its characteristics with those of published Brassica antifungal peptides. A 5907-Da antifungal peptide was isolated from kale seeds. The isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and Mono S, and gel filtration on Superdex Peptide. The peptide was adsorbed on the first three chromatographic media. It inhibited mycelial growth in a number of fungal species including Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Valsa mali, with an IC(50) of 4.3microM, 2.1microM, 2.4microM, and 0.15microM, respectively and exhibited pronounced thermostability and pH stability. It inhibited proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with an IC(50) of 2.7microM and 3.4microM, and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4.9microM. Its N-terminal sequence differed from those of antifungal proteins which have been reported to date.

  12. Effect of temperature, pH and detergents on the antifungal activity of bacterial culture filtrates against Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilyn Mena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria associated to crops have been studied as potential biocontrol agents. However, few investigations on the interaction Musa spp. - Mycosphaerella fijiensis-Musa associated bacteria have been developed. Consequently, bacterial metabolites involved and the effect on them of physical and chemical factors remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of temperature, pH and detergents on bacterial culture filtrates with antifungal activity in vitro against Mycosphaerella fijiensis. The pathogen growth inhibition was assessed by absorbance reading at OD 565nm. It was found that the antifungal activity of the bacterial culture filtrates against M. fijiensis, varied in the presence of different values of temperature, pH, and types of detergents and this was related to the bacterial strain. The results suggested the possible protein nature of the metabolites with antifungal activity. Keywords: bacteria, biological control, antifungal metabolites

  13. Antifungal activity, main active components and mechanism of Curcuma longa extract against Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Chen, Qin; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaorui; Liu, Qingya; Bao, Jinku

    2018-01-01

    Curcuma longa possesses powerful antifungal activity, as demonstrated in many studies. In this study, the antifungal spectrum of Curcuma longa alcohol extract was determined, and the resulting EC50 values (mg/mL) of its extract on eleven fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium tricinctum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Rhizopus oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum, were 0.1088, 0.1742, 0.1888, 0.2547, 0.3135, 0.3825, 0.4229, 1.2086, 4.5176, 3.8833 and 5.0183, respectively. Among them, F. graminearum was selected to determine the inhibitory effects of the compounds (including curdione, isocurcumenol, curcumenol, curzerene, β-elemene, curcumin, germacrone and curcumol) derived from Curcuma longa. In addition, the antifungal activities of curdione, curcumenol, curzerene, curcumol and isocurcumenol and the synergies of the complexes of curdione and seven other chemicals were investigated. Differential proteomics of F. graminearum was also compared, and at least 2021 reproducible protein spots were identified. Among these spots, 46 were classified as differentially expressed proteins, and these proteins are involved in energy metabolism, tRNA synthesis and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, several fungal physiological differences were also analysed. The antifungal effect included fungal cell membrane disruption and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, respiration, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and NADH oxidase. PMID:29543859

  14. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Severo Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256µg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.

  15. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Noreen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC or fungicidal (MFC

  16. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, ... Key words: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, methanol extracts, yeast, mould, Saussurea lappa. ... Caesalpinia pulcherrima.

  17. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... antifungal properties, thus it can be used as a natural alternative approach to synthetic ..... composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven ... Leaf Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of African Yam Bean Seeds,.

  18. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodloff AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed over the last two decades: The number of patients suffering from such infections has increased dramatically and the Candida species involved have become more numerous as Candida albicans is replaced as an infecting agent by various non-C. albicans species (NAC. At the same time, additional antifungal agents have become available. The different Candida species may vary in their susceptibility for these various antifungals. This draws more attention to in vitro susceptibility testing. Unfortunately, several different test methods exist that may deliver different results. Moreover, clinical breakpoints (CBP that classify test results into susceptible, intermediate and resistant are controver- sial between CLSI and EUCAST. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that interpretations may vary with the test system being followed by the microbiological laboratory. Thus, knowledge of actual MIC values and pharmacokinetic properties of individual antifungal agents is important in delivering appropriate therapy to patients

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of guanylhydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdačić Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel guanylhydrazones were designed, synthesized and characterized. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Compounds 26 and 27 showed excellent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 379 with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 4 μg mL-1, and good antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019. These results suggested that the selected guanylhydrazones could serve as promising leads for improved antimicrobial development. [Project of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Grant No. 172008 and Grant No. 173048

  20. Aspergillus--classification and antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzina, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus is one of the most important fungal genera for the man, for its industrial use, its ability to spoil food and not least its medical impact as cause of a variety of diseases. Currently hundreds of species of Aspergillus are known; nearly fifty of them are able to cause infections in humans and animals. Recently, the genus Aspergillus is subdivided into 8 subgenera and 22 sections. The spectrum of diseases caused by Aspergillus species varies from superficial cutaneous to invasive and systemic infections. All species of Aspergillus investigated so far are resistant against the antifungals fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, the range of susceptibilities to currently available antifungals is discussed in this paper.

  1. Scarabaecin, a novel cysteine-containing antifungal peptide from the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Tetsuya; Ishibashi, Jun; Furukawa, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Satoe; Sawahata, Ryoko; Asaoka, Ai; Tagawa, Michito; Yamakawa, Minoru

    2003-07-25

    A novel antifungal peptide, scarabaecin (4080Da), was isolated from the coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. Scarabaecin cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) using a primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The amino acid sequence deduced from scarabaecin cDNA showed no significant similarity to those of reported proteins. Chemically synthesized scarabaecin indicated antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Botrytis cinerea, but not against phytopathogenic bacteria. It showed weak activity against Bauberia bassiana, an insect pathogenic fungus, and Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium. Scarabaecin showed chitin binding property and its K(d) was 1.315 microM. A comparison of putative chitin-binding domains among scarabaecin, invertebrate, and plant chitin-binding proteins suggests that scarabaecin is a new member of chitin-binding antimicrobial proteins.

  2. Structural Basis of Human CYP51 Inhibition by Antifungal Azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strushkevich, Natallia; Usanov, Sergey A.; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (IBC-Belarus)

    2010-09-22

    The obligatory step in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes is demethylation of sterol precursors at the C14-position, which is catalyzed by CYP51 (sterol 14-alpha demethylase) in three sequential reactions. In mammals, the final product of the pathway is cholesterol, while important intermediates, meiosis-activating sterols, are produced by CYP51. Three crystal structures of human CYP51, ligand-free and complexed with antifungal drugs ketoconazole and econazole, were determined, allowing analysis of the molecular basis for functional conservation within the CYP51 family. Azole binding occurs mostly through hydrophobic interactions with conservative residues of the active site. The substantial conformational changes in the B{prime} helix and F-G loop regions are induced upon ligand binding, consistent with the membrane nature of the protein and its substrate. The access channel is typical for mammalian sterol-metabolizing P450 enzymes, but is different from that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51. Comparison of the azole-bound structures provides insight into the relative binding affinities of human and bacterial P450 enzymes to ketoconazole and fluconazole, which can be useful for the rational design of antifungal compounds and specific modulators of human CYP51.

  3. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  4. Omics for Investigating Chitosan as an Antifungal and Gene Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lopez-Moya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer with a wide range of applications. The use of chitosan in clinical medicine to control infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida spp. is one of its most promising applications in view of the reduced number of antifungals available. Chitosan increases intracellular oxidative stress, then permeabilizes the plasma membrane of sensitive filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and yeast. Transcriptomics reveals plasma membrane homeostasis and oxidative metabolism genes as key players in the response of fungi to chitosan. A lipase and a monosaccharide transporter, both inner plasma membrane proteins, and a glutathione transferase are main chitosan targets in N. crassa. Biocontrol fungi such as Pochonia chlamydosporia have a low content of polyunsaturated free fatty acids in their plasma membranes and are resistant to chitosan. Genome sequencing of P. chlamydosporia reveals a wide gene machinery to degrade and assimilate chitosan. Chitosan increases P. chlamydosporia sporulation and enhances parasitism of plant parasitic nematodes by the fungus. Omics studies allow understanding the mode of action of chitosan and help its development as an antifungal and gene modulator.

  5. In vitro production and antifungal activity of peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Mengyang; Wu, Xiaolong; Xu, Chen; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-04-10

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, testing of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve expression of this peptide in E. coli, ABP-dHC-cecropin A was cloned into a pSUMO vector and transformed into E. coli, resulting in the production of a pSUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein. The soluble form of this protein was then purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 496-mg protein per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein was then cleaved using a SUMO protease and re-purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 158-mg recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A per liter of fermentation culture at a purity of ≥94%, the highest yield reported to date. Antifungal activity assays performed using this purified recombinant peptide revealed strong antifungal activity against both Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa, as well as Rhizopus, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor species. Combined with previous analyses demonstrating strong antibacterial activity against a number of important bacterial pathogens, these results confirm the use of ABP-dHC-cecropin A as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, with significant therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The target substrates were characterized by UV, IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR .... Also substituents like methyl, methoxy and hydroxyl, having +M effect that ... antibacterial and antifungal agents and can find use in biomedical area in near future.

  8. Antifungal diterpenes from Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, Lalao; Marston, Andrew; Guilet, David; Schenk, Kurt; Randimbivololona, Fanantenanirainy; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-02-01

    Two new diterpenes, fusicoserpenol A and dolabeserpenoic acid A, with antifungal activity, were isolated from leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectrometric methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of fusicoserpenol A and established the relative configuration.

  9. Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca. ++ ... strong cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory activities in elicited rat peritoneal ... A resting tension of 1 g was applied to each tissue and kept constant ... Statistical analysis .... through opening of VDCs, thus allowing the influx of extra.

  10. Antifungal evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to further examine the medicinal value of Boswellia dalzielii plant by evaluating the antifungal activity and carrying out phytochemical screening of methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and the sub-fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Standard methods were used for ...

  11. Studies of antifungal activity of forsskalea tenacissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisar, M.; Ahmad, V.U.; Nisar, M.; Gilani, S.N.; Pervez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of different extracts from Forsskalea tenacissima prepared by solvent-solvent extraction and vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) was determined. Extracts were found to be active against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Allescheria boydii, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus niger, Drechslera rostrata, Nigrospora oryzae, Stachybotrys atra, Curvularia lunata, Trichophyton semii and Trichophyton schoenleinii. (author)

  12. Tolerability and safety of antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scaglione

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When treating critically ill patients, as those with fungal infections, attention should be focused on the appropriate use of drugs, especially in terms of dose, safety, and tolerability. The fungal infection itself and the concomitant physiological disorders concur to increase the risk of mortality in these patients, therefore the use of any antifungal agent should be carefully evaluated, considering both the direct action on the target fungus and the adverse effects eventually caused. Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins have the greatest tolerability. In fact, unlike amphotericin B, showing nephrotoxicity, and azoles, which are hepatotoxic, the use of echinocandins doesn’t result in major adverse events.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.873

  13. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives. PMID:28621716

  14. Antifungal activity of streptomycetes isolated bentonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Shirobokov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biological activity of streptomycetes, isolated from Ukrainian bentonite clay. Methods. For identification of the investigated microorganisms there were used generally accepted methods for study of morpho-cultural and biochemical properties and sequencing of 16Ѕ rRNA producer. Antagonistic activity of the strain was determined by agar diffusion and agar block method using gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Results. Research of autochthonous flora from bentonite clay of Ukrainian various deposits proved the existence of stable politaxonomic prokaryotic-eukaryotic consortia there. It was particularly interesting that the isolated microorganisms had demonstrated clearly expressed antagonistic properties against fungi. During bacteriological investigation this bacterial culture was identified like representative of the genus Streptomyces. Bentonite streptomycetes, named as Streptomyces SVP-71, inagar mediums (agar block method inhibited the growth of fungi (yeast and mold; zones of growth retardation constituted of 11-36 mm, and did not affect the growth of bacteria. There were investigated the inhibitory effects of supernatant culture fluid, ethanol and butanol extracts of biomass streptomycetes on museum and clinical strains of fungi that are pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. utilis, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. kefir, S. glabrata, C. lusitaniae, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus, Fusarium sporotrichioides. It has been shown that research antifungal factor had 100% of inhibitory effect against all fungi used in experiments in vitro. In parallel, it was found that alcohol extracts hadn’t influence to the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria absolutely. It was shown that the cultural fluid supernatant and alcoholic extracts of biomass had the same antagonistic effect, but with different manifestation. This evidenced about identity of antifungal substances

  15. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  16. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Gullo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa. It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Fernanda P.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Rossi, Suélen A.; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Furlan, Maysa; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa). It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:22675379

  18. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  19. ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING: CURRENT ROLE FROM THE CLINICAL LABORATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Posteraro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of many antifungal agents, antifungal clinical resistance occurs, perhaps as a result of an infecting organism found to be resistant in vitro to one or more antifungals tested. Thus, antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST results, if timely generated by the clinical microbiology and communicated to clinicians, can aid them in the therapeutic decision making, especially for difficult-to-treat invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Although recently refined AFST methods are commercially available to allow a close antifungal resistance surveillance in many clinical setting, novel assays, relying on short-time antifungal drug exposure of fungal isolates, are upcoming tools for AFST. Based on emerging technologies such as flow cytometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and isothermal microcalorimetry, these assays could provide a reliable means for quicker and sensitive assessment of AFST.

  20. Molecular basis of antifungal drug resistance in yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morio, Florent; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Besides inherent differences in in vitro susceptibilities, clinically-relevant yeast species may acquire resistance upon exposure to most antifungal drugs used in the clinic. In recent years, major fundamental research studies have been conducted to improve our understanding of the molecular basis...... of antifungal resistance. This topic is of major interest as antifungal resistance in yeast is clearly evolving and is correlated with clinical failure. This minireview is an overview of the most recent findings about key molecular mechanisms evolving in human pathogenic yeasts, particularly Candida spp......., in the context of antifungal drug resistance. Also included are the methods currently available for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing and for molecular detection of mutations associated with resistance. Finally, the genetic drivers of antifungal resistance are discussed in light of the spectra...

  1. 6-O-Branched Oligo-β-glucan-Based Antifungal Glycoconjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guochao; Zhou, Zhifang; Liao, Jun; Zu, Luning; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2016-02-12

    With the rapid growth in fungal infections and drug-resistant fungal strains, antifungal vaccines have become an especially attractive strategy to tackle this important health problem. β-Glucans, a class of extracellular carbohydrate antigens abundantly and consistently expressed on fungal cell surfaces, are intriguing epitopes for antifungal vaccine development. β-Glucans have a conserved β-1,3-glucan backbone with sporadic β-1,3- or β-1,6-linked short glucans as branches at the 6-O-positions, and the branches may play a critical role in their immunologic functions. To study the immunologic properties of branched β-glucans and develop β-glucan-based antifungal vaccines, three branched β-glucan oligosaccharides with 6-O-linked β-1,6-tetraglucose, β-1,3-diglucose, and β-1,3-tetraglucose branches on a β-1,3-nonaglucan backbone, which mimic the structural epitopes of natural β-glucans, were synthesized and coupled with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to form novel synthetic conjugate vaccines. These glycoconjugates were proved to elicit strong IgG antibody responses in mice. It was also discovered that the number, size, and structure of branches linked to the β-glucan backbone had a significant impact on the immunologic property. Moreover, antibodies induced by the synthetic oligosaccharide-KLH conjugates were able to recognize and bind to natural β-glucans and fungal cells. Most importantly, these conjugates elicited effective protection against systemic Candida albicans infection in mice. Thus, branched oligo-β-glucans were identified as functional epitopes for antifungal vaccine design and the corresponding protein conjugates as promising antifungal vaccine candidates.

  2. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid) Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    OpenAIRE

    Boonruang Kanchana; Chinsirikul Wannee; Hararak Bongkot; Kerddonfag Noppadon; Chonhenchob Vanee

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid) films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(-)-carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced ...

  3. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  4. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonruang Kanchana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(--carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid (PLA-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced tensile strength and increased elongation at break of the antifungal PLA films.

  5. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a Bacteriophage Preying an Antifungal Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryan Rahimi-Midani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several Bacillus species were isolated from rice field soils, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Bacillus cereus was the most abundant. A strain named BC1 showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Bacteriophages infecting strain BC1 were isolated from the same soil sample. The isolated phage PK16 had an icosahedral head of 100 ± 5 nm and tail of 200 ± 5 nm, indicating that it belonged to the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the complete linear dsDNA genome revealed a 158,127-bp genome with G + C content of 39.9% comprising 235 open reading frames as well as 19 tRNA genes (including 1 pseudogene. Blastp analysis showed that the proteins encoded by the PK16 genome had the closest hits to proteins of seven different bacteriophages. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on the major capsid protein showed a robust clustering of phage PK16 with phage JBP901 and BCP8-2 isolated from Korean fermented food.

  7. Candida albicans infection of Caenorhabditis elegans induces antifungal immune defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans yeast cells are found in the intestine of most humans, yet this opportunist can invade host tissues and cause life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals. To better understand the host factors that underlie susceptibility to candidiasis, we developed a new model to study antifungal innate immunity. We demonstrate that the yeast form of C. albicans establishes an intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas heat-killed yeast are avirulent. Genome-wide, transcription-profiling analysis of C. elegans infected with C. albicans yeast showed that exposure to C. albicans stimulated a rapid host response involving 313 genes (124 upregulated and 189 downregulated, ~1.6% of the genome many of which encode antimicrobial, secreted or detoxification proteins. Interestingly, the host genes affected by C. albicans exposure overlapped only to a small extent with the distinct transcriptional responses to the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that there is a high degree of immune specificity toward different bacterial species and C. albicans. Furthermore, genes induced by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were strongly over-represented among the genes downregulated during C. albicans infection, suggesting that in response to fungal pathogens, nematodes selectively repress the transcription of antibacterial immune effectors. A similar phenomenon is well known in the plant immune response, but has not been described previously in metazoans. Finally, 56% of the genes induced by live C. albicans were also upregulated by heat-killed yeast. These data suggest that a large part of the transcriptional response to C. albicans is mediated through "pattern recognition," an ancient immune surveillance mechanism able to detect conserved microbial molecules (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs. This study provides new information on the evolution and regulation of the innate

  8. Drug-drug interactions of antifungal agents and implications for patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Amsden, Jarrett R

    2005-10-01

    Drug interactions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys result from alterations in pH, ionic complexation, and interference with membrane transport proteins and enzymatic processes involved in intestinal absorption, enteric and hepatic metabolism, renal filtration and excretion. Azole antifungals can be involved in drug interactions at all the sites, by one or more of the above mechanisms. Consequently, azoles interact with a vast array of compounds. Drug-drug interactions associated with amphotericin B formulations are predictable and result from the renal toxicity and electrolyte disturbances associated with these compounds. The echinocandins are unknown cytochrome P450 substrates and to date are relatively devoid of significant drug-drug interactions. This article reviews drug interactions involving antifungal agents that affect other agents and implications for patient care are highlighted.

  9. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovieva, S E; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N

    2011-01-01

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  10. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  11. Antifungal Activity of Endemic Salvia tigrina in Turkey | Dulger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketoconazole was used as a positive reference standard to determine the sensitivity of the strains. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL. All the extracts exhibited a strong antifungal effect against the fungal cultures. The extracts exhibited greater antifungal effect against C.

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The active ingredients of this plant could be an addition to the antifungal arsenal to opportunistic fungal yeast pathogens. Key words: Antifungal activity, Dorstenia mannii, yeasts, opportunistic candidiasis. INTRODUCTION. Nowadays, fungal diseases have emerged and are being increasingly recognized as important public ...

  13. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities. For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders.

  14. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. IIn vitro antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts against early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 27 plant extracts were tested against Alternaria solani (E. & M.) Jones and Grout using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities, the results revealed that Circium arvense, Humulus lupulus, Lauris nobilis and Salvia officinalis showed significant ...

  16. In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of Trichoderma species. Asma Murtaza, Shazia Shafique, Tehmina Anjum, Sobiya Shafique. Abstract. The antifungal potential of five species of Trichoderma viz., Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma aureoviride, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii and ...

  17. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Ruch, Jasmin; Pulpitel, Tamara; Ponton, Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities). For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders.

  18. Systemic Antifungal Agents: Current Status and Projected Future Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Rafati, H.; Ilkit, M.; Tolooe, A.; Hedayati, M.T.; Verweij, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    By definition, an antifungal agent is a drug that selectively destroys fungal pathogens with minimal side effects to the host. Despite an increase in the prevalence of fungal infections particularly in immunocompromised patients, only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available for therapy, and

  19. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van Geel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as ...

  20. Metabolomics and Cheminformatics Analysis of Antifungal Function of Plant Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Rajagopalan, NandhaKishore; Tulpan, Dan; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-09-30

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a devastating disease of wheat. Partial resistance to FHB of several wheat cultivars includes specific metabolic responses to inoculation. Previously published studies have determined major metabolic changes induced by pathogens in resistant and susceptible plants. Functionality of the majority of these metabolites in resistance remains unknown. In this work we have made a compilation of all metabolites determined as selectively accumulated following FHB inoculation in resistant plants. Characteristics, as well as possible functions and targets of these metabolites, are investigated using cheminformatics approaches with focus on the likelihood of these metabolites acting as drug-like molecules against fungal pathogens. Results of computational analyses of binding properties of several representative metabolites to homology models of fungal proteins are presented. Theoretical analysis highlights the possibility for strong inhibitory activity of several metabolites against some major proteins in Fusarium graminearum , such as carbonic anhydrases and cytochrome P450s. Activity of several of these compounds has been experimentally confirmed in fungal growth inhibition assays. Analysis of anti-fungal properties of plant metabolites can lead to the development of more resistant wheat varieties while showing novel application of cheminformatics approaches in the analysis of plant/pathogen interactions.

  1. Microbial Biotransformation to Obtain New Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Luiz F.; Arruda, Maria F. C.; Vieira, Sergio R.; Campelo, Patrícia M. S.; Grégio, Ana M. T.; Rosa, Edvaldo A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs belong to few chemical groups and such low diversity limits the therapeutic choices. The urgent need of innovative options has pushed researchers to search new bioactive molecules. Literature regarding the last 15 years reveals that different research groups have used different approaches to achieve such goal. However, the discovery of molecules with different mechanisms of action still demands considerable time and efforts. This review was conceived to present how Pharmaceutical Biotechnology might contribute to the discovery of molecules with antifungal properties by microbial biotransformation procedures. Authors present some aspects of (1) microbial biotransformation of herbal medicines and food; (2) possibility of major and minor molecular amendments in existing molecules by biocatalysis; (3) methodological improvements in processes involving whole cells and immobilized enzymes; (4) potential of endophytic fungi to produce antimicrobials by bioconversions; and (5) in silico research driving to the improvement of molecules. All these issues belong to a new conception of transformation procedures, so-called “green chemistry,” which aims the highest possible efficiency with reduced production of waste and the smallest environmental impact. PMID:26733974

  2. Extracellular DNA Release Acts as an Antifungal Resistance Mechanism in Mature Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Williams, Craig; Lappin, David F.; Millington, Owain; Martins, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has been shown to form biofilms that are associated with adaptive antifungal resistance mechanisms. These include multidrug efflux pumps, heat shock proteins, and extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM is a key structural and protective component of microbial biofilms and in bacteria has been shown to contain extracellular DNA (eDNA). We therefore hypothesized that A. fumigatus biofilms also possess eDNA as part of the ECM, conferring a functional role. Fluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of eDNA, which was released phase dependently (8 autolysis, were significantly upregulated as the biofilm matured and that inhibition of chitinases affected biofilm growth and stability, indicating mechanistically that autolysis was possibly involved. Finally, using checkerboard assays, it was shown that combinational treatment of biofilms with DNase plus amphotericin B and caspofungin significantly improved antifungal susceptibility. Collectively, these data show that eDNA is an important structural component of A. fumigatus ECM that is released through autolysis, which is important for protection from environmental stresses, including antifungal therapy. PMID:23314962

  3. Identification of a New Class of Antifungals Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Visesato; Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M.; Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Mansa; Bryan, Arielle; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B.; Ojima, Iwao; Bullesbach, Erika; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J.; Cushion, Melanie; Collins, Margaret; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas; Wong, Lai Hong; Sinha, Sunita; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Flaherty, Patrick; Pan, Xuewen; Cesar, Gabriele Vargas; de Melo Tavares, Patricia; Frases, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Luberto, Chiara; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent estimates suggest that >300 million people are afflicted by serious fungal infections worldwide. Current antifungal drugs are static and toxic and/or have a narrow spectrum of activity. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal drugs. The fungal sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is critical in promoting virulence of a variety of human-pathogenic fungi. In this study, we screened a synthetic drug library for compounds that target the synthesis of fungal, but not mammalian, GlcCer and found two compounds [N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-methylbenzohydrazide (BHBM) and its derivative, 3-bromo-N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide (D0)] that were highly effective in vitro and in vivo against several pathogenic fungi. BHBM and D0 were well tolerated in animals and are highly synergistic or additive to current antifungals. BHBM and D0 significantly affected fungal cell morphology and resulted in the accumulation of intracellular vesicles. Deep-sequencing analysis of drug-resistant mutants revealed that four protein products, encoded by genes APL5, COS111, MKK1, and STE2, which are involved in vesicular transport and cell cycle progression, are targeted by BHBM. PMID:26106079

  4. Synthesis and antifungal activity of nicotinamide derivatives as succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Hao; Ma, Liang; Dai, Zhi-Cheng; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Dong-Dong; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2014-05-07

    Thirty-eight nicotinamide derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI) and precisely characterized by (1)H NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The compounds were evaluated against two phytopathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, by mycelia growth inhibition assay in vitro. Most of the compounds displayed moderate activity, in which, 3a-17 exhibited the most potent antifungal activity against R. solani and S. sclerotiorum with IC50 values of 15.8 and 20.3 μM, respectively, comparable to those of the commonly used fungicides boscalid and carbendazim. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of nicotinamide derivatives demonstrated that the meta-position of aniline was a key position contributing to the antifungal activity. Inhibition activities against two fungal SDHs were tested and achieved the same tendency with the data acquired from in vitro antifungal assay. Significantly, 3a-17 was demonstrated to successfully suppress disease development in S. sclerotiorum infected cole in vivo. In the molecular docking simulation, sulfur and chlorine of 3a-17 were bound with PHE291 and PRO150 of the SDH homology model, respectively, which could explain the probable mechanism of action between the inhibitory and target protein.

  5. Purification, characterization, and antifungal activity of chitinases from pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Toki; Toma, Noriko; Ishihara, Masanobu

    2005-01-01

    Three chitinases, designated pineapple leaf chitinase (PL Chi)-A, -B, and -C were purified from the leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus) using chitin affinity column chromatography followed by several column chromatographies. PL Chi-A is a class III chitinase having a molecular mass of 25 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.4. PL Chi-B and -C are class I chitinases having molecular masses of 33 kDa and 39 kDa and isoelectric points of 7.9 and 4.6 respectively. PL Chi-C is a glycoprotein and the others are simple proteins. The optimum pHs of PL Chi-A, -B, and -C toward glycolchitin are pH 3, 4, and 9 respectively. The chitin-binding ability of PL Chi-C is higher than that of PL Chi-B, and PL Chi-A has lower chitin-binding ability than the others. At low ionic strength, PL Chi-B exhibits strong antifungal activity toward Trichoderma viride but the others do not. At high ionic strength, PL Chi-B and -C exhibit strong and weak antifungal activity respectively. PL Chi-A does not have antifungal activity.

  6. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  7. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Upadhyay, R.V.; Mehta, R.V.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe 3 O 4 -Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe 3 O 4 ) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients. - Research Highlights: →Synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 -Ag core-shell nanocolloids. →Antifungal activity of Fe 3 O 4 -Ag nanocolloids against Aspergillus glaucus isolates. →The MIC value for A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. →Antifungal activity is better or comparable with most prominent antibiotics.

  8. Tioconazole, a new imidazole-antifungal agent for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Antifungal and pharmacologic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, M S; Baird, J R; Brammer, K W; Faulkner, J K; Halliwell, G; Jevons, S; Tarbit, M H

    1983-01-01

    Tioconazole is a new imidazole antifungal agent with broad-spectrum activity. Its in vitro activity against common dermal pathogens is generally better than miconazole by a factor of 2-8. This activity is paralleled by good topical efficacy in a guinea pig dermatomycosis model. Pharmacokinetic studies in animals have demonstrated minimal systemic exposure following dermal application. Acute general pharmacology studies have shown that the compound is well tolerated in animals and unlikely to produce side-effects in man.

  9. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.

  10. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Limonene against Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Min Hee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the antifungal activities of limonene against Trichophyton rubrum were evaluated via broth microdilution and vapor contact assays. In both assays, limonene was shown to exert a potent antifungal effect against T. rubrum. The volatile vapor of limonene at concentrations above 1 ?l/800 ml air space strongly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum. The MIC value was 0.5% v/v in the broth microdilution assay. The antifungal activity of limonene against T. rubrum was characterized as a fu...

  11. Functionalised isocoumarins as antifungal compounds: Synthesis and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Paunovic, Nikola; Boric, Ivan; Randjelovic, Jelena; Vojnovic, Sandra; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Pekmezovic, Marina; Savic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted isocoumarins was prepared via Pd-catalysed coupling processes and screened in vitro for antifungal activity against Candida species. The study revealed antifungal potential of isocoumarins possessing the azole substituents, which, in some cases, showed biological properties equal to those of clinically used voriconazole. Selected compounds were also screened against voriconazole resistant Candida krusei 6258 and a clinical isolate Candida parapsilosis CA-27. Although the activity against these targets needs to be improved further, the results emphasise additional potential of this new class of antifungal compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  13. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  14. Expression profiling of Bombyx mori gloverin2 gene and its synergistic antifungal effect with cecropin A against Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Dingding; Geng, Tao; Hou, Chengxiang; Qin, Guangxing; Gao, Kun; Guo, Xijie

    2017-02-05

    Gloverin2 is a cationic and glycine-rich antimicrobial peptide whose expression can be induced in fat body of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae exposed to bacteria. The purpose of this study is to identify the roles of Bombyx mori gloverin2 (Bmgloverin2) during entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana infection. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the relative expression level of Bmgloverin2 gene was up-regulated in the silkworm larvae infected by B. bassiana. The cDNA of Bmgloverin2 was cloned from the silkworm by RT-PCR and the DNA segment of the Bmgloverin2 peptide (without signal peptide sequence) was inserted into pCzn1 expression plasmid and expressed in E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3). SDS-PAGE results revealed that soluble recombinant Bmgloverin2 was successfully expressed and purified. Polyclonal antibody against the Bmgloverin2 was successfully produced with the expressed recombinant protein. Western blot analysis indicated that Bmgloverin2 could be detected in the fat body of silkworm larvae infected with B. bassiana, suggesting that the expression of Bmgloverin2 could be induced by B. bassiana infection in silkworm. Antifungal assays indicated that the Bmgloverin2 had a synergistic antifungal activity with B. mori cecropin A (BmCecA) to entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana both in vitro and in vivo in the silkworm larvae. This is the first report that Bmgloverin2 exhibits synergistic effect with BmCecA in antifungal activity against B. bassiana. The study demonstrates that Bmgloverin2 is an antifungal protein which plays an important role in synergistic antifungal activity with other antimicrobial peptide in silkworm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECT OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SEA CUCUMBER (Stichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Husni

    2014-05-01

    Both SM and CS exhibited their highest antifungal activity when extracted by HRE with 70% ethanol and by HRE with water, respectively, while their highest yields were obtained when extracted by PSE with water. SM has more antifungal than potassium sorbate but weaker than propyl paraben, while CS has more antifungal than the two antifungal agents. Keywords: Antifungal, heat reflux extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, Stichopus japonicus

  16. The Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1, Aha1, and P23 regulate adaptive responses to antifungal azoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokui Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast, Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress. Deletion of any of them resulted in hypersensitivity to azoles and heat. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis showed that the toxic sterols eburicol and 14α-methyl-3,6-diol were significantly accumulated in the sti1 and p23 deletion mutants after ketoconazole treatment, which has been shown before to led to cell membrane stress. At the transcriptional level, Aha1, Sti1, and P23 positively regulate responses to ketoconazole stress by erg11 and erg6, key genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are highly conserved in fungi, and sti1 and p23 deletion also increased the susceptibility to azoles in Fusarium verticillioides. These results indicate that Hsp90-cochaperones Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are critical for the basal azole resistance and could be potential targets for developing new antifungal agents.

  17. Antifungal Effect of (+-Pinoresinol Isolated from Sambucus williamsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Hwang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH indicated that the (+-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  18. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Musa Phytoalexins and Structural Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gallego

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Several perinaphthenone/phenylphenalenone compounds were synthesized to establish a relationship between structure and antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Substitutions on the unsaturated carbonyl system or addition of a phenyl group reduced antibiotic activity.

  19. Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Psoralen Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of linear furanocoumarins with different substituents have been designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectra (EI-MS, IR, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. All of the target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctorzia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Gibberella zeae, Cucumber anthrax, and Alternaria leaf spot at 100 μg/mL, and some of the designed compounds exhibited potential antifungal activities. Compound 3a (67.9% exhibited higher activity than the control Osthole (66.1% against Botrytis cinerea. Furthermore, compound 4b (62.4% represented equivalent antifungal activity as Osthole (69.5% against Rhizoctonia solani. The structure-activity relationship (SAR study demonstrates that linear furanocoumarin moiety has an important effect on the antifungal activity, promoting the idea of the coumarin ring as a framework that might be exploited in the future.

  20. A Novel Mechanistic Approach to Identify New Antifungal Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... The MIC of the more effective compounds, delta-decalactone and mandelonitrile ... screening which is increasingly used as a cost- ..... AD. Lanomycin and glucolanomycin, antifungal agents produced by ...

  1. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antifungal activity of the extracts was tested against medical yeast, Candida (C. albicans ATCC 10231, ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), .... It is important to bear in mind that the.

  2. Phytochemical Analysis, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... of total phenolics, antifungal and antioxidant activity of leaf and fruit extract of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) ... Flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and phenols were found in both extracts.

  3. Antifungal activity of different extracts of Ageratum conyzoides for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Arif Javed

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... In case of aqueous extracts, the maximum reduction was observed in leaf extract (72%) ... antifungal and insecticidal agents (Hajlaoui et al., 2009). Extracts of many ..... growth reduction of mycelia of phytophthora on neem leaf.

  4. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... Among them, phenolic acids and flavonoids have been the object of .... on the previous method as described by Crozier et al. ... Quantification.

  5. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  7. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-06-13

    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic profiling of the antifungal drug response of Aspergillus fumigatus to voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarsaikhan, Nansalmaa; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Sasse, Christoph; Braus, Gerhard H; Ogel, Zumrut B; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    Antifungal resistance is an emerging problem and one of the reasons for treatment failure of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Voriconazole has become a standard therapeutic for the treatment of this often fatal infection. We studied the differentially expressed proteins as a response of Aspergillus fumigatus to voriconazole by employing the two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technique. Due to addition of drug, a total of 135 differentially synthesized proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-mass spectrometry. In particular, the level of proteins involved in the general stress response and cell detoxification increased prominently. In contrast, cell metabolism and energy proteins were down-regulated, which suggests the cellular effort to maintain balance in energy utilization while trying to combat the cellular stress exerted by the drug. We detected several so-far uncharacterized proteins which may play a role in stress response and drug metabolism and which could be future targets for antifungal treatment. A mutant strain, which is deleted in the cross-pathway control gene cpcA, was treated with voriconazole to investigate the contribution of the general control of amino acid biosynthesis to drug resistance. We compared the mutant strain's protein expression profile with the wild-type strain. The absence of CpcA led to an increased resistance to voriconazole and a reduced activation of some general stress response proteins, while the transcript level of the triazole target gene erg11A (cyp51A) remained unchanged. In contrast, the sensitivity of strain ΔcpcA to terbinafine and amphotericin B was slightly increased. These findings imply a role of CpcA in the cellular stress response to azole drugs at the post transcriptional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Bombyx mori cecropin A has a high antifungal activity to entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dingding; Geng, Tao; Hou, Chengxiang; Huang, Yuxia; Qin, Guangxing; Guo, Xijie

    2016-05-25

    A cDNA encoding cecropin A (CecA) was cloned from the larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori, using RT-PCR. It encodes a protein of 63 amino acids, containing a 22 amino acid signal peptide and a 37 amino acid mat peptide of functional domain. The CecA secondary structure contains two typical amphiphilic α-helices. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that CecA was expressed in all the tissues tested, including cuticle, fat body, hemocytes, Malpighian tubule, midgut and silk gland in the silkworm larvae with the highest expression in the fat body and hemocytes. The gene expression of B. mori CecA was rapidly induced by Beauveria bassiana challenge and reached maximum levels at 36h after inoculation in third instar larvae. In the fifth instar larvae infected with B. bassiana, the relative expression level of CecA was upregulated in fat body and hemocytes, but not in cuticle, Malpighian tubule, midgut and silk gland. The cDNA segment of the CecA was inserted into the expression plasmid pET-30a(+) to construct a recombinant expression plasmid. Western blot results revealed that his-tagged fusion protein was successfully expressed and purified. Then the mat peptide of CecA was chemically synthesized with C-terminus amidation for in vivo antifungal assay and purity achieved 93.7%. Mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE showed its molecular weight to be 4046.95Da. Antifungal assays indicated that the B. mori CecA had a high antifungal activity to entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana both in vitro and in vivo in the silkworm larvae. This is the first report that the CecA is effective to inhibit B. bassiana inside the body of silkworm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibiotics and antifungals in VLBW infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cuzzolin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight infants are particularly vulnerable to bacterial and fungal infections. This leads to a common use of antiinfectives, often on a prophylactic basis. Due to the limited available information and the lack of guidelines, the use of antibacterials and antifungals in preterm newborns admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units is characterized by a large variability and these drugs are frequently given with different modalities, particularly as regards dosage and frequency, and in an off-label manner. This article provides an updated overview of the current situation on the use of antiinfectives in prematures, by reporting information derived by an analysis of the literature. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  11. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Terbinafine: novel formulations that potentiate antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Chen, X; Guan, S

    2015-03-01

    Terbinafine, an orally and topically active antifungal agent, has been available for the treatment of dermatophytic infections and onychomycosis for more than a decade. In addition, oral administration has been shown to be associated with drug-drug interactions, hepatotoxicity, low concentration at the infected sites, gastrointestinal and systemic side effects and other adverse effects. Since topical drug delivery can provide higher patient compliance, allow immediate access to the infected site and reduce unwanted systemic drug exposure, an improved topical drug delivery approach with high permeability, sustained release and prolonged retainment could overcome the limitations and side effects caused by oral administration. Conventional topical formulations cannot keep the drug in the targeted sites for a long duration of time and hence a novel drug delivery that can avoid the side effects while still providing sustained efficacy in treatment should be developed. This brief review of novel formulations based on polymers and nanostructure carriers provides insight into the efficacy and topical delivery of terbinafine. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifungal Paper Based on a Polyborneolacrylate Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqi Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper documents and products are very susceptible to microbial contamination and damage. Fungi are mainly responsible for those biodeterioration processes. Traditional microbicidal strategies constitute a serious health risk even when microbes are dead. Ideal methods should not be toxic to humans and should have no adverse effects on paper, but should own a broad spectrum, good chemical stability and low cost. In this work, we utilize an advanced antimicrobial strategy of surface stereochemistry by applying a coating of a shallow layer of polyborneolacrylate (PBA, resulting in the desired antifungal performance. The PBA-coated paper is challenged with the most common air-borne fungi growing on paper, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. Ten percent by weight of the coating concentration or a 19-μm infiltration of PBA is sufficient to keep the paper spotless. The PBA coating also exhibits significant inhibition of spores’ germination. After PBA coating, both physicochemical properties (paper whiteness, pH, mechanical strength and inking performance display only slight changes, which are acceptable for general utilization. This PBA coating method is nontoxic, rapid and cost-effective, thus demonstrating great potential for applications in paper products.

  14. Clinico-mycological study of dermatophytic infections and their sensitivity to antifungal drugs in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Inadequate and irregular use of antifungal drugs has led to the emergence of resistant strains, which cause poor treatment outcomes. Thus, it is very important to test for antifungal sensitivity to check for resistance to antifungals.

  15. Potato dextrose agar antifungal susceptibility testing for yeasts and molds: evaluation of phosphate effect on antifungal activity of CMT-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne M

    2002-05-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a culture medium was developed. Eight strains of fungi, including five American Type Culture Collection strains and three clinical isolates, were used to determine the MICs of amphotericin B and itraconazole with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of the two antifungal agents determined with the PDA method showed 99% agreement with those determined with the BMM method within 1 log(2) dilution. Similarly, the overall reproducibility of the MICs with the PDA method was above 97%. Three other antifungal agents, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and CMT-3, were also tested in parallel against yeasts and molds with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of fluconazole and ketoconazole determined with the PDA method showed 100% agreement within 1 log(2) dilution of those obtained with the BMM method. However, the MICs of CMT-3 determined with the BMM method were as high as 128 times those determined with the PDA method. The effect of phosphate on the antifungal activity of CMT-3 was evaluated by adding Na2HPO4 to PDA in the new method. It was found that the MIC of CMT-3 against a Penicillium sp. increased from 0.5 microg/ml (control) to 2.0 microg/ml when the added phosphate was used at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml, indicating a strong interference of Na2HPO4 with the antifungal activity of CMT-3. Except for fluconazole, all the other antifungal agents demonstrated clear end points among the yeasts and molds tested. Nevertheless, with its high reproducibility

  16. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of selected seaweeds from Okha coast, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal with the assessment of the chemical composition of carbohydrate, protein, phenol, flavanoid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid and antifungal activity of various marine seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat during September, 2013. Methods: Biochemical compounds of selected seaweeds were quantified and antifungal activity of these species belonging to red, green, and brown seaweeds was explored and the seaweeds were extracted in acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Results: The carbohydrate content was highest in Cystoseira indica Mairh, protein was highest in Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh and phenol content was highest in Padina boergesenii; flavanoid content was found greater in Cystoseira indica, chlorophyll content was found greater in Monostroma latissimum Wittrock and carotenoid content was more in Dictyopteris acrostichoides Bornet. The highest inhibiting effect was noted for Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh and Turbinaria ornata J. Agardh belonging to brown algae, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium janthinellum in chloroform extracts and ethanolic extracts, which caused opportunistic infection of HIV-infected person, lung disease, aspergillosis, and otomycosis (fungal ear infections. Conclusions: The study reveals that the seaweeds contain high amount of biochemical constituents. Besides, the crude extracts of the seaweeds showed promising activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Therefore, seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat region are biochemical compounds with potential capacity which make them useful for screening natural products for pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita, L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  18. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe 3O 4) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients.

  19. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  20. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.I.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  1. Design of amphotericin B oral formulation for antifungal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Zhiwen

    2017-11-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) remains the "gold standard" for systemic antifungal therapy, even though new drugs are emerging as the attractive antifungal agents. Since AmB has negligible oral absorption as a consequence of its unfavorable physicochemical characterizations, its use is restricted to parenteral administration which is accompanied by severe side effects. As greater understanding of the gastrointestinal tract has developed, the advanced drug delivery systems are emerging with the potential to overcome the barriers of AmB oral delivery. Much research has demonstrated that oral AmB formulations such as lipid formulations may have beneficial therapeutic efficacy with reduced adverse effects and suitable for clinical application. Here we reviewed the different formulation strategies to enhance oral drug efficacy, and discussed the current trends and future perspectives for AmB oral administration in the treatment of antifungal infections.

  2. Isolation and antifungal screening of endophytic fungi from Erigeron canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen fungal strains isolated from the Erigeron canadensis, one of traditional Chinese medicines used to treat the pathogenic infection and dysentery, were evaluated for their antifungal activities against one human pathogen Candida albicans, and two phytopathogens, Colletotrichum fructicola and Rhizoctonia cerealis. The bioassay results indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of these fungal endophytes had stronger antimicrobial activities. Among these endophytic strains, the ethyl acetate extracts of strains NPR003 and NPR005 showed the strongest inhibitory effects and has potential application in the discovery of new antifungal agents. This was the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from E. canadensis and evaluation of their antifungal activities.

  3. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  4. Hydrogel of Ketoconazole and PAMAM Dendrimers: Formulation and Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Tryniszewska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole (KET, an imidazole derivative with well-known antifungal properties, is lipophilic and practically insoluble in water, therefore its clinical use has some practical disadvantages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of PAMAM-NH2 and PAMAM-OH dendrimers generation 2 and generation 3 on the solubility and antifungal activity of KET and to design and evaluate KET hydrogel with PAMAM dendrimers. It was shown that the surface charge of PAMAM dendrimers strongly affects their influence on the improvement of solubility and antifungal activity of KET. The MIC and MFC values obtained by broth dilution method indicate that PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers significantly (up to 16-fold increased the antifungal activity of KET against Candida strains (e.g., in culture Candida albicans 1103059/11 MIC value was 0.008 μg/mL and 0.064 μg/mL, and MFC was 2 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL for KET in 10 mg/mL solution of PAMAM-NH2 G2 and pure KET, respectively. Antifungal activity of designed KET hydrogel with PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers measured by the plate diffusion method was definitely higher than pure KET hydrogel and than commercial available product. It was shown that the improvement of solubility and in the consequence the higher KET release from hydrogels seems to be a very significant factor affecting antifungal activity of KET in hydrogels containing PAMAM dendrimers.

  5. Antifungal chemical compounds identified using a C. elegans pathogenicity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Breger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal agents. A facile in vivo model that evaluates libraries of chemical compounds could solve some of the main obstacles in current antifungal discovery. We show that Candida albicans, as well as other Candida species, are ingested by Caenorhabditis elegans and establish a persistent lethal infection in the C. elegans intestinal track. Importantly, key components of Candida pathogenesis in mammals, such as filament formation, are also involved in nematode killing. We devised a Candida-mediated C. elegans assay that allows high-throughput in vivo screening of chemical libraries for antifungal activities, while synchronously screening against toxic compounds. The assay is performed in liquid media using standard 96-well plate technology and allows the study of C. albicans in non-planktonic form. A screen of 1,266 compounds with known pharmaceutical activities identified 15 (approximately 1.2% that prolonged survival of C. albicans-infected nematodes and inhibited in vivo filamentation of C. albicans. Two compounds identified in the screen, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a major active component of honeybee propolis, and the fluoroquinolone agent enoxacin exhibited antifungal activity in a murine model of candidiasis. The whole-animal C. elegans assay may help to study the molecular basis of C. albicans pathogenesis and identify antifungal compounds that most likely would not be identified by in vitro screens that target fungal growth. Compounds identified in the screen that affect the virulence of Candida in vivo can potentially be used as "probe compounds" and may have antifungal activity against other fungi.

  6. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Yolanda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. Methods Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced liquid (NIL, prey-induced liquid (PIL, and chitin-induced liquid (CIL. Non-induced liquid (NIL was collected from fresh naturally opened pitchers, PIL from opened pitchers after 3 hours of induction with Zophobas morio larvae, and CIL from closed pitchers after 5 days of chitin solution injection. The antifungal activity of the liquids against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were detected by disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. Results Inhibition zone diameters of NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. albicans were 35.00 (35.00 – 39.33 mm, 26.33 (23.00 – 40.00 mm, and 30.00 ( 28.00 – 32.00 mm, respectively, while for C. glabrata the zone diameters were 22.22 ± 3.66 mm, 29.89 ± 2.79 mm, and 28.89 ± 1.17 mm, respectively. No inhibition zones were found for NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. krusei and C. tropicalis. At concentrations of 80%, almost all samples showed visually apparent inhibition of fungal growth. Conclusion The pitcher liquid of N. rafflesiana has antifungal properties, presumably due to the presence of many potentially active substances, such as naphthoquinones, as has been proven in other studies.

  7. Potent In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Naturally Occurring Acetylenic Acids▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Ashfaq, M. Khalid; Babu, K. Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; ElSohly, Hala N.; Manly, Susan P.; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C16 to C20: 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 μM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 μmol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies. PMID:18458131

  8. Potent in vitro antifungal activities of naturally occurring acetylenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Ashfaq, M Khalid; Babu, K Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Elsohly, Hala N; Manly, Susan P; Clark, Alice M

    2008-07-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C(16) to C(20): 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 muM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 mumol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies.

  9. Mode of Antifungal Drugs Interaction with Cytochrome P- 450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Mahmodian

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer was used to identify the interactions of substrates and antifungal drugs with the enzyme, Cytochrome P-450; and then Molplot.bas computer program was applied to get three dimensional figures of 5-hydroxy camphor.oxidation products of camphor analogues, and antifungal drugs.Cartesian characteristics of atoms building molecules, are taken from Buildz. for program, which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates of atoms by Zmatrix data. The other program which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates, using fractional characteristics, is the Coord, for program that, gives our cartesian characteristics of the atoms of molecule, then by using these data, we obtain three dimensional figures and distance between active atoms in compounds under consideration. Results show that distance between two oxygen atoms in 5-exo-hydroxy- camphor and the other compounds obtained from oxidation of camphor analogues, with the distance of two oxygen atoms in antifungal compounds under discussion are equal. Therefore, we can conclude that, the antifungal molecule also interacts with enzyme's active site, by its own sites, in a similar manner to the 5-hydroxy camphor molecule, which is:"n1. Nitrogen atom (N of Imidazole and Triazole ring in antifungal molecule with Iron atom in heam molecule belonging to Cytochrome P-450 enzyme, are coordinated."n2. The other atoms such as : 0,S or N in structure of the antifungal drug are coordinated with hydrogen atom of hydroxyl group belong ing to Tyr-96 in the structure of enzyme, forming hydrogen bonding.

  10. Isolation, partial purification and characterization of antifungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two bands were obtained from SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and they were identified by ESI/MS using in gel tryptic digestion. The seed protein from B. Sapida consists of two single polypeptide chains each with mass of about 24 to 27 KDa as established by a combination of SDS-PAGE and ESI/MS. Proteins exhibited ...

  11. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species in a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bhattacharjee

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should to be performed to achieve better clinical result and to select an appropriate and effective antifungal therapy. High resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign to the healthcare professionals.

  12. In vitro antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts on mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts were tested against Phytophthora infestans using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities Xanthium strumarium, Lauris nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Styrax officinalis were the most active plants that showed potent antifungal activity.

  13. DMPD: C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18160296 C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Willment JA, Brown GD. Tre...nds Microbiol. 2008 Jan;16(1):27-32. Epub 2007 Dec 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show C-type lectin receptors in antifun...gal immunity. PubmedID 18160296 Title C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Author

  14. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  15. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu; Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2011-01-01

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O 2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  16. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  17. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  18. In vitro antifungal susceptibility to six antifungal agents of 229 Candida isolates from patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, M; McCullough, M J; Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Al-Karaawi, Z M; Vescovi, P; Porter, S R

    2006-06-01

    The most common antifungal drugs in current clinical use for the treatment of oral candidosis are polyenes and azoles, mainly used topically. Poor glycaemic control in association with other local factors, such as the presence of oral dental prostheses, salivary pH, salivary flow rate and tobacco habits, may lead to the development of oral candidosis. Topical antifungal agents are frequently used to prevent the development of candidal infections in patients with poor metabolic control, particularly in the elderly wearing dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates to six antifungal agents using a commercially available kit, Fungitest. The isolated were collected from patients affected by diabetes mellitus from two different geographic localities (London, UK, and Parma, Italy) and from a group of healthy non-diabetic subjects. No differences in antifungal susceptibility to the six agents tested were observed between Candida isolates from diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. However, differences were observed between the two geographically different diabetes mellitus populations. Oral yeast isolates from diabetes mellitus patients in the UK more often displayed resistance or intermediate resistance to fluconazole (P=0.02), miconazole (Pdiabetes mellitus patients in Italy. In addition, more C. albicans isolates were found in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects that were susceptible to fluconazole (P=0.0008 and P=0.01, respectively) than non-albicans isolates. The difference in the antifungal resistance of isolates from the two populations of diabetes mellitus patients may be related to differences in the therapeutic management of candidal infections between the two centres.

  19. Antifungal, Mechanical, and Physical Properties of Edible Film Containing Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus Antagonistic Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Gulsah; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2018-03-01

    The molding of food products causing health risks is a main problem in the food industry. In this study, as an alternative solution for preventing mold growth, an antifungal edible film was developed by incorporating Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus (0; 3; 7; and 9 logs CFU/cm 2 ) into whey protein concentrate (WPC) based films. Antifungal properties of the films against Penicilium expansum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed using the disc diffusion method. Physical (barrier, solubility, color), mechanical (tensile strength and percent elongation) properties of the films as well as the survival of W. saturnus in the film were assessed during 28 days of storage at 23 °C. According to the results, the viability of W. saturnus (7 and 9 logs CFU/cm 2 ) in WPC films stored for 28 days under vacuum or non-vacuum decreased to 36% and 60%, respectively. In addition, films containing W. saturnus decreased the viability of P. expansum and A. niger by 29% and 19%, respectively. Adding yeast did not change the tensile strength (P > 0.05), but significantly decreased % elongation and increased water vapor and oxygen permeability and water solubility (P films may be useful for inhibiting mold growth on foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Fajardo, Paula; Gartner, Hunter; Gomez-Estaca, Joaquin; Gavara, Rafael; Almenar, Eva; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. Incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. These results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. The different cross-linking degree of the matrices influenced the natamycin migration to the agar test media, increasing from 13.3 to 23.7 (μg/g of film) as the percentage of cinnamaldehyde was reduced from 5% to 1.5%. Antifungal activity of films was assayed against common food spoilage fungi (Penicillium species, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum acutatum). The greatest effectiveness was obtained for films containing natamycin and treated with 5% of cinnamaldehyde. The level of cinnamaldehyde reached in the head-space of the test assay showed a diminishing trend as a function of time, which was in agreement with fungal growth and cinnamaldehyde metabolization. Developed active films were used in the packaging of cheese slices showing promising results for their application in active packaging against food spoilage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Growth, phytochemicals and antifungal activity of Bryophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... collected and washed with dilute ammonium hydroxide and then filtered. The residue is the ... was recovered while the ether layer was discarded. ... dative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA (Devasagayam et al., 2004).

  2. Neural network modelling of antifungal activity of a series of oxazole derivatives based on in silico pharmacokinetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Strahinja Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the antifungal activity of a series of benzoxazole and oxazolo[ 4,5-b]pyridine derivatives was evaluated against Candida albicans by using quantitative structure-activity relationships chemometric methodology with artificial neural network (ANN regression approach. In vitro antifungal activity of the tested compounds was presented by minimum inhibitory concentration expressed as log(1/cMIC. In silico pharmacokinetic parameters related to absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME were calculated for all studied compounds by using PreADMET software. A feedforward back-propagation ANN with gradient descent learning algorithm was applied for modelling of the relationship between ADME descriptors (blood-brain barrier penetration, plasma protein binding, Madin-Darby cell permeability and Caco-2 cell permeability and experimental log(1/cMIC values. A 4-6-1 ANN was developed with the optimum momentum and learning rates of 0.3 and 0.05, respectively. An excellent correlation between experimental antifungal activity and values predicted by the ANN was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9536. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  3. In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts against Pyricularia oryzae. Olufolaji, D. B.1, Adeosun, B.O.1 and Onasanya, R. O.2. 1. Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, The Federal University of Technology, PMB 704. Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. 2. Department of Agriculture, Federal College ...

  4. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of an alcoholic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Senna alata leaves were screened for phytochemicals, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Out of the three crude extracts, the methanolic extract showed the highest activity than the ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts. The unidentified active components purified ...

  5. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The disc diffusion method (Chattopadhyay et al., 2001) was employed for the determination of antifungal activities of the crude extract and fractions prepared from D. mannii leaves. Briefly, 0.1 ml of suspension of yeast containing 1.5 × 106 spores/ml was spread on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium in 90 mm Petri dishes.

  6. Antifungal and Antihepatotoxic Effects of Sepia Ink Extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in ...

  7. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Out of these, 22% of the isolates exhibited activity against fungi. One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by ...

  8. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  9. In vitro assay of potential antifungal and antibacterial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the dermatophytes strains Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton soudanense, Microsporum langeronii, and Epidermophyton floccosum were used. The E2F2 extract showed strong inhibitory activity on four of the five fungal species used against ketoconazole, a standard antifungal drug. However ...

  10. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity ...

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal ...

  12. Genetic determinants of antifungal resistance in Candida species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the previous decades, it has been an increase in cases of resistance to antifungal agents used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Candida species. The emergence of resistance to drug classes, it is usually explained by genome alterations ranging from point mutations to gain or loss of whole ...

  13. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of skin secretions from selected frogs (Amietia fuscigula, Strongylopus grayi and Xenopus laevis) and one toad (Amietophrynus pantherinus) of the south Western Cape Province of South Africa. Initially, different extraction techniques for the collection of skin secretions ...

  14. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... extracts from 30 plants used by Venda traditional healers for the ... cost of antifungal agents (Debruyne, 1997; Traeder et al., ... the use of medicinal plants is very common based on ... used to determine the activity of the plant extracts against the .... diffusion method: Table 3) as well as the two Candida.

  15. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of four Algerian marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cmi

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... and antifungal activities of the extracts of marine algae from southern coast of India. Botanica marina. 40: 507-515. Patra JK, Patra AP, Mahapatra NK, Thatoi HN, Das S, Sahu, RK, Swain. GC (2009). Antimicrobial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae from Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potency against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus laurentii, with the same MIC value of 1.56 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our findings support the use of Hypericum havvae in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal infections, especially Candidiasis. Keywords: Antifungal activity, Candida, Hypericum havvae, Candidiasis ...

  18. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant and antifungal activities of polyphenol-rich extracts of the dried fruit pulp of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) and Garcinia morella (GM) to determine their traditional claims of therapeutic activity against certain diseases. Methods: Analysis of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents of the ...

  19. Activation of Melanin Synthesis in Alternaria infectoria by Antifungal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Chantal; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Silva, Branca M A; Nakouzi-Naranjo, Antonio; Zuzarte, Mónica; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth E; Casadevall, Arturo; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2015-12-28

    The importance of Alternaria species fungi to human health ranges from their role as etiological agents of serious infections with poor prognoses in immunosuppressed individuals to their association with respiratory allergic diseases. The present work focuses on Alternaria infectoria, which was used as a model organism of the genus, and was designed to unravel melanin production in response to antifungals. After we characterized the pigment produced by A. infectoria, we studied the dynamics of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin production during growth, the degree of melanization in response to antifungals, and how melanization affected susceptibility to several classes of therapeutic drugs. We demonstrate that A. infectoria increased melanin deposition in cell walls in response to nikkomycin Z, caspofungin, and itraconazole but not in response to fluconazole or amphotericin B. These results indicate that A. infectoria activates DHN-melanin synthesis in response to certain antifungal drugs, possibly as a protective mechanism against these drugs. Inhibition of DHN-melanin synthesis by pyroquilon resulted in a lower minimum effective concentration (MEC) of caspofungin and enhanced morphological changes (increased hyphal balloon size), characterized by thinner and less organized A. infectoria cell walls. In summary, A. infectoria synthesizes melanin in response to certain antifungal drugs, and its susceptibility is influenced by melanization, suggesting the therapeutic potential of drug combinations that affect melanin synthesis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) hale and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are composite organisms comprising of a photobiont and a mycobiont. Studies have shown that extracts and secondary metabolites from lichens exhibit various bioactivities. The present study evaluates antifungal potential of crude methanolic extract of two corticolous Parmotrema species viz. Parmotrema tinctorum ...

  1. Composition and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the oil constituents of Lippia gracilis were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant and antifungal activities were also evaluated. The leaf oil showed a yield of 3.7% and its main constituents were thymol (70.3%), p-cymene (9.2%), thymol ...

  2. Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic dune soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Lafeber, P.; Janse, J.H.; Spit, B.E.; Woldendorp, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic soil bacteria may enable them to compete successfully for chitin with fungi. Additionally, the production of chitinase may be part of a lytic system that enables the bacteria to use living hyphae rather than chitin as the actual growth substrate, since chitin

  3. Antifungal susceptibility profiles and risk factors of vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary young women often shift their preference from skirt to trousers and leggingswhich also coincides with a rise in auto-medication and over-the-counter drugs phenomena in our communities. These could result in increased occurrence of vaginal candidiasis infection and antifungal drug resistance. This was a ...

  4. Antifungal Capacity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Salad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the use of lactic acid bacteria from fresh salad vegetables to inhibit fungal growth. The antifungal assay was done using the agar well diffusion method as reported by Schillinger and Lucke (1989). The largest zone of inhibition (25mm) was recorded by the antagonistic activity of the isolate identified to ...

  5. Antifungal activity of bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antifungal action of biomolecules produced from the secondary metabolism of bacterial strains found in the rhizosphere of semi arid plants against human pathogenic Candida albicans. Crude extracts were obtained using ethyl acetate as an organic solvent and the bioactivity was assessed with a ...

  6. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Baccharis trimera Less (DC) Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigate their in vitro antifungal activity against seven fungal strains that cause onychomycosis. Methods: The ... 220 °C and detector at 220 °C. The carrier gas used was ... wavelength of 530 nm [31]. ..... (HTSS) followed by 3D graphs.

  7. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  8. Antifungal evaluation of shell pyrolysates of oil palm ( Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medicinal values of oil palm and coconut shells are not much known in herbal medicine and the two mostly constitute waste products. The antifungal effects of steam-distilled pyrolysates obtained from the two shells and the respective organic solvent fractions were evaluated against human pathogenic fungi ...

  9. Antifungal activity of leaf extract of Crassocephalum repidiodes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility profile of the dermatophytes tested was T. mentagrophytes. > T. rubrum > M. audouinii. The phytochemical studies of the extracts revealed that the aqueous extract lacked terpenes and anthraquinone while terpenes were absent in ethanolic extract. KEY WORDS: Antifungal, Dermatophytes, Extract, ...

  10. Comparative study of the antifungal activity of some essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimould activity of oregano, thyme, rosemary and clove essential oils and some of their main constituents: eugenol, carvacrol and thymol against Aspergillus niger. This antifungal activity was assessed using broth dilution, disc diffusion and micro atmosphere methods. In both agar diffusion ...

  11. Antifungal potential of leaf extracts of leguminous trees against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Materials and Methods: Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with ...

  12. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... psoriasis and eczema, through to the more serious disease like leprosy, syphilis and skin cancer (Burkill,. 1985). Previous studies of the fruits of K. africana showed some antibacterial activity (Grace et al., 2002). However there is no report on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the stem bark of this ...

  13. Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities of Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Guedes, Glaucia M M; Santos, Francisco A V; Sousa, Ana Carla A; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-02-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a public health problem. Currently, chemotherapy is the only available treatment for this disease, and the drugs used, nifurtimox and benzonidazol, present high toxicity levels. An alternative for replacing these drugs are natural extracts from Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) used in traditional medicine because of their antimicrobial and biological activities. In this study, we evaluated the extract of M. charantia for its antiepimastigote, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. An ethanol extract of leaves from M. charantia was prepared. To research in vitro antiepimastigote activity, T. cruzi CL-B5 clone was used. Epimastigotes were inoculated at a concentration of 1 × 10(5) cells/mL in 200 µl tryptose-liver infusion. For the cytotoxicity assay, J774 macrophages were used. The antifungal activity was evaluated by microdilution using strains of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The effective concentration capable of killing 50% of parasites (IC(50)) was 46.06 µg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 1024 µg/mL. Metronidazole showed a potentiation of its antifungal effect when combined with an extract of M. charantia. Our results indicate that M. charantia could be a source of plant-derived natural products with antiepimastigote and antifungal-modifying activity with moderate toxicity.

  14. Common drug-drug interactions in antifungal treatments for superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H

    2018-04-01

    Antifungal agents can be co-administered alongside several other medications for a variety of reasons such as the presence of comorbidities. Pharmacodynamic interactions such as synergistic and antagonistic interactions could be the result of co-administered medications. Pharmacokinetic interactions could also transpire through the inhibition of metabolizing enzymes and drug transport systems, altering the absorption, metabolism and excretion of co-administered medications. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions can result in hospitalization due to serious adverse effects associated with antifungal agents, lower therapeutic doses required to achieve desired antifungal activity, and prevent antifungal resistance. Areas covered: The objective of this review is to summarize pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions associated with common antifungal agents used to treat superficial fungal infections. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions that impact the therapeutic effects of antifungal agents and drugs that are influenced by the presence of antifungal agents was the context to which these antifungal agents were addressed. Expert opinion: The potential for drug-drug interactions is minimal for topical antifungals as opposed to oral antifungals as they have minimal exposure to other co-administered medications. Developing non-lipophilic antifungals that have unique metabolizing pathways and are topical applied are suggested properties that could help limit drug-drug interactions associated with future treatments.

  15. Antifungal effect and action mechanism of antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kairong; Jia, Fengjing; Dang, Wen; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Qiu, Shuai; An, Xiaoping; Ma, Zelin; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Yan, Jiexi; Kong, Ziqing; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of life-threatening invasive fungal infections increased significantly in recent years. However, the antifungal therapeutic options are very limited. Antimicrobial peptides are a class of potential lead chemical for the development of novel antifungal agents. Antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP was purified from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. In this study, we synthesized polybia-CP and determined its antifungal effects against a series of Candidian species. Our results showed that polybia-CP has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungal cells with a proposed membrane-active action mode. In addition, polybia-CP could induce the increase of cellular reactive oxygen species production, which would attribute to its antifungal activity. In conclusion, the present study suggests that polybia-CP has potential as an antifungal agent or may offer a new strategy for antifungal therapeutic option. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  17. Identification and functional characterization of Rca1, a transcription factor involved in both antifungal susceptibility and host response in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Pradervand, Sylvain; Ischer, Françoise; Coste, Alix T; Ferrari, Sélène; Harshman, Keith; Sanglard, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    The identification of novel transcription factors associated with antifungal response may allow the discovery of fungus-specific targets for new therapeutic strategies. A collection of 241 Candida albicans transcriptional regulator mutants was screened for altered susceptibility to fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine. Thirteen of these mutants not yet identified in terms of their role in antifungal response were further investigated, and the function of one of them, a mutant of orf19.6102 (RCA1), was characterized by transcriptome analysis. Strand-specific RNA sequencing and phenotypic tests assigned Rca1 as the regulator of hyphal formation through the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathway and the transcription factor Efg1, but also probably through its interaction with a transcriptional repressor, most likely Tup1. The mechanisms responsible for the high level of resistance to caspofungin and fluconazole observed resulting from RCA1 deletion were investigated. From our observations, we propose that caspofungin resistance was the consequence of the deregulation of cell wall gene expression and that fluconazole resistance was linked to the modulation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our large-scale screening of a C. albicans transcription factor mutant collection allowed the identification of new effectors of the response to antifungals. The functional characterization of Rca1 assigned this transcription factor and its downstream targets as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic strategies, as Rca1 influences host sensing, hyphal development, and antifungal response.

  18. Bisbibenzyls, a new type of antifungal agent, inhibit morphogenesis switch and biofilm formation through upregulation of DPP3 in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The yeast-to-hypha transition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule (QSM secreted by the fungal itself, could prevent the formation of hyphae and subsequently lead to the defect of biofilm formation. The DPP3, encoding phosphatase, is a key gene in regulating farnesol synthesis. In this study, we screened 24 bisbibenzyls and 2 bibenzyls that were isolated from bryophytes or chemically synthesized by using CLSI method for antifungal effect. Seven bisbibenzyls were found to have antifungal effects with IC(80 less than 32 µg/ml, and among them, plagiochin F, isoriccardin C and BS-34 were found to inhibit the hyphae and biofilm formation of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. To uncover the underlying relationship between morphogenesis switch and QSM formation, we measured the farnesol production by HPLC-MS and quantified Dpp3 expression by detecting the fluorescent intensity of green fluorescent protein tagged strain using Confocal Laser Scanning microscopy and Multifunction Microplate Reader. The DPP3 transcripts were determined by real-time PCR. The data indicated that the bisbibenzyls exerted antifungal effects through stimulating the synthesis of farnesol via upregulation of Dpp3, suggesting a potential antifungal application of bisbibenzyls. In addition, our assay provides a novel, visual and convenient method to measure active compounds against morphogenesis switch.

  19. Circadian rhythm of anti-fungal prenylated chromene in leaves of Piper aduncum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Débora Cristina B; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa

    2005-01-01

    Leaves of Piper aduncum accumulate the anti-fungal chromenes methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The enzymatic formation of 2 from dimethylallyl diphosphate and 1 was investigated using cell-free extracts of the title plant. An HPLC assay for the prenylation reaction was developed and the enzyme activity measured in the protein extracts. The prenyltransferase that catalyses the transfer of the dimethylallyl group to C-2' of 1 was soluble and required dimethylallyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor. In the leaves, the biosynthesis of the prenylated chromene 2 was time-regulated and prenyltransferase activity depended upon circadian variation. Preliminary characterisation and purification experiments on the prenyltransferase from P. aduncum have been performed.

  20. Identification of antifungal H+-ATPase inhibitors with effect on the plasma membrane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Gordon, Sandra; Cohrt, Karen O'Hanlon

    2017-01-01

    to depolarize the membrane and inhibit extracellular acidification in intact fungal cells, concomitant with a significant increase in intracellular ATP levels. Collectively, we suggest these effects may be a common feature for Pma1 inhibitors. Additionally, the work uncovered a dual mechanism for the previously......The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (Pma1) is an essential fungal protein and a proposed target for new antifungal medications. A small-molecule library containing ∼191,000 commercially available compounds was screened for inhibition of S. cerevisiae plasma membranes containing Pma1. The overall hit...... identified cationic peptide BM2, revealing fungal membrane disruption in addition to Pma1 inhibition. The methods presented here provide a solid platform for the evaluation of Pma1-specific inhibitors in a drug development setting. The present inhibitors could serve as a starting point for the development...

  1. The Effectiveness of Antifungal Controlling Aspergillus Niger Growth on Plasterboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parjo Umi Kalthsom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good indoor environmental quality is desired for a healthy indoor environment. The microbial growth under indoor environments contribute to the poor indoor environmental quality that can cause various of health problems. In this study, the applications of three types of antifungals to prevent microbial migration, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate the coating-bio resistance in remediation of indoor fungal using three types of antifungals with different types of wall finishing materials. The treatment was exposed to optimum temperature and relative humidity at 30°C and 90% respectively. The potassium sorbate, zinc salicylate and calcium benzoate are tested against Aspergillus niger which is collected from indoor rooms. This study has revealed the growth of A. niger are more affected by the potassium sorbate on thick wallpaper, which is the percentage growth are 47%.

  2. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  3. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, I.M.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  4. Chemical Constituents and Antifungal Activity of Ficus hirta Vahl. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2, five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3–7, three flavonoids (8–10, and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4–6, and 8–11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits, showed good antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the phytopathogen of citrus blue mold caused the majority rotten of citrus fruits.

  5. Synthesis of chitosan derivative with diethyldithiocarbamate and its antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yukun; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Kecheng; Hu, Linfeng; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-04-01

    With an aim to discover novel chitosan derivatives with enhanced antifungal properties compared with chitosan. Diethyl dithiocarbamate chitosan (EtDTCCS) was investigated and its structure was well identified. The antifungal activity of EtDTCCS against Alternaria porri (A. porri), Gloeosporium theae sinensis Miyake (G. theae sinensis), and Stemphylium solani Weber (S. solani) was tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. Compared with plain chitosan, EtDTCCS shows better inhibitory effect with 93.2% inhibitory index on G. theae sinensis at 1.0 mg/mL, even stronger than for polyoxin (82.5%). It was inferred derivatives of this kind may find potential applications for the treatment of various crop-threatening diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Zygomycetes and zygomycosis in the new era of antifungal therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Narbona, M; Guinea, J; Muñoz, P; Bouza, E

    2007-12-01

    Zygomycosis or mucormycosis is the third most invasive fungal infection after candidiasis and aspergillosis. Traditionally, it has been considered a community-acquired disease, but it is becoming a frequent nosocomial-acquired disease. Recently, several publications from different institutions have reported an increase in the number of cases of invasive zygomycosis as a result of the new antifungal and immunosuppresive therapies and the emerging immunocompromised population. In addition, the diagnosis of zygomycosis is elusive, mainly in pulmonary and disseminated forms. One of the main limitations in isolating Zygomycetes from clinical samples is the interpretation of results. The increasing number of invasive fungal infections caused by multiresistant fungi has led to the development of new antifungal drugs with variable activity against Zygomycetes.

  7. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of PCA amide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Yu, Di-Ya; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qing-Lai; Li, Jun-Kai

    2018-04-18

    To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC 50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 37.3 μM (Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra) and 33.2 μM (Rhizoctonia solani), respectively.

  8. Synthesis of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazones as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhinan; Lv, Min; Li, Qin; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-15

    A series of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria solani, Valsa mali, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Glomerella cingulata. Compounds 7b, 8d, 9a, 9b and 9d exhibited a good and broad-spectrum of antifungal activities against at least five phytopathogenic fungi at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. It demonstrated that addition of one double bond between the phenylsulfonylhydrazone fragment and the furan ring of 6a,b,d could afford more active compounds 9a,b,d; however, introduction of the nitro group on the phenyl ring of 6a-9a gave less potent compounds 6e-9e. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifungal Activity from Leaves of Acacia Nilotica against Pythium Aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid and methyl ester of gallic acid has been identified as antifungal compounds against the mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum from acetone-water extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves. The growth of fungus was completely ceased by gallic acid and its methyl ester at 1000 ppm and 750 ppm, respectively. Antifungal properties of both compounds were found to be higher in combination than alone. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both compounds was 1000 ppm. No phytotoxic effect of the compounds was observed on watermelon seed germination. The growth of roots and shoots of watermelon seedlings was promoted by gallic acid but decreased with methyl ester of gallic acid. Nitrate reductase activity of the fungus was significantly inhibited by both compounds.

  10. Neosordarin and hydroxysordarin, two new antifungal agents from Sordaria araneosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, Paolo; Engel, Günther; Werle, Andreas; Sterner, Olov; Anke, Timm

    2002-04-01

    Two novel antifungal agents belonging to the sordarin family have been isolated from fermentations of Sordaria araneosa by bioassay-guided purification and their structures elucidated by NMR techniques. Neosordarin (1) is closely related to the recently discovered hypoxysordarin (2), with only small differences on the aliphatic side chain acylating the hydroxyl in the 3'-position of the sordarose moiety. Hydroxysordarin (3) closely resembles sordarin (4), the only slight difference being the replacement of sordarose with altrose as the sugar unit.

  11. Antifungal activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons against Ligninolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has caused increasing concern because of their known, or suspected, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurring in the environment are usually the result of the incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials. The main sources of severe PAHs contamination in soil come from fossil fuels, i.e. production or use of fossil fuels or their products, such as coal tar and creosote. Creosote is used as a wood preservation for railway ties, bridge timbers, pilling and large-sized lumber. It consists mainly of PAHs, phenol and cresol compounds that cause harmful health effects. Research on biodegradation has shown that a special group of microorganisms, the white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi, has a remarkable potential to degrade PAHs. This paper presents a study of the antifungal activity of 12 selected PAHs against two ligninolytic fungi Hypoxylon fragiforme (white rot and Coniophora puteana (brown rot. The antifungal activity of PAHs was determined by the disc-diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the tested PAHs (concentration of 2.5 mmol/L depends on the their properties such as molar mass, solubility in water, values of log Kow, ionization potential and Henry’s Law constant as well as number of aromatic rings, molecule topology or pattern of ring linkage. Among the 12 investigated PAHs, benzo(k fluoranthene with five rings, and pyrene with four cyclic condensed benzene rings showed the highest antifungal activity.

  12. Antifungal activity of aloe vera gel against plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitara, U.; Hassan, N.; Naseem, J.

    2011-01-01

    Aloe vera gel extracted from the Aloe vera leaves was evaluated for their antifungal activity at the rate of 0.15%, 0.25% and 0.35% concentration against five plants pathogenic fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Drechslera hawaiensis and Penicillum digitatum 0.35% concentration Aloe vera gel completely inhibited the growth of Drechslera hawaiensis and Alternaria alternata. (author)

  13. Antifungal amphiphilic aminoglycoside K20: bioactivities and mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib K. Shrestha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available K20 is a novel amphiphilic antifungal aminoglycoside that is synthetically derived from the antibiotic kanamycin A. Reported here are investigations of K20’s antimicrobial activities, cytotoxicity, and fungicidal mechanism of action. In vitro growth inhibitory activities against a variety of human and plant pathogenic yeasts, filamentous fungi, and bacteria were determined using microbroth dilution assays and time-kill curve analyses, and hemolytic and animal cell cytotoxic activities were determined. Effects on Cryptococcus neoformans H-99 infectivity were determined with a preventive murine lung infection model. The antifungal mechanism of action was studied using intact fungal cells, yeast lipid mutants, and small unilamellar lipid vesicles. K20 exhibited broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activities but not antibacterial activities. Pulmonary, single dose-administration of K20 reduced C. neoformans lung infection rates 4-fold compared to controls. Hemolysis and half-maximal cytotoxicities of mammalian cells occurred at concentrations that were 10 to 32-fold higher than fungicidal MICs. With fluorescein isothiocyanate, 20 to 25 mg/L K20 caused staining of >95% of C. neoformans and Fusarium graminearum cells and at 31.3 mg/L caused rapid leakage (30 to 80% in 15 min of calcein from preloaded small unilamellar lipid vesicles. K20 appears to be a broad-spectrum fungicide, capable of reducing the infectivity of C. neoformans, and exhibits low hemolytic activity and mammalian cell toxicity. It perturbs the plasma membrane by mechanisms that are lipid modulated. K20 is a novel amphiphilic aminoglycoside amenable to scalable production and a potential lead antifungal for therapeutic and crop protection applications.

  14. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    Hedychiums have been reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities [4,5]. Strawberry anthracnose, caused by the plant...pathogens Colletotrichum species is one of the most important diseases affecting strawberries worldwide [6]. Colletotrichum fragariae Brooks is most...often associated with anthracnose crown rot of strawberries grown in hot, humid areas such as the southeastern United States [7]. The azalea lace bug

  16. Effect of cultivation conditions on growth and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Growth and production of antifungal agent by Mycena leptocephala was investigated in different culture media composition at various initial pH and temperatures. Maximum growth and activity was observed at the initial pH of 5.5 and 25oC. No detectable growth and activity was observed at pH of 3.5 and 7.5. Growth of the ...

  17. Antifungal Monoterpene Derivatives from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Bing-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Long

    2016-10-01

    A new monoterpene lactone, (1R,4R,5R,8S)-8-hydroxy-4,8-dimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one (1), along with one related known compound, (2R)-2-[(1R)-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl]propanoic acid (2), were isolated from the liquid culture of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan obtained from the branch of Bruguiera sexangula. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR spectra combined with computational methods via calculation of the optical rotation (OR) and 13 C-NMR. Both compounds exhibited strong antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora nicotianae with MIC values of 3.1 and 6.3 μg/ml, respectively, which are comparable to those of the known antifungal drug ketoconazole. Compound 2 also showed modest antifungal activity against Candida albicans with a MIC value of 50 μg/ml. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  18. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani Pereira Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05 embedded in a microemulsion (ME. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05 showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1 and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1. Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1, but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.

  19. Antifungal and Antibacterial Metabolites from a French Poplar Type Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Boisard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During this study, the in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of different extracts (aqueous and organic obtained from a French propolis batch were evaluated. Antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution on three pathogenic strains: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antibacterial activity was assayed using agar dilution method on 36 Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains including Staphylococcus aureus. Organic extracts showed a significant antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata (MIC80 between 16 and 31 µg/mL but only a weak activity towards A. fumigatus (MIC80 = 250 µg/mL. DCM based extracts exhibited a selective Gram-positive antibacterial activity, especially against S. aureus (SA and several of its methicillin-resistant (MRSA and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA strains (MIC100 30–97 µg/mL. A new and active derivative of catechin was also identified whereas a synergistic antimicrobial effect was noticed during this study.

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  1. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Ariane F; Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term "plant defensin," after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins.

  2. Antifungal susceptibility testing method for resource constrained laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In resource-constrained laboratories of developing countries determination of antifungal susceptibility testing by NCCLS/CLSI method is not always feasible. We describe herein a simple yet comparable method for antifungal susceptibility testing. Methods: Reference MICs of 72 fungal isolates including two quality control strains were determined by NCCLS/CLSI methods against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and cancidas. Dermatophytes were also tested against terbinafine. Subsequently, on selection of optimum conditions, MIC was determined for all the fungal isolates by semisolid antifungal agar susceptibility method in Brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 0.5% agar (BHIA without oil overlay and results were compared with those obtained by reference NCCLS/CLSI methods. Results: Comparable results were obtained by NCCLS/CLSI and semisolid agar susceptibility (SAAS methods against quality control strains. MICs for 72 isolates did not differ by more than one dilution for all drugs by SAAS. Conclusions: SAAS using BHIA without oil overlay provides a simple and reproducible method for obtaining MICs against yeast, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes in resource-constrained laboratories.

  3. Genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Fusarium isolates in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Priscila D; Heidrich, Daiane; Corrêa, Carolina; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Vettorato, Gerson; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Goldani, Luciano Z

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium species have emerged as an important human pathogen in skin disease, onychomycosis, keratitis and invasive disease. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. The infection has been increasingly described in the immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Considering onychomycosis is a difficult to treat infection, and little is known about the genetic variability and susceptibility pattern of Fusarium spp., further studies are necessary to understand the pathogenesis and better to define the appropriate antifungal treatment for this infection. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to describe the in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents and the genetic diversity of 35 Fusarium isolated from patients with onychomycosis. Fusarium spp. were isolated predominantly from female Caucasians, and the most frequent anatomical location was the nail of the hallux. Results revealed that 25 (71.4%) of isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex, followed by 10 (28.5%) isolates from the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Noteworthy, the authors report the first case of Neocosmospora rubicola isolated from a patient with onychomycosis. Amphotericin B was the most effective antifungal agent against the majority of isolates (60%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL), followed by voriconazole (34.2%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL). In general, Fusarium species presented MIC values >64 μg/mL for fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine. Accurate pathogen identification, characterisation and susceptibility testing provide a better understanding of pathogenesis of Fusarium in onychomycosis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  5. Biofilm antifungal susceptibility of Candida urine isolated from ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Luz Becker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the association between the biofilm formations an antifungal resistance has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several Candida species. Besides, studies have included invasive candidiasis from hospitalized patients; however there are few studies that evaluated the species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and biofilm formation of Candida species isolated from ambulatory patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether biofilm producing contributes to antifungal resistance in Candida isolates from urine sample obtained from ambulatory patients. Methods: During one year, 25 urine samples positive for yeast were collected, stored and plated on agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and Sabouread left at room temperature for 5 days for subsequent: 52% (13/25 were C. albicans, 36% (9/25 C. tropicalis, 8% (2/25 C. krusei and 4% (1/25 C. parapsilosis. Results: The ability to form biofilm was detected in 23 (92% of the yeast studied and 15.4% (2/13 of C. albicans were fluconazole (FLU and ketoconazole (KET resistant, while 11.1% (1/9 of C. tropicalis were ketoconazole resistant and were anidulafungin (ANI non-susceptible. Conclusion: our results showed the high capacity for biofilm formation among Candida isolates from ambulatory patients.

  6. Antifungal Microbial Agents for Food Biopreservation-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva Salas, Marcia; Mounier, Jérôme; Valence, Florence; Coton, Monika; Thierry, Anne; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-07-08

    Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry, leading to food waste, substantial economic losses for manufacturers and consumers, and a negative impact on brand names. Among causes, fungal contamination can be encountered at various stages of the food chain (e.g., post-harvest, during processing or storage). Fungal development leads to food sensory defects varying from visual deterioration to noticeable odor, flavor, or texture changes but can also have negative health impacts via mycotoxin production by some molds. In order to avoid microbial spoilage and thus extend product shelf life, different treatments-including fungicides and chemical preservatives-are used. In parallel, public authorities encourage the food industry to limit the use of these chemical compounds and develop natural methods for food preservation. This is accompanied by a strong societal demand for 'clean label' food products, as consumers are looking for more natural, less severely processed and safer products. In this context, microbial agents corresponding to bioprotective cultures, fermentates, culture-free supernatant or purified molecules, exhibiting antifungal activities represent a growing interest as an alternative to chemical preservation. This review presents the main fungal spoilers encountered in food products, the antifungal microorganisms tested for food bioprotection, and their mechanisms of action. A focus is made in particular on the recent in situ studies and the constraints associated with the use of antifungal microbial agents for food biopreservation.

  7. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane eLacerda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 90’s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP have been studied. However, Broekaert only coined the term plant defensin in 1995, after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity towards microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM. Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 µM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90’s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii the possibility of using plant defensin(s genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins.

  8. The fungal resistome: a risk and an opportunity for the development of novel antifungal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose A; Molero, Gloria; Gil, Concha; Martínez, José L

    2016-08-01

    The risks for toxicity of novel antifungal compounds, together with the emergence of resistance, makes the use of inhibitors of resistance, in combination with antifungal compounds, a suitable strategy for developing novel antifungal formulations. Among them, inhibitors of efflux pumps are suitable candidates. Increasing drug influx or interfering with the stress response may also improve the efficacy of antifungals. Therapies as induction of fungal apoptosis or immunostimulation are also good strategies for reducing the risks for resistance and to improve antifungals' efficacy. Understanding the effect of the acquisition of resistance on the fungal physiology and determining the collateral sensitivity networks are useful for the development of novel strategies based on combination of antifungals for improving the efficacy of the therapy.

  9. Defining the frontiers between antifungal resistance, tolerance and the concept of persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarze, Eric; Sanglard, Dominique

    2015-11-01

    A restricted number of antifungal agents are available for the therapy of fungal diseases. With the introduction of epidemiological cut-off values for each agent in important fungal pathogens based on the distribution of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the distinction between wild type and drug-resistant populations has been facilitated. Antifungal resistance has been described for all currently available antifungal agents in several pathogens and most of the associated resistance mechanisms have been deciphered at the molecular level. Clinical breakpoints for some agents have been proposed and can have predictive value for the success or failure of therapy. Tolerance to antifungals has been a much more ignored area. By definition, tolerance operates at antifungal concentrations above individual intrinsic inhibitory values. Important is that tolerance to antifungal agents favours the emergence of persister cells, which are able to survive antifungal therapy and can cause relapses. Here we will review the current knowledge on antifungal tolerance, its potential mechanisms and also evaluate the role of antifungal tolerance in the efficacy of drug treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular and cellular responses of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans to the antifungal drug voriconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aize Pellon

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with fatal infections in patients with disturbed immune function. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are hardly of any use against this fungus due to its intrinsic resistance. Therefore, we performed an integrated study of the L. prolificans responses to the first option to treat these mycoses, namely voriconazole, with the aim of unveiling mechanisms involved in the resistance to this compound. To do that, we used a wide range of techniques, including fluorescence and electron microscopy to study morphological alterations, ion chromatography to measure changes in cell-wall carbohydrate composition, and proteomics-based techniques to identify the proteins differentially expressed under the presence of the drug. Significantly, we showed drastic changes occurring in cell shape after voriconazole exposure, L. prolificans hyphae being shorter and wider than under control conditions. Interestingly, we proved that the architecture and carbohydrate composition of the cell wall had been modified in the presence of the drug. Specifically, L. prolificans constructed a more complex organelle with a higher presence of glucans and mannans. In addition to this, we identified several differentially expressed proteins, including Srp1 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, as the most overexpressed under voriconazole-induced stress conditions. The mechanisms described in this study, which may be directly related to L. prolificans antifungal resistance or tolerance, could be used as targets to improve existing therapies or to develop new ones in order to successfully eliminate these mycoses.

  11. Molecular and cellular responses of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans to the antifungal drug voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellon, Aize; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Buldain, Idoia; Antoran, Aitziber; Rementeria, Aitor; Hernando, Fernando L

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium) prolificans is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with fatal infections in patients with disturbed immune function. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are hardly of any use against this fungus due to its intrinsic resistance. Therefore, we performed an integrated study of the L. prolificans responses to the first option to treat these mycoses, namely voriconazole, with the aim of unveiling mechanisms involved in the resistance to this compound. To do that, we used a wide range of techniques, including fluorescence and electron microscopy to study morphological alterations, ion chromatography to measure changes in cell-wall carbohydrate composition, and proteomics-based techniques to identify the proteins differentially expressed under the presence of the drug. Significantly, we showed drastic changes occurring in cell shape after voriconazole exposure, L. prolificans hyphae being shorter and wider than under control conditions. Interestingly, we proved that the architecture and carbohydrate composition of the cell wall had been modified in the presence of the drug. Specifically, L. prolificans constructed a more complex organelle with a higher presence of glucans and mannans. In addition to this, we identified several differentially expressed proteins, including Srp1 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), as the most overexpressed under voriconazole-induced stress conditions. The mechanisms described in this study, which may be directly related to L. prolificans antifungal resistance or tolerance, could be used as targets to improve existing therapies or to develop new ones in order to successfully eliminate these mycoses.

  12. Structural and Functional Elucidation of Yeast Lanosterol 14α-Demethylase in Complex with Agrochemical Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatova, Alia A.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Negroni, Jacopo; Wilson, Rajni K.; Woods, Matthew A.; Monk, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Azole antifungals, known as demethylase inhibitors (DMIs), target sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of fungal pathogens of both plants and humans. DMIs remain the treatment of choice in crop protection against a wide range of fungal phytopathogens that have the potential to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. We used a yeast membrane protein expression system to overexpress recombinant hexahistidine-tagged S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase and the Y140F or Y140H mutants of this enzyme as surrogates in order characterize interactions with DMIs. The whole-cell antifungal activity (MIC50 values) of both the R- and S-enantiomers of tebuconazole, prothioconazole (PTZ), prothioconazole-desthio, and oxo-prothioconazole (oxo-PTZ) as well as for fluquinconazole, prochloraz and a racemic mixture of difenoconazole were determined. In vitro binding studies with the affinity purified enzyme were used to show tight type II binding to the yeast enzyme for all compounds tested except PTZ and oxo-PTZ. High resolution X-ray crystal structures of ScErg11p6×His in complex with seven DMIs, including four enantiomers, reveal triazole-mediated coordination of all compounds and the specific orientation of compounds within the relatively hydrophobic binding site. Comparison with CYP51 structures from fungal pathogens including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus provides strong evidence for a highly conserved CYP51 structure including the drug binding site. The structures obtained using S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase in complex with these agrochemicals provide the basis for understanding the impact of mutations on azole susceptibility and a platform for the structure-directed design of the next-generation of DMIs. PMID:27907120

  13. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  14. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m 2 /g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m 2/ g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl 2 and NaBH 4 as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl 2 , however, NaBH 4 produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m 2 /g for 7 nm and 269 m 2 /g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H + efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  15. Antifungal Activity of Gallic Acid In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Meng; Dawuti, Gulina; Dou, Qin; Ma, Yu; Liu, Heng-Ge; Aibai, Silafu

    2017-07-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol natural compound found in many medicinal plant species, including pomegranate rind (Punica granatum L.), and has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. Pomegranate rind is used to treat bacterial and fungal pathogens in Uyghur and other systems of traditional medicine, but, surprisingly, the effects of GA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the NCCLS (M38-A and M27-A2) standard method in vitro, and GA was found to have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, with MICs for all the tested dermatophyte strains between 43.75 and 83.33 μg/mL. Gallic acid was also active against three Candida strains, with MICs between 12.5 and 100.0 μg/mL. The most sensitive Candida species was Candida albicans (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL), and the most sensitive filamentous species was Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 43.75 μg/mL), which was comparable in potency to the control, fluconazole. The mechanism of action was investigated for inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis using an HPLC-based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Gallic acid reduced the activity of sterol 14α-demethylase P450 (CYP51) and squalene epoxidase in the T. rubrum membrane, respectively. In vivo model demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection administration of GA (80 mg/kg d) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a mice infection model of systemic fungal infection. Overall, our results confirm the antifungal effects of GA and suggest a mechanism of action, suggesting that GA has the potential to be developed further as a natural antifungal agent for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  17. Antifungal activity of natural and synthetic amides from Piper species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J., E-mail: majokato@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raggi, Ludmila; Young, Maria C. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2010-07-01

    The antifungal leaves extract from Piper scutifolium was submitted to bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum yielding piperine, piperlonguminine and corcovadine as the active principles which displayed a detection limit of 1 {mu}g. Structure-activity relationships were investigated with the preparation of twelve analogs having differences in the number of unsaturations, aromatic ring substituents and in the amide moiety. Analogs having a single double-bond and no substituent in the aromatic ring displayed higher activity, while N,N,-diethyl analogs displayed higher dose-dependent activity. (author)

  18. Butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat

    2008-06-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. Compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microM against BChE and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microM against LOX, respectively. The compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton schoen leinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton simii, and Macrophomina phaseolina.

  19. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of s Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Baldaniya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Nʹ-{4-[(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl amino]-6-[(-aryl amino] -1, 3, 5-triazin-2-yl} isonicotinohydrazides (6a-r and N2-(Aryl-N4, N6-dipyrimidin-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamines (4a-o were prepared. All newly synthesized compounds have been tested for their antibacterial activity against gram (+ve and gram (-ve bacteria and also on different strains of fungi. Introduction of -OH, -OCH3, -NO2, -Cl and -Br groups to the heterocyclic frame work enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  20. New microbial source of the antifungal allylamine “Terbinafine”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged S. Abdel-Kader

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolated active compound “F12” from the culture media of the Streptomyces sp. KH-F12 was identified using different spectroscopic techniques. Both 1D- and 2D-NMR as well as HRESIMS were utilized to characterize the structure of the isolated compound. ‘F12” was found to be the known systemic antifungal drug terbinafine marketed under the name “Lamisil”. Full analysis of the COSY, HSQC and HMBC enables the full assignment of proton and carbon atoms. Terbinafine is a synthetic allylamine and is reported here for the first time from natural source.

  1. Candidaemia and antifungal susceptibility testing in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzar, M N; Shamim, A S

    2009-03-01

    We reviewed cases of candidaemia at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre from 1st January 2005 to 30th June 2006. All blood cultures positive for Candida species or its teleomorphs within the study period were identified and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed. Out of 50 blood isolates, 20 (40%) were identified as Candida albicans, 16 (32%) C. tropicalis, five (10%) C. parapsilosis, three (6%) C. famata, two (4%) C. glabrata, two (4%) Pichia ohmeri, one (2%) C. krusei and one (2%) P. etchell/carsonii. Susceptibility to amphotericin B was 100%, fluconazole 90%, itraconazole 40%, ketoconazole 88%, 5-flucytosine 98% and voriconazole 98%.

  2. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among...... reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...

  3. In Vitro Investigation of Antifungal Activities of Actinomycetes against Microsporum gypseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Keikha

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present research show that terrigenous actinomycetes have an antifungal effect upon Microsporum gypseum. So, one hopes that-in future-rather than administering antifungal chemicals that have side-effects, dermatophytic infections can be cured by applying these actinomycetes.

  4. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  5. Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of QMix 2in1 as a final irrigant: An in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of QMix 2in1 as a final irrigant: An in vitro study. E Kalyoncuoglu, E Sen Tunc, S Ozer, C Keskin, K Bilgin, A Birinci. Abstract. Background: It is known that no specific antifungal agent exists at present for irrigation of infected root canals. QMix 2in1 was investigated to determine whether they ...

  6. In vitro antifungal effect of mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine and thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shrestha

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial agents used in the study had good in vitro activity against the two Candida species. Mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine showed superior antifungal and fungicidal activities compared to the thymol-containing mouth rinse. Both antimicrobial agents may be suggested for use as topical antifungal agents.

  7. Risk of Fungemia Due to Rhodotorula and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Rhodotorula Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Boyce, Molly; Schell, Wiley; Lodge, Barbara Alexander; Miller, Jackie L.; Perfect, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodotorula infections occur among patients with immunosuppression and/or central venous catheters. Using standardized methods (NCCLS M27-A), we determined the antifungal susceptibilities of 10 Rhodotorula bloodstream infection isolates. Patient information was collected for clinical correlation. The MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were the lowest, and the MICs of triazoles and echinocandins were higher than those of other antifungal agents.

  8. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  9. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Di?genes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  10. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  11. Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Djamilla Madelung; Pihl, Maria Bergkvist; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2017-01-01

    (AGDap) and penile width; measured at the base of the penis. Results: Eighty seven women had used antifungal medicine during pregnancy. Maternal use of oral fluconazole (n = 4) was associated with a 6.4 mm shorter AGDas (95% CI: -11.9;-0.9) in the male offspring. Use of antifungal vaginal tablets (n = 21...

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour ...

  13. ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF m-IODOBENZOIC ACID AND SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-fungal activities of alkali and alkaline earth metal iodobenzoates were studied. Calcium iodobenzoate exhibited the highest anti-fungal activities of 74.60% inhibition for 15 ppm while sodium iodobenzoate exhibited the least inhibition of 61.64%. An optimum concentration of all the metal complexes for inhibition ...

  14. Evaluation of Antifungal Potentials and Antioxidant Capacities of Some Foliose Lichen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar BİLGİN SÖKMEN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to assess of antioxidant and antifungal potential of the foliose lichen species: Flavoparmelia caperata, Xanthoparmelia stenophylla and Xanthoparmelia conspersa. The antifungal activity of lichens were studied against some pathogenic fungi by disc diffusion method. The acetonitrile extracts of these lichens were obtained with Soxhlet extraction. While F. caperata exhibited maximum antifungal activity (32 mm against the C. albicans, the minimum antifungal activity (10 mm was obtained from X. stenophylla lichen against S. cerevisiae. In CUPRAC assay, absorbance values was in order of BHT>X. conspersa>F. caperata>X. stenophylla. As a result of the study, it was concluded that these lichen species may be a potential source for the development of new antifungal and antioxidant compounds.

  15. Production and characterization of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiKuan Wang

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 was isolated from koumiss that produces a broad spectrum of antifungal compounds, all of which were active against plant pathogenic fungi in an agar plate assay. Two major antifungal compounds were extracted from the cell-free supernatant broth of L. plantarum IMAU10014. 3-phenyllactic acid and Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester were carried out by HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR analysis. It is the first report that lactic acid bacteria produce antifungal Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester. Of these, the antifungal products also have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, namely against Botrytis cinerea, Glomerella cingulate, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium oxysporum, which was identified by the overlay and well-diffusion assay. F. oxysporum, P. citrinum and P. drechsleri Tucker were the most sensitive among molds.

  16. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  17. Antifungal Activity of Bacillus coagulans TQ33, Isolated from Skimmed Milk Powder, against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Feng Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans TQ33 is isolated from the skimmed milk powder and has a broad antifungal activity against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum and Glomerella cingulata. The characteristics of active antifungal substances produced by B. coagulans TQ33 and its antifungal effects against the growth of plant pathogenic fungi has been evaluated. The effect of pH, temperature and protease on the antifungal activity of B. coagulans TQ33 was determined. The results of partial characterization of the antifungal compound indicated that its activity is likely to be due to the production of a proteinaceous substance together with other substances. The greenhouse trials suggest that B. coagulans TQ33 has a great potential for the control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives as antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antifungal activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives against yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The tested benzimidazoles displayed in vitro antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all the compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR has been used to study the relationships between the antifungal activity and lipophilicity parameter, logP, calculated by using CS Chem-Office Software version 7.0. The results are discussed on the basis of statistical data. The best QSAR model for prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzimidazoles was developed. High agreement between experimental and predicted inhibitory values was obtained. The results of this study indicate that the lipophilicity parameter has a significant effect on antifungal activity of this class of compounds, which simplify design of new biologically active molecules.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with antifungal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Kim

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of allicin and its synergistic effects with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B (AmB were investigated in Candida albicans (C. albicans. C. albicans was treated with different conditions of compounds alone and in combination (allicin, AmB, flucytosine, allicin + AmB, allicin + flucytosine, allicin + AmB + flucytosine. After a 24-hour treatment, cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM to measure morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. The clearing assay was conducted to confirm the effects of allicin. The viability of C. albicans treated by allicin alone or with one antifungal drug (AmB, flucytosine in addition was more than 40% after a 24-hr treatment, but the viability of groups treated with combinations of more than two drugs was less than 32%. When the cells were treated with allicin alone or one type of drug, the morphology of the cells did not change noticeably, but when cells were treated with combinations of drugs, there were noticeable morphological changes. In particular, cells treated with allicin + AmB had significant membrane damage (burst or collapsed membranes. Classification of cells according to their cell death phase (CDP allowed us to determine the relationship between cell viability and treatment conditions in detail. The adhesive force was decreased by the treatment in all groups compare to the control. Cells treated with AmB + allicin had a greater adhesive force than cells treated with AmB alone because of the secretion of molecules due to collapsed membranes. All cells treated with allicin or drugs were softer than the control cells. These results suggest that allicin can reduce MIC of AmB while keeping the same efficacy.

  20. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and/or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Han, Gab Jin [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacteria six strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Strains KL3362 and KL3397 were identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum, strain KL3303, 3334, and 3341 show the broad range, KL3362 and KL3397 the narrow range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strains KL3341 and KL3362 were selected as the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) KL3341 producing-antifungal substances were consisted of five different kinds of low molecular weight polypeptides (3) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal substances were analyzed under various environmental conditions. Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal substance production yields were not different, however. Product of antifungal substances according t phosphate is proportional to the concentration. And productivity of antifungal substances was generally high in the range 30 {approx} 37 deg. C at pH 7. In case of adding vitamin B1 or lysine to medium, the antifungal activity was enhanced. (4) Mutants with enhanced antifungal activities were constructed by radiation of {gamma}-ray. (5) AF strains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. 35 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  1. In Silico Approach for Prediction of Antifungal Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Agrawal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in silico models developed using a wide range of peptide features for predicting antifungal peptides (AFPs. Our analyses indicate that certain types of residue (e.g., C, G, H, K, R, Y are more abundant in AFPs. The positional residue preference analysis reveals the prominence of the particular type of residues (e.g., R, V, K at N-terminus and a certain type of residues (e.g., C, H at C-terminus. In this study, models have been developed for predicting AFPs using a wide range of peptide features (like residue composition, binary profile, terminal residues. The support vector machine based model developed using compositional features of peptides achieved maximum accuracy of 88.78% on the training dataset and 83.33% on independent or validation dataset. Our model developed using binary patterns of terminal residues of peptides achieved maximum accuracy of 84.88% on training and 84.64% on validation dataset. We benchmark models developed in this study and existing methods on a dataset containing compositionally similar antifungal and non-AFPs. It was observed that binary based model developed in this study preforms better than any model/method. In order to facilitate scientific community, we developed a mobile app, standalone and a user-friendly web server ‘Antifp’ (http://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/antifp.

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of endodontic intracanal medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    TONEA, ANDRADA; BADEA, MANDRA; OANA, LIVIU; SAVA, SORINA; VODNAR, DAN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The sterilization of the entire root canal system represents the main goal of every endodontist, given the fact that the control of the microbial flora is the key point of every root canal treatment. The diversity of microorganisms found inside the root canal and also the resistance of some bacterial species to intracanal medications led to a continuous development of new endodontic products. The present study focuses on the comparison of the antibacterial and antifungal properties of different endodontic products, two commercially available, one experimental plant based extract, and two control substances. Methods The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide, a mix extract between Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe barbadensis Miller gel, Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and Fluconazole (as control substances). Two of the most common microorganisms found in endodontic infections were chosen: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans ATCC(10231). Results All tested substances showed inhibition zones around the discs, for Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, including the experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder with Aloe vera gel. Conclusion The experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe vera gel is able to inhibit very resistant microorganisms, like Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. PMID:28781531

  3. Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Cavaleiro, C; Canhoto, J; Vaz, S; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

    2012-12-01

    This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-α-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  5. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  6. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  7. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Francisco Pérez Cordero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate in vitro the inhibitory activity of essential oils from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in yam. The research was conducted in the department of Sucre, Colombia. The essential oils of C. citratus were collected in the municipalities of Sincelejo, La Union and Sampues, in September and October 2015. The essential oil was extract from fresh leaves using the microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. Concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm of each essential oil were prepared. An absolute control, a positive control (benomyl 1 g/l and a negative control was used. An inhibitory activity was obtained by using the direct seeding on surface of the potato-dextrose-agar method and it was expressed as percentage of inhibition rate. The chemical characterization of essential oils was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The highest percentages of antifungal index were observed in the lemongrass from Sincelejo at concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm, after in La Union at 8000 and 10 000 ppm, and finally at Sampues at 10 000 ppm, with a value of 97.77%; the effect was similar to the positive control with benomyl 1 g/l. Citral was the main constituent of the essential oils extracted. The essential oils obtained from the three municipalities showed antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides.

  8. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  9. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  10. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of some flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Ozgen, Selda; Ergun, Fatma

    2010-08-20

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant-derived flavonoids representing two different structural groups were evaluated against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and their drug-resistant isolates, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei) using the microdilution broth method. Herpes simplex virus Type-1 and Parainfluenza-3 virus were employed for antiviral assessment of the flavonoids using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. Ampicillin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, acyclovir, and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. All tested compounds (32-128 microg/ml) showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumanni, S. aureus, and C. krusei. Rutin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.2-0.05 microg/ml) were active against PI-3, while 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.16-0.2 microg/ml) inhibited potently HSV-1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.

  12. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini BIASI-GARBIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE, Libidibia ferrea (AE, and Persea americana (AcE also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  13. Screening of Azotobacter isolates for PGP properties and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Аmong 50 bacterial isolates obtained from maize rhizospherе, 13 isolates belonged to the genus Azotobacter. Isolates were biochemically characterized and estimated for pH and halo tolerance ability and antibiotic resistance. According to characterization, the six representative isolates were selected and further screened in vitro for plant growth promoting properties: production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, exopolysaccharides, phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity (vs. Helminthosporium sp., Macrophomina sp., Fusarium sp.. Beside HCN production, PGP properties were detected for all isolates except Azt7. All isolates produced IAA in the medium without L-tryptophan and the amount of produced IAA increased with concentration of precursor in medium. The highest amount of IAA was produced by isolates Azt4 (37.69 and 45.86 μg ml-1 and Azt5 (29.44 and 50.38 μg ml-1 in the medium with addition of L-tryptophan (2.5 and 5 mM. The isolates showed the highest antifungal activity against Helminthosporium sp. and the smallest antagonistic effect on Macrophomina sp. Radial Growth Inhibition (RGI obtained by the confrontation of isolates with tested phytopathogenic fungi, ranged from 10 to 48%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31073

  14. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  15. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-10-01

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  16. Mechanistic insights into the role of C-type lectin receptor/CARD9 signaling in human antifungal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Drummond

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human CARD9 deficiency is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the gene CARD9, which encodes a signaling protein that is found downstream of many C-type lectin receptors (CLRs. CLRs encompass a large family of innate recognition receptors, expressed predominantly by myeloid and epithelial cells, which bind fungal carbohydrates and initiate antifungal immune responses. Accordingly, human CARD9 deficiency is associated with the spontaneous development of persistent and severe fungal infections that primarily localize to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, mucosal surfaces and/or central nervous system (CNS. In the last few years, more than 15 missense and nonsense CARD9 mutations have been reported which associate with the development of a wide spectrum of fungal infections caused by a variety of fungal organisms. The mechanisms by which CARD9 provides organ-specific protection against these fungal infections are now emerging. In this review, we summarize recent immunological and clinical advances that have provided significant mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of human CARD9 deficiency. We also discuss how genetic mutations in CARD9-coupled receptors (Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and CARD9-binding partners (MALT1, BCL10 affect human antifungal immunity relative to CARD9 deficiency, and we highlight major understudied research questions which merit future investigation.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Phenyl Derivative of Pyranocoumarin from Psoralea corylifolia L. Seeds by Inhibition of Acetylation Activity of Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase (Tri101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of petroleum ether extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed, tested against Fusarium sp. namely, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, and Fusarium graminearum, was evaluated by agar well diffusion assay. The chromatographic fractionation of the extract yielded a new phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin (PDP. The structure of the PDP was confirmed using spectroscopic characterization (GC-MS, IR, and NMR, and a molecular mass of m/z 414 [M-2H]+ with molecular formula C27H28O4 was obtained. The PDP had a potent antifungal activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/mL against Fusarium sp. Molecular docking using Grid-Based Ligand Docking with Energetics (GLIDE, Schrodinger was carried out with the Tri101, trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase, as target protein to propose a mechanism for the antifungal activity. The ligand PDP showed bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with active site residues at TYR 413 and a single hydrogen bond interaction at ARG 402 with a docking score −7.19 and glide energy of −45.78 kcal/mol. This indicated a strong binding of the ligand with the trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase, preventing as a result the acetylation of the trichothecene mycotoxin and destruction of the “self-defense mechanism” of the Fusarium sp.

  18. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanocolloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra, E-mail: bnchudasama@thapar.ed [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364022 (India); Upadhyay, R.V. [P.D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa 388421 (India); Mehta, R.V. [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364022 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 {mu}g/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients. - Research Highlights: Synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core-shell nanocolloids. Antifungal activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanocolloids against Aspergillus glaucus isolates. The MIC value for A. glaucus is 2000 {mu}g/mL. Antifungal activity is better or comparable with most prominent antibiotics.

  19. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  20. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  1. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knøchel, S

    2015-02-02

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  3. Cloning and expression of the recombinant NP24I protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... protein from tomato fruit and study of its antimicrobial ... the recombinant NP24, as well as to prove the activity of native protein on the bacterial as well as fungal .... The antifungal effect of the recombinant NP24I protein was.

  4. Ebselen exerts antifungal activity by regulating glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangamani, Shankar; Eldesouky, Hassan E; Mohammad, Haroon; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Avramova, Larisa; Hazbun, Tony R; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-01-01

    Ebselen, an organoselenium compound and a clinically safe molecule has been reported to possess potent antifungal activity, but its antifungal mechanism of action and in vivo antifungal activity remain unclear. The antifungal effect of ebselen was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and C. gattii clinical isolates. Chemogenomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify the antifungal target of ebselen. Ebselen's antifungal activity in vivo was investigated in a Caenorhabditis elegans animal model. Ebselen exhibits potent antifungal activity against both Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp., at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2μg/ml. Ebselen rapidly eradicates a high fungal inoculum within 2h of treatment. Investigation of the drug's antifungal mechanism of action indicates that ebselen depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby disturbs the redox homeostasis in fungal cells. Examination of ebselen's in vivo antifungal activity in two Caenorhabditis elegans models of infection demonstrate that ebselen is superior to conventional antifungal drugs (fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin) in reducing Candida and Cryptococcus fungal load. Ebselen possesses potent antifungal activity against clinically relevant isolates of both Candida and Cryptococcus by regulating GSH and ROS production. The potent in vivo antifungal activity of ebselen supports further investigation for repurposing it for use as an antifungal agent. The present study shows that ebselen targets glutathione and also support that glutathione as a potential target for antifungal drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antifungal activity of fabrics knitted by metalized Silver/Polyester composite yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İ.; Duru Baykal, P.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, antifungal properties of fabric knitted from metalized silver/polyester composite yarn were investigated. Intermingling is an alternative technique for yarn blending process. Yarns having different features can be combined by feeding the same intermingling jet. This process is defined as commingling. In the study, intermingling process was used to produce metalized silver/polyester composite yarn. Commingled yarns were knitted to single jersey fabrics by IPM brand sample type circular knitting machine. Antifungal activity test was applied to samples against Aspergillus Niger according to AATCC 30 test procedure. It has been identified that the application provides antifungal activity to fabric.

  6. Another point of view on side effects of antifungal compounds used in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The release of pharmaceuticals into environment has become an increasing concern in recent years. Fungi are part of the microbial flora of many animals, humans and foodstuffs, and some species can cause disease. An antimycotic or antifungal product is one that is used in the treatment of fungal infections. Even at low concentrations, antifungals exert an action against micro-organisms and exhibit selective toxicity towards them. The use of antimicrobials selects for resistant populations of micro-organisms. Development of resistance to antifungals is an increasing problem in veterinary and human medicine.

  7. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity.

  8. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  9. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

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    Eduardo José J. MALLMANN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment.

  10. Antifungal silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgorban, Abdallah Mohamed; El-Samawaty, Abd El-Rahim Mohamed; Yassin, Mohamed Abdallah; Sayed, Shaban Rushdy; Adil, Syed Farooq; Elhindi, Khaled Mohamed; Bakri, Marwa; Khan, Mujeeb

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a high antimicrobial activity and are broadly utilized for several disinfection purposes including water and materials’ Sanitation for medical purposes. There have been comparatively few studies on using silver against plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were used at concentrations of 0.0, 0.0002, 0.0005, 0.0007, 0.0009, 0.0014 and 0.0019 mol/L. Six different Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups (AGs) infecting cotton plants were treated in vitro with Ag NPs on Czapek Dox agar (CDA) and potato dextrose agar plates. The results showed that various concentrations of Ag NPs have antifungal properties to control R. solani AGs. The obtained results also revealed that strong inhibition of R. solani AGs was noticed on CDA at all concentrations

  11. Antifungal activity of allylamines against agents of eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Pankajalakshmi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of the two allylamines naftifine and terbinafine was investigated against 22 strains of eumycetes isolated from cases of eumycetoma by agar dilution. The isolates included Madurella mycetomatis (4, M. Grisea (8, Pyrenochaeta romeroi (2, Exophiala jeanselmei (2 and Leptosphaeria tompkinsii (1 from black grain eumycetomas and Pseudalescheria boydii (3 Acremonium kiliense (1 and A. recifei (1 form pale grain eumycetomas. Terbinafine was more active than naftifine inhibiting 50% (MIC50 and 90% (MIC90 of the black grain eumycetoma agents at 0.5 and 2.5 ?g/ml respectively. The MIC50s and MIC90s of naftifine were 1 and 5 ?g/ml. For pale grain eumycetoma agents, the MIC range for terbinafine and naftifine were ??0.01 - 100 and 0.1 - 100 ?g/ml.

  12. Activities of Available and Investigational Antifungal Agents against Rhodotorula Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekema, D. J.; Petroelje, B.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.; Pfaller, M. A

    2005-01-01

    Rhodotorula species are emerging pathogens in immunocompromised patients. We report the in vitro activities of eight antifungals against 64 Rhodotorula isolates collected in surveillance programs between 1987 and 2003. Rhodotorula strains are resistant in vitro to fluconazole (MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC50], >128 μg/ml) and caspofungin (MIC50, >8 μg/ml). Amphotericin B (MIC50,1 μg/ml) and flucytosine (MIC50, 0.12 μg/ml) are both active in vitro, and the new and investigational triazoles all have some in vitro activity, with ravuconazole being the most active (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml). PMID:15635020

  13. Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport Mechanisms as Potential Antifungal Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. McCarthy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new drugs for treatment of invasive fungal infections is an enduring challenge. There are only three major classes of antifungal agents, and no new class has been introduced into clinical practice in more than a decade. However, recent advances in our understanding of the fungal life cycle, functional genomics, proteomics, and gene mapping have enabled the identification of new drug targets to treat these potentially deadly infections. In this paper, we examine amino acid transport mechanisms and metabolism as potential drug targets to treat invasive fungal infections, including pathogenic yeasts, such as species of Candida and Cryptococcus, as well as molds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus. We also explore the mechanisms by which amino acids may be exploited to identify novel drug targets and review potential hurdles to bringing this approach into clinical practice.

  14. Fosfluconazole for Antifungal Prophylaxis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective case series study to evaluate the safety of fosfluconazole prophylaxis for preventing invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants with a central vascular access. Fosfluconazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/kg everyday during which time a central venous catheter was placed. A total of 23 infants met the criteria for enrollment in our study. No cases of fungal infection were detected during the central venous catheter placement in the group. None of the infants had an elevated β-D-glucan, and all of them were still alive at discharge. Regarding the liver and renal function, no statistically significant differences were observed before and at the end of fosfluconazole prophylaxis. The results of this study demonstrate that fosfluconazole prophylaxis in preventing invasive fungal infection was well tolerated by VLBW infants. This is a first report to describe antifungal prophylaxis using fosfluconazole for VLBW infants.

  15. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  16. Antifungal activity of caspofungin in experimental infective endocarditis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Gerardo Becerra; Bourdon, Lorena Michele Brennan; Benavides, Leonel García; Huerta-Olvera, Selene G; Plascencia, Arturo; Villanueva, José; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Hernández-Cañaveral, Iván Isidro

    2017-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a disease characterised by heart valve lesions, which exhibit extracellular matrix proteins that act as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of antimicrobial agents. The genus Candida has acquired clinical importance given that it is increasingly being isolated from cases of nosocomial infections. To evaluate the activity of caspofungin compared to that of liposomal amphotericin B against Candida albicans in experimental infective endocarditis. Wistar rats underwent surgical intervention and infection with strains of C. albicans to develop infective endocarditis. Three groups were formed: the first group was treated with caspofungin, the second with liposomal amphotericin B, and the third received a placebo. In vitro sensitivity was first determined to further evaluate the effect of these treatments on a rat experimental model of endocarditis by semiquantitative culture of fibrinous vegetations and histological analysis. Our semiquantitative culture of growing vegetation showed massive C. albicans colonisation in rats without treatment, whereas rats treated with caspofungin showed significantly reduced colonisation, which was similar to the results obtained with liposomal amphotericin B. The antifungal activity of caspofungin is similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B in an experimental model of infective endocarditis caused by C. albicans.

  17. Effects of Chitosan on Candida albicans: Conditions for Its Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Antonio; Sánchez, Norma Silvia; Calahorra, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low molecular weight (96.5 KDa) chitosan on the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans were studied. Low concentrations of chitosan, around 2.5 to 10 μg·mL−1 produced (a) an efflux of K+ and stimulation of extracellular acidification, (b) an inhibition of Rb+ uptake, (c) an increased transmembrane potential difference of the cells, and (d) an increased uptake of Ca2+. It is proposed that these effects are due to a decrease of the negative surface charge of the cells resulting from a strong binding of the polymer to the cells. At higher concentrations, besides the efflux of K+, it produced (a) a large efflux of phosphates and material absorbing at 260 nm, (b) a decreased uptake of Ca2+, (c) an inhibition of fermentation and respiration, and (d) the inhibition of growth. The effects depend on the medium used and the amount of cells, but in YPD high concentrations close to 1 mg·mL−1 are required to produce the disruption of the cell membrane, the efflux of protein, and the growth inhibition. Besides the findings at low chitosan concentrations, this work provides an insight of the conditions required for chitosan to act as a fungistatic or antifungal and proposes a method for the permeabilization of yeast cells. PMID:23844364

  18. Effects of Chitosan on Candida albicans: Conditions for Its Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Peña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of low molecular weight (96.5 KDa chitosan on the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans were studied. Low concentrations of chitosan, around 2.5 to 10 μg·mL−1 produced (a an efflux of K+ and stimulation of extracellular acidification, (b an inhibition of Rb+ uptake, (c an increased transmembrane potential difference of the cells, and (d an increased uptake of Ca2+. It is proposed that these effects are due to a decrease of the negative surface charge of the cells resulting from a strong binding of the polymer to the cells. At higher concentrations, besides the efflux of K+, it produced (a a large efflux of phosphates and material absorbing at 260 nm, (b a decreased uptake of Ca2+, (c an inhibition of fermentation and respiration, and (d the inhibition of growth. The effects depend on the medium used and the amount of cells, but in YPD high concentrations close to 1 mg·mL−1 are required to produce the disruption of the cell membrane, the efflux of protein, and the growth inhibition. Besides the findings at low chitosan concentrations, this work provides an insight of the conditions required for chitosan to act as a fungistatic or antifungal and proposes a method for the permeabilization of yeast cells.

  19. Antifungal activity of Momordica charantia seed extracts toward the pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Yongliang; Xiang, Fu; Li, Shiming; Yang, Guliang

    2016-10-01

    Momordica charantia L., a vegetable crop with high nutritional value, has been used as an antimutagenic, antihelminthic, anticancer, antifertility, and antidiabetic agent in traditional folk medicine. In this study, the antifungal activity of M. charantia seed extract toward Fusarium solani L. was evaluated. Results showed that M. charantia seed extract effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of F. solani, with a 50% inhibitory rate (IC 50 ) value of 108.934 μg/mL. Further analysis with optical microscopy and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the seed extract led to deformation of cells with irregular budding, loss of integrity of cell wall, as well as disruption of the fungal cell membrane. In addition, genomic DNA was also severely affected, as small DNA fragments shorter than 50 bp appeared on agarose gel. These findings implied that M. charantia seed extract containing α-momorcharin, a typical ribosome-inactivating protein, could be an effective agent in the control of fungal pathogens, and such natural products would represent a sustainable alternative to the use of synthetic fungicides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Biotechnological production of inducible defense-related proteins in edible radish (raphanus sativus) found in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides.

  1. Antifungal effect of essential oil components against Aspergillus niger when loaded into silica mesoporous supports

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardos, A.; Marina, T.; Žáček, Petr; Pérez-Esteve, É.; Martínez-Manez, R.; Lhotka, M.; Kouřimská, L.; Pulkrábek, J.; Klouček, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 14 (2015), s. 2824-2831 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : essential oils * encapsulation * cyclodextrin * controlled release * antifungal activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2015

  2. Insufficient Antifungal Potential of Crude Extracts of Carissa Carandas Linn. & Nerium Oleander Linn.”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartyal, M.; Kumar, P.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal potential of crude extracts from different parts of Carissa carandas Linn. (Leaf, stem & root) and Nerium oleander Linn. (Leaf, stem & root). Material & method: Different parts of plants were collected, dried and then extracted by using soxhlet extraction method in different polar and non-polar solvents (Water, Methanol & petroleum ether). Extracts were then screened for antifungal activity using ‘Disc Diffusion Assay’ against Candida albicans (Yeast), Aspergillus flavus & Tricophyton mentagrophyte (fungi). Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum fungicidal concentration & Total activity were studied. Mean and Standard Deviation have also been calculated. Result: The results indicate that all the tested extracts were found to have no antifungal activity against all the tested microorganisms. Conclusion: The tested extracts did not have, or had too little, antifungal activity. Hence, may not be explored as promising source of new antimicrobial drugs.

  3. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  4. Correlation between Plant Secondary Metabolites and Their Antifungal Mechanisms–A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara; Jäger, Anna

    2014-01-01

    the biosynthetic group of terpenes and their antifungal mechanisms of action, all of them exhibiting their antifungal action through cell membrane disruption, although some of the terpenes also seemed to work through mitochondrial dysfunction. A clear correlation has not been demonstrated between the two other......The search for new antifungal drugs often involves secondary metabolites from plants because of their pharmacological activity against foreign pathogens. Among the modern drugs in use today about 40% are of natural origin. To distinguish the secondary metabolites they can be divided into groups...... based on their structure or biosynthetic origin. When searching for new antifungal agents it is crucial to search for a mechanism of action for which unwanted side effects can be avoided. This can be done if the mechanism of action only involves fungal cells and not mammalian cells. For that reason...

  5. First isolation of a novel thermostable antifungal peptide secreted by Aspergillus clavatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Gargouri, Houda; Gargouri, Ali

    2008-11-01

    A novel antifungal peptide produced by an indigenous fungal strain (VR) of Aspergillus clavatus was purified. The antifungal peptide was enriched in the supernatant after heat treatment at 70 degrees C. The thermostable character was exploited in the first purification step, as purified peptide was obtained after ultrafiltration and reverse phase-HPLC on C18 column application. The purified peptide named "AcAFP" for A. clavatus antifungal peptide, has molecular mass of 5773Da determined by MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence showed a notable identity to the limited family of antifungal peptides produced by ascomycetes fungi. The AcAFP activity remains intact even after heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 1h confirming its thermostability. It exhibits a strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of several serious human and plant pathogenic fungi: Fusariuym oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, whereas AcAFP did not affect yeast and bacterial growth.

  6. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and

  7. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, R.G.; Hoog, G.S. de; Schwarz, P.; Dannaoui, E.; Deng, S.; Machouart, M.; Voigt, K.; Sande, W.W. van de; Dolatabadi, S.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear

  8. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order Mucorales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Vitale (Roxana); G.S. de Hoog; P. Schwarz (Peter); E. Dannaoui (Eric); S. Deng (Shuwen); M. Machouart (Marie); K. Voigt (Kerstin); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); S. Dolatabadi (Somayeh); J.F. Meis; G. Walther

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the

  9. Antifungal Susceptibility and Phylogeny of Opportunistic Members of the Order Mucorales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, R.G.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schwarz, P.; Dannaoui, E.; Deng, S.; Machouart, M.; Voigt, K.; de Sande, W.W.J.v.; Dolatabadi, S.; Meis, J.F.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by ... or control the growth and activities of spoilage microor- .... Kawo AH, Bassey SE, Aliyu YU (2005): Bacteriological Quality of.

  11. Development of antifungal films based on low-density polyethylene and thyme oil for avocado packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Trilayer low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of thyme oil, as the antifungal active additive for avocado packaging. A comprehensive thermal, structural, mechanical, and functional...

  12. Determining Antifungal Target Sites in the Sterol Pathway of the Yeast Candida and Saccharomyces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bard, Martin

    1998-01-01

    ... as in topical infections which lead to significant losses in work-place productivity. The work reported here seeks to identify new target sites in the sterol biosynthetic pathway against which new antifungal compounds might be developed...

  13. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  14. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E-Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani, Bipolaris maydis, and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola, in which compounds (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl, (Z-4q (R = α-thienyl, (E-4f′ (R = p-F Ph, (Z-4i (R = m-Me Ph, (Z-4j (R = p-Me Ph, and (Z-4p (R = α-furyl had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  15. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Duan, Wen-Gui; Lin, Gui-Shan; Li, Kun; Hu, Qiong

    2017-09-12

    A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E - Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum , Physalospora piricola , Alternaria solani , Cercospora arachidicola , Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani , Bipolaris maydis , and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola , in which compounds ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl), ( Z )- 4q (R = α -thienyl), ( E )- 4f' (R = p -F Ph), ( Z )- 4i (R = m -Me Ph), ( Z )- 4j (R = p -Me Ph), and ( Z )- 4p (R = α -furyl) had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl) displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  16. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Navickiene, HMD; Morandim, ADA; Alecio, A. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Bergamo, DCB; Telascrea, M.; Cavalheiro, Alberto José [UNESP; Lopes, Márcia Nasser [UNESP; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP; Marques, MOM; Young, MCM; Kato, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined ...

  17. Antifungal Activity of Culture Filtrates and Organic Extracts of Aspergillus spp. against Pythium ultimum

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Aydi-Ben Abdallah; Marwa Hassine; Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine; Rabiaa Haouala; Mejda Daami-Remadi

    2014-01-01

    Culture filtrates, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of nine isolates of Aspergillus spp. (A. niger, A. terreus, A. flavus and Aspergillus sp.), isolated from soil and compost, were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium ultimum the causal agent of the potato Pythium leak. Culture filtrates showed a significant antifungal activity at the different tested concentrations. Total inhibition of the pathogen was induced by the filtrate of CH8 of Aspergillus sp., used at 10% ...

  18. Purification and characterization of antifungal compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 isolated from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Yang, Eun Ju; Woo, Eun Rhan; Chang, Hae Choon

    2014-08-01

    Strain HD1 with antifungal activity was isolated from kimchi and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Antifungal compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 was stronger against filamentous fungi than yeast. Antifungal compounds were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and recycling preparative-HPLC. Structures of the antifungal compounds were elucidated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were identified as 5-oxododecanoic acid (MW 214), 3-hydroxy decanoic acid (MW 188), and 3-hydroxy-5-dodecenoic acid (MW 214). To investigate the potential application of these antifungal compounds for reduction of fungal spoilage in foods, Korean draft rice wine was used as a food model. White film-forming yeasts were observed in control draft rice wine after 11 days of incubation. However, film-forming yeasts were not observed in draft rice wine treated with SPE-prepared culture supernatant of Lb. plantarum HD1 (equivalent to 2.5% addition of culture supernatant) until 27 days of incubation. The addition of antifungal compounds to Korean draft rice wine extended shelf-life up to 27 days at 10 °C without any sterilization process. Therefore, the antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 may lead to the development of powerful biopreservative systems capable of preventing food- and feed-borne fungal spoilage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergy and antagonism between iron chelators and antifungal drugs in Cryptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Wen; Campbell, Leona T; Wilkins, Marc R; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Chen, Sharon; Carter, Dee A

    2016-10-01

    Fungal infections remain very difficult to treat, and developing new antifungal drugs is difficult and expensive. Recent approaches therefore seek to augment existing antifungals with synergistic agents that can lower the therapeutic dose, increase efficacy and prevent resistance from developing. Iron limitation can inhibit microbial growth, and iron chelators have been employed to treat fungal infections. In this study, chequerboard testing was used to explore combinations of iron chelators with antifungal agents against pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. with the aim of determining how disruption to iron homeostasis affects antifungal susceptibility. The iron chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DSX), ciclopirox olamine and lactoferrin (LF) were paired with the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AmB), fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. All chelators except for DFO increased the efficacy of AmB, and significant synergy was seen between AmB and LF for all Cryptococcus strains. Addition of exogenous iron rescued cells from the antifungal effect of LF alone but could not prevent inhibition by AmB + LF, indicating that synergy was not due primarily to iron chelation but to other properties of LF that were potentiated in the presence of AmB. Significant synergy was not seen consistently for other antifungal-chelator combinations, and EDTA, DSX and DFP antagonised the activity of azole drugs in strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. This study highlights the range of interactions that can be induced by chelators and indicates that most antifungal drugs are not enhanced by iron limitation in Cryptococcus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of Fungemia Due to Rhodotorula and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Rhodotorula Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Boyce, Molly; Schell, Wiley; Lodge, Barbara Alexander; Miller, Jackie L.; Perfect, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodotorula infections occur among patients with immunosuppression and/or central venous catheters. Using standardized methods (NCCLS M27-A), we determined the antifungal susceptibilities of 10 Rhodotorula bloodstream infection isolates. Patient information was collected for clinical correlation. The MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were the lowest, and the MICs of triazoles and echinocandins were higher than those of other antifungal agents. PMID:14605170

  1. Candidiasis and the impact of flow cytometry on antifungal drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tsun Sheng N; Bernardo, Stella; Walraven, Carla J; Lee, Samuel A

    2017-11-01

    Invasive candidiasis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as substantial health care costs nationally and globally. One of the contributing factors is the development of resistance to antifungal agents that are already in clinical use. Moreover, there are known treatment limitations with all of the available antifungal agents. Since traditional techniques in novel drug discovery are time consuming, high-throughput screening using flow cytometry presents as a potential tool to identify new antifungal agents that would be useful in the management of these patients. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the use of automated high-throughput screening assays based upon flow cytometry to identify potential antifungals from a library comprised of a large number of bioactive compounds. They also review studies that employed the use of this research methodology that has identified compounds with antifungal activity. Expert opinion: High-throughput screening using flow cytometry has substantially decreased the processing time necessary for screening thousands of compounds, and has helped enhance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis. Indeed, the authors see this technology as a powerful tool to help scientists identify new antifungal agents that can be added to the clinician's arsenal in their fight against invasive candidiasis.

  2. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils

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    MARIA E.A. PINTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL. All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  3. Design, synthesis of novel chitosan derivatives bearing quaternary phosphonium salts and evaluation of antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jingjing; Luan, Fang; Wei, Lijie; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Fang; Li, Qing; Guo, Zhanyong

    2017-09-01

    Two novel chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salts were successfully synthesized, including tricyclohexylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TCPACSC) and triphenylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TPPACSC), and characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, and 13 C NMR spectra. The degree of substitution was also calculated by elemental analysis results. Their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Watermelon fusarium, and Fusarium oxysporum were investigated in vitro using the radial growth assay, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assay. The fungicidal assessment revealed that the synthesized chitosan derivatives had superior antifungal activity compared with chitosan. Especially, TPPACSC exhibited the best antifungal property with inhibitory indices of over 75% at 1.0mg/mL. The results obviously showed that quaternary phosphonium groups could effectively enhance antifungal activity of the synthesized chitosan derivatives. Meanwhile, it was also found that their antifungal activity was influenced by electron-withdrawing ability of the quaternary phosphonium salts. The synthetic strategy described here could be utilized for the development of chitosan as antifungal biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Occidiofungin is an important component responsible for the antifungal activity of Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain Lyc2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Liu, A X; Guerrero, A; Liu, J; Yu, X Q; Deng, P; Ma, L; Baird, S M; Smith, L; Li, X D; Lu, S E

    2016-03-01

    To identify the taxonomy of tobacco rhizosphere-isolated strain Lyc2 and investigate the mechanisms of the antifungal activities, focusing on antimicrobials gene clusters identification and function analysis. Multilocus sequence typing and 16S rRNA analyses indicated that strain Lyc2 belongs to Burkholderia pyrrocinia. Bioassay results indicated strain Lyc2 showed significant antifungal activities against a broad range of plant and animal fungal pathogens and control efficacy on seedling damping off disease of cotton. A 55·2-kb gene cluster which was homologous to ocf gene clusters in Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was confirmed to be responsible for antifungal activities by random mutagenesis; HPLC was used to verify the production of antifungal compounds. Multiple antibiotic and secondary metabolized biosynthesis gene clusters predicated by antiSMASH revealed the broad spectrum of antimicrobials activities of the strain. Our results revealed the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 and expand our knowledge about production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. Understanding the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 has contributed to discovery of new antibiotics and expand our knowledge of production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Experimental models in predicting topical antifungal efficacy: practical aspects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J; Maibach, H I

    2009-01-01

    What are efficient screening models for improved topical antifungals? The use of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as one such parameter is discussed; we focus on the use of animal membranes for in vitro testing while highlighting the pros and cons of each model, exploring alternatives and discussing the importance of data transferability to humans and the influence of penetration kinetics in topical antifungal efficacy. Ultimately, the gold standard of testing is in vivo in humans; however, initiating with human testing, especially for novel topical antifungal agents, may be impractical, which is why we seek the ideal experimental model that most closely mimics human skin. We conclude that the pig may be an appropriate model membrane for topical antifungal testing based on its similarities in anatomical structure, physiology and permeation to human skin. Most importantly, pig and human skins appear equally permeable to several antifungals in prior in vitro and in vivo work. We do not discuss all prior work but highlight important issues in designing the protocol and parameters of the ideal experimental model for topical antifungals. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Synthesis of inulin derivatives with quaternary phosphonium salts and their antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2018-03-13

    Inulin is a kind of renewable and biodegradable carbohydrate with good water solubility and numerous physiological functions. For further utilization of inulin, chemical modification can be applied to improve its bioactivities. In this paper, five novel inulin derivatives were synthesized via chemical modification with quaternary phosphonium salt. Their antifungal activity against three kinds of plant pathogens including Colletotrichum lagenarium, Phomopsis asparagi, and Fusarium oxysporum was assessed with radial growth assay in vitro. Results revealed that all the inulin derivatives exhibited improved antifungal activity compared with inulin. Particularly, inulin modified with triphenylphosphine (TPhPAIL) exhibited the best antifungal activity with inhibitory indices of 80.0%, 78.8%, and 87.4% against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Phomopsis asparagi, and Fusarium oxysporum at 1.0mg/mL respectively. The results clearly showed that chemical modification of inulin with quaternary phosphonium salt could efficiently improve derivatives' antifungal activity. Further analysis of results indicated that the antifungal activity was influenced by alkyl chain length or electron-withdrawing ability of the grafted quaternary phosphonium salts. Longer alkyl chain lengths or the stronger electron-withdrawing groups would lead to enhanced antifungal efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  8. Antifungal Activity of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf Oleoresin against Dermatophytes

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    Nádia R. B. Raposo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are mycoses that affect keratinized tissues in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the oleoresin extracted from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against the strains Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. The antimicrobial activity was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values. Ketoconazole and terbinafine were used as reference drugs. The copaiba oleoresin showed moderate fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 (MIC and MFC = 170 μg mL−1 and weak fungicidal activity against T. rubrum CCT 5507 (MIC = 1,360 μg mL−1 and MFC = 2,720 μg mL−1. There was no activity against M. canis ATCC 32903 and M. gypseum ATCC 14683. SEM analysis revealed physical damage and morphological alterations such as compression and hyphae clustering in the structure of the fungi exposed to the action of the oleoresin. The results stimulate the achievement of in vivo assays to confirm the benefits of the application of oleoresin extracted from copaiba in the treatment of dermatophytosis, both in humans and in animals.

  9. Scaling adult doses of antifungal and antibacterial agents to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Thomas H

    2012-06-01

    My general pharmacokinetic scaling theory is discussed for the important matter of determining pediatric dosing for existing and new therapeutic drugs when optimal, or near-optimal, dosing for adults is known. The basis for the scaling is the requirement of a time-scaled likeness of the free-drug concentration time histories of children and adults. Broad categories of single and periodic dosing are considered. The former involves the scaling of dosage, and the latter involves both the dosage and schedule. The validity of the scaling relations is demonstrated by using measurements from previously reported clinical trials with adults and children (with ages generally 1 year or older) for the relatively new antifungal agent caspofungin and for the relatively new antibacterial agent linezolid. Standard pharmacodynamic effectiveness criteria are shown to be satisfied for the scaled dosage and schedule for children to the same extent that they are for the referenced adult. Consideration of scaling from adults to children is discussed for the case of new agents where no pediatric data are available and needed parameters are determined from in vitro measurements and preclinical animal data. A connection is also made between the allometric representation of clearance data and the dosing formulas. Limitations of the scaling results for infants because of growth and maturational matters are discussed. The general conclusion from this work is that the scaling theory does indeed have application to pediatric dosing for children, for both confirmation and refinement of present practice and guidance in pediatric treatment with new therapeutic agents.

  10. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD 99 values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD 99 dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability

  11. In Vitro antifungal activity of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor Hanis Aifaa; Abdullah, Siti Aisyah; Othman, Zaulia; Zainal, Zamri

    2018-04-01

    The efficacy of Citrus hystrix, Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils were evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In order to determine the best essential oil (EO) and suitable concentration of essential oil, in vitro experiment was conducted by preparing a pure culture of antrachnose on Potato Dextrose Agar containing EOs of C. hystrix, A. indica and C. citratus with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.6%, 1% and 1.4% (v/v)). The result shows that C. hystrix essential oil at a concentration of 1.4% (v/v) reduced of mycelia growth of C. gloeosporioides by 29.49%. A second experiment was conducted, but at higher concentration of each essential oils (1.8%, 2.2%, 2.6% and 2.8% (v/v)). Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition of mycelia growth was obtained in all treatments except the control. The antifungal index values of essential oils were proportionally increased with concentration of essential oil applied in each treatment. It is concluded that essential oil from C. hystrix are efficient in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides.

  12. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD{sub 99} values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD{sub 99} dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability.

  13. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  14. nanohybrid composites as antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer platforms

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    D. Demircan

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach to synthesize the colloidal ODA-MMT-poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-dodecene-g-α,ω-methoxyhydroxyl-PEO/silver nanoparticles (AgNPs nanohybrid composites (NHC using the following synthetic pathways: (1 complex-radical alternating copolymerization of maleic anhydride with 1-dodecene α-olefin comonomer, (2 grafting of PEO onto alternating copolymer through esterification, (3 intercalating a copolymer-g-PEO between organoclay layers via complex formation of maleate carboxyl with octadecyl amine, and (4 in situ generation of AgNPs in polymer nanocomposite by annealing method under vacuum. The obtained multifunctional NHCs with different contents of AgNPs were characterized by UV spectroscopy, ζ-potential and size analysis methods. It was demonstrated that annealing of the colloidal NHC is accompanied with in situ generation of stable and partially protonated AgNPs due to specific reducing and stabilizing effects of multifunctional matrix polymer contained positively charged reactive and bioactive sites. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungal microorganism were investigated. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects in NHC/L929 fibroblast cells systems were evaluated. The synthesized watersoluble, biocompatible, and bioactive colloidal NHCs are promising candidate for a wide-range of applications in air filtration, food packaging systems, bioengineering, especially in tissue regeneration and nanomedicine.

  15. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  16. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Haddioui, Laïla; Roques, Christine

    2017-08-01

    New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Pharmacology of the antifungals used in the treatment of aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, José Ramón; Sádaba, Belén; Gómez-Guíu, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of invasive aspergillosis requires the use of drugs that characteristically have complex pharmacokinetic properties, the knowledge of which is essential to achieve maximum efficacy with minimal risk to the patient. The lipid-based amphotericin B formulations vary significantly in their pharmacokinetic behaviour, with very high plasma concentrations of the liposomal form, probably related to the presence of cholesterol in their structure. Azoles have a variable absorption profile, particularly in the case of itraconazole and posaconazole, with the latter very dependent on multiple factors. This may also lead to variations in voriconazole, which requires considering the possibility of monitoring plasma concentrations. The aim of this article is to review some of the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of the antifungals used in the prophylaxis and treatment of the Aspergillus infection. For this reason, it includes the most relevant features of some of the azoles normally prescribed in this infection (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole) and the amphotericin B formulations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  18. Identification and quantification of antifungal compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, Céline; Coton, Emmanuel; Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; Choiset, Yvan; Van Long, Nicolas Nguyen; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2016-12-19

    Fungal growth in bakery products represents the most frequent cause of spoilage and leads to economic losses for industrials and consumers. Bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria, are commonly known to play an active role in preservation of fermented food, producing a large range of antifungal metabolites. In a previous study (Le Lay et al., 2016), an extensive screening performed both in vitro and in situ allowed for the selection of bacteria exhibiting an antifungal activity. In the present study, active supernatants against Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed to identify and quantify the antifungal compounds associated with the observed activity. Supernatant treatments (pH neutralization, heating and addition of proteinase K) suggested that organic acids played the most important role in the antifungal activity of each tested supernatant. Different methods (HPLC, mass spectrometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays) were then applied to analyze the supernatants and it was shown that the main antifungal compounds corresponded to lactic, acetic and propionic acids, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide, as well as other compounds present at low levels such as phenyllactic, hydroxyphenyllactic, azelaic and caproic acids. Based on these results, various combinations of the identified compounds were used to evaluate their effect on conidial germination and fungal growth of P. corylophilum and Eurotium repens. Some combinations presented the same activity than the bacterial culture supernatant thus confirming the involvement of the identified molecules in the antifungal activity. The obtained results suggested that acetic acid was mainly responsible for the antifungal activity against P. corylophilum and played an important role in E. repens inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains using agar diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery.

  20. Screening of pharmacologically active small molecule compounds identifies antifungal agents against Candida biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao eWatamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida species have emerged as important and common opportunistic human pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently effect. The aim of this study is develop new small-molecule antifungal compounds by library screening methods using C. albicans, and to evaluate their antifungal effects on Candida biofilms and cytotoxic effects on human cells. Wild-type C. albicans strain SC5314 was used in library screening. To identify antifungal compounds, we screened a small-molecule library of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280TM using an antifungal susceptibility test (AST. To investigate the antifungal effects of the hit compounds, ASTs were conducted using Candida strains in various growth modes, including biofilms. We tested the cytotoxicity of the hit compounds using human gingival fibroblast (hGF cells to evaluate their clinical safety. Only 35 compounds were identified by screening, which inhibited the metabolic activity of C. albicans by >50%. Of these, 26 compounds had fungistatic effects and 9 compounds had fungicidal effects on C. albicans. Five compounds, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate, ellipticine and CV-3988, had strong fungicidal effects and could inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida biofilms. However, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine were cytotoxic to hGF cells at low concentrations. CV-3988 showed no cytotoxicity at a fungicidal concentration.Four of the compounds identified, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine, had toxic effects on Candida strains and hGF cells. In contrast, CV-3988 had fungicidal effects on Candida strains, but low cytotoxic effects on hGF cells. Therefore, this screening reveals agent, CV-3988 that was previously unknown to be antifungal agent, which could be a novel therapies for superficial mucosal

  1. Risk of serious skin disorders among users of oral antifungals: a population-based study

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    Duque Alberto

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serious skin disorders have been associated with the use of oral antifungals in a number of case reports and series of cases. However the incidence of these disorders remains unknown. Methods We estimated the risk of serious skin disorders in a cohort of users of oral antifungals identified in the general population of the General Practice Research Database in the UK. The cohort included 61,858 patients, 20 to 79 years old, who had received at least one prescription for either oral fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, or terbinafine. Results The background rate of serious cutaneous adverse reactions (the one corresponding to non use of oral antifungals was 3.9 per 10,000 person-years (95% CI 2.9–5.2. Incidence rates for current use were 15.4 per 10,000 person-years (1.9–55.7 for itraconazole, 11.1 (3.0–28.5 for terbinafine, 10.4 (1.3–37.5 for fluconazole, and 4.6 (0.1–25.8 for griseofulvin. Itraconazole was the antifungal associated with the highest relative risk, 3.9 (0.5–15.0, when compared to the risk among non users, followed by terbinafine and fluconazole, with relative risks of 2.8 (0.7–7.8 and 2.6 (0.3–10.1, respectively. Conclusions We conclude that cutaneous disorders associated with the use of oral antifungals in this study were all of mild severity and that the risk associated with the use of oral antifungals was slightly higher than the risk in non-users. The safety profile of terbinafine regarding cutaneous disorders is similar to other antifungals and in the very low range of risks associated with other drugs.

  2. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and-or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, Soo Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Suk [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacterial eight strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Especially, strain KL2143, 2367 were identified as Bacillus subtilis (KL2143/KL2367) and strain KL2326, KL2314 identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca have never been reported internationally. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum of strain KL2143 show the broad range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strain KL2143 was selected with the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal material were analyzed under various environmental conditions (carbon source, nitrogen source, phosphate concentration, pH, temperature, amino acids, vitamins). Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal material production yield were not different, however. Product of antifungal material according to phosphate is proportional to concentration; the higher in high concentration and the low in lower concentration. And productivity of antifungal material is was generally high in the range 30 - 37 deg C at pH7 and in case of adding vitamin B12, lysine and aginine to medium it was enhanced. (3) Moreover, bio-degradability upon agricultural substance and organic substances by AF bacteria was strikingly effective. (4) AF stains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. (5) Establishment of a new technology for the

  3. Training should be the first step toward an antifungal stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Maricela; Muñoz, Patricia; Rodríguez-González, Carmen; Sanjurjo, María; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly in most tertiary centers. However, antifungal stewardship has received very little attention. The objective of this article was to assess the knowledge of prescribing physicians in our institution as a first step in the development of an antifungal stewardship program. Attending physicians from the departments that prescribe most antifungals were invited to complete a questionnaire based on current guidelines on diagnosis and therapy of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis (IA). The survey was completed by 60.8% (200/329) of the physicians who were invited to participate. The physicians belonged to the following departments: medical (60%), pediatric (19%), intensive care (15.5%), and surgical (5.5%). The mean (±SD) score of correct responses was 5.16±1.73. In the case of candidiasis, only 55% of the physicians clearly distinguished between colonization and infection, and 17.5% knew the local rate of fluconazole resistance. Thirty-three percent knew the accepted indications for antifungal prophylaxis, and 23% the indications for empirical therapy. However, most physicians knew which antifungals to choose when starting empirical therapy (73.5%). As for aspergillosis, most physicians (67%) could differentiate between colonization and infection, and 34.5% knew the diagnostic value of galactomannan. The radiological features of IA were well recognized by 64%, but only 31.5% were aware of the first line of treatment for IA, and 36% of the recommended duration of therapy. The usefulness of antifungal levels was known by 67%. This simple, easily completed questionnaire enabled us to identify which areas of our training strategy could be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia treated with a broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, I; Kiworr, M; Genitsariotis, R; Zeidler, D; Lorenz, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a retrospective study the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the diagnosis of pneumonia was investigated in 95 immunocompromised patients suffering from haematological disorders and receiving a regimen of broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents (BSAR).
METHODS—With the exception of four afebrile patients, all had fever, raised C reactive protein (CRP) levels, and new infiltrates visible on chest radiography. All patients underwent BAL to identify the organism causing the pneumonia and surveillance cultures were performed regularly for pathogens at different sites. Following classification of the isolates, patients with positive cultures were subdivided into two groups, pathogenic or contaminated. We investigated whether relevant pathogens were cultured only from the BAL fluid and whether they were susceptible to BSAR.
RESULTS—Although 77 of the 95 patients were thrombocytopenic, bleeding during BAL occurred in only 15% of all patients. Ten days after the procedure the fever improved in 88% of patients, radiographic findings improved in 71%, and CRP levels improved in 75% of patients; 22% of patients died within 28 days. Pathologically relevant isolates were found in 65% of all patients. Respiratory pathogens were detected only in the BAL fluid of 29 of the 95 patients (35% Gram positive species, 40% Gram negative species, 11% Mycobacterium, 11% fungi, and 3% cytomegalovirus). In 16 of these 29 patients (55%) the pathogens cultured only from the BAL fluid were resistant to treatment. Pathogens detected only in the BAL fluid were not susceptible to a standard broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal regimen including teicoplanin, ceftriaxon, tobramycin, and amphotericin B in 12 of the 29 patients (41%).
CONCLUSIONS—Our data suggest that 12 patients were treated with broad spectrum antimicrobial agents which were not directed at the appropriate organism on in vitro sensitivity tests without BAL. BAL is a relatively safe

  5. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr16p restricts changes in ergosterol biosynthesis caused by the presence of azole antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimová, Zuzana; Poloncová, Katarína; Tahotná, Dana; Holič, Roman; Hapala, Ivan; Smith, Adam R; White, Theodore C; Griač, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Pdr16p belongs to the family of phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins in yeast. The absence of Pdr16p results in enhanced susceptibility to azole antifungals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the major fungal human pathogen Candida albicans, CaPDR16 is a contributing factor to clinical azole resistance. The current study was aimed at better understanding the function of Pdr16p, especially in relation to azole resistance in S. cerevisiae. We show that deletion of the PDR16 gene increased susceptibility of S. cerevisiae to azole antifungals that are used in clinical medicine and agriculture. Significant differences in the inhibition of the sterol biosynthetic pathway were observed between the pdr16Δ strain and its corresponding wild-type (wt) strain when yeast cells were challenged by sub-inhibitory concentrations of the azoles miconazole or fluconazole. The increased susceptibility to azoles, and enhanced changes in sterol biosynthesis upon exposure to azoles of the pdr16Δ strain compared to wt strain, are not the results of increased intracellular concentration of azoles in the pdr16Δ cells. We also show that overexpression of PDR17 complemented the azole susceptible phenotype of the pdr16Δ strain and corrected the enhanced sterol alterations in pdr16Δ cells in the presence of azoles. Pdr17p was found previously to be an essential part of a complex required for intermembrane transport of phosphatidylserine at regions of membrane apposition. Based on these observations, we propose a hypothesis that Pdr16p assists in shuttling sterols or their intermediates between membranes or, alternatively, between sterol biosynthetic enzymes or complexes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  7. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of UK-49,858, a metabolically stable triazole antifungal drug, in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M J; Jevons, S; Tarbit, M H

    1985-11-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of UK-49,858 (fluconazole), a novel triazole antifungal agent which is being developed for oral and intravenous use, was determined in mice, rats, dogs, and humans. Comparative data following oral and intravenous administration showed that bioavailability was essentially complete in all four species. Peak concentrations in plasma of drug normalized to a 1-mg/kg dose level following oral administration, were relatively high: 0.7, 0.6, 1.1, and 1.4 micrograms/ml in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, respectively. The volumes of distribution ranged between 1.1 liter/kg in mice and 0.7 liter/kg in humans, which are approximate to the values for total body water. Whole body autoradiography studies in mice following intravenous administration of [14C]UK-49,858 demonstrated that the drug was evenly distributed throughout the tissues, including the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Plasma protein binding was low (11 to 12%) in all species. Marked species differences were observed in elimination half-lives, with mean values of 4.8, 4.0, 14, and 22 h in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, respectively. The major route of elimination of the drug was renal clearance, with about 70% of the dose being excreted unchanged in the urine in each species. Studies with [14C]UK-49,858 on metabolism and excretion (intravenous and oral) in mice and dogs showed that about 90% of the dose was recovered as unchanged drug in urine and feces, confirming the metabolic stability of the drug. This pharmacokinetic profile is markedly different from that of imidazole antifungal drugs and undoubtedly contributes to the excellent efficacy of UK-49,858 in vivo.

  8. Effect of 2-Phenylethanol as Antifungal Agent and Common Antifungals (Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole) on Candida Species Isolated from Chronic and Recurrent Cases of Candidal Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdabadi, Niloufar; Falahati, Mehraban; Heidarie-Kohan, Fariba; Farahyar, Shirin; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Ashrafi-Khozani, Mahtab; Razavi, Tandis; Mohammadnejad, Sina

    2018-04-01

    The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol are clearly visible through its intervention in Candida morphogenesis. Chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, however, does not respond to this standard experimental therapy; therefore, the study presented in this article investigated the effect of common antifungal drugs (amphotericin B [AMB], fluconazole [FLU], and itraconazole [ITC]), in combination with 2-phenylethanol, on the Candida species isolated from cases of chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, thereby allowing the recommendation of a more appropriate treatment option. Forty isolates from patients with chronic and recurrent vaginal candidiasis were investigated in this experimental study. The specimens were examined by direct microscopy, culturing, and PCR to identify the species. The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol and conventional drugs, both alone and in combination, were determined in duplicate. Finally, the findings were analyzed. In this study, 40 strains of Candida species were identified, whose agents were Candida albicans (95%) and Candida africana (5%). After 48 h, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of the 2-phenylethanol was 800-3,200 μg/mL. Also, in the final study on the MIC levels of common antifungal drugs, AMB (0.42 μg/mL) had the lowest MIC, FLU (40.51 μg/mL) had the highest MIC, and the combination of ITC and 2-phenylethanol had the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of any of the combinations (FICI range, 0.26-1.03). Combining FLU and ITC with 2-phenylethanol can effectively increase their antifungal effect.

  9. Antifungal activities of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with antifungal agents against Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Tarcieli Pozzebon; Chassot, Francieli; Loreto, Érico Silva; Keller, Jéssica Tairine; Azevedo, Maria Izabel; Zeni, Gilson; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we describe the in vitro activity of a combination of the organoselenium compounds diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and voriconazole against 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium spp. For this analysis, we used the broth microdilution method based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution method. Diphenyl diselenide (MIC range = 4-32 μg/ml) and ebselen (MIC range = 2-8 μg/ml) showed in vitro activity against the isolates tested. The most effective combinations were (synergism rates): ebselen + amphotericin B (88%), ebselen + voriconazole (80%), diphenyl diselenide + amphotericin B (72%), and diphenyl diselenide + voriconazole (64%). Combination with caspofungin resulted in low rates of synergism: ebselen + caspofungin, 36%, and diphenyl diselenide + caspofungin, 28%; combination with itraconazole demonstrated indifferent interactions. Antagonistic effects were not observed for any of the combinations tested. Our findings suggest that the antifungal potential of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen deserves further investigation in in vivo experimental models, especially in combination with amphotericin B and voriconazole. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Hydrolysate from a mixture of legume flours with antifungal activity as an ingredient for prolonging the shelf-life of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Verni, Michela; Bordignon, Stefano; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971.97, Penicillium carneum CBS 112297, Penicillium paneum CBS 101032, Penicillium polonicum 112490. A multi-step purification was carried out to identify the active compounds. The antifungal activity was attributed to native proteins (nsLTP, ubiquitin, lectin alpha-1 chain, wound-induced basic protein, defensin-1, defensin-2) and a mixture of peptides, which were released during hydrolysis. Nine peptides were purified and identified as sequences encrypted in legume vicilins, lectins and chitinases. WSE was used as ingredient for making bread under pilot plant conditions. Chemical, structural and sensory characterization of bread showed the lack of significant changes compared to control. The bread made with the legume hydrolysate had a longer shelf-life than that of the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis by UPLC-MS-QTOF and antifungal activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Rocha, Janaína Esmeraldo; Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna do; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; de Sousa, Amanda Karine; Dos Santos, Antônia Thassya Lucas; da Cruz, Rafael Pereira; Ferreira, Maciel Horácio; da Silva, Josefa Carolaine Pereira; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Carneiro, Joara Nályda Pereira; Sales, Débora Lima; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra

    2018-05-08

    Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC 50 and the cell viability curve. Minimal Fungicidal Concentration(MFC) and the inhibitory effects of the association of the fractions with Fluconazole, as well as the assays used to verify any morphological changes were performed in microculture chambers based on the concentrations from the microdilution. The IC 50 of the isolated fractions and the fractions associated with each other were calculated, varying from 69.29 to 3444.62 μg/mL and the fractions associated with fluconazole varied from 925.56 to 1.57 μg/mL, it was clear that the association of the natural product with the antifungal presented a synergism. The fractions affected pleomorphism capacity and have a potential antifungal activity as they caused fungal inhibition in isolated use, potentiated the action of Fluconazole, reducing its concentration and impeding morphological transition, one of the virulence factors of the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

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    F. Nouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were collected using sterile swabs. Then the isolated candida albicans and standard candida albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured. The antifungal effect was evaluated with disk plate method. Nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. The power of antifungal activity was evaluated with the inhibition zone diameter of each of the extracts. At the end, the data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fried-man statistical tests. Results: Results showed that extracts of Querques infectoria had great antifungal effects. There was not statistically significant difference between nystatine and Querques infectoria extract (P>0.05 however , Querques infectoria was statistically more effective than lavender extract and nystatin showed the highest antifungal activity (P <0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that plant extracts had positive effects on Candida albicans as compared to nystatin. Thus, we hope to find new herbal medicines and compounds to treat candidiasis in the future. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:172-178

  13. In vitro activities of antifungal drugs against environmental Exophiala isolates and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülmez, Dolunay; Doğan, Özlem; Boral, Barış; Döğen, Aylin; İlkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap

    2018-04-03

    Exophiala is a genus of black fungi isolated worldwide from environmental and clinical specimens. Data on antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala isolates are limited and the methodology on susceptibility testing is not yet standardized. In this study, we investigated in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of environmental Exophiala isolates. A total of 87 Exophiala isolated from dishwashers or railway ties were included. CLSI M38-A2 microdilution method with modifications was used to determine antifungal susceptibility for fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and terbinafine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined visually at 48h, 72h, and 96h. MIC-0 endpoint (complete inhibition of growth) was used for amphotericin B and azoles, except fluconazole, for which MIC-2 endpoint (~50% inhibition compared to growth control) was used. Both MIC-0 and MIC-1 (~80% inhibition compared to growth control) results were analysed for terbinafine, to enable comparison with previous studies. Fungal growth was sufficient for determination of MICs at 48h for all isolates except two Exophiala dermatitidis strains. At 72h, most active antifungal agents according to GM MIC were voriconazole and terbinafine, followed by posaconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B in rank order of decreasing activity. While amphotericin B displayed adequate in vitro activity despite relatively high MICs, fluconazole showed no meaningful antifungal activity against Exophiala. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of two spices of mangrove plant extract

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    Somayeh Rastegar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifungal and the radical scavenging capacity related to antioxidant potential of ethanol and water extracts of leaves of Rhizophora mucronata (R. mucronata and Avicennia marina (A. marina mangrove plant species against five postharvest pathogenic bacteria. Methods: In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antifungal activities was evaluated in this present study for both aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of A. marina and R. mucronata. The antioxidant activities of these mangroves were evaluated by using reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays with butylated hydroxytoluene and L-(+- ascorbic acid as standards. Results: The result showed that the antioxidant activities of all extracts increased with increasing concentration of extracts. However, the ethanol extracts of both species showed the highest antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial tests were then carried out by the disk diffusion method. The ethanol extracts of both species showed antifungal activities on Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium italicum. However, none of the water extracts exhibited antifungal activity on the studied fungi. Among all the pathogens, tested Aspergillus flavus was the most resistant fungi. Different concentrations of extracts from A. marina and R. mucronata showed different amounts of control against tested fungal strains. Conclusions: This study indicated that mangrove species has natural antioxidant and antifungal properties.

  15. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

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    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  16. Nanoparticles as safe and effective delivery systems of antifungal agents: Achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ghareb M

    2017-05-15

    Invasive fungal infections are becoming a major health concern in several groups of patients leading to severe morbidity and mortality. Moreover, cutaneous fungal infections are a major cause of visits to outpatient dermatology clinics. Despite the availability of several effective agents in the antifungal drug arena, their therapeutic outcome is less than optimal due to limitations related to drug physicochemical properties and toxicity. For instance, poor aqueous solubility limits the formulation options and efficacy of several azole antifungal drugs while toxicity limits the benefits of many other drugs. Nanoparticles hold great promise to overcome these limitations due to their ability to enhance drug aqueous solubility, bioavailability and antifungal efficacy. Further, drug incorporation into nanoparticles could greatly reduce its toxicity. Despite these interesting nanoparticle features, there are only few marketed nanoparticle-based antifungal drug formulations. This review sheds light on different classes of nanoparticles used in antifungal drug delivery, such as lipid-based vesicles, polymeric micelles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions and dendrimers with emphasis on their advantages and limitations. Translation of these nanoformulations from the lab to the clinic could be facilitated by focusing the research on overcoming problems related to nanoparticle stability, drug loading and high cost of production and standardization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis

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    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB, itraconazole (ITR, ketoconazole (KET, posaconazole (POS, and terbinafine (TRB against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  18. pH-Dependant Antifungal Activity of Valproic Acid against the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

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    Julien Chaillot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current antifungal drugs suffer from limitations including toxicity, the emergence of resistance and decreased efficacy at low pH that are typical of human vaginal surfaces. Here, we have shown that the antipsychotic drug valproic acid (VPA exhibited a strong antifungal activity against both sensitive and resistant Candida albicans in pH condition similar to that encountered in vagina. VPA exerted a strong anti-biofilm activity and attenuated damage of vaginal epithelial cells caused by C. albicans. We also showed that VPA synergizes with the allylamine antifungal, Terbinafine. We undertook a chemogenetic screen to delineate biological processes that underlies VPA-sensitivity in C. albicans and found that vacuole-related genes were required to tolerate VPA. Confocal fluorescence live-cell imaging revealed that VPA alters vacuole integrity and support a model where alteration of vacuoles contributes to the antifungal activity. Taken together, this study suggests that VPA could be used as an effective antifungal against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  19. Determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns among the clinical isolates of Candida species

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    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida species are opportunistic yeasts that cause infections ranging from simple dermatosis to potentially life-threatening fungemia. The emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs has been increased in the past two decades. Aim: the present study we determined to find out the susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Candida species against four antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility testing of the yeasts was done in accordance with the proposed guidelines for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts based on the CLSI document M44-A. Results: A total of 206 yeast isolates were assessed. Among the evaluated Candida species, the highest rates of resistance to ketoconazole were seen in Candida glabrata (16.6% and Candida albicans (3.2%. Susceptibility and intermediate response to fluconazole were seen in 96.6% and 3.4% of the Candida isolates, respectively. A total of 19 (9.2% yeast isolates showed petite phenomenon including 11 C. glabrata, 3 C. albicans, 2 Candida dubliniensis and one isolate of each Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion: The high number of petite mutation in the isolated yeasts should be seriously considered since it may be one of the reasons of antifungal treatment failure.

  20. Comparing antifungal effects of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum extract with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

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    F. Nouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite all the progress that has been made in the manufacture of synthetic drugs, herbal drugs are increasingly taken into account. This is due to the growing belief that they have fewer side effects compared to synthetic ones. Objective: To compare the antifungal effects of extracts of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum with Nystatin on Candida Albicans. Methods: This inviro trial accomplished in the school of dentistry of Tehran University in 2012. From the mouths of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were sampled using sterile swabs. Candida Albicans strains were isolated from samples and standard Candida Albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured too. Then extract of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum to be obtained and antifungal of extract studied with disk diffusion method. Antifungal power of each of the extracts on the inhibition zone diameter was created in the medium. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Friedman statistical tests. Findings: Results showed extracts of Zataria and pomegranate flowers have antifungal significant effects (P<0.001. Diameter of inhabitation zone was 17.66±./75 mm in Nystatin group and in the Zataria and pomegranate flowers extracts groups was lower (P<0.001. None of the negative control disc did inhibition zone in the medium. Conclusion: With due attention of Zataria and pomegranate flowers extracts exhibited antifungal effects on Candida Albincans.

  1. Candidal colonization, strain diversity, and antifungal susceptibility among adult diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Safia A; Amro, Soliman O

    2010-01-01

    Candidal colonization in diabetics is a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to investigate oral candidal colonization, strain diversity, antifungal susceptibility, and the influence of local and systemic host factors on candidal colonization in adult diabetics. We conducted a case-control study that compared 150 diabetics (49 type 1, 101 type 2) with 50 healthy controls. Two salivary samples were collected, using the oral rinse sampling method: one for salivary flow rate and pH determination, and the other for candidal colonization assessment. The candidal isolates were identified and tested in vitro for antifungal susceptibility using the commercial kit, Candifast. The relationship between specific host factors and candidal colonization was also investigated. Diabetics had a higher candidal carriage rate compared to controls, but not density. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species, but diabetics had a variety of other candidal species present. None of the control samples were resistant to any tested antifungal, while the diabetic samples had differing resistances to azole antifungals. Although there was a significant positive correlation between glycemic control and candidal colonization in type 2 diabetics, there was a negative correlation between salivary pH and candidal carriage in the controls versus density in type 2 diabetics. Diabetic patients not only had a higher candidal carriage rate, but also a variety of candidal species that were resistant to azole antifungals. Oral candidal colonization was significantly associated with glycemic control, type of diabetes, and salivary pH.

  2. In Vitro Activity of E1210, a Novel Antifungal, against Clinically Important Yeasts and Molds▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mamiko; Horii, Takaaki; Hata, Katsura; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    E1210 is a new antifungal compound with a novel mechanism of action and broad spectrum of antifungal activity. We investigated the in vitro antifungal activities of E1210 compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin against clinical fungal isolates. E1210 showed potent activities against most Candida spp. (MIC90 of ≤0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml), except for Candida krusei (MICs of 2 to >32 μg/ml). E1210 showed equally potent activities against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida strains. E1210 also had potent activities against various filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC90 of 0.13 μg/ml). E1210 was also active against Fusarium solani and some black molds. Of note, E1210 showed the greatest activities against Pseudallescheria boydii (MICs of 0.03 to 0.13 μg/ml), Scedosporium prolificans (MIC of 0.03 μg/ml), and Paecilomyces lilacinus (MICs of 0.06 μg/ml) among the compounds tested. The antifungal action of E1210 was fungistatic, but E1210 showed no trailing growth of Candida albicans, which has often been observed with fluconazole. In a cytotoxicity assay using human HK-2 cells, E1210 showed toxicity as low as that of fluconazole. Based on these results, E1210 is likely to be a promising antifungal agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. PMID:21825291

  3. A case of Candida famata sepsis in a very low birth weight infant successfully treated with fluconazole following antifungal susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee Raturi

    2015-01-01

    This case report highlights the growing number of cases arising due to nonalbicans Candida infections in the neonatal intensive care units and the usefulness of antifungal susceptibility testing in deciding optimal antifungal therapy and preventing the emergence of drug resistance.

  4. Study of the Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of Neolignans 8.O.4´ and Structurally Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matyus

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we report the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of a neolignan 8.O.4´series. The most active antifungal compounds show a significant cytotoxic effect which might be related.

  5. Osmotin, a Pathogenesis-Related Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viktorová, J.; Krásný, Lukáš; Kamlar, M.; Nováková, M.; Macková, M.; Macek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2012), s. 672-681 ISSN 1389-2037 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1654; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/1693 Program:GA; GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : osmotin * pathogenesis-related proteins * antifungal activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2012

  6. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan de Almeida Freires

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis, as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research.

  7. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Marcussen, J.

    2015-01-01

    produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl......Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles...... to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile...

  8. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  9. Antifungal prescribing pattern and attitude towards the treatment of oral candidiasis among dentists in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Abu-Hammad, Osama A; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Dar-Odeh, Najla S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude of Jordanian dentists towards the treatment of oral candidiasis and their current antifungal prescribing habits, shedding more light on the possible influence of their socio-professional factors on the pattern of prescribing and practice. A structured validated questionnaire was developed and tested; it was then emailed to a random sample of 600 Jordanian dental practitioners during the period of this cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire recorded practitioners' personal details and their attitude and prescribing of antifungal therapy for oral candidiasis. Statistical significance was based on probability values of oral candidiasis. Of the 423 questionnaires returned, only 330 were included. The attitude of respondents was significantly influenced by their experience [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14; P oral candidiasis is much better among the least-experienced dentists working in private practice. Nystatin and miconazole are the most popular choices of antifungal agents among Jordanian dentists. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Bacterial strains diversity in Musa spp. phyllosphere with antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternatives to agricultural pesticides used for the management of black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet includes the selection of microorganisms strains with potential for the control of this pathogen. The objective of the work was to characterize bacterial strains isolated from the phylosphere of Musa spp. with antifungal effect against M. fijiensis. A morphological, cultural, physiological and molecular characterization of the strains was performed and the antifungal activity of these strains was quantified by dual culture. It was verified the diversity of bacteria with antifungal properties against M. fijiensis present in the phylosphere of Musa spp.  In addition, it was found that the phyllosphere of these crops can be used as a source of obtaining possible biological controls of M. fijiensis.   Keywords: bacteria, biocontrol, Black Sigatoka, epiphytes

  11. Synthesis and characterization of dithiocarbamate chitosan derivatives with enhanced antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yukun; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Meng, Xiangtao; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2012-06-20

    In this study, ammonium dithiocarbamate chitosan (ADTCCS) and triethylene diamine dithiocarbamate chitosan (TEDADTCCS) derivatives were obtained respectively by mixing chitosan with carbon disulfide and ammonia (triethylenediamine). Their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, XRD, DSC, SEM, and elemental analysis. Antifungal properties of them against the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria porri were investigated at concentrations ranged from 31.25 to 500 mg/L. The dithiocarbamate chitosan derivatives had enhanced antifungal activity compared with chitosan. Particularly, they showed obvious inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxysporum. At 500 mg/L, TEDADTCCS inhibited growth of F. oxysporum at 60.4%, stronger than polyoxin and triadimefon whose antifungal indexes were found to be 25.3% and 37.7%. The chitosan derivatives described here deserve further study for use in crop protection. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antifungal Effect of a Dental Tissue Conditioner Containing Nystatin-Loaded Alginate Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2018-02-01

    In this in vitro study, nystatin-alginate microparticles were successfully fabricated to control the release of nystatin from a commercial dental tissue conditioner. These nystatin-alginate microparticles were spherical and had a slightly rough surface. The microparticles incorporated into the tissue conditioner were distributed homogeneously throughout the tissue conditioner matrix. The incorporation of the microparticles did not deteriorate the mechanical properties of the original material. The agar diffusion test results showed that the tissue conditioner containing the microparticles had a good antifungal effect against Candida albicans. The nystatin-alginate microparticles efficiently controlled the release of nystatin from the tissue conditioner matrix over the experimental period of 14 days. Moreover, the nystatin-alginate microparticles incorporated in the tissue conditioner showed effective antifungal function even at lower concentrations of nystatin. The current study suggests that the tissue conditioner containing the nystatin-alginate microparticle carrier system has potential as an effective antifungal material.

  13. Identification of antifungal activity substances on seedborn disease from garlic and taxus extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, I.M.; Paik, S.B. [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Antifungal substances were isolated and identified from garlic and taxus extracts to develop safe and broad fungicide. The inhibitory effect of seedborn disease of sesame, pepper, radish, chinese cabbage by formulation of antifungal substances was investigated. The antifungal substance isolated through column chromatography from garlic and taxus extracts was confirmed by GC-MS as allicin (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}OS{sub 2}) and taxol(C{sub 47}H{sub 51}NO{sub 14}) and the quantified content from each extracts by HPLC analysis was 0.62%, 0.29%, respectively. The formulation composed of garlic and taxus extracts controlled effectively the seedborn fungi tested in this study at 10X dilution, but at 100X dilution the inhibitory effect decreased. Phytotoxicity of these formulations did not recognized. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Antifungal activity of Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa in rice cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eunjong; Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Hyejung; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Jeongho

    2012-10-01

    The antifungal activity of organic acids greatly improves the shelf life of bread and bakery products. However, little is known about the effect of lactic acid fermentation on fungal contamination in rice cakes. Here, we show that lactic acid fermentation in rice dough can greatly retard the growth of three fungal species when present in rice cakes, namely Cladosporium sp. YS1, Neurospora sp. YS3, and Penicillium crustosum YS2. The antifungal activity of the lactic acid bacteria against these fungi was much better than that of 0.3% calcium propionate. We found that organic acids including lactic and acetic acid, which are byproducts of lactic fermentation or can be artificially added, were the main antifungal substances. We also found that some Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa strains could be good starter species for rice dough fermentation. These results imply that these lactic acid bacteria can be applicable to improve the preservation of rice cakes.

  15. Antifungal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Various Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Yun Seok; Min, Ji Seon; Lee, Youn Su

    2012-03-01

    This research is concerned with the fungicidal properties of nano-size silver colloidal solution used as an agent for antifungal treatment of various plant pathogens. We used WA-CV-WA13B, WA-AT-WB13R, and WA-PR-WB13R silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Eighteen different plant pathogenic fungi were treated with these AgNPs on potato dextrose agar (PDA), malt extract agar, and corn meal agar plates. We calculated fungal inhibition in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. The results indicated that AgNPs possess antifungal properties against these plant pathogens at various levels. Treatment with WA-CV-WB13R AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of most fungi. Results also showed that the most significant inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi was observed on PDA and 100 ppm of AgNPs.

  16. Improved antifungal activity and stability of chitosan nanofibers using cellulose nanocrystal on banknote papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Amirabad, Leila; Jonoobi, Mehdi; Mousavi, Narges Sharif; Oksman, Kristiina; Kaboorani, Alireza; Yousefi, Hossein

    2018-06-01

    Microorganisms can spread on the surface of banknotes and cause many infectious diseases. Chitosan nanofibers (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are nanomaterials, which can affect the antimicrobial properties. In this study, the fungal species that grew on the surfaces of collected banknotes from different places were identified. To examine the antifungal effect of the both nanomaterials on the banknotes, the stable coatings using CNFs and CNCs emulsions were prepared by roller coating. The results revealed that the most colonies in the banknotes obtained from the bakeries and butcheries were Aspergillus sp., whereas the colonies in bus terminals and the hospitals were Aspergillus niger and Penicillium, respectively. The results showed that the CNCs had no antifungal effect alone on the aforementioned species, but it could improve the antifungal effect, adhesion, and stability of CNFs on the banknote surfaces. This study suggested a new approach to decrease the infection spreads through banknotes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kehan Xu,1,* Lei Huang,1,* Zheng Xu,2 Yanwei Wang,1,3 Guojing Bai,1 Qiuye Wu,1 Xiaoyan Wang,1 Shichong Yu,1 Yuanying Jiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 2Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 3Number 422 Hospital of PLA, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r, which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. Keywords: triazole, synthesis, antifungal activity, CYP51

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis GQJK49, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinjin; Liu, Hu; Liu, Kai; Wang, Chengqiang; Li, Yuhuan; Hou, Qihui; Yao, Liangtong; Cui, Yanru; Zhang, Tongrui; Wang, Haide; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Yun; Ge, Ruofei; Xu, Baochao; Yao, Gan; Xu, Wenfeng; Fan, Lingchao; Ding, Yanqin; Du, Binghai

    2017-08-31

    Bacillus velezensis GQJK49 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with antifungal activity, which was isolated from Lycium barbarum L. rhizosphere. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis GQJK49. Twelve gene clusters related to its biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including antifungal and antibacterial antibiotics, were predicted. Copyright © 2017 Ma et al.

  19. An antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 inhibits germination of Penicillium roqueforti conidiospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.; Breeuwer, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Aelst, van A.C.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To identify and characterize an antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 which prevents spore germination of Penicillium roqueforti . Methods and Results: The antifungal compound was isolated by acid precipitation with HCl. This compound inhibited fungal germination and

  20. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badiee, P.; Badali, H.; Boekhout, T.; Diba, K.; Moghadam, A.G.; Hossaini Nasab, A.; Jafarian, H.; Mohammadi, R.; Mirhendi, H.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Shamsizadeh, A.; Soltani, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to

  1. Antifungal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of some seaweeds against common soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Abid, M.; Hussain, F.

    2017-01-01

    Total 32 species of different seaweeds belonging to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were collected from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan to investigate their antifungal activity. Most of the seaweeds inhibited growth of Fusarium oxypsorum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. The highest antifungal activities were observed in Sargasssum tenerrimum in both aqueous and methanolic extracts as compared to other seaweeds. (author)

  2. Multilocus phylogeny and antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus section Circumdati from clinical samples and description of A. pseudosclerotiorum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multilocus phylogenetic study was carried out to assess the species distribution in a set of 34 clinical isolates of Aspergillus section Circumdati from the USA and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility were determined against eight antifungal drugs. The genetic markers used were ITS, BenA, CaM...

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farsaraei*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The antifungal activity of the essential oils and their constituents against some phytopathogenic fungi has been reported. Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae is one of the Thymus species.  A large number of studies have concerned the chemical compositions and antifungal activity of thyme’s oil. In order to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides, recently considerable attention has been given to search for naturally occurring compounds. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical composition and antifungal activity of T. vulgaris oil cultivated in Iran. Methods: The essential oil from aerial parts of the plant at full flowering stage was subjected to hydrodistillation and chemical compounds were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and Macrophomina phaseolinaby of the oil was evaluated by agar dilution method. The data were subjected to ANOVA according to the SPSS 21 software. Results: Totally 45 compounds representing 96.75% of the oil were found. Thymol (36.81% and ρ-cymene (30.90% were the main components of thyme oil. According to the results, the antifungal activity of the oil increased with a rising in concentration. All of the tested fungi growth was completely inhibited on 1600 µL/L. In this study fungicidal activity was only observed on F. oxysporum and D. spicifera at concentrations higher than 800 µL/L.  Conclusion: The antifungal activity of T. vulgaris essential oil could be probably due to the high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (thymol and monoterpene hydrocarbons (ρ-cymene.

  4. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of selected Cameroonian dietary spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Tchuenguem, Roland T; Kuiate, Jules R; Teke, Gerald N; Kechia, Frederick A; Kuete, Victor

    2014-02-17

    Spices and herbs have been used in food since ancient times to give taste and flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In Cameroon, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their antifungal potential.The present work was designed to assess the antifungal properties of extracts from spices used in Cameroonian dietary. The in vitro antifungal activities of twenty three extracts from twenty one spices were assessed by the broth micro-dilution method against eight fungi. Also, the in vivo activity of Olax subscorpioidea extract (the most active extract) was evaluated in rat model of disseminated candidiasis due to Candida albicans by estimating the fungal burden in blood and kidney. Seven extracts (30%) exhibited moderate to significant antifungal activities, inhibiting the growth of the microorganisms at concentrations ranging from 0.048 to 0.39 mg/mL. Olax subscorpioidea extract exhibited the highest antifungal activity particularly against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC of 0.097 mg/mL and 0.048 mg/mL respectively). Sixteen extracts (70%) were weakly active (MICs > 6.25 mg/mL). Oral administration of O. subscorpioidea extract at the dose 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) to artificially infected rats revealed a drop in the number of colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) of Candida albicans cells in the blood below the detection limit (100 cfu/mL) while a modest decrease was observed in the kidney. The present work shows that some of the spices studied possess interesting antifungal properties and could be used to treat candidiasis. Among the plant species tested, Olax subscorpioidea displayed the most promising result.

  5. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on antifungal activity and elemental composition of the medicinal plant trianthema pentendra linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, A.J.; Shaikh, W.; Ghaffar, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Antifungal activity of crude solvent and aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant, Trianthema pentendra Linn., against the dermatophytic fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum revealed that ethanol and aqueous extracts were the most effective antifungal agents as compared to methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. Some basic elements, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S and Zn were also determined in the medicinal plant, T. pentendra, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and U.V spectrophotometry. T. pentendra contained considerable amount of elements which have therapeutic effects in skin diseases. (author)

  7. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana M. Debonsi Navickiene

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

  8. Antifungal Activity of Decyl Gallate against Several Species of Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Alves de Paula e Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to demonstrate that the gallic acid structure modification to the decyl gallate (G14 compound contributed to increase the antifungal activity against several species of pathogenic fungi, mainly, Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Paracoccidioides spp., and Histoplasma capsulatum, according to standardized microdilution method described by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI documents. Moreover this compound has a particularly good selectivity index value, which makes it an excellent candidate for broad-spectrum antifungal prototype and encourages the continuation of subsequent studies for the discovery of its mechanism of action.

  9. Growth and investigation of antifungal properties of ZnO nanorod arrays on the glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskandari, M.; Haghighi, N.; Ahmadi, V.; Haghighi, F.; Mohammadi, SH.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the antifungal activity of ZnO nanorods prepared by the chemical solution method against Candida albicans. In the study, Zinc oxide nanorods have been deposited on glass substrates using the chemical solution method. The as-grown samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed zinc oxide nanorods grown in (0 0 2) orientation. The antifungal results indicated that ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit stable properties after two months and play an important role in the growth inhibitory of Candida albicans.

  10. Simple Method of Preparation and Characterization of New Antifungal Active Biginelli Type Heterocyclic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, A. Senthilkumara; Joseph, J.; Raman, N.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, efficient and cost effective method is described for the synthesis of Biginelli type heterocyclic compounds of dihydropyrimidinones analogous. They were prepared from a reaction mixture consisting of substituted benzaldehydes, thiourea and ethylacetoacetate using ammonium dihydrogenphosphate as catalyst. The procedure for the preparation of the compounds is environmentally benign and safe which is advantageous in terms of experimentation, catalyst reusability, yields of the products, shorter reaction times and preclusion of toxic solvents. The four new synthesised compounds were tested for their antifungal activity. They have good antifungal activity comparing to the standard (Fluconazole). PMID:23997611

  11. Acylated Flavone Glycosides from the Roots of Saussurea lappa and Their Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemireddy Venkata Ramnareddy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of four novel acylated flavonoid glycosides from the roots of Saussurea lappa and their identification using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry is described. The in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds and their mixture were tested on nine fungal and four bacterial strains, using the microdilution method. The compounds and mixture showed moderate to high antifungal activity against most of the fungi tested, compared to a miconazole standard, while only one compound and the mixture showed antibacterial activity against all strains tested.

  12. Pathogenesis and host defence against Mucorales: the role of cytokines and interaction with antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roilides, Emmanuel; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Simitsopoulou, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Innate immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells and their respective receptors, plays an important role in host defences against Mucorales with differential activity against specific fungal species, while adaptive immunity is not the first line of defence. A number of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as cytokines and growth factors as well as certain antifungal agents have been found that they influence innate immune response to these organisms. Used alone or especially in combination have been shown to exert antifungal effects against Mucorales species. These findings suggest novel ways of adjunctive therapy for patients with invasive mucormycosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica-Dukić, N; Kujundzić, S; Soković, M; Couladis, M

    2003-04-01

    The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. KB425796-A, a novel antifungal antibiotic produced by Paenibacillus sp. 530603.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hirohito; Yamashita, Midori; Takase, Shigehiro; Hashimoto, Michizane; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Ikuko; Yoshikawa, Koji; Ezaki, Masami; Nitta, Kumiko; Watanabe, Masato; Inamura, Noriaki; Fujie, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    The novel antifungal macrocyclic lipopeptidolactone, KB425796-A (1), was isolated from the fermentation broth of bacterial strain 530603, which was identified as a new Paenibacillus species based on morphological and physiological characteristics, and 16S rRNA sequences. KB425796-A (1) was isolated as white powder by solvent extraction, HP-20 and ODS-B column chromatography, and lyophilization, and was determined to have the molecular formula C79H115N19O18. KB425796-A (1) showed antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus and the micafungin-resistant infectious fungi Trichosporon asahii, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudallescheria boydii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  15. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus from the Asia and Western Pacific region: data from the SENTRY antifungal surveillance program (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    The SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program monitors global susceptibility rates of newer and established antifungal agents. We report the in vitro activity of seven antifungal agents against 496 contemporary clinical isolates of yeasts and molds. The isolates were obtained from 20 laboratories in the Asia-Western Pacific (APAC) region during 2010 through 2012. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole were susceptibility tested using CLSI methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. Sequencing of fks hot spots was performed for echinocandin-resistant strains. Isolates included 13 species of Candida (n=460), 5 species of non-Candida yeasts (21), 5 species of Aspergillus (11) and 4 other molds. Echinocandin resistance was uncommon among eight species of Candida and was only detected in three isolates of Candida glabrata, two from Australia harboring mutations in fks1 (F625S) and fks2 (S663P). Resistance to the azoles was much more common and was observed among all species with the exception of Candida dubliniensis. Fluconazole resistance rates observed with C. glabrata (6.8%) was comparable to that seen with Candida parapsilosis (5.7%) and Candida tropicalis (3.6%). Cross resistance among the triazoles was seen with each of these three species. The mold-active azoles and the echinocandins were all active against isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Azole resistance was not detected among the isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antifungal resistance is uncommon among isolates of fungi causing invasive fungal infections in the APAC region. As in other regions of the world, emerging resistance to the echinocandins among invasive isolates of C. glabrata bears close monitoring.

  16. Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against α-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against α-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian α-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus α-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. New Polyurethane Nail Lacquers for the Delivery of Terbinafine: Formulation and Antifungal Activity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorí Valdes, Barbara S; Serro, Ana Paula; Gordo, Paulo M; Silva, Alexandra; Gonçalves, Lídia; Salgado, Ana; Marto, Joana; Baltazar, Diogo; Dos Santos, Rui Galhano; Bordado, João Moura; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2017-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection. The development of new topical antifungal agents for the treatment of onychomycosis has focused on formulation enhancements that optimize the pharmacological characteristics required for its effective treatment. Polyurethanes (PUs) have never been used in therapeutic nail lacquers. The aim of this work has been the development of new PU-based nail lacquers with antifungal activity containing 1.0% (wt/wt) of terbinafine hydrochloride. The biocompatibility, wettability, and the prediction of the free volume in the polymeric matrix were assessed using a human keratinocytes cell line, contact angle, and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy determinations, respectively. The morphology of the films obtained was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, while the nail lacquers' bioadhesion to nails was determined by mechanical tests. Viscosity, in vitro release profiles, and antifungal activity were also assessed. This study demonstrated that PU-terbinafine-based nail lacquers have good keratinocyte compatibility, good wettability properties, and adequate free volume. They formed a homogenous film after application, with suitable adhesion to the nail plate. Furthermore, the antifungal test results demonstrated that the terbinafine released from the nail lacquer Formulation A PU 19 showed activity against dermatophytes, namely Trichophyton rubrum. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adverse events of modern antifungal drugs during treatment of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dmitrieva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of adverse events of modern antimycotics by organ systems and comparative frequency between different medicines and their groups are presented. The examples of incompatibility of antifungal drugs with other pharmacological groups are discussed. Records of adverse events and drug compatibility will allow the practitioner to prevent and timely cure possible complications, should they arise.

  19. Microemulsion and Microemulsion-Based Gels for Topical Antifungal Therapy with Phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Kaewbanjong, Jarika; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Andreani, Tatiana; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2016-01-01

    Skin fungal infections are regular injuries suffered by people living in tropical areas. Most common pathogens are Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton which can cause skin lesions in many parts of body. Topical antifungal phytochemicals are commonly used to avoid systemic adverse events and are more convenient for patient application than those administered by other routes. However, the effectiveness of topical treatments in eradicating fungal infection is more limited since the stratum corneum acts as the skin barrier, resulting in long treatment duration and low patient's compliance. The goal of this work is to identify optimized drug delivery systems to improve topic clinical efficacy. Microemulsions i.e. liquid dispersions of oil and water stabilized with an interfacial film of surfactant are well known drug delivery systems. A thickening agent may be included to form microemulsion-based gels to increase skin adhesion. Microemulsions and microemulsion-based gels can be loaded with several hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs because they are composed of both water and oil phases. Microemulsions and microemulsion-based gels can also be used for the delivery of many drugs including antifungal drugs through stratum corneum due to their capacity to act as skin penetration enhancement. In addition to a comprehensive review of microemulsion and microemulsion-based gels as suitable carriers for skin delivery of various antifungal drugs, this review also aims to discuss the delivery of antifungal phytochemicals.

  20. On a difference in the antifungal activity of tridemorph and its formulated product Calixin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkenaar, A.; Kaars Sijpesteijn, A.

    1979-01-01

    The antifungal effects of tridemorph and its formulated product Calixin were compared in vitro on Ustilago maydis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulopsis candida, Botrytis allii, and Cladosporium cucumerinum. MIC values for both products were about the same. In liquid media the products were somewhat

  1. Evaluation of 1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Luciana; de L Chazin, Eliza; de S Sanches, Paola; Saito, Max; de Souza, Marcus V N; Gomes, Claudia R B; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Sathler, Plinio C; Silva, Gabriela C C; Lione, Viviane O; Kalil, Marcos; Joffily, Ana; Castro, Helena C; Vasconcelos, Thatyana R A

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few years, fungal infections have emerged as a worrisome global public health problem. Candidiasis is a disease caused by Candida species and has been a problem worldwide mainly for immunosuppressed patients. Lately, the resistant strains and side effects have been reported as important issues for treating Candidiasis, which have to be solved by identifying new drugs. The goal of this work was to synthesize a series of 1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one derivatives, XYbenzo[ d][1,3]oxathiol-2-ones, and evaluate their antifungal activity against five Candida species. In vitro antifungal screening test and minimum inhibitory concentration determination were performed according to CLSI protocols using ketoconazole as the reference drug. The cytotoxicity of the most active compounds was evaluated by hemolysis and MTT (Vero cells) assays. Compounds 2 (XY = 6-hydroxy-5-nitro, MIC = 4-32 µg/mL) and 7 (XY = 6-acetoxy-5-nitro, MIC =16-64 µg/mL) showed good results when compared with current antifungals in CLSI values (MIC = 0.04-250 µg/mL). These compounds exhibited a safer cytotoxicity as well as a lower hemolytic profile than ketoconazole. Overall, the in vitro results pointed to the potential of compounds 2 and 7 as new antifungal prototypes to be further explored. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Rational Discovery of (+) (S) Abscisic Acid as a Potential Antifungal Agent: a Repurposing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mohammed A; Massarotti, Alberto; Mohamed, Maged E

    2018-06-04

    Fungal infections are spreading widely worldwide, and the types of treatment are limited due to the lack of diverse therapeutic agents and their associated side effects and toxicity. The discovery of new antifungal classes is vital and critical. We discovered the antifungal activity of abscisic acid through a rational drug design methodology that included the building of homology models for fungal chorismate mutases and a pharmacophore model derived from a transition state inhibitor. Ligand-based virtual screening resulted in some hits that were filtered using molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations studies. Both in silico methods and in vitro antifungal assays were used as tools to select and validate the abscisic acid repurposing. Abscisic acid inhibition assays confirmed the inhibitory effect of abscisic acid on chorismate mutase through the inhibition of phenylpyruvate production. The repositioning of abscisic acid, the well-known and naturally occurring plant growth regulator, as a potential antifungal agent because of its suggested action as an inhibitor to several fungal chorismate mutases was the main result of this work.

  3. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Schwan, Adrian L; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-03

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  4. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone, and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside. Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  5. Treatment of gastric candidiasis in patients with gastric ulcer disease: are antifungal agents necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang Min; Tak, Won Young; Kweon, Young Oh; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2009-03-01

    The inadequacy of information on the treatment of gastric candidiasis with antifungal agents promoted us to evaluate patients with fungal infections who had gastric ulcers and assess the need for proton-pump inhibitors or antifungal agents. Sixteen patients were included in the study. The criterion for the diagnosis of candidiasis was finding yeast and hyphae in the tissue or an ulcer on histological sections of biopsy samples. Surface fungi were not considered infections. In all cases with benign ulcers, follow-up endoscopy performed 6 weeks after proton-pump-inhibitor treatment revealed that the ulcer had improved without antifungal medication. However, in patients with malignant ulcers, surgical resection was necessary for a definitive cure. Two patients with lymphoma received combined chemotherapy and a proton-pump inhibitor, which improved their condition. The results of this study suggest that benign ulcers with candidiasis can be effectively treated by a proton-pump inhibitor without antifungal medication. However, surgical resection should be considered for malignant ulcers with candidiasis.

  6. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  7. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163 ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. The antifungal effect of peptides from hymenoptera venom and their analogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slaninová, Jiřina; Putnová, Helena; Borovičková, Lenka; Šácha, Pavel; Čeřovský, Václav; Monincová, Lenka; Fučík, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 150-159 ISSN 1895-104X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antifungal agents * candida * fluorescent microscopy * rhodamine 6G * fluorescein-labeled peptide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  9. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl nicotinate chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yukun; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Li, Kecheng; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-10-01

    With an aim to discover novel chitosan derivatives with significant activities against crop-threatening fungi, (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl nicotinate chitosan (TAMNCS) was prepared via azide-alkyne click reaction. Its structure was characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis, DSC, and SEM. In vitro antifungal properties of TAMNCS against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (R. solani), Stemphylium solani weber (S. solani), and Alternaria porri (A. porri) were studied at the concentrations ranged from 0.25 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL. Experiments conducted displayed the derivative had obviously enhanced antifungal activity after chemical modification compared with original chitosan. Moreover, it was shown that TAMNCS can 94.2% inhibit growth of A. porri at 1.0 mg/mL, while dose at which the fungicide triadimefon had lower inhibitory index (62.2%). The primary antifungal results described here indicate this derivative may be a promising candidate as an antifungal agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  11. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  12. Antifungal activity of Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) from Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Erigeron floribundus is a reputed medicinal plant used in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa for the treatment of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of this plant against fungi from human origin. Method: Dichloromethane, methanol 80% and aqueous extracts from the leaves with stem ...

  13. Whey permeate fermented with kefir grains shows antifungal effect against Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Raúl Ricardo; De Antoni, Graciela; Peláez, Angela León

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the work reported here was to study the antifungal capability of cell-free supernatants obtained from whey permeates after fermentation by the kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 against Fusarium graminearum growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production. The assays were performed in order to study the conidial germination inhibition -in liquid media- and the effect on fungal growth rate and the Latency phase -in solid media. We observed that fermented supernatants of pH 3·5 produced the highest percentages of inhibition of conidial germination. The dilution and, particularly, alkalinisation of them led to the gradual loss of antifungal activity. In the fungal inhibition assays on plates we found that only the highest proportion of supernatant within solid medium had significant antifungal activity, which was determined as fungicidal. There was no ZEA biosynthesis in the medium with the highest proportion of supernatant, whereas at lower concentrations, the mycotoxin production was strain-dependent. From the results obtained we concluded that kefir supernatants had antifungal activity on the F. graminearum strains investigated and inhibited mycotoxin production as well, but in a strain-dependent fashion. The present work constitutes the first report of the effect of the products obtained from the kefir-grain fermentation of whey permeates - a readily available by-product of the dairy industry - on F. graminearum germination, growth, and toxin production.

  14. Candida albicans isolated from urine: Phenotypic and molecular identification, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wiebusch

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: C. albicans isolates from urine have a high capacity for virulence and can be associated with infectious processes. Furthermore, the high percentage of isolates resistant to itraconazole is important because this antifungal agent is commonly used to treat fungal infections in the hospital environment.

  15. Plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Wadhavan, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Shukla, Abhilasha; Dhananjaya, K; Ravikumar, K R; Mallesha, H

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. Latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. Six fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, F. solani, P. digitatum and R. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. Analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antifungal assay revealed the potential inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extracts against the postharvest fungal isolates. Various degree of sensitivity was observed irrespective of plant species studied with A. terreus and P. digitatum as the most susceptible ones. F. solani and A. fumigatus were moderately sensitive to the latex extracts tested. Among the plants, latex of Thevetia peruviana (75.2%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (64.8%) were having potential antifungal activity against the isolates followed by Manilkara zapota (51.1%). In conclusion, use of plant latex makes interest to control postharvest fungal diseases and is fitting well with the concept of safety for human health and environment.

  16. Isatinones A and B, New Antifungal Oxindole Alkaloids from Isatis costata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Afza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new oxindole alkaloids isatinone A (1 and B (2 have been isolated from Isatis costata, along with the known trisindoline. Their structures have been assigned on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical studies. Both new compounds showed significant antifungal activity.

  17. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Allium Hirtifolium in Comparison With Miconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijheh Motevallian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Shallots are important part of the diet for many people and there is long-held belief in their health enhancing properties. The aim of this study was to determine antifungal activity of shallot against reference fungal strains.Methods:Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of shallot (Allium hirtifoliumwere tested for in vitro antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus   flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium gryseogenum, Alternaria, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICwas determined using broth macrodilution method. The effects of shallot extracts   were also compared with those of miconazole.Results:Allium hirtifolium showed antifungal activity against all the fungi species tested with MIC values ranging from 0.058 to 0.8 mg/ml for alcoholic extract and 0.26 to 3.84 mg/ml for aqueous extract.The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of alcoholic and aqueous extracts ranged from 0.1 to 12.8 mg/ml and 0.6 to 68.26mg/ml, respectively.Conclusions: The results indicate that crude juice of shallot has antifungal activity and might be promising, at least, in treatment of fungal-associated diseases from mentioned fungi.  

  18. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by

  19. In vivo screening antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis against Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Rashki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Lichens are the result of the symbiosis of fungi and algae or a cyanobacterium. Various biological activities of some lichen and their components such as: antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal substances are known. In the present study, antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis against Aspergillus flavus is investigated on rats. Materials & Methods: 500 g of Protoparmeliopsis muralis was collected from KaneGonbad mountains in Ilam province, the methanol extract was prepared by soxhle. In order to determine the antifungal activity in in vivo conditions, a wound was created and infected with Aspergillus flavus. Having infected the wound, the researchers divided the rats into 4 subgroups: negative control group, treated with Kotrimoksazol, %5 ointment extract methanolic P. muralis, and with %10 ointment extract methanolic P. muralis. Treatment continued until complete healing of the wound. Finally, the percentage of wound healing was calculated. Results: The result of the present study demonstrated that methanolic extract of P. muralis decreased the area of wound in the treatment group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The antifungal and antioxidant activity of the extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis accelerated the wound healing process.

  20. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lipińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis and yeasts (Candida vini. We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds.

  1. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds.

  2. Antifungal activity of Boerhavia diffusa L. extract against Phytophthora spp. in tomato and pepper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, Eva; Colla, G.; Crino, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-34 ISSN 0929-1873 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : antifungal activity * phytophora * plant extract Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2016

  3. Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung Mogensen, Djamilla; Bergkvist Pihl, Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal candidiasis is frequent among pregnant women and it is treated with anti-fungal medication (conazoles). Conazoles have anti-androgenic properties and prenatal exposure in rodents is associated with a shorter (less masculine) anogenital distance (AGD) in male offspring. To our...

  4. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the patients with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-02-01

    There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The in vitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1 μg/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C. glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C. glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is > 64 μg/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C. glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds. PMID:27294124

  6. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  7. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  8. Antifungal and repellent activities of the essential oils from three aromatic herbs from western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation we examined the essential oils of three aromatic plants; Zanthoxylum armatum, Juniperus communis, and, Dysphania ambrosioides, which are used by the local population of the western Himalayan region for medicinal purposes. These plants were studied for their antifungal, larvicid...

  9. Anti-Fungal activity of essential oil from Baeckea frutescens L against Pleuratus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemi, Renhart; Barus, Ade Irma; Nuwa, Sarinah, Luhan, Gimson

    2017-11-01

    Ujung Atap is an herb that have distinctive odor on its leaves. The plant's essential oil contains bioactive compounds but has not been investigated its anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Essential oil from Ujung Atap leaves is one environmentally friendly natural preservative. This study consisted of distillation Ujung Atap leaves with boiled method, determining the number of acid, essential oil ester, and anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Analysis of the data to calculate anti-fungal activity used probit analysis method to determine the IC50. Results for the distillation of leaves Ujung Atap produce essential oil yield of 0.071% and the average yield of the acid number and the ester of essential oils Ujung Atap leaves are 5.24 and 12.15. Anti-fungal activity Pleurotus ostreatus at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 75 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL BA defunct or fungi was declared dead, while at a concentration of 25 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL still occur inhibitory processes. Results obtained probit analysis method IC50 of 35.48 mg/mL; means the essential oil of Ujung Atap leaf can inhibit fungal growth by 50 percent to 35.48 µg/mL concentration.

  10. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  11. Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Malik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Azoles are generally fungistatic, and resistance to fluconazole is emerging in several fungal pathogens. In an attempt to find novel azole antifungal agents with improved activity, a series of tetrazole ring bearing acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antifungal activity. The mechanism of their antifungal activity was assessed by studying their effect on the plasma membrane using flow cytometry and determination of the levels of ergosterol, a fungal-specific sterol. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated a majority of yeast cells when they were treated with the synthesized compounds at concentrations just above MIC, implying that fungicidal activity resulted from extensive lesions of the plasma membrane. Target compounds also caused a considerable reduction in the amount of ergosterol. The results also showed that the presence and position of different substituents on the phenyl ring of the acylhydrazone pendant seem to play a role on the antifungal activity as well as in deciding the fungistatic and fungicidal nature of the compounds.

  12. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R; Pushpangadan, P; Smitt, U W

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-......, antimalarial, and antifungal activity in vitro....

  13. Antifungal Activity of Commercial Essential Oils and Biocides against Candida Albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Elisa; Hidalgo-Bastida, Lilia Araida; Verran, Joanna; Williams, David; Malic, Sladjana

    2018-01-25

    Management of oral candidosis, most frequently caused by Candida albicans , is limited due to the relatively low number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of antifungal tolerance. In this study, the antifungal activity of a range of commercial essential oils, two terpenes, chlorhexidine and triclosan was evaluated against C. albicans in planktonic and biofilm form. In addition, cytotoxicity of the most promising compounds was assessed using murine fibroblasts and expressed as half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Antifungal activity was determined using a broth microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was established against planktonic cells cultured in a range of concentrations of the test agents. The minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was determined by measuring re-growth of cells after pre-formed biofilm was treated for 24 h with the test agents. All tested commercial essential oils demonstrated anticandidal activity (MICs from 0.06% ( v / v ) to 0.4% ( v / v )) against planktonic cultures, with a noticeable increase in resistance exhibited by biofilms (MBECs > 1.5% ( v / v )). The IC50s of the commercial essential oils were lower than the MICs, while a one hour application of chlorhexidine was not cytotoxic at concentrations lower than the MIC. In conclusion, the tested commercial essential oils exhibit potential as therapeutic agents against C. albicans , although host cell cytotoxicity is a consideration when developing these new treatments.

  14. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and antivirulence agents to fight against Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jinhui; Ren, Biao; Tong, Yaojun

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the pathogenic Candida species, causes high mortality rate in immunocompromised and high-risk surgical patients. In the last decade, only one new class of antifungal drug echinocandin was applied. The increased therapy failures, such as the one caused by multi-drug resist...

  15. Adverse events of modern antifungal drugs during treatment of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dmitrieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of adverse events of modern antimycotics by organ systems and comparative frequency between different medicines and their groups are presented. The examples of incompatibility of antifungal drugs with other pharmacological groups are discussed. Records of adverse events and drug compatibility will allow the practitioner to prevent and timely cure possible complications, should they arise.

  16. 8-Amido-Bearing pseudomycin B (PSB) analogue: novel antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Z; Sun, X; Zeckner, D J; Sachs, R K; Current, W L; Chen, S H

    2001-01-22

    During the course of a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on novel depsinonapeptide pseudomycin B, we synthesized a total of 12 8-amidopseudomycin analogues via standard two-step sequence from either ZPSB 2 or AllocPSB 3. A number of these amides exhibited good in vitro antifungal activities.

  17. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-10-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.

  18. Antifungal activity of root, bark, leaf and soil extracts of Androstachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaf, root, soil and bark of Androstachys johnsonii Prain (commonly called Lembobo ironwood) screened for antifungal activity had a significant inhibitory effect on the most of fungi tested in this investigation. Of the four fungi tested in the present study Fusarium solani was significantly inhibited by all extracts (that ...

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of 63 Iranian plant species against three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Centaurea behen, Lavandula sp., roots of Tribulus terrestris were the most active plant species against R. solani, F. oxysporum, and C. sativus, respectively. Extracts of I and T. terrestris exhibited a broad-spectrum of antifungal activity. According to these results, we conclude that the flora in the west of Iran can be regarded ...

  20. The In Vitro Efficacy of Essential Oils and Antifungal Drugs Against Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Barbara; Głowacka, Anna; Krukowski, Henryk; Lisowski, Andrzej; Lassa, Henryka; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The algae of the genus Prototheca are environmental pathogens whose main reservoir is the habitat of cows. They can cause protothecosis in domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings, with the main etiological agents being Prototheca zopfii in animals and Prototheca wickerhamii in humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of selected essential oils and antifungal antibiotics against P. zopfii isolates. The material consisted of nine P. zopfii strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis. Eight essential oils produced by POLLENA-AROMA, Poland, and nine antifungal agents were tested. The effects of essential oils on P. zopfii were evaluated by microdilution with liquid Sabouraud dextrose broth, and susceptibility to antifungal agents was tested using the disk-diffusion method. All used essential oils inhibited the activity of P. zopfii isolates, with MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 10.5 μl/ml. Cinnamon, clove, and thyme demonstrated the highest activity against the tested P. zopfii strains at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 μl/ml. Of the antifungal agents, the tested strains were the most sensitive to nystatin (100 %). The tested essential oils can be used to complement protothecosis therapy in animals and human beings.

  1. EPICO 3.0. Antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Aguado, José María; Ferrer, Ricard; Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Maseda, Emilio; Llinares, Pedro; Grau, Santiago; Muñoz, Patricia; Fortún, Jesús; Bouzada, Mercedes; Pozo, Juan Carlos Del; León, Rafael

    Although over the past decade the management of invasive fungal infection has improved, considerable controversy persists regarding antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. To identify the key clinical knowledge and make by consensus the high level recommendations required for antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was conducted anonymously and by e-mail with 30 national multidisciplinary experts, specialists in invasive fungal infections from six national scientific societies, including intensivists, anesthetists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases that responded to 12 questions prepared by the coordination group, after an exhaustive review of the literature in the last few years. The level of agreement achieved among experts in each of the categories should be equal to or greater than 70% in order to make a clinical recommendation. In a second term, after extracting the recommendations of the selected topics, a face-to-face meeting was held with more than 60 specialists who were asked to validate the pre-selected recommendations and derived algorithm. Echinocandin antifungal prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant with major risk factors (retransplantation, renal failure requiring dialysis after transplantation, pretransplant liver failure, not early reoperation, or MELD>30); heart transplant with hemodialysis, and surgical re-exploration after transplantation; environmental colonization by Aspergillus, or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection; and pancreas and intestinal transplant in case of acute graft rejection, hemodialysis, initial graft dysfunction, post-perfusion pancreatitis with anastomotic problems or need for laparotomy after transplantation. Antifungal fluconazole prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant without major risk factors and MELD 20-30, split or living

  2. New record of Scedosporium dehoogii from Chile: Phylogeny and susceptibility profiles to classic and novel putative antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Eduardo; Sanhueza, Camila

    Scedosporium species are considered emerging agents causing illness in immunocompromised patients. In Chile, only Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii and Lomentospora prolificans haven been reported previously. The study aimed to characterize genetically Scedosporium dehoogii strains from Chilean soil samples, and assessed the antifungal susceptibility profile to classic and novel putative antifungal molecules. In 2014, several samples were obtained during a survey of soil fungi in urban areas from Chile. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), tubulin (TUB), and calmodulin (CAL) sequences were performed. In addition, the susceptibility profiles to classic antifungal and new putative antifungal molecules were determined. Four strains of Scedosporium dehoogii were isolated from soil samples. The methodology confirmed the species (reported here as a new record for Chile). Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrates the low activity of terpenes (α-pinene and geraniol) against this species. Voriconazole (VRC), posaconazole (PSC), and the hydroxyquinolines (clioquinol, and 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline) showed the best antifungal activity. Our results demonstrate that Scedosporium dehoogii is present in soil samples from Chile. This study shows also that hydroxyquinolines have potential as putative antifungal molecules. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The comparative study of antifungal activity of Syzygium aromaticum, Punica granatum and nystatin on Candida albicans; an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, A; Boojarpour, N; Ashnagar, S; Momen Beitollahi, J; Shamshiri, A R

    2014-12-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi, among which, Candida albicans is the most important species responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients with invasive fungal disease. Resistance of Candida species to antifungal drugs has led scientists to pay more attention to traditional medicine herbs. Due to the limitations in the treatment of fungal diseases such as shortages, high prices, antifungal side effects and drug resistance or reduced susceptibility to fungal drugs we decided to study the antifungal effects of herbal extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Punica granatum. Twenty-one isolates of oral C. albicans in patients with denture stomatitis referred to prosthesis department, Dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were prepared and cultured. Plant extracts were prepared from the herbs market. Tests on patient samples and standard strains 5027ATCC (PTCC10231) yeast C. albicans were performed via well diffusion method. In addition, nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Finally, the antifungal effect of extracts using Statistical Repeated measurement ANOVA test was investigated. Both S. aromaticum and P. granatum showed noticeable antifungal activity in well method. Syzygium aromaticum showed better anti candida activity than nystatin (Pgranatum showed good antifungal effects (P-value<0.001). S. aromaticum (inhibition zone diameter: 29.62) showed better antifungal effects than nystatin (inhibition zone diameter: 28.48). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Sagaram

    Full Text Available MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where it accumulates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, analysis of the structure of MtDef4 reveals the presence of a positively charged γ-core motif composed of β2 and β3 strands connected by a positively charged RGFRRR loop. Replacement of the RGFRRR sequence with AAAARR or RGFRAA abolishes the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells, suggesting that the RGFRRR loop is a translocation signal required for the internalization of the protein. MtDef4 binds to phosphatidic acid (PA, a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Amino acid substitutions in the RGFRRR sequence which abolish the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells also impair its ability to bind PA. These findings suggest that MtDef4 is a novel antifungal plant defensin capable of entering into fungal cells and affecting intracellular targets and that these processes are mediated by the highly conserved cationic RGFRRR loop via its interaction with PA.

  5. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Intzar; Khan, Farrah G; Suri, Krishan A; Gupta, Bishan D; Satti, Naresh K; Dutt, Prabhu; Afrin, Farhat; Qazi, Ghulam N; Khan, Inshad A

    2010-02-03

    Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 microg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 microg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 microg/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 x MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 x MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 x to 8 x MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Farhat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Results Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 μg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 μg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 μg/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 × MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 × MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 × to 8 × MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. Conclusions The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. extracts and antifungal activity against Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A H; de Oliveira, G G; Carnevale Neto, F; Portuondo, D F; Batista-Duharte, A; Carlos, I Z

    2017-01-04

    Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. is traditionally used in North and Northeast of Brazil for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Since the strategy associating immunomodulators with antifungal drugs seems to be promissory to improve the treatment efficacy in fungal infections, we aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of V. guianensis ethanolic extract of leaves (VGL) and bark (VGB) against Sporothrix schenckii ATCC 16345 and their antinflammatory activities. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-IT MS/MS for in situ identification of major compounds. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro (microdilution test) and in vivo using a murine model of S. schenckii infection. The production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 by measured by ELISA, as well as measured the production and inhibition of the NO after treatment with the plant extracts or itraconazole (ITR). Two O-glucosyl-flavonoids and 16 prenylated benzophenone derivatives already described for Vismia were detected. Both VGL and VGB showed significant antifungal activity either in in vitro assay of microdilution (MIC=3.9µg/mL) and in vivo model of infection with reduction of S. schenckii load in spleen. It was also observed a predominance of reduction in the production of NO and the proinflammatory cytokines evaluated except TNFα, but with stimulation of IL-10, as evidence of a potential anti-inflammatory effect associated. The results showed that both VGL and VGB have a significant antifungal against S. schenckii and an anti-inflammatory activity. These results can support the use of these extracts for alternative treatment of sporotrichosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. COMPARISON OF POTENCY OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTION OF DANDRUFF SHAMPOOS AND DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

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    Naga Padma P, Anuradha K, Divya K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dandruff a very common scalp disorder with high prevalence in population is caused by numerous host factors in conjunction with Malassezia furfur. Most of the commercially available anti-dandruff hair shampoos contain some form of antifungal agent(s that appear to reduce the incidence of the disease. There are no good scientific studies done to prove the antifungal activity of commercially available hair shampoos. Aim: In this study commercially available shampoos were assessed for antifungal activity against a human dandruff isolate of M. furfur. The shampoos were Head & Shoulders, Clinic All Clear, and Pantene etc. The results demonstrated that all six of the assayed hair shampoos have some antifungal effect on growth of M. furfur. These products have poor efficacies, more side effects and give scope for recurrence of symptoms. Methods and Materials: Therefore different plant extracts that possess various active compounds which have antifungal activity could help to overcome the incidence of the disease and also avoid the emergence of resistance in the pathogen. The plant extracts were tested in different concentrations like 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and they were hibiscus, neem, soap nut, etc. The inhibitory action was studied using agar well assay and disc diffusion method and the results indicated in percentage of inhibition. Conclusion: The study was significant as not only efficient known plant products with anti-dandruff activity could be compared with commercially available shampoos but also their better efficacies at minimum concentrations could be identified. This can help make a polyherbal mixture that could be incorporated in hair oil or shampoos for better anti-dandruff activity.

  9. Antifungal resistance of candida isolates obtained from various specimens of intensive care unit patients

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    Habibe Çolak Pirinççioğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study; we aimed to determine the identificationof yeasts from the samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit of DiyarbakırEducation and Research Hospital and also we aimed toperform the antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts.Materials and methods: Antifungal susceptibility test resultsof yeasts that isolated from 25 blood, 24 urine, 3sputum and 3 peritoneal fluid samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit to our laboratoryduring the period December 2009 - Septemberl/2010were evaluated.The yeasts identified by germ tube test, cornmeal tween80 and VITEC 2 Compact® (Biomerieux, France yeastidentification system. The antifungal susceptibility testswere performed for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazoleand voriconazole by using VITEC 2 Compact®(Biomerieux, France system.Results: 56.36% of the yeasts were determined asC.albicans which was the most common yeast followedby; C.parapsilosis (30.9%, C.tropicalis (10.6%,C.tropicalis (5.45%, C.dubliniensis (3,63%, C.glabrata(1.81% and C.guilliermondi (1.81%. According to theresults of antifungal susceptibility tests, the resistancerate for fluconazole and variconazole were 1.81% and3.63% respectively. However no resistance were detectedagainst amphotericin B and flucytosine.Conclusions: Our results shows that C.albicans is themost common yeast isolated from the patients at intensivecare unit in our hospital. Increased resistance to fluconazolewhich is frequently used for empirical treatmentdemostrates importance of antifungal susceptibility tests.

  10. Evaluation of semisolid agar method for antifungal susceptibility test of T. rubrum

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    Sultana Razia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing fungal disease many newer antifungal drugs are available with different spectrum of activ­ity. Antifungal susceptibility test will help clinicians for selection of effective drug and thereby treatment of patient. Objective: The study was undertaken to perform a simple screening drug susceptibility test of T. rnbrum by Semi Solid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility (SAAS Method: Perfonnance of susceptibility method was assessed by comparing the MICs of three commonly prescribed antifungal agents namely- tluconazole (FCZ, itraconazole (ITZ and terbinafine (TER to the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommended M-38, a broth microdilution method. Results: In SAAS method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty five (86.2% were susceptible (MIC range 0.5-64 µg/ml to Fluconazole (FCZ and four (13.7% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In broth microdilution method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty six (89.6% were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to FCZ and three (10.3% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In case of both ITZ and TER, all were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to both methods. The SAAS method demonstrated the susceptibility pattern of T. rubrum against FCZ, ITZ and TER usually within 72 to 96 hours after organism isolation and results were concordance with the results of CLSI broth microdilution method. Conclusion: Though it is a newer method with proper standardization of the test method, SAAS method is simple and easily applicable screening method for susceptibility testing of antifungal agents against dermatophytes in any microbiology laboratories.

  11. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

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    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  12. Antifungal activities of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen against echinocandin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassot, Francieli; Pozzebon Venturini, Tarcieli; Baldissera Piasentin, Fernanda; Morais Santurio, Janio; Estivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; Hartz Alves, Sydney

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen against echinocandin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Candida parapsilosis using the broth microdilution method. Diphenyl diselenide (MIC range =1-8 µg/mL) and ebselen (MIC range =0.25-4 µg/mL) showed in vitro activity against echinocandin-susceptible isolates. However, ebselen also showed the highest antifungal activity against echinocandin-resistant strains (MIC range =0.06-4 µg/mL). This study demonstrated that the antifungal potential of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen deserves further investigation using in vivo experimental protocols.

  13. β-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene from Bacillus velezensis ZJ20 exerts antifungal effect on plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhu, Tianhui; Li, Shujiang

    2016-02-01

    Bacillus velezensis is a known antifungal bacteria. To understand the role of β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase played on B. velezensis about the mechanism which exerts effect on fungi, we isolated and cloned the β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase gene (Bglu1) from B. velezensis ZJ20. The Bglu1 open reading frame was 732 bp that encoded a protein with 243 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 27.3 kDa. The same gene without the signal peptide, termed Bglu2, was also cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21. Among the two variants, only Bglu2 protein was expressed. Purified Bglu2 could be eluted with imidazole solution at concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 mM although the highest expression was observed at 150 and 200 mM and the purest was at 500 mM. In addition, activity of the crude enzyme was 1527 U ml(-1) and the highest activity of the purified enzyme was 1706 U ml(-1). The purified β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase had activity on a wide range of pH and temperatures and displayed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 35 °C. More importantly, the mycelial morphology of three pathogenic fungi was destroyed by the purified β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase. In conclusion, β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase from B. velezensis ZJ20 can be highly expressed in E. coli BL21 and the recombinant protein is pathogenic to fungi.

  14. Molecular Characterization, Structural Modeling, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Basrai Thaumatin-Like Protein against Fungal Infection

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    Nusrat Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thaumatin-like protein gene from Basrai banana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Amplified gene product was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and subcloned into expression vector pET22b(+ and resulting pET22b-basrai TLP construct was introduced into E. coli BL21. Maximum protein expression was obtained at 0.7 mM IPTG concentration after 6 hours at 37°C. Western blot analysis showed the presence of approximately 20 kDa protein in induced cells. Basrai antifungal TLP was tried as pharmacological agent against fungal disease. Independently Basrai antifungal protein and amphotericin B exhibited their antifungal activity against A. fumigatus; however combined effect of both agents maximized activity against the pathogen. Docking studies were performed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of TLP against A. fumigatus by probing binding pattern of antifungal protein with plasma membrane ergosterol of targeted fungal strain. Ice crystallization primarily damages frozen food items; however addition of antifreeze proteins limits the growth of ice crystal in frozen foods. The potential of Basrai TLP protein, as an antifreezing agent, in controlling the ice crystal formation in frozen yogurt was also studied. The scope of this study ranges from cost effective production of pharmaceutics to antifreezing and food preserving agent as well as other real life applications.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of NP24-I, an isoform of a thaumatin-like protein from ripe tomato fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Raka; Chakrabarti, Chandana, E-mail: chandana.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2005-08-01

    A thaumatin-like antifungal protein, NP24-I, has been isolated from ripe tomato fruits. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method and data were collected to 2.45 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. NP24 is a 24 kDa (207-amino-acid) antifungal thaumatin-like protein (TLP) found in tomato fruits. An isoform of the protein, NP24-I, is reported to play a possible role in ripening of the fruit in addition to its antifungal properties. The protein has been isolated and purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.01, c = 62.90 Å and one molecule per asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data were processed to a resolution of 2.45 Å and the structure was solved by molecular replacement.

  16. Tolerance of yeast biofilm cells towards systemic antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth

    was the only tested drug with activity against both growth arrested biofilm and planktonic cells but was found to only kill ~95 % of the cells. By using a collection of barcode tagged deletion mutants, we were identified that defects in protein synthesis, intracellular transport, cell cycle and lipid...

  17. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... and micro-broth dilution methods. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index ... following opportunistic pathogen infections such ..... Isolation and Characterization of a 30 KDa protein.

  18. A Fungus-Inducible Pepper Carboxylesterase Exhibits Antifungal Activity by Decomposing the Outer Layer of Fungal Cell Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Park, Sangkyu; Han, Yun-Jeong; Hoang, Quyen T N; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2018-05-01

    Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes. Moreover, we examined the decomposition of cell-wall materials from the fungal surface after reaction with PepEST, which led to the identification of 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol (DTD) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Exogenous DTD treatment did not elicit expression of defense-related genes in the host plant but did trigger the necrosis of C. gloeosporioides. Furthermore, the DTD compound displayed protective effects on pepper fruits and plants against C. gloeosporioides and C. coccodes, respectively. In addition, DTD was also effective in preventing other diseases, such as rice blast, tomato late blight, and wheat leaf rust. Therefore, our results provide evidence that PepEST is involved in hydrolysis of the outmost layer of the fungal cell walls and that DTD has antifungal activity, suggesting an alternative strategy to control agronomically important phytopathogens.

  19. NanoDisk containing super aggregated amphotericin B: a high therapeutic index antifungal formulation with enhanced potency

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    Burgess BL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Braydon L Burgess,1,2 Yumin He,1 Mandie M Baker,1,2 Bing Luo,2 Stephen F Carroll,2 Trudy M Forte,2 Michael N Oda11Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA; 2Lypro Biosciences, Berkeley, CA, USAObjectives: NanoDisk–amphotericin B (ND-AMB is a protein-phospholipid bioparticle containing a “super aggregate” form of antifungal AMB. While lipid-based formulations of AMB, including liposomal AMB (L-AMB, are safer than the deoxycholate (DOC solubilized form (DOC-AMB, the potency of lipid-based formulations is attenuated. We have developed an AMB-based therapy that is both well tolerated and fully efficacious.Methods: Potency was determined using broth culture growth-inhibition assays and candidacidal kinetics by quantitative culture plating. Toxicology studies were performed in healthy mice. Efficacy was assessed using both immune-competent and leukopenic murine models of systemic Candida albicans infection.Results: ND-AMB C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus minimum inhibitory concentrations were fourfold and sixfold lower, respectively, than that observed for L-AMB. ND-AMB exhibited candidacidal activity at 0.125 mg/L, 16-fold lower than L-AMB. In mice, ND-AMB produced no statistically significant kidney or liver toxicity at 15 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. When evaluated in immune-competent mice infected with C. albicans, ND-AMB was at least as effective as DOC-AMB or L-AMB. In a leukopenic model of candidiasis, the 50% effective dose of ND-AMB was around threefold lower than L-AMB.Conclusion: These results indicate that ND-AMB exhibits a more favorable safety profile while maintaining uncompromised antifungal properties compared to both DOC-AMB and L-AMB. ND-AMB is a promising therapy for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.Keywords: nanoparticles, infectious diseases, drug delivery, candidiasis, apolipoprotein A-I

  20. The Interaction Pattern between a Homology Model of 40S Ribosomal S9 Protein of Rhizoctonia solani and 1-Hydroxyphenaize by Docking Study

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    Seema Dharni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-Hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ, a natural product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SD12, was earlier reported to have potent antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In the present work, the antifungal activity of 1-OH-PHZ on 40S ribosomal S9 protein was validated by molecular docking approach. 1-OH-PHZ showed interaction with two polar contacts with residues, Arg69 and Phe19, which inhibits the synthesis of fungal protein. Our study reveals that 1-OH-PHZ can be a potent inhibitor of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of R. solani that may be a promising approach for the management of fungal diseases.

  1. Quantification of the Triazole Antifungal Compounds Voriconazole and Posaconazole in Human Serum or Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, Alejandro R; Rose, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole and posaconazole are triazole antifungal compounds used in the treatment of fungal infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring of both compounds is recommended in order to guide drug dosing to achieve optimal blood concentrations. In this chapter we describe an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of both compounds in human plasma or serum following a simple specimen preparation procedure. Specimen preparation consists of protein precipitation using methanol and acetonitrile followed by a cleanup step that involves filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane. The specimen is then injected into an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS equipped with a C18 column and separated over an acetonitrile gradient. Quantification of the drugs in the specimen is achieved by comparing the response of the unknown specimen to that of the calibrators in the standard curve using multiple reaction monitoring.

  2. Antifungal Effects of Bee Venom Components on Trichophyton rubrum: A Novel Approach of Bee Venom Study for Possible Emerging Antifungal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonsoo; Kwon, Osung; An, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2018-04-01

    Bee venom (BV) has been widely investigated for potential medical uses. Recent inadvertent uses of BV based products have shown to mitigate signs of fungal infections. However, the component mediating the antifungal effect has not been identified. This investigation compares bee venom in its whole and partial forms to evaluate the possible component responsible for the antifungal effect. Forty-eight plates inoculated with Trichophyton rubrum were allocated into four groups. The groups were treated with raw BV (RBV), melittin, apamin and BV based mist (BBM) respectively and each group was further allocated accordingly to three different concentrations. The areas were measured every other day for 14 days to evaluate the kinetic changes of the colonies. The interactions of ratio differences over interval were confirmed in groups treated with RBV and BBM. In RBV, the level of differences were achieved in groups treated with 10 mg/100 µl ( p =0.026) and 40 mg/100 µl ( p =0.000). The mean difference of ratio in groups treated with RBV was evident in day 3 and day 5. The groups that were treated with melittin or apamin did not show any significant interaction. In BBM groups, the significant levels of ratio differences over time intervals were achieved in groups treated with 200 µl/100 µl ( p =0.000) and 300 µl/100 µl ( p =0.030). The the bee venom in its whole form delivered a significant level of inhibition and we concluded that the venom in separated forms are not effective. Moreover, BV based products may exert as potential antifungal therapeutics.

  3. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rajamani Lakshminarayanan,1,2 Radhakrishnan Sridhar,3,4 Xian Jun Loh,5 Muruganantham Nandhakumar,1 Veluchamy Amutha Barathi,1,6 Madhaiyan Kalaipriya,3,4 Jia Lin Kwan,1 Shou Ping Liu,1,2 Roger Wilmer Beuerman,1,2 Seeram Ramakrishna3,4,7 1Singapore Eye Research Institute, 2Signature Research Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore, 5Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 7NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Singapore Abstract: Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical

  4. In vitro activity of econazole in comparison with three common antifungal agents against clinical Candida strains isolated from superficial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Abastabar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that for Candida albicans isolates, miconazole and econazole had the best effect, but in non-albicans Candida species, itraconazole and miconazole displayed more activity than other antifungal agents.

  5. Thermo-stability, dose effects and shelf-life of antifungal compounds produced by the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus szentirmaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenorhabdus spp bacteria are associated with Steinernematid nematodes and produce antifungal metabolites that protect nematode-infected cadavers from fungal colonization. Previous work demonstrated concentrated or cell-free metabolites of X. szentirmaii were toxic to fungal phytopathogens. We prepar...

  6. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  7. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassabelrasoul Elfadil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  8. Antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast: Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Aissat Saad; Meslem Abdelmelek; Benhalima Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast i.e. Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Rhodotorula sp. Methods: Four Algeria honeys of different botanical origin were analyzed to test antifungal effect against C. albicans, and Rhodotorula sp. Different concentrations (undiluted, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% w/v) of honey were studied in vitro for their antifugal activity using C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. as fungal strains...

  9. Potential Applications and Antifungal Activities of Engineered Nanomaterials against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Rose Petals

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    Yi Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have great potential for use in the fields of biomedicine, building materials, and environmental protection because of their antibacterial properties. However, there are few reports regarding the antifungal activities of NPs on plants. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal roles of NPs against Botrytis cinerea, which is a notorious worldwide fungal pathogen. Three common carbon nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and reduced graphene oxide, and three commercial metal oxidant NPs, copper oxide (CuO NPs, ferric oxide (Fe2O3 NPs, and titanium oxides (TiO2 NPs, were independently added to water-agar plates at 50 and 200-mg/L concentrations. Detached rose petals were inoculated with spores of B. cinerea and co-cultured with each of the six nanomaterials. The sizes of the lesions on infected rose petals were measured at 72 h after inoculation, and the growth of fungi on the rose petals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The six NPs inhibited the growth of B. cinerea, but different concentrations had different effects: 50 mg/L of fullerene and CuO NPs showed the strongest antifungal properties among the treatments, while 200 mg/L of CuO and Fe2O3 showed no significant antifungal activities. Thus, NPs may have antifungal activities that prevent B. cinerea infections in plants, and they could be used as antifungal agents during the growth and post-harvesting of roses and other flowers.

  10. Synthesis Of Silver Nanoparticles Supported On Silica Using As Antifungal Agent By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Nguyen Tue Anh; Dang Van Phu; Vo Kim Lang; Nguyen Thuy Khanh; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles supported on silica (Ag nano/SiO 2 ) were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation method. The formation of Ag nano doped on silica particles was confirmed by the UV-Vis spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) which showed the particle size of Ag nano to be in range of 15-30 nm for Ag + concentration 10 mM. In addition, antifungal activity of Ag nano/SiO 2 was tested against Aspergillus niger var Tieghn by plate count method. The results indicated that the antifungal efficiency of Ag nano/SiO 2 was about 64, 71, 81, 82 and 96% at the concentrations of Ag nanoparticles of 30, 50, 70, 100 and 150 ppm respectively. (author)

  11. The antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared with the commercial lime efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigac, J.; Mikusinec, J.; Strigacova, J.; Stevulova, N.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with studying the antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared to industrially manufactured commercial lime. Antifungal efficiency expressed as mould proofness properties was tested on the fungi using the procedure given in standard CSN 72 4310. A mixture of fungi Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium funiculosum, Paecilomyces variotii and Gliocladium virens was utilized for testing. The scale for evaluating mould proofness properties according to CSN 72 4310 is from 0 to 5 in degree of fungi growth, where 0 means that no fungi growth occurs and the building products and materials possess fungistatic properties. The study confirms the fungistatic propeties of carbide lime slurry as well as industrially manufactured commercial lime. However, carbide lime slurry and industrially manufactured commercial lime possess no fungicidal effect.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Coumarin from Ageratum conyzoides L. Leaves on Candida albicans cells

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    Gunawan Pamudji Widodo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the antifungal activity of coumarin isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. leaves and to observe its influence on Candida albicans cells by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Antifungal activity testing by disk diffusion method showed coumarin was active toward pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans with the MIC value of coumarin of 125 g mL-1. The influence of this substance on C. albicans cells was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The result showed that this compound damaged the cell by pores formation on the cell wall. The death of cells occurred due to leakage and necrotic of cytoplasmic content.

  13. Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda G; Bouzada, Maria Lúcia M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; de O Matos, Magnum; Moreira, Francis O; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2007-05-04

    The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4 microg/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71 microg/ml). Concerning antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan, and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of 1.25 mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078 mg/ml).

  14. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  15. A new antifungal phenolic glycoside derivative, iridoids and lignans from Alibertia sessilis (vell.) K. Schum. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane C. da; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Lopes, Marcia N. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: mnlopes@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2007-07-01

    A new antifungal phenolic glycoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-{beta}-D-(5-O-syringoyl)apiofuranosyl-(1 {yields} 6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with four known iridoids, geniposidic acid (2), geniposide (3), 6{alpha}-hydroxygeniposide (4) and 6{beta}-hydroxygeniposide (5); two lignans, (+)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7); and two phenolic acids, chlorogenic (8) and salicylic acids (9) and D-manitol (10), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stems of Alibertia sessilis. Structures of 1 and of the known compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for their antifungal activities against two phytopathogenic fungi strains Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by direct bioautography. (author)

  16. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral candida species from Iranian HIV infected patients

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    Katiraee F

    2012-05-01

    Results: Candida albicans (50.2% was the most frequent isolated yeast, followed by C. glabrata (22%. Non-Candida albicans species were isolated from 71 (61% positive cultures. 25.7% of Candida albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC≥64 µg/ml as were 21.9% and 16.4% to ketoconazole and clotrimazole (MIC>0.125 µg/ml, respectively. Resistance to polyene antifungals including amphotericin B and nystatin, and caspofungin were scarce. 57.7% of candida glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 31% to ketoconazole and 35% to clotrimazole. Conclusion: Screening for antifungal resistant candida isolates by disk diffusion or broth dilution methods in clinical laboratories is an ideal surveillance measure in the management of oral thrush in patients with HIV/AIDS. Although nystatin is widely used in clinical practice for HIV positive patients, there was no evidence of enhanced resistance to it. Regarding no resistance to caspofungin, its administration is suggested.

  17. Synthesis and antifungal activity of the derivatives of novel pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jialong; Zhou, Yuanming

    2015-03-09

    A series of pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate derivatives were designed and synthesized in this study. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectral data (infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Then, all of the compounds were bioassayed in vitro against four types of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria porri, Marssonina coronaria, Cercospora petroselini and Rhizoctonia solani) using the mycelium growth inhibition method. The results showed that some of the synthesized pyrazole carboxamides displayed notable antifungal activity. The isoxazole pyrazole carboxylate 7ai exhibited significant antifungal activity against R. solani, with an EC50 value of 0.37 μg/mL. Nonetheless, this value was lower than that of the commercial fungicide, carbendazol.

  18. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of the Derivatives of Novel Pyrazole Carboxamide and Isoxazolol Pyrazole Carboxylate

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    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate derivatives were designed and synthesized in this study. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectral data (infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Then, all of the compounds were bioassayed in vitro against four types of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria porri, Marssonina coronaria, Cercospora petroselini and Rhizoctonia solani using the mycelium growth inhibition method. The results showed that some of the synthesized pyrazole carboxamides displayed notable antifungal activity. The isoxazole pyrazole carboxylate 7ai exhibited significant antifungal activity against R. solani, with an EC50 value of 0.37 μg/mL. Nonetheless, this value was lower than that of the commercial fungicide, carbendazol.

  19. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

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    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  20. Design, synthesis and antifungal activities of novel strobilurin derivatives containing pyrimidine moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Geo, Yongxin; Liu, Huijun; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences/Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-15

    Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin derivatives with high activity against resistant pathogens, a series of novel β-methoxy acrylate analogues were designed and synthesized by integrating substituted pyrimidine with a strobilurin pharmacophore. The compounds were confirmed and characterized by infrared, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and mass spectroscopy. The bioassays indicated that most of the compounds (1a-1h) exhibited potent antifungal activities against Colletotrichum orbicular, Botrytis cinerea Pers and Protoporphyria caps ici Leon ian at the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Exhilaratingly, compound 1d (R=3-trifluoromethylphenyl) showed better antifungal activity against all the tested fungi than the commercial stilbenetriol fungicide azoxystrobin.